Direct Manipulation Direct by rt3463df

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									Direct Manipulation




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Deleting a file 1




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Deleting a file 2




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Action Cycle




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Direct Mappings of Interaction
           Levels




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Gensys Screen Before Correction




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Screen After Correction




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Articulatory Directness
    Mouse Locator, Macro Express




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           Foundations of DM
• Visibility
  – is the operation easily visible to the user?
  – are relevant objects visible to the user
• Affordance
  – is the use of the object apparent?
• Conceptual Models
  – is the users concept of what needs to be done in
    sync with the system?
• Mapping Principles
  – does the use of the object follow standards?
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        Foundations of DM cont.
• Feedback
  – does the user know the exact state of the system at
    all times?
  – incremental action at the interface with rapid
    feedback. E.g. moving a file, file is visible during
    the move.
• Drawing on user knowledge
  – can the user draw on experience knowledge to help
    cope with the object or task?


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      Foundations of DM cont..
• Constraints
  – does the system ensure the user follows the
    "Yellow Brick Road”
• Replacement of complex command languages
  – actions manipulate the visible objects directly.
• Syntactic correctness
  – every user action is a syntactic legal action.



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                   Icon Guidelines
             A picture is worth a 1000 words
•   Familiar and Recognizable
•   Limit number of different Icons
•   Icons should stand out from background
•   3D icons
•   Selected icons are clearly visible
•   Make Icons distinctive from other icons
•   Harmonious members of families
•   Movement animation
•   Detail information, shading, animation, colour
•   Combining Icons to show function, such as copying,
    locking folders, Attribute Joins in Data Bases.

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 Macro Express
allows automation of Windows Environment




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Access Expression Builder




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Access Query Design




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                 NextStep & OpenStep
• Started in 1989 by Steve Jobs
   – Next computer, designed for edu. use.
        • A failure, as a company
• NextStep OS - Object Oriented
   – Ran on “Next” computers, Ported to Sun, HP, Intel & 68xxx
   – Allowed desktop objects to be combined to form new applications.
   – Took the lead in OPP programming.
   – Now part of Apple (Mac OSx).
• Rapid Application Development (RAD)
   – Visual tools to allow applications to be developed quickly
   – Interface building applications.
• Legacy
    – Developed Object C
    – First WebBrowser
    – Pioneered HTML
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   Guideline for DM programming Environment

• Sufficient computational generality (conditionals, iteration)
• Access to data structures (files, directories, booleans, i/o
  widgets)
• Ease of programming (by example, by demonstration)
  modularity, argument passing.
• Simplicity in invocation and assignment of arguments
  (direct manipulation, simple library strategies, in-context
  execution).
• Low risk (should work, low error rate, halt & resume, error
  recovery, reversal).

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Visual Basic in Excel




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Visual Basic Builder




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Access - Relation builder
  Drag fields to make relationship




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