DIVER BELOW DIVER BELOW

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					DIVER BELOW



      DIVING IN
  WESTERN AUSTRALIA
   SECOND EDITION APRIL 2000
                          CONTENTS
                          Introduction ………………………………………………………………………… 3
                          Scuba Diving ………………………………………………………………………… 4
                          Hookah Diving ……………………………………………………………………… 5
                          Diver Training…………………………………………………………………………6
                          Diving Safely ………………………………………………………………………… 8
                          Diver Below ………………………………………………………………………… 10
                          Vessel Safety ………………………………………………………………………… 12
                          Safety Equipment…………………………………………………………………… 14
                          Nautical Charts ………………………………………………………………………16
                          Reef Talk …………………………………………………………………………… 18
                          Marine Parks …………………………………………………………………………20
                          Marine Environment…………………………………………………………………24
                          Diving for Lobsters …………………………………………………………………26
                          Rottnest Island ………………………………………………………………………28
                          Abrolhos Islands ……………………………………………………………………30
                          Ningaloo …………………………………………………………………………… 32
                          Swan Wreck ………………………………………………………………………… 34
                          Marine Life …………………………………………………………………………36
                          Maritime Museum …………………………………………………………………38
                          Shipwrecks of WA ……………………………………………………………………40
                          Discover Scuba ………………………………………………………………………46
    Photo: John Fewings
                          Transport ……………………………………………………………………………47

2
INTRODUCTION
                                                   Transport’s role is to provide for safe and
W       e hope that you will find this booklet a
        valuable source of information on
diving safety and the marine environment.
                                                   efficient use of our waters. Services we provide
                                                   cover; boat safety standards, marine education,
The information in this guide was supplied by      commercial vessel safety, boat registrations,
Transport, Maritime Museum, Conservation           navigational safety and marine oil pollution
and Land Management, and Fisheries WA.             advice and control.
We sincerely wish to thank all those who           This guide was produced to enhance diver
contributed to this Diving Guide. Transport        safety and awareness within this State. While
would also like to thank;                          every care has been taken to ensure that it is
• John Fewings                                     accurate, this is not a legal document and
• Tony Medcraft                                    Transport, Fisheries WA, CALM and the
• Barbara O’Dowd                                   Maritime Museum accept no liability for any
• Geoff Paynter                                    errors or omissions.
• Alex Steffe                                      Additional information may be obtained from
• Peter Woods                                      the websites;
• Western Australian Maritime Museum                  http://www.transport.wa.gov.au
• Rottnest Island Authority and                       http://www.anzsbeg.org.au
• Fisheries WA                                        or by phone on (08) 9216 8999.
for their generosity in allowing Transport to
use their images in this publication.

                                                                                                      Photo: Barbara O’Dowd


                                                                                                                              3
    SCUBA DIVING
    S   CUBA (Self Contained Underwater
        Breathing Apparatus) diving offers a
    kaleidoscope of experiences, perhaps greater
                                                      The excitement and attraction of the undersea
                                                      world has been responsible for SCUBA diving’s
                                                      emergence as the world’s fastest growing family
    than any other sport. An exciting world awaits    oriented leisure activity.
    discovery beneath the ocean surface. A world      Contact your local dive shop about learning to
    largely unexplored and unpolluted by people is    dive or to improve your skills and knowledge
    waiting to display its mysterious secrets and     by enrolling in a course.
    beauty for your pleasure.
    Imagine the sheer delight of weightlessness,
    encounters with fish, dolphins, coral and other
    marine life. Marine life, which has not learnt
    to fear our presence, will welcome you with
    unbelievable trust. An experience which words
    just cannot hope to convey.




                                                       Photo: Barbara O’Dowd




4
HOOKAH DIVING
H      ookah diving is a form of compressed air
       diving, but unlike SCUBA, air is
supplied to the diver from an air compressor
                                                   To be competent with hookah diving you
                                                   should have a minimum Open Water certificate.
                                                   Some dive training centres provide a special
through a length of supply hose. The               training course in hookah diving.
compressed air is supplied by mechanical           If you are diving with hookah always use
means, therefore any fault that may occur will     correct and approved hookah equipment,
leave the diver exposed to a possible out of air   including a dive flag. Have a surface attendant
situation.                                         to look after the compressor and floating
The location of the compressor unit and air        supply air lines, especially near boating
inlet is crucial to the hookah divers clean air    channels and popular routes. There is an
supply. Consideration must be given to             increased risk of extended bottom time and
contamination of the compressed air by             repeated bounce diving so monitor time and
exhaust fumes (CO) due to the wind affecting       depth closely.
the direction of the motor’s exhaust smoke.        Remember it is not always the passing boat
The diver is connected to the boat by the supply   that is at fault. The diver should always dive
hose. This hose can become tangled underwater      with some sort of alternate air source.
and exposed to other vessels if it is allowed to
float on the surface unattended.




                                                                                                     Photo: Barbara O’Dowd


                                                                                                                             5
                                                                                                    Most of the practical elements of the
                 T     o enjoy the kaleidoscope of
                       underwater experiences that are
                                                          D I S C OV E R S C U B A
                                                          The Discover Scuba Diving                 course will be conducted in a pool or
                                                                                                    other sheltered location allowing the
DIVER TRAINING
                 available through SCUBA diving in        experience offers a short review and
                 Western Australia you must either        pool session with an instructor           instructor to assess your skill
                 enrol in an escorted “Discover Scuba     followed by a dive exploring the          development in preparation for your
                 Diving” experience or hold an            wonders of the West Australian            first open water dive.
                 “Open Water Diver” qualification.        marine environment under the              Once certified as an Open Water
                 The Discover Scuba Diving                constant supervision of the instructor.   Diver you will be able to explore the
                 experience and the Open Water                                                      amazing under water world with
                                                          O P E N WAT E R D I V E R
                 Diver certification are available from                                             other qualified friends.
                                                          To gain your certification in Western
                 professional Dive Centres all around
                                                          Australia as an Open Water Diver          F U RT H E R T R A I N I N G
                 the world.
                                                          you will need to have completed a         Once you experience the amazing
                                                          diving medical, available through         diversity of underwater world
                                                          your local GP.                            available to you within Western
                                                          The course runs for approximately 5       Australia, you may want to expand
                                                          days with either full time or part        your experience through professional
                                                          time instruction. There is also a         instruction in a wide range of
                                                          home study option for the academic        speciality scuba training courses.
                                                          portions of the training that uses        This broadening of your experience
                                                          multimedia and video products, this       will open up even more amazing dive
                                                          can make the scheduling of the            sites to you. A world of adventure
                                                          course more convenient for you.           and beauty awaits you, and your



      6
local Dive Centre is the gateway to
further professional training, scuba
equipment, air fills, dive clubs, dive
charters and dive travel.
To find out more about gaining your
diving certification and other services
available to you, check out one of these
recreational training agency web sites
for a listing of West Australian Dive
Centres near you.
PADI..............................http://www.padi.com
SSI................................http://www.ssiusa.com
NAUI ..............http://www.ozemail.com.au/-nauioz
NASDS ......................http://www.divesafe.com




                                                           7
                                                                  A compass and knife are standard           will probably be able to suggest an
                         S  CUBA diving and snorkelling
                            have claimed lives and divers
                         should never become complacent
                                                                  safety equipment. Always carry
                                                                  essential spare parts such as mask and
                                                                                                             alternative site if conditions are
                                                                                                             unsuitable. Be flexible and alter your
D I V I N G S A F E LY

                         about safe diving practices.             fin straps, O-rings and a first aid kit.   plans if necessary.
                         Never dive on SCUBA if you have          In addition, a Safety Sausage (an          If diving from a boat, make sure that
                         not completed an accredited course.      inflatable orange tube, that can be        someone is left to watch the boat, you
                         You do not have to be a qualified        seen by boats from a distance) and a       are displaying a dive flag and always
                         SCUBA diver to learn about and           Chemical Light (which when                 dive with a buddy.
                         enjoy the marine environment.            activated glows in the dark), can be
                                                                  carried by a diver in the event of an      When you are anchored, use a safety
                         However, it is recommended that                                                     line, trailing behind your boat, with a
                         you complete an accredited               emergency. Both these items take up
                                                                  little space and are inexpensive.          float attached. This will give surfaced
                         snorkelling training program.                                                       divers something to hold on to in a
                                                                  Ensuring that you have the right
                         Prior to diving, ensure that you are     equipment on the day will make your        swell or current.
                         using the correct equipment for the      dive safer and much more enjoyable.
                         conditions, particularly if you
                         haven’t dived in the area before or if   Always check the weather forecast on
                         you haven’t dived on SCUBA for           the morning of your dive. However,
                         awhile. Check your equipment             don’t just rely on the forecast, and
                         thoroughly to ensure that it is in       assess the dive site thoroughly before
                         good working order and ensure that       entering the water. If you are
                         you have a suitable exposure suit for    uncertain about the suitability of the
                         the conditions.                          weather conditions for your planned
                                                                  dive, ask at the local dive shop. They



         8
IN AN EMERGENCY                                 B E F O R E D I V I N G , YO U A N D
Fremantle Hospital at Alma Street in Fremantle, YO U R BU D DY S H O U L D :
co-ordinates the treatment of all cases of civilian   Inform: a friend of your dive site and your
diving accidents. Call (08) 9431 3333 and             estimated time of return.
immediately state that the call is about a diving     Establish: entry and exit points and techniques.
related accident. To report a boating accident,
or to initiate a search, you should call Water        Choose: a course to follow, taking currents and
Police Communications on (08) 9442 8600 or            other factors into consideration.
Transport (08) 9239 2272.                             Consult: dive tables, agree on a maximum time
These Emergency numbers can be contacted via          and depth limit.
Perth Radio call sign VIP on VHF16 or by using        Establish: and review communication
VHF Seaphone.                                         procedures and revise hand signals.
                                                      Agree: on an air pressure for returning to the
                                                      surface, usually 50 bar.
                                                      Decide: what to do if separated.
                                                      Discuss: what to do in an emergency.




                                                                                                         9
                                                                                                 - then you must drop your speed to
              A    ny boat which has divers
                   operating from it must display
              the appropriate signals by day or by
                                                      NIGHT SIGNAL
                                                      At night, a boat must show the inter-
                                                      national lights meaning “a vessel
                                                                                                 the slowest at which you can control
                                                                                                 your vessel for the time you are
              night to inform other boat users.       restricted in its ability to manoeuvre”.   within 50 metres of the flag.
DIVER BELOW

              The daytime signal for a diver in the   These are 3 lights in a vertical line      U N AT T E N D E D B OAT S
              water is the international Code Flag    (visible 360°), the top and bottom
                                                                                                 The practice of divers leaving vessels
              ‘A’, the flag must be at least 750mm    red, the middle one white. The boat
                                                                                                 unattended can be very dangerous.
              long and 600mm wide and visible         should also show other appropriate
                                                                                                 Transport strongly recommends that
              through 360°.                           lights such as an anchor light.
                                                                                                 a responsible person stays onboard at
              A diver who is not operating from a     KEEP CLEAR                                 all time to raise the alarm if the
              boat shall have a personal buoy with    All boats must keep at least 50 metres     divers are overdue or to attend to the
              an ‘A’ flag mounted on it. This flag    clear of boats or buoys showing diving     vessel should it start to drift.
              should be at least 300mm by 200mm.      signals. The dive flag is only a visual
                                                      indication to other vessels of a diver/s
                                                      below and will not automatically
                                                      prevent other craft from venturing
                                                      into your dive area. Therefore, always
                                                      listen out for other craft before
                                                      surfacing and try and surface at, or as
                                                      near to, your own craft as possible.
                                                      If it is not possible to stay 50 metres
               Photo: Peter Woods                     clear - say the channel is too narrow       Photo: Peter Woods




    10
DIVING AMONGST
COMMERCIAL
L O B S T E R P OT S
It should be noted that if a Code A flag
is within 50 metres of commercial cray
fishing pots, then the fishing operator
has the legal support to go about their
business. The fishing operator shall
proceed at the slowest speed at which
the vessel can be safely operated and
must maintain a proper lookout for
persons in the water at all times.
Bear in mind that if you should dive
among commercial lobster pots, this
may lead to friction between yourself
and the fishing personnel. It’s essential
you don’t interfere with their operation
or with their underwater pots.
Remember the flag is no guarantee
against boats or propellors so your
safety is your responsibility.




                                            11
                B OAT I N G F O R                        K N OW T H E A R E A                      K N OW YO U R B OAT
                SAFETY                                   If you don’t know - ask someone who       Ask yourself these questions:
                The safety and success of any boating    does.                                     • Is the boat suitable for where I
VESSEL SAFETY

                trip are dependent on the level of       Most local divers, sea rescue groups,       plan to go diving?
                preparation before you leave.            or police are willing to point out        • Does it have enough buoyancy?
                K N OW T H E W E AT H E R                local hazards, sheltered diving spots     • Is it seaworthy when fully loaded?
                                                         or where to seek shelter from squalls     • Is the motor reliable?
                Some people are weatherwise, most
                                                         or sudden changes in weather.
                are otherwise.                                                                     • Is there enough fuel for the trip
                                                         Carry a chart of the area, study it and     and any unforeseen change in
                Before you set off, listen to the
                                                         familiarise yourself with the position      plans?
                weather forecast. Watch out
                                                         of navigational aids and the hazards      • Do I have the correct safety
                especially for expected changes in the
                                                         that you are likely to encounter.           equipment and is it in good
                weather.      A knowledge of the
                predicted weather conditions will                                                    condition?
                help you decide on where the safest                                                • Do I know how to use it?
                and most sheltered diving spots are.
                Weather information         can    be
                obtained on:
                • phone 1900 155 350,
                • fax 1902 935 720 (Perth area),
                • website http://www.bom.gov.au
                                                          Photo: Peter Woods




     12
I N F O R M OT H E R S
Always inform someone responsible as
to where you are going and when you
will return and stick to your plan. If an
accident does occur, the time taken for
rescue is vital.
Before you head out to sea, log on with
your local Sea Rescue Group advising
them of your intended destination and
estimated time of arrival. It is extremely
important that you log off with the
rescue group when you return
otherwise a search will commence.




 Photo: Peter Woods                          Photo: Peter Woods




                                                                  13
                   THE MINIMUM                            B eyo n d 2 n a u t i c a l m i l e s
SAFETY EQUIPMENT
                   SAFETY EQUIPMENT                       a s f o r u n p ro t e c t e d wa t e r s
                                                                                       RECOMMENDED
                   REQUIRED                               and
                                                                                       ADDITIONAL
                                                          • An EPIRB is required to be E Q U I P M E N T
                   I n a l l u n p ro t e c t e d
                                                             carried if you go more than 2
                   waters                                                                             There are lots of other things you
                                                             nautical miles offshore, except in
                   • Bilge pump or bailer or bucket.                                                  could take to make your day on the
                                                             the designated metropolitan area.
                   • Suitable anchor and sufficient                                                   water safer and more enjoyable, eg:
                                                          B eyo n d 5 n a u t i c a l m i l e s
                     line (not a reef pick).              a s w e l l a s t h e a b ove               • Food and water
                   • Fire extinguisher for boats with                                                 • Spare fuel
                                                          • 2 Parachute distress flares (in
                     inboard motors, or liquid or gas
                                                            place of hand held red flares).           • Hand held compass
                     filled appliances.
                                                          • 2 way marine band radio.                  • Tool kit
                   • A lifejacket for every person on
                     board. The lifejacket can be                                                     • Navigation Chart
                     either      SOLAS,        Coastal,                                               • Hat and sun screen
                     Australian Standard AS1512 or
                                                                                                      • Spare rope
                     PDF type 1 and it must be of a
                     suitable size for the person.                                                    • First aid kit
                   • 2 hand held red flares.                                                          • Sharp knife
                   • 2 hand held orange smoke signals                                                 • Torch
                     or 1 smoke canister
                                                                                                      • Sea anchor
                                                                                                      • Warm clothing



      14
K N OW YO U R L I M I T S
• We may be older and wiser, but are
  we as fit and agile as we used to be?
• Is your boat suitable for the activity
  and area your operating in?

B OAT W I T H A BU D DY
There are lots of good reasons to always
go boating in company, eg:
• Safety: If you have an unforeseen
  problem, it’s nice to know you have
  someone close by to assist.
• Practicality:       Assistance   in
  launching and recovery of craft,
  checking equipment and planning
  the trip.




                                           Photo: Peter Woods




                                                                15
                  N     avigating your way around
NAUTICAL CHARTS
                        using only your local                             CARNARVON 50780
                                                                                                In addition to charts shown
                                                                                                on this location plan, there

                  knowledge and memory can be
                                                                                                are four charts available
                                                                                                north of Canarvon.
                                                                                                                                                             TRANSPORT
                                                                                                These are:
                  hazardous. For safe and confident                                             Coral Bay 612


                  navigation, Transport recommends
                                                                                                Exmouth 900
                                                                                                Lake Argyle 53375                              NAUTICAL CHART
                                                                                                Cambridge Gulf 522
                  that all craft are equipped with and                    SHARK
                                                                          BAY 661                                                                LOCATIONS
                  use up-to-date nautical charts.                                                                                                  Charts listed in this index may be obtained from
                                                                                                                                                    Transport offices and accredited chart agents.
                                                                                                                                                                      June 1999
                  Transport produces detailed and
                  accurate, large scale charts of much                                         SEE ENLARGEMENT
                                                                                                                                   TRANSPORT Chart Sales Offices
                  of Western Australia’s coastline.                                               Geraldton                    FREMANTLE        Marine House 1 Essex St        FREMANTLE WA 6160      9239 2234

                                                                                                                               ALBANY           7 -13 Chester Pass Road        ALBANY WA 6330         9841 3200
                  These charts are designed specifically                                                                       CARNARVON        Fishing Boat Harbour           CARNARVON WA 6701      9941 1830

                  with the small craft mariner in mind,                                                                        GERALDTON        307 Marine Terrace             GERALDTON WA 6530      9921 3340

                                                                                                                               HILLARYS         Hillarys Boat Harbour          HILLARYS WA 6025       9448 7544
                  showing details relative to safe                                                                             JURIEN           Fishing Boat Harbour           JURIEN WA 6516         9652 1323

                  navigation.                                                                                                  KARRATHA         Basset Road                    KARRATHA WA 6714       9144 2177

                                                                                                                               MANDURAH         15 Leslie Street               MANDURAH WA 6210       9535 2844

                  They accurately display current                                                                              WYNDHAM          Entrance to Town Wharf         WYNDHAM WA 6740        9161 1006


                  information about ocean depths,                                                                 Perth
                  coastal features, lights, piles,
                  beacons, and navigation hazards.                                                                Bunbury                                          Esperance
                                                                                                                                                                     HOPETOUN 575
                  To view Transport’s chart series
                                                                                                                                                             BREMER BAY 909
                  please visit our web site at                                              HARDY INLET 698


                  www.coastaldata.transport.wa.gov.au/charts/index.html                               NORNALUP INLET 1046
                                                                                                                                               OYSTER HARBOUR 52659

                                                                                                                                        WILSON INLET 337
                                                                                                              PEACEFUL BAY 019




      16
   SHOAL
 POINT 722
GREGORY 713
                                   ENLARGEMENT                                                       TRANSPORT APPROVED CHART AGENTS
 HORRICKS 978
     BOWES 977                                                                           NAME                               ADDRESS                        SUBURB          PHONE
     OAKAJEE 940
                                                                         BOAT BOOKS WA                       9 Axon Street                         SUBIACO WA 6008         9382 2122
     GERALDTON 939
                             Geraldton
     GREENOUGH 938                                                       CAPE NATURALISTE TOURIST ASSOC.     Civic Centre Complex Southern Drive   BUSSELTON WA 6280       9752 1288
      AFRICAN REEF 937
         FLAT ROCKS 945
                                                                         CARRINGTON STREET TACKLE & MARINE   Shop 5B, 427 Carrington Street        HAMILTON HILL WA 6163   9336 2138
DONGARA - PORT DENISON 963                                               CHART & MAP SHOP                    14 Collie Street                      FREMANTLE WA 6160       9335 8665
         WHITE POINT 975
             CLIFFHEAD 979
                                                                         CITY OF BUNBURY                     2 - 4 Stephen Street                  BUNBURY WA 6230         9780 8222
         FRESHWATER 736                                                  CORAL BAY NEWS & GIFTS              Shop 10 Coral Bay Arcade              CORAL BAY WA 6701       9942 5995
     BEAGLE ISLANDS 728                                                  CAPE DIVE & TACKLE                  Shop 3, 222 Naturaliste Terrace       DUNSBOROUGH WA 6281     9756 8778
                LEEMAN 705                                               DEPT OF LAND ADMINISTRATION         Midland Square                        MIDLAND WA 6056         9273 7075
             GREENHEAD 628
                                                                         EXMOUTH TOURIST BUREAU              Payne Street                          EXMOUTH WA 6707         9949 1176
                   JURIEN 947
                                                                         HARTS CHARTS                        Shop 2B, 16 Kent Street               ROCKINGHAM WA 6168      9592 5959
                CERVANTES 422
                                                                         HILLARYS MARINE LIFTING SERVICE     Hillarys Boat Harbour                 HILLARYS WA 6025        9246 4300
             GREEN ISLANDS 329

                      WEDGE 765                                          HOT COPY SHOP                       Market City                           CANNING VALE WA 6155    9455 3132
                      DIDE BAY 767                                       JOLLY ROGER MARINE                  634 Stirling Highway                  MOSMAN PARK WA 6012     9383 1188
                        LANCELIN 018
                                                                         MALIBU DIVING                       43 Rockingham Road                    ROCKINGHAM WA 6168      9527 9211
                             SEABIRD 087
                       GUILDERTON 280                                    MANDURAH TOURIST BUREAU             75 Mandurah Terrace                   MANDURAH WA 6210        9550 3999
                        TWO ROCKS 582
                             YANCHEP 017                                 MARMION MARINE                      76 West Coast Drive                   MARMION WA 6020         9447 1186
                                 QUINNS 284
                                                                         MASTER ENGINEERING                  120 Beechboro Road South              BAYSWATER WA 6053       9271 2229
                                       TRIGG 957      Perth
                                                                         OFFSHORE MARINE & LEISURE CENTRE    215 Great Eastern Highway             BELMONT WA 6104         9277 8818
                    ROTTNEST ISLAND 412
                                                        SWAN & CANNING
                                                        RIVERS 898       PERTH MAP CENTRE                    884 1st Floor Hay Street              PERTH WA 6000           9322 5733
        OCEAN REEF TO CAPE PERON 001

                                 WARNBRO 277
                                                                         SEASPORT MARINE                     13 Gillam Drive                       KELMSCOTT WA 6111       9390 3022
                                                     CAPE PERON TO
                                 MANDURAH 449        DAWESVILLE 913
                                                                         SHARK BAY TOURIST CENTRE            83 Knight Terrace                     DENHAM WA 6537          9946 1253
                                                                         SPORTSMARINE BOAT CENTRE            Lot 41 Strickland Street              BUNBURY WA 6230         9721 4390
                              BOUVARD 755
                                                    PEEL INLET AND
                                                    HARVEY ESTUARY 848   TRADEWINDS SUPERMARKET              Knight Terrace                        DENHAM WA 6537          9948 1147

                 PRESTON TO BUNBURY 776                                  TROPICAL TRADERS ( J. N.TAYLOR )    56 Marine Terrace                     FREMANTLE WA 6160       9335 5733

                                                   Bunbury               WANGARA MAP CENTRE                  4/28 Prindiville Drive                WANGARA WA 6065         9409 8422

                                                   BUNBURY TO
                                                                         WEST COUNTRY WATERCRAFT             205 Victor Road                       DARLINGTON WA 6070      9299 6338
            BUSSELTON TO
        CAPE CLAIRAULT 451                         PORT GEOGRAPHE 859
                                                                         YACHT GROT                          57 Queen Victoria Street              FREMANTLE WA 6160       9430 6766




                                                                                                                                                                                       17
                 D O N ' T B E C AU G H T                P R E PA R AT I O N                       GOING OUT
                 As swells or waves move in from the     •   Observe the area and ask.             • Inch your way down to the
                 sea along shore line reefs, they are    •   Listen to the weather forecast.         action. Hold station for as long
                 suddenly confronted by a rapidly        •   Examine tidal information.              as it takes to get your bearings
                 rising seabed, causing them to break.   •   Thoroughly inspect your boat and        and pick up the rhythm of the
                 These waves create a potentially            motor.                                  waves.      When you see an
R E E F TA L K


                 dangerous situation for any vessel                                                  opening, don't hang around,
                                                         •   Bail out any water in the boat.
                 crossing them.                                                                      once committed, tough it out and
                                                         •   Ensure all movables are secured.
                 It is important that the skipper                                                    never back out halfway through.
                                                         •   Run your boat inside the reef first
                 understands and interprets these                                                  • If a big wave appears, head the
                                                             to check the motor.
                 conditions sensibly and objectively.                                                boat’s bow into the wave at an
                                                         •   Perform some tight turns to test        angle of about 10 degrees and
                                                             steering.                               with plenty of throttle. Back off
                                                         •   Secure hatches.                         the throttle when through and
                                                         •   Study the reef and find best exit.      work out your approach to the
                                                                                                     next wave.
                                                                                                   • Be careful when applying power
                                                                                                     in frothy waves as cavitation and
                                                                                                     loss of power may occur. If so,
                                                                                                     back off throttle till cavitation
                                                                                                     stops and reapply power gradually.

                  Photo: Peter Woods




      18
COMING IN
• Know what the tide is doing.
• Observe the reef for a while from a
  safe vantage point, to get your
  bearings.
• Study the waves and the way they
  are breaking.
• Ensure your boat is trimmed to run
  bow up and be as ready to slow
  down as you are to accelerate.
• All persons on board should be on
  the floor along the centreline
  wearing lifejackets.
• Always concentrate on keeping your
  boat on the back of the wave.




                                        Photo: Rottnest Island Authority




                                                                           19
                                                              and ecosystems are preserved                Western Australians who have dived
                       M       arine parks are managed by
                               the      Department
                       Conservation and Land Management
                                                         of   indefinitely. WA’s marine parks are
                                                              zoned to ensure that users of the park
                                                                                                          overseas know that we are lucky, not
                                                                                                          just to have these reefs, but also to
M A R I N E PA R K S

                       (CALM). There are marine parks at      don’t impinge on each other’s activities.   have them healthy and teeming with
                       Marmion, Shoalwater Islands (near      Marmion Marine Park, for example,           life. This will only last as long as we
                       Rockingham), Shark Bay and             is home to Australian sea lions. The        work at protecting them. This is
                       Ningaloo (near Exmouth). A             park’s eroded limestone reefs are a         look without touching territory:
                       number of other areas have been        diver’s paradise, forming ledges,           coral, limestone and sedentary
                       proposed for consideration as marine   caverns and swim throughs. They             creatures are all sensitive to being
                       parks and may be declared at some      are inhabited by a wonderful array of       handled. And although life may look
                       stage in the future.                   temperate and tropical fish species         abundant, its replacement rate may
                       The purpose of marine parks is to      and colourful invertebrates.                be very low.
                       ensure that their underwater habitat   To the north, Ningaloo Marine Park
                                                              offers a vastly different diving
                                                              experience.       It protects a 260
                                                              kilometre long barrier reef that is one
                                                              of only two large coral reef systems to
                                                              occur on the western edge of a
                                                              continent. It is also the only large
                                                              reef found so close to a continental
                                                              land mass, about 100 metres offshore
                                                              at its closest point.
                        Photo: John Fewings                                                                Photo: John Fewings




        20
4. DIFFERENT ZONE                                    OT H E R P ROT E C T E D
C AT E G O R I E S :                                 AREAS
Sanctuary Zones                                      Wrecks are protected under an act which
Are areas where visitors may “look but not           prohibits the removal of artefacts or wilful
touch”.                                              damage of any sort.
R e c re a t i o n Z o n e s                         The waters around Rottnest Island are
Permit recreational activities such as fishing. It   protected by a marine reserve and in general
is the diver’s responsibility to be up-to-date       no spearfishing is allowed within 800 metres
with current regulations and bag limits, hold        of the high water mark around the island.
any applicable licenses and only take marine         Spearfishing is prohibited within 1.8km off
animals such as rock lobsters or abalone during      the shore around Marmion Marine Park.
the declared seasons.                                Divers using SCUBA or hookah are
General Use Zones                                    prohibited from spearfishing anywhere in
Provide for commercial fishing and other             marine parks.
uses that are consistent with conservation.
                                                     For further information on all exclusions
Special Purpose Zones                                contact Fisheries WA on (08) 9482 7333 or
May be declared to meet the conservation             you can also visit the Fisheries WA website at
needs of a particular area.                          http://www.wa.gov.au/westfish/corp/index.html




                                                                                                      Photo: Barbara O’Dowd


                                                                                                                              21
                       CARING FOR MARINE                      BE CAUTIOUS: Observe and conserve.      POLLUTION
                       PA R K S                               Disturbing or feeding marine wildlife   Plastics and other rubbish are not
                       BE CAREFUL: Your safety is our         can alter their natural instincts and   only an eyesore, they are a health and
                                                              jeopardise their wellbeing.
M A R I N E PA R K S

                       concern but your responsibility.                                               safety hazard. Plastic bags can get
                       Display appropriate flags when         BE CLEAN: Please take your litter       sucked into outboard motor intakes
                       SCUBA diving or snorkelling.           home with you when you leave.           and cause a motor breakdown.
                       BE CARING: Pets are often not          BE RESPONSIBLE: Barbecues and           Old fishing line is a threat to marine
                       permitted in marine parks, please      fires are not allowed on the beaches    mammals, birds and other sealife,
                       observe the signs.                     and islands.                            including diver entanglement.
                       BE COURTEOUS: Make sure that           BE MODERATE: Conserve fish              Take a rubbish bag with you as part
                       your activities do not spoil someone   numbers by taking only what you         of your diving gear and take your
                       else’s enjoyment of the park.          need. Bag limits apply.                 rubbish out of the marine park for
                                                              COME BACK: Come back with your          proper disposal.
                                                              children to enjoy and learn more        Seagrass beds are fragile and easily
                                                              about this magnificent environment.     destroyed. Where possible, boaters
                                                              For more information please write to    should drop their anchors in clear sand
                                                              or telephone: Department of             patches to avoid uprooting seagrasses.
                                                              Conservation & Land Management,
                                                              50 Hayman Road Como, 6152.
                                                              W.A. Telephone (08) 9334 0333
                                                              Website http://www.calm.wa.gov.au
                        Photo: John Fewings




        22
Photo: John Fewings




                      23
M A R I N E C O N S E R V AT I O N
                                                                                 DON’T SWIM NEAR                             CALM officers regularly patrol the
                                     D      iving can affect unspoilt marine
                                            communities in many ways.
                                     Activities such as spear fishing,
                                                                                 BREEDING ISLANDS                            islands inhabited by protected
                                                                                                                             wildlife. Under the Act it is illegal to
                                                                                 Some of the many islands off the
                                     harvesting or collecting marine life        Western Australian coast between            harass wildlife, this includes trying to
                                     may disrupt normal marine                   Geraldton and Israelite Bay are             force an animal into the water by
                                     communities by altering the number          breeding islands for seals and sea lions.   splashing, shouting or by upsetting it
                                     and diversity of species which can          It is strongly recommended that you         in any other way.
                                     result in exploitation of certain species   do not enter the water near these           Seals and sea lions were once
                                     at particular sites, upsetting the          islands. Mother-pup bonds are very          slaughtered for their pelts and almost
                                     natural balance.                            strong and putting yourself between a       driven to extinction along the Western
                                     While the impact of one diver may be        pup and a cow may provoke aggressive        Australian coast. Both the Australian
                                     minimal, many dive sites are visited        reactions. Bull seals and sea lions also    sea lion and the New Zealand fur seal
                                     by thousands of divers.                     can be very territorial, especially         are still declared to be in need of
                                                                                 during breeding seasons.                    special protection. It is up to us all to
                                                                                 All seals and sea lions are protected       protect these attractive animals.
                                                                                 under the Wildlife Conservation Act
                                                                                 administered by the Department of
                                                                                 Conservation and Land Management
                                                                                 (CALM) and it is illegal to swim with
                                                                                 marine mammals.




              24
MARINE MANNERS
Interaction with aquatic plants and
animals is both a privilege and a respon-
sibility. When you dive, avoid undue
disturbance to the marine environment
and its resident plants and animals.
Make sure that your diving gear is
secured and not dangling, and watch
where you’re kicking; fins can break off
coral and other invertebrate life. Good
buoyancy control is important.




 Photo: John Fewings                        Photo: John Fewings




                                                                  25
DIVING FOR LOBSTERS
                      I  f you are diving you may catch
                         lobsters by hand, or you may use a
                      hand-held snare or blunt crook to
                                                               LOBSTER SEASON
                                                               The season opens on 15 November
                                                               and closes on 30 June, except at the
                                                                                                       TA I L C L I P P I N G A N D
                                                                                                       P RO C E S S I N G
                                                                                                       You must clip or punch the central
                      assist you. However, the use of any      Abrolhos Islands. The waters of the     flap of the tail fan of any lobsters that
                      device that spears, punctures, or        Abrolhos are closed to diving for       you keep within 5 minutes of taking
                      damages lobsters is not permitted.       lobsters, but open for potting from     them out of the water.
                      You must have a fishing licence to       15 March - 30 June.                     Keep your lobsters whole until you
                      take rock lobsters. Licences and         The season applies to all species of    get them home and are about to eat
                      application forms are available at all   rock lobster, however all species of    them. Processing rock lobsters (ie
                      Fisheries WA offices. Application        lobsters may be taken all year round    pulling the tails off, etc) is illegal to
                      forms are also availble at Australia     north of 21° 44’S latitude (the line    deter unscrupulous fishers from
                      Post outlets or contact Fisheries WA     runs about one nautical mile south of   keeping undersized lobsters.
                      on (08) 9482 7333.                       South Muirion Island near the
                                                               Exmouth Peninsula).
                                                               B R E E D I N G S TO C K
                                                               You may not take any female rock
                                                               lobster in breeding condition (setose
                                                               & tar spot) or lobsters carrying eggs
                                                               (in berry) at any time.


                       Photo: Fisheries WA                                                              Photo: Fisheries WA




        26
L E G A L L O B S T E R ( C A R A PAC E ) S I Z E S
Western Rock Lobster: — ( Males )
minimum legal size    77mm — between 15th November to 31st January
                      76mm — between 1st February to 30th June
We s t e r n R o c k L o b s t e r : — ( Fe m a l e s )
The legal measurement changes within state locations
maximum legal size 105mm — north of 30° south latitude
                     115mm — south of 30° south latitude
Southern Rock Lobster
minimum legal size 98.5mm — no maximum
Tro p i c a l R o c k L o b s t e r
minimum legal size     76mm — no maximum, no closed season north of 21° 44’S




                 Photo: Fisheries WA


                                                                               Photo: Fisheries WA


                                                                                                     27
                  L    ocated just 18km off the Perth
                       coast, Rottnest Island offers
                                                        DIVERSE MARINE
                                                        F L O R A & FAU N A
                                                                                                 EXCELLENT
                                                                                                 FAC I L I T I E S
ROTTNEST ISLAND
                  snorklers, shore and boat based       Rottnest waters contain an amazing       Rottnest has a fully equipped dive
                  divers a unique set of attractions.   variety of habitats that support a       shop that offers up-to-date
                                                        diverse range of marine flora and        information, dive equipment,
                                                        fauna. There are around 360 species      instruction, organised tours and
                                                        of fish alone. Among them are 97         transport to dive sites. Detailed
                                                        species of tropical fish that thrive     maps and information brochures can
                                                        under the warming influence of the       be obtained from the Rottnest Island
                                                        Leeuwin Current. In comparison,          Authority at the Visitor &
                                                        only 11 species of tropical fish have    Information Centre. The Island’s
                                                        been      recorded      along     the    bike hire shop offers special trailers
                                                        metropolitan coast, where winter         to transport dive equipment to your
                                                        water temperatures are around 4°C        favourite dive spot on the Island.
                                                        lower than at Rottnest.                  For boat based divers, a range of
                                                        The Island also boasts 20 species of     pens, moorings and anchoring sites
                                                        coral and the southernmost tropical      are available as well as a refuelling
                                                        coral reef in Australia. Furthermore,    facility. Toilets and showers are
                                                        many historic shipwrecks are scattered   located at various sites around the
                                                        around the Island, some of which are     Island, while shops and restaurants
                                                        included in the mapped dive trail.       can only be found in the Thomson
                                                                                                 Bay and Geordie Bay settlements.
                   Photo: Rottnest Island Authority




      28
LAND BASED                                           W E L L P ROT E C T E D
AT T R AC T I O N S                                  The 1900ha Island as well as 1700ha of the
When diving around Rottnest, don’t forget            surrounding sea are an A-class reserve in which
that the Island itself is also well worth            all flora and fauna is protected. Recreational
exploring! Rottnest is a bird lovers paradise,       fishing is permitted under normal fishing
has beautiful secluded beaches and offers a          regulations, except that spearguns and gidgees
range of guided and self guided tour opportu-        are not to be used within 800m of the
nities. The Thomson Bay settlement is one of         shoreline. Two special marine sanctuary zones
Australia’s most precious colonial heritage sites.   have been established where divers are
If you would like to find out more about             welcome, but where fishing of any kind is not
Rottnest’s cultural heritage and natural             permitted. Please help preserve Rottnest Island
environment, drop into the Visitor and               for future generations by observing some
Information Centre. Information is available         simple guidelines and regulations. For detailed
about plants, animals and the history and            information and maps please contact the
heritage of the Island.                              Rottnest Island Authority on 9372 9752.




 Photo: Rottnest Island Authority


                                                                                                       Photo: Rottnest Island Authority


                                                                                                                                          29
                   T   he Abrolhos Islands and their
                       surrounding coral reefs form
                                                           COMMERCIAL FISHERY
                                                           The Abrolhos also form an important
ABROLHOS ISLANDS
                   one of Western Australia’s most         part of Western Australia’s most
                   unique marine areas.                    valuable commercial fishery - western
                   Lying in the stream of WA’s warm,       rock lobster - and, during the open
                   southward-flowing Leeuwin Current,      fishing season from 15 March to 30
                   the marine environment surrounding      June each year, around 150 fishermen
                   the Abrolhos is a meeting place for     licensed to fish the Abrolhos waters,
                   tropical and temperate sealife.         their families and deckhands take up      Photo: Barbara O’Dowd

                                                           residence on the 22 islands designated
                   The Leeuwin Current starts to flow                                               H I S TO R I C
                                                           for fishermen’s camps.
                   in April each year, and runs through                                             SHIPWRECKS
                   the winter months until October,                                                 The Abrolhos are also famous for
                   bringing masses of warm, low-                                                    their historic shipwrecks, the best
                   nutrient, tropical water down                                                    known of which are the Dutch East
                   Western Australia’s continental shelf                                            India Company vessels “Batavia”
                   from Indonesia. The current carries                                              (1629), on Morning Reef near
                   with it a cargo of larvae, eggs and                                              Beacon Island in the Wallabi Group
                   juveniles of many species of corals                                              and the “Zeewijk” (1727) on Half-
                   and other marine life far south of                                               Moon Reef in the Pelsaert Group.
                   their normal range.                                                              Eighteen other historic wrecks,
                                                                                                    mostly from the 19th Century, have
                                                            Photo: South Metropolitan TAFE          also been discovered in island waters.



      30
THE ISLAND
E N V I RO N M E N T
Every year, the rich fish life, unique
coral reef formations, birdlife,
shipwrecks and the wild beauty of the
Abrolhos are attracting an increasing
number of visitors from the mainland.
The island environment - both marine
and terrestrial - is fragile, and needs the
protection of island residents and
visitors alike.
The Abrolhos are part of the aquatic
heritage of all West Australians - it is
our task to ensure that we hand the
islands, their fish stocks and their
wildlife onto future generations
undamaged and still productive.




                                              Photo: Fisheries WA




                                                                    31
           N     ingaloo Reef is one of the most
                 accessible coral reefs in the
           world and is attractive to those who
                                                   SPEAR FISHING
                                                   Spear fishing is a highly selective
                                                   fishing method and can have a major
                                                                                             CONDITIONS CAN
                                                                                             C H A N G E Q U I C K LY
                                                                                             Although the waters of Ningaloo
           wish to view corals and dive from the   impact on resident reef species in        often appear calm and ideal for
           shore or small boats.                   specific locations. Consequently          fishing or diving from small craft,
           The Ningaloo Marine Park is a great     fishing with a speargun, gidgie or        conditions can change very quickly.
NINGALOO



           way to experience diving. The marine    Hawaiian sling is prohibited in           The edge of the continental shelf lies
           park is a diver’s paradise and offers   waters between Tantabiddi and             close to the reef and the deep ocean
           tremendous scope for exploring and      Winderabandi Point, as well as in         swells that strike the reef have built
           for underwater photography.             sanctuary zones.                          up over thousands of kilometres.
                                                   The following resident reef species are   Even in calm conditions and fine
                                                   also protected from spearfishing in       weather, the combination of a sea
                                                   Marine Park waters: Gropers, tuskfish     breeze and outgoing tide can rapidly
                                                   and wrasse (family Labridae), cod         create “king waves” which may rear
                                                   and coral trout (family Serranidae).      out of the ocean with no warning.
                                                                                             While the waters inside the main reef
                                                                                             may look placid, big tidal changes
                                                                                             can set up dangerously strong
                                                                                             currents within the lagoons. The
                                                                                             strength of the current is increased
                                                                                             when big ocean swells breaking over
                                                                                             the outer reef bring large volumes of
            Photo: Barbara O’Dowd




   32
water into the lagoons. This added water needs     conditions are doubtful, stay out of the water
to escape and does so via the “gaps” in the reef   until they improve or you can seek the advice
crest. Areas near these gaps are especially        of an experienced operator.
dangerous for people in the water or boats, as     Living coral is delicate and once damaged often
this is where currents are at their greatest       takes many years to regrow. Anchor only in
strength. The gaps also allow larger waves to      sand and avoid standing on or touching marine
come closer to shore and these can threaten        organisms. Feeding of wild animals can cause
small craft with swamping and overturning.         ill health, aggressive behaviour and upset
Boat skippers should make doubly sure that all     population numbers. To maintain nature’s
the right safety equipment is on board and         balance, avoid feeding native animals,
keep a careful watch on ocean and weather          including marine life.
conditions at all times. Let somebody know         For further information contact Transport on
where you are going and the time you expect to     (08) 9216 8999.
be back before setting out on a boating trip.
The Ningaloo area has claimed several lives in
recent times and needs to be treated with
caution. You should not take your boat into
areas where wave action is evident as wave size
is variable and it only takes one larger one to
overwhelm your vessel.
Shore-based snorkellers should stay near the
shore and be aware of tide current activity. If     Photo: Barbara O’Dowd


                                                                                                     Photo: Barbara O’Dowd


                                                                                                                             33
                                                           TO D I V E T H E S WA N               • If you are prone to seasickness,
                   T    he SWAN wreck is located
                        approximately 1 nautical mile
                   NNE of Point Picquet near the town
                                                           WRECK.                                  please come prepared in case the
                                                                                                   surface conditions are not perfect.
                                                           • Please bring your dive qualifica-
                   of Dunsborough. The SWAN is a             tion card and logbook if diving     • Make sure you have a dive
S WA N W R E C K

                   purposely-sunk dive wreck that has        with a Local Charter Operator.        computer or be aware that you
                   been designed with divers safety and    • Hold at least an Openwater Dive       will need to hire one before you
                   enjoyment in mind.                        Ticket.                               dive the SWAN. Also ensure that
                   Now resting on a sandy bottom in        • To be able to go to the max.          your dive equipment is in good
                   30 metres of water, the Swan is now       depth of the SWAN — 30m, you          working order.
                   a thriving ecosystem, home to a           need to hold an Advanced            • Bookings are essential particularly
                   wealth of fish, soft corals, and          Openwater Ticket.                     on weekends, pre-book your
                   ascidians and is visited by thousands   • If you haven’t dived for awhile       dives and accommodation in the
                   of divers each year.                      make sure you are comfortable         summer peak season.
                   The SWAN has been declared a              with the scuba equipment. Its
                   sanctuary zone and has a fishing          also highly recommended that
                   exclusion zone within 200m of the         you do a re-familiarisation dive
                   wreck site.                               or a refresher course before
                                                             attempting the SWAN.
                   The SWAN wreck is a deep dive and
                   at times receives quite strong winds
                   therefore the surface conditions can
                   be quite choppy even though the
                   visibility is still good.                                                      Photo: Geoff Paynter




      34
I M P O RTA N T N OT E S F O R                    B E S T T I M E TO D I V E T H E
P R I VAT E V E S S E L S :                       S WA N
• There are designated public moorings for        December through to April is the best time to
   private vessels. They are white in colour.     dive the SWAN, water tempreture ranges from
• Please make sure you have obtained the          20 to 24 degrees, visibility ranges from 10 to
   necessary pass from the local Tourist Bureau   25m, surface conditions are usually calmer in
   (which will soon be available from the         the afternoons.
   Local Dive Shops). You will need your boat     For any further enquiries in regards to diving
   registration number.                           the SWAN Wreck, please do not hesitate to
• Fishing, spearfishing or taking of any          contact GBARS ( Geographe Bay Artificial
   marine life is prohibited within 200m of       Reef Society) by writing to PO Box 1408,
   the wreck site.                                Busselton 6280.
• Absolutely no anchoring within the 200m
   zone.
• Have a dive flag visible.
• Have a person aboard at all times.
• No dropping off or drifting across the site.
• No souveniring.
Any damage or any part of the wreck that may
be deemed unsafe must be reported to
GBARS, the local dive shop or Tourist Bureau.
                                                   Photo: Geoff Paynter


                                                                                                   Photo: Geoff Paynter


                                                                                                                          35
              WHALE SHARKS                               shark and any others must be             P OTATO C O D
              Whale sharks are fully protected           400m from the shark.                     If you are diving on a coral reef off
              under the Wildlife Conservation Act     • Do not attempt to touch or ride a         Exmouth or Broome and come face-
              and the CALM Act. Although they           whale shark.                              to-face with a large pale bluish-grey
              appear to be ‘gentle giants’ they are
MARINE LIFE


                                                      The protection afforded to whale            fish covered with dark brown-to-
              wild animals that can inflict serious   sharks by the Wildlife Conservation         black blotches, the chances are that it
              injury if they strike a swimmer with    Act and the CALM Act extends to             is a potato cod.
              their body, tail or fins. To minimise   the activities of private vessels as well   In WA, potato cod can be found
              the risk of injury and to prevent the   as commercial vessels.                      around the north-west coast, from
              animals from being harmed or
                                                                                                  Exmouth to Wyndham and
              disturbed, certain rules apply.
                                                                                                  occasionally the fish may be
              • Only one vessel at a time may                                                     encountered further south.
                operate within the zone for a
                                                                                                  The potato cod feeds on a wide variety
                maximum time of 90 minutes and
                                                                                                  of reef dwellers, such as small rays,
                at a speed of 8 knots or less.
                                                                                                  crabs, fish and spiny lobsters. Its large
              • An exclusive contact zone of                                                      size and inquisitive behaviour towards
                250m radius applies around any                                                    intruders has meant that this territorial
                whale shark.                                                                      fish is an easy quarry for spear fishers -
              • The first vessel within that zone                                                 one reason why it is protected in WA.
                will be deemed to be ‘in contact’.                                                Note: Grey Nurse, Great White sharks
                The second vessel to arrive must                                                  and other species of cod are also fully
                keep a distance of 250m from the       Photo: Tony Medcraft                       protected.



    36
E N DA N G E R E D S E A
D R AG O N
Unique to the southern waters of WA
and South Australia, the leafy sea
dragon’s home is the inshore areas of
seagrass. Unfortunately, these areas are
under increasing threat from pollution
and excessive fertiliser run-off.
This is not the only danger faced by the
sea dragon. Although having no
known predators amongst the marine
world, it has become the target of
unscrupulous ‘collectors’ who have
denuded the more accessible seagrass
areas of this amazing creature.
In 1991, Fisheries WA, concerned by
the rapidly decreasing numbers of the
leafy sea dragon, declared it a totally
protected species.



                                           Photo: Underwater World




                                                                     37
                                                           Ship wrecks are part of our cultural
                  T     he     Western     Australian
                        Maritime Museum has a strong       heritage and the Museum actively
                                                                                                   OUTREACH PROGRAM
                                                                                                   The Department of Maritime
MARITIME MUSEUM
                  profile in maritime cultural affairs     encouraged Divers to visit them.        Archaeology located at the Maritime
                  locally, statewide, nationally and       The Museum actively supports the        Museum has set up an Outreach
                  internationally.                         scuttling of redundant ships as sites   Program, which is a multi-faceted
                  The Museum, located on Cliff Street      for divers. Examples of this are        element of the department’s overall
                  in Fremantle, tells the stories and      Albany’s Cheynes 3, Busselton’s         shipwreck management strategy.
                  displays the objects of the major ship   HMS Swan and the Gemini barge at        Wreck Trails and the regional wreck
                  wrecks of Western Australia.             Yanchep. More are planned and           marking project have been in place
                  Although there are well over 1,000       details will be available from local    since 1981.
                  wrecks known to have been lost in        dive shops.
                                                                                                   Each site is marked both above and
                  the seas off our State many are yet to   The Museum offers a comprehensive       below water with an information
                  be found.                                education program catering for          plaque (glass below, brass above).
                                                           students from Kindergarten to Year
                                                           12 and adult groups.
                                                           The submarine HMS Ovens can be
                                                           visited at Fremantle Harbour as the
                                                           first stage in a new Maritime
                                                           Museum which will highlight the
                                                           State’s maritime history.

                   Photo: WA Maritime Museum                                                        Photo: WA Maritime Museum




      38
Albany, Hamelin Bay, Mandurah, Rottnest,                SHIPWRECK LIST
Yanchep and Lancelin have underwater and                The wrecks listed on the following pages have
above-water markers.                                    been declared as historic under State or Federal
Exmouth, Bunbury, Geraldton and the Abrolhos            legislation. A complete list of wrecks may be
Islands are in the first stages of completion, with     obtained through the Museum’s web site.
Rockingham and Shark Bay in preparation.                For further information phone (08) 9431 8444
School groups, under the work experience                or visit the Western Australian Maritime
scheme, disadvantaged young adults, and                 Museum’s website at http://www.mm.wa.gov.au.
academic extension groups are involved,
making the project broader based and more
relevant to the general community.
Part of the work of the Maritime Archaeology
Department is to register, document and
research the shipwreck collections in order to
identify the various components of the ship -
its hull structure, fastenings, fittings, etc and its
contents - ship’s equipment, stores, cargo,
personal possessions of the crew and so on.




                                                         Photo: Alex Steffe


                                                                                                           Photo: WA Maritime Museum


                                                                                                                                       39
                                 NO   LOST   NAME               NATION       TYPE               BUILT         VOYAGE                      DATE
S H I P W R E C K S O F W. A .
                                 1    1662   Trial              British      East Indiaman      England       Plymouth to Batavia
                                 2    1629   Batavia            Dutch        ‘Retourschip’      Holland       Texel to Batavia            1628
                                 3    1656   Vergulde Draeck    Dutch        ‘Jacht’                          Texel to Batavia            1653
                                 4    1712   Zuytdorp           Dutch        ‘Retourschip’      Zeeland       Vlissingen to Batavia       1701
                                 5    1727   Zeewijk            Dutch        ‘Retourschip’      Zeeland       Vlissingen to Batavia       1725
                                 6    1810   Lively ?           English      Whaler             France
                                 7    1811   Rapid              American     Ship               America       Boston to Canton            1807
                                 8    1830   James              British      Brig               America       Liverpool to Fremantle      1812
                                 9    1830   Cumberland         British      Ship               India         NSW to Bombay               1827
                                 10   1839   Elizabeth          Australian   Barque             Singapore     Manila to Sydney            1830
                                 11   1839   Lancler            French       Barque             Seychelles    Mauritius to Hobart         1834
                                 12   1841   James Matthews     British      Snow brig          France?       London to Fremantle
                                 13   1842   Ocean Queen        British      Barque             England       Launceston to Bali          1831
                                 14   1844   Carvantes          American     Barque             America       America round trip          1836
                                 15   1849   Arpenteur          British      Brig               Seychelles    Anier to Albany
                                 16   1852   Eglinton           British      Barque             Quebec        London to Fremantle         1842
                                 17   1859   Robertina          Australian   Brig               England       Fremantle to Adelaide       1843
                                 18   1863   African ?          British      Ship               England       Geraldton to Fremantle      1853
                                 19   1867   Lady Lyttleton     British      Barque                           Adelaide to Fremantle
                                 20   1867   Emma               Australian   Schooner           England       Coastal                     1859
                                 21   1874   Chalmers           British      Ship               England       Mauritius to Fremantle      1851
                                 22   1874   Centaur            Australian   Iron brig          Scotland      Champlon Bay to Fremantle   1849
                                 23   1874   Contest            British      Barque             Nova Scotia   Loading at anchor           1860
                                 24   1875   Fairy Queen        Australian   Brigantine         Singapore     From Singapore
                                 25   1875   Zedora             British      Barque             England       Mauritius to Fremantle      1869
                                 26   1876   Gem                Australian   Cutter             England       Port Irwin to Fremantle
                                 27   1876   Hero of the Nile   British      Barque             England       Melbourne to Lacepedes      1852
                                 28   1876   SS Georgette       Australian   Iron screw         Scotland      Coastal                     1872
                                 29   1877   Hadda              Australian   Barque             Germany       Lacepedes to Fremantle      1860
                                 30   1878   Lady Elizabeth     British      Composite barque   England       Fremantle to Shanghai       1869
                                 31   1878   Diana              British      Schooner           England       At anchor                   1860
                                 32   1878   James Service      Australian   Iron barque        Scotland      Calcutta to Melbourne       1860
                                 33   1879   Ben Ledi           British      Iron ship          Scotland      Sydney to Calcutta
                                 34   1879   Marten             Australian   Schooner           Melbourne     Adelaide to Browse Is.      1871
                                 35   1879   Mary               Australian   Schooner           Fremantle     Coastal                     1868


            40
TONS    CARGO                         LOCATION                       CHART     GAZETTED
                                      20°17.5’S      115°21.5’E      AUS 747        1973
  600   Gen. & 250,000 fl in specie   28°29.34’S     113°47.41’E     AUS 332        1973
  260   Gen. & 78,600 fl in specie    31°13.36’S     115°21.48’E     AUS 334        1973
  400   Gen. & 248,886 fl in specie   27°11.23’S     113°56.13’E     AUS 332        1973
  400   Gen. & 315,836 fl in specie   28°52.75’S     113°49.10’E     AUS 332        1973
  240   Whaling Cruise                17°05.4’S      119°35.5’E      AUS 325        1982
  366   280,000 silver dollars        22°44.44’S     113°41.46’E     AUS 72         1978
  195   Passengers and cargo          32°05.8562’S   115°45.4643’E   AUS 117        1977
  444   Coal and cattle               34°12.994’S    115°01.919’E    AUS 756        1983
  195   General                       32°00.8’S      115°44.9’E      AUS 112        1977
  285   General                       32°04.79’S     115°38.01’E     AUS 117        1977
  107   Passengers and cargo          32°08.8’S      115°44.5’E      AUS 117        1977
  268   Ballast, mail and specie      28°56.5’S      113°51.7’E      AUS 332        1977
  217   Whaling                       30°30.7’S      115°02.2’E      DMH 422        1977
   95   General and mail              34°50.0’S      118°24’E        BA 1034        1977
  462   General                       31°38.45’S     115°39.537’E    AUS 334        1973
  213   Timber, flour and oil         32°23.66’S     115°40.75’E     WA 913         1987
  780   Ore and wool                  28°43.4’S      114°37’E        AUS 81         1981
  178   Whaling and sealing           34°59.95’S     117°56.95’E     AUS 118        1977
  116   Passengers and general        23°05.08’S     114°44.15’E     AUS 72         1989
  606   Sugar                         32°22.10’S     115°41.36’E     WA 913         1977
  188   Galena                        31°51.82’S     115°42.67’E     AUS 112        1977
  322   Timber                        32°16.5’S      115°42.8’E      AUS 117        1982
  115   Pearling                      21°49.16’S     114°11.20’E     AUS 744        1977
  269   Ballast                       32°04.1’S      115°37.7’E      AUS 117        1977
   52   Wheat                         31°59.33’S     115°33.65’E     WA 412         1977
  356   Ballast                       32°22’S        115°42’E        WA 913         1977
  211   Passengers and cargo          34°02’S        114°59.4’E      BA 413         1977
  334   Ballast                       28°38.37’S     113°47.44’E     AUS 332        1977
  658   Sandlewood                    32°01.15’S     115°32.85’E     WA 412         1977
  224                                 32°05.9’S      119°45.3’E      AUS 117        1977
  441   Castor oil, jute              32°27.48’S     115°39.71’E     WA 913         1977
 1107   Ballast                       28°55.30’S     113°58.07’E     AUS 332        1977
   27   Ballast                       28°55.30’S     113°58.07’E     AUS 332        1977
   48   Timber                        33°37.08’S     115°24.67’E     BA 1059        1993
                                                                                           Photo: Geoff Paynter


                                                                                                                  41
                                 NO   LOST   NAME                  NATION       TYPE                 BUILT           VOYAGE                       DATE
S H I P W R E C K S O F W. A .
                                 36   1879   Manfred               British      Barque               England         At anchor, Lacepedes         1864
                                 37   1880   Batoe Bassi           Dutch        Barque               Unknown         Java to Melbourne
                                 38   1880   Mayflower             Australian   Brig                 England         At anchor, Augusta           1867
                                 39   1880   Star                  Australian   Schooner             Fremantle       Coastal                      1876
                                 40   1882   Agincourt             Australian   Wood barque          England         At anchor, Hamelin Bay       1863
                                 41   1883   Chaudiere             Australian   Wood barque          England         At anchor, Hamelin Bay       1863
                                 42   1883   SS Macedon            Australian   Iron screw steamer   England         Coastal                      1870
                                 43   1884   Yarra                 Australian   Iron barque          England         Scott Reef to Falmouth       1870
                                 44   1886   Mira Flores           German       Iron barque          England         London to Fremantle          1867
                                 45   1886   Belle of Bunbury      Australian   Schooner             Bunbury         Bunbury to Fremantle         1877
                                 46   1886   Day Dawn              Australian   Barque               Masscahusetts   At anchor, Garden Island     1851
                                 47   1887   Janet                 Australian   Schooner             Fremantle       Colombo to Fremantle         1878
                                 48   1887   Perth                 Australian   Iron screw steamer   Scotland        Coastal                      1863
                                 49   1888   Benan                 British      Iron ship            Leith           Cardiff to Hong Kong         1875
                                 50   1890   Ringbolt Bay, unid.   Australian   Barge                Australia       Lightering                   1880
                                 51   1890   Denton Holme          British      Iron barque          Fremantle       Glasgow                      1863
                                 52   1891   Raven                 Australian   Barque               British         Fremantle to Bunbury         1864
                                 53   1893   Ulidia                British      Iron ship            England         Fremantle to Newcastle       1889
                                 54   1893   Priestman Dredge      British      Grab dredge          Unknown         Dreding in Fremantle
                                 55   1894   SS Eddystone          Australian   Iron screw steamer   England         Coastal                      1886
                                 56   1894   Omeo                  Australian   Iron Barque          England         At anchor, Cockburn          1858
                                 57   1894   Rodondo               Australian   Screw steamer        England         Adelaide to Fremantle        1878
                                 58   1895   Mayhill               British      Steel 4 m barque     Scotland        England to Geraldton         1890
                                 59   1895   Dato                  Australian   Brig                 Finland         At anchor, Garden Island     1879
                                 60   1897   Europa                Italian      Barque               England         Glasgow to Fremantle         1869
                                 61   1897   Villalta              British      Steel barque         Scotland        Tacoma to Fremantle          1883
                                 62   1898   Sepia                 British      Iron barque          England         London to Fremantle          1864
                                 63   1898   Lubra                 Australian   Iron screw steamer   Scotland        Geraldton to Fremantle       1860
                                 64   1899   City of York          British      Iron barque          Scotland        San Francisco to Fremantle   1869
                                 65   1899   Carlisle Castle       British      Iron ship            England         Glasgow to Fremantle         1868
                                 66   1900   Katinka               German       Iron barque          Scotland        At anchor, Hamelin Bay       1874
                                 67   1901   Gudrun                Norwegian    Barque               Quebec          Run aground Shark Bay        1880
                                 68   1901   Karrakatta            Australian   Iron screw steamer   Scotland        Fremantle to Singapore       1897
                                 69   1901   Highland Forest       British      Barque               Scotland        NY to Fremantle              1884
                                 70   1901   Ville de Rouen        French       4 masted barque      France          Cardiff to Fremantle         1891


            42
TONS    CARGO                       LOCATION                           CHART     GAZETTED
  587   Guano                       16°51.4’S         122°07.7’E       AUS 323        1977
  325   Sugar and coconuts          33°54.55S         122°49.90’E      BA 1059        1977
  227   Ballast                     34°20’S           115°10.5’E       AUS 116        1977
   70   Whaling                     32°22.59’S        115°41.03’E      WA 913         1977
  443   Timber                      34°12.860’S       115°02.017’E     AUS 116        1977
  470   Timber                      34°12.976’S       115°01.915’E     AUS 116        1977
  562   Passengers and cargo        31°59.27’S        115°33.33’E      WA 413         1977
  482   Guano                       14°02.3’S         121°46’E         AUS 43         1977
  500   General                     32°00.41’S        115°28.15’E      WA 412         1977
   42   Wool and potatoes           32°18.7’S         115°41.4’E       WA 913         1977
  355   Hulk                        32°14.5157’S      115°41.5855’E    AUS 117        1974
  211   Grain and furniture         31°59.25’S        115°33.41’E      WA 412         1977
  499   Passengers and cargo        22°41.64’S        113°38.43’E      AUS 72         1977
 1415   Coal                        22°44.56’S        113°40.40’E      AUS 72         1994
   50   Cement                      34°22.19’S        115°09.04’E      AUS 116        1981
  998   Water pipes and general     31°59.24’S        115°33.31’E      WA 412         1977
  343   Ballast                     32°01.26’S        115°33.08’E      WA 412         1977
 2378   Ballast                     32°03.46’S        115°37.73’E      AUS 117        1977
                                    32°03.5’S         115°44.1’E       AUS 113        1979
 2040   Passengers and machinery    20°36.4’S         117°37.1’E       AUS 740        1981
  605   Hulk                        32°06.4’S         115°45.6’E       AUS 117        1977
 1119   Passengers and cargo        On Pollock Reef   - pos. unknown   AUS 84         1994
 2121   Railway iron                28°45.9’S         114°34.2’E       AUS 81         1981
  418   Hulk                        32°14.25’S        115°41.48’E      AUS 117        1977
  800   General                     30°24.9’S         114°59.5’E       AUS 753        1979
  866   Timber                      31°17.96’S        115°27.31’E      AUS 334        1981
  725   General                     32°08.06’S        115°38.34’E      AUS 116        1977
  321   Flour                       30°18.3’S         114°59.7’E’      AUS 333        1983
 1194   Timber                      31°59.72’S        115°29.25’E      WA 412         1977
 1545   Rail lines and general      32°20.10’S        115°37.98’E      WA 913         1977
  805   Timber                      34°12.298’S       115°02.213’E     BA 1472        1981
  977   Timber                      25°25.50’S        113°31.51’E      AUS 331        1993
 1217   Assorted and mail           16°21.4’S         123°02.1’E       AUS 733        1981
  998   General                     32°23.76’S        115°40.71’E      WA 913         1986
 1127   General for smelting work   31°21.6’S         115°26.8’E       DMH 280        1991
                                                                                             Photo: Geoff Paynter


                                                                                                                    43
                                 NO    LOST    NAME                   NATION       TYPE                  BUILT        VOYAGE                         DATE
S H I P W R E C K S O F W. A .
                                 71    1902    SS Zvir                Australian   Iron screw steamer    England      Java to Melbourne              1900
                                 72    1902    SS Franklin            Australian   Iron screw steamer    Scotland     Adelaide to Fremantle          1880
                                 73    1903    SS Escort              Australian   Steam tug             England      Coastal                        1884
                                 74    1904    SS Mildura             Australian   Iron screw steamer    unknown      Cambridge Gulf to Fremantle
                                 75    1904    Conference             Australian   Iron barque           n/a (hulk)   Scuttled                       1855
                                 76    1905    SS Orizaba             British      Steel screw steamer   Britain      London to Fremantle            1886
                                 77    1908    SS Windsor             British      Steel screw steamer   England      Fremantle to Hong Kong         1890
                                 78    1910    SS Pericles            British      Iron screw steamer    Belfast      Melbourne to South Africa      1908
                                 79    1911    Mandalay               Norwegian    Iron barque                        Delgoa Bay to Albany           1880
                                 80    1912    Crown of England       Norwegian    Iron ship             England      Loading at anchor              1883
                                 81    1914    SS Cambewarra          Australian   Iron screw steamer    Holland      Holland to NSW                 1913
                                 82    1916    Dunster Castle         Australian   Screw steamer                      Esperance to Albany
                                 83    1923    SS Fin                 Norwegian    Iron whaleship        Norway       At anchor                      1881
                                 84    1942    Uribes                 Australian   Schooner              England      Lightering                     1868
                                 85    1914    SMS Emden              German       Warship               Germany      Indian Ocean to naval patrol
                                 86    1820    Eyre, unident.                      Whaler? Sealer?
                                 87    1824    Belinda                British      Brig                  England      Hobart to the Recherche        1819
                                 88    1840s   Whalers (3)            American     Whale Ships           America      America to Geographe Bay       1830s
                                 89    1848    Wave                   Australian   Brigantine            Bermuda      Adelaide to ?                  1838
                                 90    1850    Fairy                  Australian   Schooner              Albany       At anchor                      1844
                                 91    1864    Calliance              British      Ship                  England      Melbourne to Camden            1854
                                 92    1872    Fanny Nicholson        Australian   Whaling barque        England      Hobart to Albany
                                 93    1872    SS Xantho              Australian   Iron screw steamer    Scotland     Port Gregory to Geraldton      1848
                                 94    1877    Twilight ?             Australian   Cutter                Fremantle    Albany to Twilight Cove        1869
                                 95    1880    Mardie, unident.       Australian   Pealer?
                                 96    1880    Browse Is., unident.                Guano Ship?
                                 97    1885    Kingfisher             Australian   Iron hulk             Scotland     In use as hulk                 1854
                                 98    1887    Amur                   Australian   Barque                England      At anchor                      1862
                                 99    1888    Ada                    Australian   Cutter
                                 100   1892    SS Sunbeam             British      Iron screw steamer    England      Pearling                       1861
                                 101   1894    Sarah Burnyeat         Australian   Wood hulk             England      In use as hulk                 1862
                                 102   1897    Carbet Castle          British      Iron ship             England      Wales to Bunbury               1875
                                 103   1912    Athena                 British      Barque (hulk)         England      Hulk (scuttled)                1868




            44
TONS    CARGO                     LOCATION                    CHART     GAZETTED
 3355   Sugar                     22°36.55’S    113°37.56’E   AUS 72         1981
  730   General                   33°46.63’S    123°44.66’E   AUS 84         1994
   64                             35°01.54’S    116°44.30’E   AUS 758        1993
 1394   Livestock                 21°47.14’S    114°10.00’E   AUS 745        1994
  421   Hulk                      31°40.28’S    115°39.64’E   WA 986         1991
 6077   Passengers and general    32°16.97’S    115°37.59’E   AUS 117        1994
 2892   Sandlewood                28°59.26’S    113°55.98’E   AUS 332        1981
        Passengers and general    34°24.07’S    115°07.06’E   BA 1037        1994
  913   Ballast                   35°00.00’S    116°32’E      AUS 758        1994
 1847   Copper ore                20°27.1’S     117°43.9’E    AUS 740        1981
  450   Delivery voyage           30°12.66’S    114°49.33’E   AUS 753        1992
   62   Ballast                   33°51.01’S    121°05.66’E   AUS 84         1991
   93                             22°38.93’S    113°37.61’E   AUS 72         1981
  117   In stores                 32°00.21’S    115°33.35’E   WA 412         1987
 3650   Armaments                 12°05’S        96°53’E      BA 3504
                                  32°18’S       126°51’E      BA 1059        1971
  160   Sealing                   34°5.5’S      123°12.5’E    AUS 119        1990
  300   Whale products and gear   33°19.6’S     115°38.9’E    WA 859         1987
  103   General                   34°35.05’S    118°44.33’E   BA 1034        1989
   70                             35°02.31’S    117°51.64’E   AUS 109        1992
  822   Passengers and general    15°30’S       124°36.7’E    BA 1206        1983
  285   Oil                       34°4.9’S      117°56.1’E    AUS 109        1988
   61   Wool and oil              28°11.2’S     114°14.1’E    AUS 741        1983
   24   Telegraph stores          32°17’S       126°01’E      BA 1056        1991
   20                             21°13’S       115°50’E      AUS 743        1992
                                  14°07’S       123°33.6’E    BA 1242        1975
  164   Coal                      35°02.04’S    117°52.18’E   AUS 109        1992
  235                             32°15.85’S    115°44.6’E    AUS 117        1987
                                  34°59.37’S    117°58.25’E   AUS 110        1992
   49   Pearling gear             14°21.0’S     126°01.5’E    AUS 728        1980
  265   Coal                      35°02.07’S    117°52.52’E   AUS 109        1993
 1531   Railway irons             32°18.86’S    115°39.8’E    WA 859         1987
  410   Coal                      35°01.015’S   118°04.48’E   AUS 118        1981

                                                                                    Photo: Geoff Paynter


                                                                                                           45
                             DISCOVER SCUBA
                             F    or the adventurous or the unsure, there is
                                  the opportunity to try a Scuba dive,
                             through a resort or discover course. These
                                                                                 DIVE WITH THE SHARKS!
                                                                                 Underwater World offers SCUBA divers a very
                                                                                 unique experience, the opportunity to dive
                             courses are usually run at holiday resorts and      with the sharks, stingrays and other fascinating
                             will provide you with a short and unforgettable     fish in one of the world’s largest aquariums.
                             experience underwater, under the safety and
                                                                                 For further information telephone Underwater
                             supervision of qualified staff.
                                                                                 World on (08) 9447 7500.
                             The resort–discovery dive consists of a few
                             hours of tuition and practical training in diving
                             physics, physiology, equipment, skills circuit
                             safety and hand signals.
                             The student will be expected to complete these
                             skills before venturing into deeper water, under
                             the instructors supervision.
                             These short discovery dives are not a complete
                             Scuba course, but an opportunity to experience
                             Scuba diving. The above information may
                             differ slightly between the various training
                             providers. For further information contact
                             your local dive shop.                                Photo: South Metropolitan TAFE


     Photo: Barbara O’Dowd


46
TRANSPORT
                                               There are approximately 63,000                As our beautiful waterways and coastline
T     ransport’s role is to provide for safe
      and efficient navigation in the
waters of this state. The services we
                                               recreational boats throughout the state
                                               registered by Transport’s boating
                                                                                             are of prime importance for recreation
                                                                                             and for our fishing industries, Transport
provide cover: boat safety standards,          registration section. Registration of boats   develops and manages marine facilities
marine education, commercial vessel            is especially important during search and     around the coast to provide a system of
safety, boat registrations, navigational       rescue incidents when it is imperative for    safe havens for the boating public.
safety and marine oil pollution advice         the Marine Operations Centre to be able       Transport’s involvement with coastal
and control.                                   to trace boat owners urgently.                facilities ranges from the design,
Western Australia has limited inland           The WA boat building and boat repair          manufacture and installation of boat
waterways and as a result a large              industries are firmly established and         ramps to designing and project
proportion of our boating occurs in            growing each year. Transport develops         managing harbours.
offshore ocean areas that require a high       appropriate minimum standards of              For further information, please contact
standard of boating skill to ensure safety.    safety for commercial vessels and works       your local Transport office or telephone
Boating education therefore is a high          closely with the boating industry during      (08) 9239 2399.
priority for Transport and we                  the design and building of new boats.
encourage the boating public to                Our marine surveys section is
undertake training programmes.                 responsible for surveying all commercial      This document is also available in
                                               vessels each year to ensure the vessels       alternative formats such as audio tape,
                                               comply with minimum safety standards.         computer disk, larger print and braille.




                                                                                                                                   47
            FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ON DIVING
              IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA CONTACT:
TRANSPORT …………………………………………………………………………………………(08) 9216 8999
  MARINE OPERATIONS CENTRE ………………………………………… (OFFICE HOURS) (08) 9216 8274
CALM ………………………………………………………………………………………………… (08) 9334 0333
FISHERIES WESTERN AUSTRALIA ………………………………………………………………… (08) 9482 7333
WESTERN AUSTRALIAN MARITIME MUSEUM …………………………………………………… (08) 9431 8444
FREMANTLE HOSPITAL …………………………………………………………………………… (08) 9431 3333
   HYPERBARIC UNIT ……………………………………………………… (OFFICE HOURS) (08) 9431 2233
WATER POLICE (SEARCH & RESCUE) …………………………………………………………… (08) 9442 8600
WEATHER ………………………………………………………………… PHONE (PERTH AREA) 1900 155 350
      ………………………………………………………………………FAX (PERTH AREA) 1902 935 720
MAJOR DIVING ORGANISATIONS
NAUI (AUSTRALIA) ………………………………………………………………………………… (07) 4659 5062
SSI (AUSTRALIA) …………………………………………………………………………………… (07) 4033 7966
PADI (AUSTRALIA) ………………………………………………………………………………… (02) 9417 2800

				
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