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Data Collection in the Field_ Nonresponse Error_ and Questionnaire

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					 Data Collection in the
  Field, Non-response
Error, and Questionnaire
        Screening
        Nonsampling Error in
        Marketing Research
 • Non-sampling error includes
   – All types of non-response error
   – Data gathering errors
   – Data handling errors
   – Data analysis errors
   – Interpretation errors


Ch 14                                  2
        Possible Errors in Field Data
                 Collection
 • Field worker error: errors committed
   by the persons who administer the
   questionnaires
 • Respondent error: errors committed
   on the part of the respondent
 • Errors may be either intentional or
   unintentional.


Ch 14                                     3
        Data Collection Errors




Ch 14                            4
   Possible Errors in Field Data
   Collection: Field-Worker Errors
 • Intentional field worker error: errors
   committed when a data collection person
   willfully violates the data collection
   requirements set forth by the researcher
    – Interviewer cheating occurs when the
      interviewer intentionally misrepresents
      respondents
    – Leading respondents occurs when the
      interviewer influences respondent’s
      answers through wording, voice
      inflection, or body language
Ch 14                                      5
   Possible Errors in Field Data
   Collection: Field-Worker Errors
 • Unintentional field worker error: errors
   committed when an interviewer believes
   he or she is performing correctly
    – Interviewer personal characteristics
      occurs because of the interviewer’s
      personal characteristics such as
      accent, sex, and demeanor




Ch 14                                     6
   Possible Errors in Field Data
   Collection: Field-Worker Errors
        – Interviewer misunderstanding occurs
          when the interviewer believes he or she
          knows how to administer a survey but
          instead does it incorrectly
        – Fatigue-related mistakes occur when
          interviewer becomes tired




Ch 14                                         7
        Possible Errors in Field Data
        Collection: Respondent Errors
 • Intentional respondent error: errors
   committed when there are respondents
   that willfully misrepresent themselves
   in surveys
    – Falsehoods occur when respondents
      fail to tell the truth in surveys
    – Nonresponse occurs when the
      prospective respondent fails to take
      part in a survey or to answer specific
      questions on the survey
Ch 14                                    8
        Possible Errors in Field Data
        Collection: Respondent Errors
 • Unintentional respondent error: errors
   committed when a respondent gives a
   response that is not valid but that he or
   she believes is the truth
    – Respondent misunderstanding occurs
      when a respondent gives an answer
      without comprehending the question
      and/or the accompanying instructions
    – Guessing occurs when a respondent
      gives an answer when he or she is
      uncertain of its accuracy
Ch 14                                      9
        Possible Errors in Field Data
        Collection: Respondent Errors
        – Attention loss occurs when a
          respondent’s interest in the survey
          wanes
        – Distractions (such as interruptions) may
          occur while questionnaire
          administration takes place
        – Fatigue occurs when a respondent
          becomes tired of participating in a
          survey

Ch 14                                          10
 How to Control Data Collection
     Errors: Fieldworkers




Ch 14                         11
 How to Control Data Collection
      Errors: Respondents




Ch 14                         12
 How to Control Data Collection
      Errors: Respondents




Ch 14                         13
        Data Collection Errors with
             Online Surveys
 • Multiple submissions by the same
   respondent
 • Bogus respondents and/or responses
 • Misrepresentation of the population




Ch 14                                 14
        Non-response Error
 • Non-response: failure on the part of a
   prospective respondent to take part in
   a survey or to answer specific
   questions on the survey
    – Refusals to participate in survey
    – Break-offs during the interview
    – Refusals to answer certain
      questions (item omissions)
 • Completed interview must be defined
Ch 14                                  15
        Non-response Error
 • Response rate enumerates the
   percentage of the total sample with
   which the interviews were completed




Ch 14                                16
        Non-response Error
 • CASRO response rate formula:




Ch 14                             17
   Reducing Non-response Error
 • Mail surveys:
   – Advance notification
   – Monetary incentives
   – Follow-up mailings
 • Telephone surveys:
   – Callback attempts


Ch 14                            18
        Preliminary Questionnaire
                Screening
 • Unsystematic and systematic checks
   of completed questionnaires
 • What to look for in questionnaire
   inspection
 • Incomplete questionnaires
 • Non-responses to specific questions
   (item omissions)
 • Yea- or nay-saying patterns
 • Middle-of-the-road patterns
Ch 14                                19
        Unreliable Responses
 • Unreliable responses are found when
   conducting questionnaire screening,
   and an inconsistent or unreliable
   respondent may need to be
   eliminated from the sample.




Ch 14                                20
        Minimizing Non-Sampling
                 Error
 • Cannot eliminate and cannot
   measure (except for non-response
   error)
 • Implement CONTROLS to minimize
   error:
    – Close supervision of data collectors
    – Training

Ch 14                                   21
        Minimizing Non-Sampling
                 Error
        – Care in constructing questionnaire
          and instructions…pretest!
        – Provide incentives to respondents
        – VALIDATION…industry standard is
          10%




Ch 14                                      22

				
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