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VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 5

									                  Control
• Prevent entry

• Reduce exposure

• Vaccination

• Learn to live with disease
Competent vectors

   -   The traditional vector of BTV, C. imicola, is now known
       to be widely distributed across southern Europe and
       may be expanding its range northwards

   -   Recent findings have also implicated C. obsoletus and
       C. pulicaris group midges as probable vectors:

       -    these species are widely distributed throughout
            Europe as far north as Scandinavia but their
            ability to transmit BTV is poorly understood

       -    some populations have been identified in
            the UK.

   -   The recent discovery of potentially novel BT vector
       species of Culicoides in north-west Europe
         Contingency plans
• Developed with core stakeholder group

• Disparate interests

• Need to involve all livestock owners

• Response must be proportionate
Summary of the challenges of BTV
• Molecular level
   – Continual change in genetic sequence in replication vector and host
       • Re-assortment and genetic drift
   – 24 serotypes – 24 diseases

• Cell level
   – Avoid host defences
       • within the cell
       • extracellularly

• Host level
   – Wide variation in virulence of the virus
   – Variation in pathogenicity between species and breeds

• Vector level
   – Virus factory which can widely disseminate the disease
   – Potential for recruitment of new vector species.
          Future challenges
• Vaccine development e.g. VLP subunit vaccines,
  killed vaccines
• Understanding the infection in the midge and
  host pathogenicity
  – Develop sophisticated control measures base on
    manipulation of the vector and virus
• Keeping abreast of changes in sequences and
  emergence of new strains of BTV so as develop
  and refine diagnostic tests and epidemiological
  investigations.

								
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