Comparative Perspectives on Social Housing in Post- Socialist

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  Comparative Perspectives on
    Social Housing in Post-
                      Post-
       Socialist Europe

Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia (FYROM),
Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia (FYROM),
         Romania, Republic of Moldova, Serbia and Montenegro
          Romania, Republic of Moldova, Serbia and Montenegro


         Housing Conference Sydney
                         August 5, 2009

                   Dr Sasha Tsenkova
                         The Future of
                        Social Housing
     • Reforms and Path Dependency

     • ChaIlenges for the Social Housing Sector

     • Management Issues

     • Lessons from Europe
Housing Policy
Housing Policy   Social Housing
                 Social Housing    Discussion
                                   Discussion
  Reforms
   Reforms           Sector
                     Sector
                                   Conclusions
                                   Conclusions
                                                  Economic &
                                                  Social Context
     Percentage of SEE's GDP


                  Albania
                    4%
  Serbia and
  Montenegro          BiH
     14%              5%
                            Bulgaria
                             14%



                                                                            Figure I-7                 Poverty in the region
                                                                             Figure I-7                 Poverty in the region
                            Croatia
Romania
                             20%
  39%                                  60
                     FYR Macedonia
                          3%
                                       50
                    Moldova
                      1%
                                       40



                                       30



                                       20



                                       10



                                       0
                                            Albania   BiH   Bulgaria        Croatia       FYROM         Moldova   Romania    Serbia and
                                                                                                                            Montenegro

                                                                       South East Europe - Extent of Poverty %
                    Nations of Homeowners?

  Housing
  Western
   Housing
  Western
   Policy
  Europe
    Policy
   Europe
models of social
 Reforms
 models of social
  Reforms
rented housing
 rented housing


   Eastern
   Europe:
    Social
 Social rented
  Housing
    sector
    Sector


 Challenges of
  the sector
 Concluding
 Comments
  Conclusion
                                               Reforms: Privatisation
                                40
                                     35
                                35
 share of total housing stock




                                30
                                                                   26
                                25
                                               20                            21       21
                                20                                                                   18

                                15
                                                    9                                        10
                                10                       7
                                                                                  5
                                 5                           3       2.86              2.2             2.1
                                       0.2                                                    0.64
                                 0
                                     Albania    BiH     Bulgaria   Croatia   Moldova Romania FYROM   Serbia

                                                                    1990      2002

Fig.1. The privatisation of public housing in the region, 1990-2002
 Fig.1. The privatisation of public housing in the region, 1990-2002
                      Source: Tsenkova, 2005
                       Source: Tsenkova, 2005
                                                                   Fiscal Policies
           Table II-3: Matrix of fiscal housing policy instruments in Southeast Europe

Country          Direct           Direct          Grants/        Mortgage   Rent         Assistance      Tax
                 provision of     provision of    subsidies to   interest   control in   to low       incentives
                 housing for      public/social   homeowners     subsidy    denational   income
                 homeowners       rental                                    ized         households
                                  housing                                   housing
Albania                 X                              X                         X
Bulgaria                                X              X                         X            X
BiH                                                    X
Croatia                 X                              X            X           X                         X
FYROM                   X
Moldova                 X                                                                     X
Romania                 X               X              X                                      X           X
Serbia                  X
Montenegro              X
Kosovo                                                 X
Note: ‘X’ policy instrument introduced.
      Fiscal policies-limited support
                   for social housing




Romania & FYROM – CEB projects


Kosovo-partnerships.
             Affordability constraints & new
                      housing construction
  Western
Evaluation
   Western
 Evaluation                                  Figure III-7    Rates of new construction in South East Europe
    Housing
ofEurope
     Housing
 ofEurope
models of social
    Policy
 models of social
    Policy
 rented houses
  rented houses                              6
                    New dwellings per 1000


  Reforms
   Reforms
                                             5
   Eastern                                                                                             Bulgaria
   Europe:
    Social                                   4                                                         Macedonia
 Social rented
  Housing
    sector                                                                                             Romania
    Sector                                   3
                                                                                                       Serbia
                                             2                                                         Moldova
 Challenges of
  the sector                                                                                           Croatia
                                             1
Discussion &
 Conclusion                                  0
  Conclusion                                  1989   1991   1993   1995   1997   1999   2001    2003
                                                                                               Year


                            Source: Tsenkova, 2005: Council of Europe Development Bank Regional Housing Survey
                           Performance Challenges

Evaluation of   Main characteristics (command
  Housing
   Policy       systems):
  Reforms
                • ownership
                • rent setting – 5-10% of market rents, backlog in
   Social
   Social
  Housing
                maintenance
   Housing
   Sector
    Sector
                • panel housing/substandard housing
                in poor condition with major need for significant
                upgrades to ensure safety, quality and energy
Discussion &    efficiency standards
 Conclusion     • allocation – some targeting




                                  Substandard housing in the historical district of Skopje
                                Day-to-day Asset Management

Evaluation of
  Housing              Technical &

   Policy
                        financial
                       management                                        Technical
  Reforms                           SPENDING                            Management

                                                            Financial Management
                                                         Managing revenue budgets and
                                                                   accounts
   Social
   Social       Rents and arrears collection         Outputs
  Housing
   Housing                                           Routine
                                                 maintenance
   Sector
    Sector
                                                        Monitoring of privatisation
                                                                       Managing revenue budgets and accounts
                 Emergency repairs and routine
                        maintenance                                 Rent & Arrears
                                                                     Management
Discussion &    Welfare advice and assistance

 Conclusion
                                                               Welfare Assistance
     Lessons from Europe:
Social Market vs Safety Net                    25




    Tenants receiving housing allowances (%)
                                                                                 FR
                                                                                    D
                                               20                                  F
                                                                                     UK

                                                                                   SW
                                               15
                                                                                                                  NL


                                               10



                                                            G           PL                                   LT
                                               5                IR

                                                                                        CZ
                                                    GR ISV
                                               0
                                                             SN
                                                    0   5       10         15      20        25         30        35   40
                                                                     Share of total housing stock (%)
                The Unfinished Agenda
Evaluation of
  Housing
   Policy
                   Housing Allowances
                   Housing Allowances
  Reforms        Integrating Informal Housing
                  Integrating Informal Housing
                  New Social Housing Provision
                  New Social Housing Provision
   Social
  Housing
   Sector




Discussion &
 Conclusion




                                   Ukraine

				
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