01998 Applied Poultq Science, Inc

                      EGGS CHICKS FROM
                     EXTREMELY       AGE'
                                S. L VIEIRA and E T M O W , JR?
              Department of Poultry Science and Alabama Agricultural Ejrpenment Station,
                                 Aubum University, AL. 36849-5416
                                        Phone: (334) 8442617
                                         F a : (334) 8442641

  Primarv Audience: Hatcherv Personnel. Nutritionists

  DESCRIPTION             AND
     Information on broiler breeder hatching             Eggs were collected from Ross male x
eggs is sparse. Differences related to breeder      Ross 208 female breeder flocks at 27 and
age may help explain why chicks from very           62 wk of age. Both flocks had been managed
young flocks have increased mortality and           by the same commercial source and received
                                                    common feeding programs. Thirty eggs were
reduced performance [ 11. The present study
                                                    randomly sampled from each flock. Eggs
examines the composition of eggs and chicks         were individually weighed and broken, then
from broiler breeder flocks representing ex-        yolk, albumen, and shell were weighed. Yolks
tremes likely to occur in practice. Limited         and albumens were separately pooled by
data on amino acid and minerals is given in         flock, and the composites were lyophilized,
their absence from the literature.                  ground, and dried for 18 hr at 60°C to obtain

1 Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 12-975760.
2 To whom correspondence should be addressed
                                           Research Report
VIEIRA and M O W , JR.                                                                            373

DM content. Subsamples were analyzed for
CP (Kjeldahl) and ash (24 hr at 600°C).                  RESULTS DISCUSSION
Mineral analysis was performed on solubi-                   gs
                                                           E g from the 62-wk-old breeder flock
lized ash (6 N HC1) diluted with distilled            had greater proportions of yolk and lower
water to accommodate inductively coupled              proportions of albumen and shell than those
plasma emission spectroscopy [2]. Amino               from the 27-wk-old flock (Table l, as other
acid analyses were performed commercially             researchers have reported [6, 1.     Yolk dry
~31.                                                  matter was also greater when from old
     E g from the same collection with both           breeders, whereas albumen DM was greater
flock ages were also incubated at the Auburn          with eggs from the young flock (Table 2).
University Poultry Research Unit hatchery                  Incubation of eggs from breeders at 27
following established procedures. Fifteen             and 62 wk of age led to similar proportions
chicks of each sex from each age flock were
                                                      of hatched chicks (73.5 vs. 75.8%, respec-
randomly sampled after hatching, then killed
by cervical dislocation about 2 hr later. Chick       tively). Live chicks and yolk sacs obtained
carcasses without yolk sacs and yolk sacs             from the older breeder flock were heavier
with contents were individually weighed, then         than those from the younger one (Table 3).
the respective parts were pooled for each             Yolk sacs with contents expressed as a pro-
breeder age and sex. The pooled samples were          portion of the intact live chick displayed no
lyophilized and analyzed as with egg compo-           differences. The values found in this study
nents. Data were evaluated using the ANOVA            were similar to those reported by Hawes and
procedure of SAS [4,5].                               Petitte [8].

TABLE 1. Yolk, albumen, and shell contents of eggs from breeders having extremes in ageA


      CONTRAST                CHICK WEIGHT                              YOLK SAC

AGE                                  ***                        *                          NS
  62 Wk                             50.3                       5.2                         11.3
  27 Wk                             43.4                       4.4                         11.1
SEX                                  NS                        NS                          NS
  Male                              47.9                       5 .O                        11.6
  Female                            45.7                       4.5                         10.9
SEM                                  0.62                      0.23                         .4
374                                                              EGG A N D CHICK COMPOSITION

TABLE 3. Amino acid content of yolk and albumen CP from eggs of 27- and 62-wk-old breeder hens as
compared to values for carcasses and yolk sacs from chicks after emergence, % D P
           I           YOLK           I     ALBUMEN              CARCASS               YOLK SAC
  WEEKS         62             27          62      27

 cp,%          31.0           32.1        76.3    78.3

 MET            2.66           2.69        3.80    4.02
 CYS            1.95           2.02        2.89    3.04
 LYS            7.04           7.02        5.72    5.82
THR             5.09           5.13        4.77    5.02
ARG             6.81           6.86        5.38    558
VAL             5.90          5.86         7.25    7.40
PRO             3.57          3.65         3.53    4.06
LEU             8.36          8.39         8.76    8.66
ILE            4.99           5.00         5.42    5.30
ASP             9.80          9.93        10.94   11.59
GLU            12.13          12.24       14.02   14.65
ALA            5.02           5.06         6.21    6.45
GLY             3.10          3.04         3.68    3.90
SER             7.75          8.01         7.13    756


     Limited sample amounts prevented                     embryos from young breeders have a malfunc-
analyses and statistical evaluation of amino              tion in the assimilation of yolk lipids during
acid and mineral data. Proportions of CP                  incubation, particularly phospholipids. In the
and its amino acids as well as ash and its                present study phosphorus concentrations in
minerals were similar for yolk, albumen,                  egg yolks prior to incubation were similar with
carcass, and yolk sac for each breeder age.
Chicks derived from 27-wk-old breeders,                   the extremes in breeder age. This difference
however, had a lower phosphorus concen-                   for phosphorus in the yolk sac may affect the
tration in the yolk sac than those from 62-wk-            requirement for this substance in a first feed
old hens, although little difference is apparent          available for chicks originating from young
for the carcass. Nobel et al. [9] suggested that          breeders.
                                                  Research Report
VIEIRA and M O W , JR.                                                                                               375

    TABLE 4. Mineral contents of ash from DM of yolks with eggs 27- and 62-wk-old breeder hens compared to
                                  YOLK                           CARCASS                            YOLK SAC
         WEEKS             62               27              62                27               62               27
                                            X             fkSD              EkSD             EkSD             EkSD
]Ash.%              I      1.2      I      1.4       I   5.220.07      I    5.2k0.07   I    4.3k0.07    1    4.lk0.14

    P                    22.46            26.61          17.1k0.01         19.121.51       12.8k0.53         6.6-tl.70
    K                      9.95            8.12          9.020.15           6.920.23        0.8k0.72         2.221.05
    ca                     7.78           11.35          18.2k0.08         20.721.93       37.124.98        39.7k4.66
    Na                    6.24             3.58          105k0.02          12.120.39        2.22 1.32        1.120.23
    Me              I     057       I      0.65      I    1.0k0.02    I     1.2k0.11   I    0.720.10    I    l.OkO.ll

    *Values for yolk are sin e determinations whereas data for carcass and yolk sac are averages analyses of both sexei
    combined. Pooled samp es from 30 eggs and 15 chick carcasses from each sex and their yolk sacs were used in eacl

                                        AND APPLICATIONS
     1. Large increases in egg weight that occur as breeder hens age are known to lead to
       comparatively small alterations in the proportions of yolk, albumen, and their dry matter
       content. Present analyses indicate similaritybetween extremesin eggweight for amino acids
       and minerals as well.
    2. Chick weight upon emergence is also known to increase with egg weight as hens age, but
       percentage of yolk sac is unaffected. Proportions of amino acids and minerals in yolk sac
       and carcass are also similar with extremes in breeder age.
    3. Phosphorus in the yolk sac of chicks from young breeders was lower than that from old
       breeders, whereas carcass proportions were similar. Additional dietary phosphorus at
       placement may be advantageous to low body weight chicks from young breeders.

                                        REFERENCES NOTES
    1. McNaughton, J.L., J.W. Deaton, F.N. Reece,                  4. S M Institute, 1988. SAS/STAT User’s Guide.
and RL Hapes, 1978. Effect of age of parents and                 Release 6.03 Edition. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
hatching egg weight on broiler chick mortality. PoultIy
Sci. 5 7 3 W .
                                                                    5. E g weight and proportions of yolk, albumen, and
   2. Soils Laboratory, Auburn University, Auburn, AL            shell from the two age groups were tested for normalcy of
36830.                                                           distribution and homogeneity of variance in order to
                                                                 validate a student t-test analysis having the two breeder
        3. Degum Corp., Allendale, NJ 07401.                     hen ages as contrasts. Chickweights, percentages of chick
376                                                                 EGG AND CHICK COMPOSITION

carcasswithout yolk sacs,and yolk sacswith contents were                             ..
                                                               8. Hawes, RO. and J N Pelilte, 1983. A comparison
analyzed using an ANOVAwith breeder hen age and sex        of the relationship of eggweight, yolkweight, and yolksac
as main factors. Res nses were considered significantly    weight with st-hatch growth in broilers. Poultry Sci.
different when P <.d?                                      621433 (Absy
   6. Marion,W.W., AW. Nordskog, H.S. Tolman, and
RH. Forsylhe, 1964. Egg composition as influenced by          9.       RC., F’             K. connor, and D‘ Brown,
breeding, egg size, age, and     poultrysei. 43:225-       1986. Changes in the lipid metabolism of the chick embryo
264.                                                       with parental age. Poultry SCi. 65:409-416.

   7 Olsson, N , 1936. Untersuchung einiger phys-
    .                                                      ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ikalischer und physiolo ischer eigenschaften von
huhnereiern. Pages 310-380 in: Proc. World’s Poultry          The authorx wish to thank Cynthia Llames of Degussa

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