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					  Close Reading
     Skills 4
   Figures of speech



With your host, Mr Sharpe
      (and Hudson)
             Introduction
• What we will do: revise figures of speech
• Why?: You have to pass a NAB on 23rd
  November
• By the end: You will be able to recognise
  and talk about different figures of speech
                    Revision
• Close reading is:
  – Dissection / thorough reading and analysis of a text
  – You will be given a short piece of text to read and a
    range of questions to answer
• The exam will be one of the following:
  – A piece of non-fiction
  – A newspaper article
• The exam in on November 23rd 2007
• Quality Newspapers will help:
  – The Times / The Guardian / The Observer / The
    Herald / The Scotsman / The Telegraph / The
    Independent
               Homework
• Please hand in your newspaper articles
    What are figures of speech?
•   An elaborate way to
    describe things
•   What are the main
    figures of speech?
           Imagery          Assonance

           Similes         Hyperbole or
                          Understatement
          Metaphors       Onomatopoeia

        Personification    Euphemism

          Alliteration
                      Imagery
• General term referring to descriptive
  writing
  – Appeals to senses
     •   Visual – snow run red
     •   Auditory – caws his carol
     •   Olfactory – burnt coffee smell of anger
     •   Tactile – like being savaged by a dead sheep
     •   Taste – his apology turned to ashes in his mouth
                   Similes
• Comparing two things using “like” or “as
  __________ as”
  – As high as a kite
  – As cold as ice
  – A fun as a barrel of monkeys
  – Like a stocking to a chicken’s lip
                Metaphors
• Comparing two things by saying one IS
  the other
  – The audience were glued to their seats
  – Juliet is the sun
  – The Empire State Building, that jumbo-sized
    dentist’s drill
          Personification
• Giving human characteristics to non-
  human things
  – Dawn massed her armies in the east
  – The sun glowered down on men
  – The trees grabbed me as I ran past
            alliteration
• Repeating the same sound at the start of
  words
  – Caws his carol
  – Salty snow run red
  – He who hates the Hun
                   Assonance
• Repeating the same sound within words in the
  sentence
  – Doomed youth
  – Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak
    December,
    And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost
    upon the floor.
    Eagerly I wished the morrow; - vainly I had sought to
    borrow
    From my books surcease of sorrow - sorrow for the
    lost Lenore -
Hyperbole or Understatement
   Hyperbole or Understatement
• Hyperbole – overstatement for dramatic or
  comic effect
• Understatement – understating for
  dramatic or comic effect
  – It’s the end of the world as we know it
  – I could eat a horse
  – My parents greeted my drunken, belated
    arrival with some interest
                Onomatopoeia

• A descriptive word that mimics the noise it
  is representing
  – The saw buzzed and rattled, buzzed and
    rattled
  – Silence! End your mewling of kittens!
                Euphemism
• A way to describe something in a gentler
  way to disguise the harsher truth
  – The dog was put to sleep
  – Mr Yeltsin was tired and emotional
  – She and I went under the bushes to snuggle

				
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