This project is funded by the European Union SOLAR ENERGY IN TURKEY National Consultation SYRIA 3.12.2007 Damascus Dr. Yurdakul Yiğitgüden, MED-ENEC Senior Policy Expert This project is funded by the European Union • SOLAR ENERGY • Solar energy has several advantages as compared to other RES. – Solar energy is plenty and endless. – It has no waste product. – It is possible to use solar energy whereever required. This project is funded by the European Union materials, methods and technologies used in the solar energy applications: • Thermal Solar Technologies : Heat produced from solar energy in these systems can be used directly as well as for electricity production. • Solar Cells: These materials, which can be classified as semi- conductors and called as photovoltaic cells change solar radiation to electricity directly. This project is funded by the European Union • Thermal Solar Energy Technologies • Solar energy applications can be divided into two as heat and electricity production. • Heat production can be classified into low, medium and high heat applications. – Low heat application, flat plate collectors – Medium heat application, systems that make linear condensation (parabolic trough systems) – High heat application, sytems that make point condensation (parabolic dish and centeral type) This project is funded by the European Union • Solar Collectors • Flat plate solar collectors can be thougth as major and widespread usage area for solar energy applications. • Plate type solar collectors are used widely in Turkey for the purpose of hot water production. • These systems can heat the liquid inside up to 80°C. • Besides hot water requirements of buildings, they can be used for supplying hot water to swimming pools and industrial facilities. This project is funded by the European Union • According to data in 2003, total solar collector (with or without glass+ with air), constructed in the world, is about 150 million m2. m2 –The country having the most number of solar collectors is USA with 30 million m2. –The second is Japan with 12,5 million m2 . –The third one is Turkey with 11 million (8 million in 2003) m2. This project is funded by the European Union TURKEY’S SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL TURKEY SOLAR Theoretic Technical Economical ENERGY Potential Potential Potential POTENTIAL (MTOE) (MTOE) (MTOE) Solar 250 25 - Electricity Solar 250 87.5 87.5 Heat This project is funded by the European Union • On the basis of survey results conducted by EİE for production companies and State Institute of Statistics (SIS) for consumers; – Turkey utilizes 11 million m² solar collectors in 2006 and this value increases by 700 000-1 million m² in each year. – Producer solar collector companies are about 50. – Solar energy production is equivalent to 400 000 TOE in 2006. – Considering these figures, Turkey is the one of the leader country in the world, – however, however – in the case of solar collector area per capita – (0.14 m²/capita), there exist countries being in the better situation than Turkey. This project is funded by the European Union • Currently, solar collectors are used in Agean and Mediterrenian regions of Turkey in residential buildings and touristics facilities. • However, there is a great potential of solar energy in the other regions of Turkey as well. • In this respect, utilization of SWH is expected to increase in the South East region of Turkey which is currently very low. This project is funded by the European Union • Thermal Solar Energy Plants • The second biggest group in the application of thermal solar energy is plants used for production of electricity. • They can be either parabolic channel, parabolic bowl or centered reciever collector types. • These kind of systems can reach higher temperatures as they can make condensation. • Plants with parabolic channel type collectors was entered in the commercial market, the most famous and the biggest one of these plants is USA LUZ International with 350 MW power. This project is funded by the European Union • Solar Cell Applications in Turkey: • It is known that there exist solar cells with about 500 kW capacity in; • forest observation towers of Ministry of Environment and Forestry, • transmission stations of Turk Telekom, • highway emergency phones and traffic signs, • demonstration applications of EİE, • various research institutes. This project is funded by the European Union • In recent years, there is a tendency in the world to use PV systems connected to the network. • EİE constructed solar cell systems connected to the network in Ankara having an installed capacity of 5 kW . • Daily produced energy in Ankara is 15 kWh This project is funded by the European Union • Cost Comparison • The initial cost of solar cells is high. The cost of these cells is about 4-5 $/W • Unit energy cost of them is changing about 25- 40 cent/kWh. cent/kWh • It can be economical in the places where photovoltaic electric network does not reach. • Solar Water Heaters are cost effective compared to other fuels.
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