CHURCH HISTORY PART 1 by sdfwerte

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									                   THE STUDY OF
                  CHURCH HISTORY




20 January 2008       Clogher Valley Bible Class
WHY STUDY CHURCH HISTORY?
    It is a Biblical discipline; Exodus 13:14-16,
    Joshua 5:19-24, Psalm 78:1-8.
    It enables us to trace the hand of God in the
    preservation of his people.
    It helps us to learn from the mistakes of a
    past generation.
    We are taught from past experience how to
    deal with our present problems.


20 January 2008   Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE BEGINNING OF CHURCH HISTORY

    Immediately after the close of the Book of Acts.
    Paul is a prisoner in Rome, year is 64AD.
    What will now happen to the Christian Church?
    Unlike Biblical history we do have the benefit of
    an inspired account.
    Nevertheless using a combination of secular
    historians and Christian writers a picture of the
    development of the Kingdom of Christ on earth
    emerges.


20 January 2008     Clogher Valley Bible Class
                  PART 1
         The Death of Paul to the
         Emergence of the Papacy

20 January 2008    Clogher Valley Bible Class
FIRST ROMAN PERSECUTION
    Nero – AD 64.
    Rome was destroyed by fire.
    Nero was blamed.
    Christians were blamed to shield Nero
    (Tacitus).




20 January 2008   Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE CRUELTIES OF NERO
    Christians were crucified.
    Some were clad in hides of beasts and attacked by
    dogs for entertainment.
    Others were set on fire and used as human torches
    when daylight failed.
    Tacitus wrote that Christians were “destroyed, not
    for public good but to gratify the cruelty of an
    individual”.
    It is believed that this was the period when Paul
    was martyred.

20 January 2008     Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM

    70 AD.

    Pivotal event in New Testament prophecy;
    Matthew 24:15-28, Luke 19:41-44.

    Christ was quite adamant would be fulfilled
    in “this generation” (Matthew 24:34).


20 January 2008   Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE DETAILS
    The Christians fled because of Christ’s warnings.
    The Jews resisted stubbornly and bravely.
    The Roman general was called Titus.
    He used a Jewish defector called Josephus as his
    negotiator who recorded the details.
    1,100,000 Jews died and 97,000 survivors were
    sold as slaves.
    Titus only left a piece of the western wall and
    three towers as a monument to the mighty city that
    he had razed to the ground.

20 January 2008     Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE PURPOSE
    The Jewish people were judged for their blatant
    disregard of God.
    They were judged for their treatment of Christ.
    It was a sure sign that the Kingdom of God was
    now spiritual and not material with the abolition of
    the Jewish state.
    The temple which lay at the heart of ceremonial
    worship was no longer required after Christ’s
    sacrifice.


20 January 2008     Clogher Valley Bible Class
          Progress in Days
           of Persecution
                  70 AD – 311 AD




20 January 2008    Clogher Valley Bible Class
The Pliny Trajan Letters – 112 AD
    Pliny was the Roman Governor of Bithynia (Asia Minor or
    Turkey, Acts 16:7 and 1 Peter 1:1).
    Trajan was the Emperor who pursued a policy of
    persecuting believers.
    Pliny described Christian worship; they met at day break
    for singing unto Christ.
    They abstain from theft, adultery and other evils.
    Trajan instructed Pliny not to seek out Christians but to
    punish them if a complaint is received.
    This correspondence would indicate that Christianity's
    spread was a concern in the highest places in Rome.


20 January 2008       Clogher Valley Bible Class
The Martyrdom of Ignatius
    He was Bishop of Antioch for
    40 years
    He knew the apostles
    He was taken from Antioch to
    Rome as an old man.
    He was killed by lions before
    45,000 spectators at the
    amphitheatre.
    Before he died he said, “I am
    God’s grain to be ground
    between the teeth of wild
    beasts, so that I can become a
    holy loaf for the Lord.”



20 January 2008           Clogher Valley Bible Class
                  JUSTIN MARTYR
    Born in 100 AD he was the first apologist for Christianity.
    Apologist comes from the Latin “apologia” which means
    to answer. He answered for the faith against Christ’s
    enemies.
    After searching for peace in pagan philosophies he was
    converted at 32 years of age after talking to a man by the
    seaside.
    His writings speak of Christian practices; worship on the
    Lord’s Day, scripture reading, the sermon, prayers, the
    Lord’s Supper and almsgiving.
    Justin was martyred in 165 AD.


20 January 2008        Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE DEATH OF POLYCARP
    He was a disciple of John who became Bishop of
    Smyrna.
    When aged 86 arrested and refused to called the
    Emperor “Lord” or God 155 AD.
    As he did not fear the wild beasts he was burned to
    death.
    He was heard praying, “I thank thee that I have been
    deemed worthy to receive the crown of martyrdom,
    and that I may die for thee and for thy cause”.
    The watching crowds marvelled at his faith.


20 January 2008      Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE LYONS MARTYRS
    In France it is recorded that a group of
    Christians were arrested and tortured.
    Such was their courage that many were
    converted to Christ.
    One, a young slave girl called Blandina was
    placed in a red hot chair, inserted into a net
    and tossed repeatedly into the hair by a bull.
    Afterwards her throat was cut.


20 January 2008   Clogher Valley Bible Class
A CHURCH IN HIDING
    By the end of the first century the Christian
    Church was forced underground.
    The catacombs of Rome are tangible evidence of
    this.
    These are a network of underground passages
    beneath and about the city of Rome.
    Christian symbols such as the dove, the fish and
    the bread are painted on the walls and can be seen
    to the present day.


20 January 2008     Clogher Valley Bible Class
TIMES OF PEACE
    From 211 AD to 249 AD the church was free from
    persecution.
    Alexander Severus had a mother who was favourable to
    Christians and he would even quote scripture.
    For the first time Christians built public buildings.
    In these years men like Cyprian detected a worldly carnal
    spirit creeping in among the people of God.
    He for one believed that the subsequent persecution were
    God’s way of both chastening his people and separating
    the wheat from the chaff.


20 January 2008        Clogher Valley Bible Class
PIOUS CYPRIAN
    Cyprian was the bishop of the North African church in
    Carthage.
    He was born in 200 AD, converted late in life and elected as
    Bishop by the people while relatively young in the faith.
    He entered into a dispute with the Bishop of Rome indicating he
    knew nothing of Papal supremacy.
    He was a firm believer in taking truth simply from the
    scriptures.
    He asserted the priesthood of all believers.
    Persecution broke out again in 249 AD under the Decius and his
    successor Valerian.
    He was beheaded for his faith in 258 AD.


20 January 2008         Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE TENTH PERSECUTION
UNDER DIOCLETIAN
    303 AD – 311 AD.

    It was chiefly instigated by Galerius and
    Maximin who were responsible for the
    Government of Asia.

    This was the final and most fearful Roman
    persecution.

20 January 2008   Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE FOUR EDICTS
1. That Christians should lose their offices and
   property, that they be banned from worship and
   that the scriptures be burnt.
2. All ministers be imprisoned.
3. Ministers were to be refused release unless they
   offered sacrifices to heathen gods and were
   counted enemies of the state.
4. The magistrates were directed to use all means
   of torture to convert Christians to Paganism.


20 January 2008   Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE WRATH OF GOD
    Pillars were raised and medals struck in
    honour of the Diocletian and Galerius for
    bringing about the end of Christianity.
    After 8 years Galerius was eaten of worms
    and called on Christians to pray for him.
    From his deathbed he not only apologised
    but admitted his failure to destroy
    Christianity and gave Christians liberty.


20 January 2008   Clogher Valley Bible Class
MAXIMIN AND THE FAMINE
    Galerius’ successor pursued the same policy of persecution
    which continued throughout the empire.
    There was a fearful famine accompanied by terrible
    disease.
    Christians risked their own lives to help the suffering and
    bury the dead.
    The Romans blamed the persecutions for their calamities.
    Maximin gave Christians liberty and restored their
    confiscated properties.
    He turned his attention to the pagan priests who
    encouraged him to kill the Lord’s people.


20 January 2008        Clogher Valley Bible Class
WHY DID THE ROMANS
PERSECUTE THE CHURCH?
1.        Roman Emperors hated gods which they did not
          recognise.
2.        The Emperors regarded the Christian mandate to spread
          God’s Kingdom into the whole earth regardless of
          frontier to be very dangerous.
3.        Christians refused to be part of public events which were
          dedicated to heathen gods. They were regarded as anti
          social and secretive and were therefore suspect.
4.        Christians threaten the business interests of trades
          associated with paganism.
5.        Christians were regarded as arousing the anger of
          Roman gods who send famines, earthquakes ect…
S.M. Houghton, “Skecthes From Church History”.
20 January 2008                                  Clogher Valley Bible Class
               THE SLIDE FROM
            FREEDOM TO APOSTACY

                  312 AD – 800 AD




20 January 2008     Clogher Valley Bible Class
CONSTANTINE
He was:
  A devout worshipper
  of the Sun.
  Won the Empire by
  war.
  Murdered Crispus his
  first son.
  Murdered his second
  in the bath.


20 January 2008   Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE EDICT OF MILAN
    A treaty drawn up with his rival from the
    east, Lucinus.
    “We have long considered that freedom
    should not be denied”
    Christianity could now put its years of
    persecution behind.



20 January 2008   Clogher Valley Bible Class
CONSTANTINE
          The Theory                            The Fact
      Saw a cross in the                 Was head of the pagan
                                          state religion until his
     sky before fighting                           death.
      his last battle for                He recognised that the
            Rome.                       influence of Christianity
                                       could be a political tool to
        Converted to                       help him control the
         Christianity                             Empire.




20 January 2008    Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE ADOPTED RELIGION
    Christianity became the official religion of
    the Empire.
    Sunday became the official day of rest and
    worship.
    Ministers received liberal salaries from the
    state.
    Buildings were erected by the Government.


20 January 2008   Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE DANGER OF ACCEPTABLILITY
    The Christians were now in leadership in society.
    Pagans wanted to become Christian because it was
    fashionable.
    The Emperor demanded the right to rule the
    church and he called council meetings.
    Before long the Bishops became became very rich
    ruling over cities in a secular fashion.
    Over many years the Bishop of Rome slowly
    developed in power and influence.


20 January 2008    Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE ARIAN CONTROVERSY
    Arius; a presbyter from Alexandria insisted that
    Christ was not God.
    Athanasius of Alexandria opposed him with a
    book, “On the Incarnation of the Word of God”.
    Constantine called a council meeting at Nicea,
    close to present day Istanbul in 325 AD.
    300 bishops of the Church insisted that Christ was
    a member of the Trinity and Arianism became a
    heresy.


20 January 2008     Clogher Valley Bible Class
Augustine of Hippo
    Of all the Church leaders in this period of decline
    Augustine is a shining light.
    He was born in North Africa in 354 AD and
    speaks highly of his mother.
    She prayed for her son as he went to Italy and
    lived an immoral life.
    In a garden in Milan he sought the Lord after
    reading Romans 13:13-14 and his ministry
    subsequently brought blessings to many.


20 January 2008     Clogher Valley Bible Class
Augustine’s Contribution
    His Confessions is one of the greatest personal
    testimonies ever written.
    He opposed “Pelagius” a British monk who
    believed that man was not depraved and that man
    has the ability to come to God of his own free will.
    Augustine wrote powerfully on the inability of
    man in his natural state and of the necessity of
    God’s grace.
    He died after a prosperous ministry in the year
    430 AD.

20 January 2008     Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE ANCIENT CELTIC CHURCH
    Christianity had come to the British Isles
    before the Romans left in 410 AD.
    Patrick was a Scotsman who established a thriving
    Church in Pagan Ireland. He was born in 373 AD.
    Columba was from Donegal and settled in Iona
    establishing a monastery from which sent out
    missionaries carrying the gospel to Scotland,
    583 AD.


20 January 2008    Clogher Valley Bible Class
EVANGELISING THE PAGANS
    After the collapse of the empire Britain was
    invaded by the Angles, Saxons and Jutes.
    The Celtic Church in Scotland and
    Northumbria met with great success in
    reaching out to these heathens.
    The Celtic Church was independent of the
    Roman Church.


20 January 2008   Clogher Valley Bible Class
ROME ARRIVES IN BRITAIN
 597 AD – Augustine is sent by Pope Gregory 1st to
 convert the English.
 The King of Kent was converted and Canterbury
 became the Church Headquarters.
 Other British Kings followed suit.
 In 664 AD at Whitby the Celtic Church in a
 conference decided to follow the customs of the
 Roman Church and became subservient to the Pope.


20 January 2008   Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE VENERABLE BEDE
    Handed into the care of monastery at 7 years of age.
    Lived all his life in Northumbria.
    With a sharpened goose quill and acid he burned his
    writings into animal skin.
    He wrote 69 books including Bible commentaries, hymns
    and secular writings.
    England’s first historian.
    The first person to produce a calendar based upon the life
    of Christ (AD and BC).
    He died in 735AD at 62 surrounded by his pupils who
    were helping him produce a commentary on John’s
    Gospel.

20 January 2008        Clogher Valley Bible Class
PAGANISM POLLUTES THE CHURCH

    Since Constantine’s time Pagan practices
    slowly became normal within the Church.

    These included such doctrines as Purgatory,
    praying for the dead, holy water and the
    worship of the mother with the child.



20 January 2008   Clogher Valley Bible Class
PROPHECY FULFILLED IN ROME
    Paul wrote that the Antichrist would only be revealed until
    that which hindered his arrival would be taken out of the
    way, 2 Thessalonians 2:3-12.
    Constantine foreseeing the fall of Rome moved the
    Emperor’s seat to Constantinople. This gave the Bishop of
    Rome more power.
    In 476 AD Rome fell to the barbarians and the Bishop of
    Rome quickly stepped into the power vacuum and became
    a dominant secular force in the new political situation.




20 January 2008        Clogher Valley Bible Class
THE MODERN PAPACY DEVELOPS
    Innocent 1 insists that no decision can be taken in the
    Church without his authority, 402 AD.
    Leo 1 strengthens the Pope’s hold on the Western
    Churches.
    The claim is made that the Pope has the authority of Peter
    as the first Bishop of Rome.
    Gregory the Great took the responsibility for defending
    Italy and he appointed Bishops to represent him in other
    places.
    In 800 AD Charlemagne King of the Franks was crowned
    Holy Roman Emperor by Leo 3rd. Now the Papacy has a
    revived Roman Empire to control and usurp.

20 January 2008        Clogher Valley Bible Class
The Pope Crowns Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor




 20 January 2008   Clogher Valley Bible Class
              THE FUTURE
            Next time we will consider how the
           true church survived in the period of
             history which was now beginning
                  known as the Dark Ages.

20 January 2008        Clogher Valley Bible Class

								
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