Clark, H.O., Jr. 2009. Predation and behavioral interactions between horned lizards and arid land foxes. Sonoran Herpetologist 22:6-7

					Predation and Behavioral Interactions between Horned Lizards and Arid Land Foxes
Howard O. Clark, Jr. H. T. Harvey & Associates, Fresno, California, USA; hclark@harveyecology.com
Juvenile Desert Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma platyrhinos), San Bernardino County, California. Photo by Howard O. Clark, Jr.

Middendorf et al. (2001) observed interactions between horned lizards and Kit Foxes and concluded that it is not the blood squirting that is the defense mechanism, but that the blood itself contains an irritant that deters the foxes.

One wouldfox would consider too risky towould be think that a lizard with horns something a attack
and eat (see Young et al., 2004). However, based on a review of the small amount of literature on predation of horned lizards by kit and swift foxes, it appears that foxes do eat horned lizards, but as an opportunistic prey item, not a frequent food staple. Whether this is because of successful anti-predator behaviors displayed by the lizards or that the lizards themselves are not common enough on the landscape to serve as an important food item is not known. Herein, I summarize the literature on predation of horned lizards by kit and swift foxes and examine the associated behaviors exhibited by these species. Records of predation of horned lizards by foxes are scarce; however, the few records that do exist are important to note because they serve to supplement the literature on the behavioral interactions of these species. In Hansford County, Texas, Cutter (1958) collected 12 Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) stomachs and 250 scats from six localities. Four lizards were found in three scats and one stomach: three were identified as the Eastern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus undulatus), the Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum), and the Six-lined Racerunner (Aspidoscelis sexlineatus), and the fourth lizard could not be identified. Burns (1960) found a road-killed Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis) along U.S. Highway 70 in Doña Ana County, New Mexico. Examination of stomach contents yielded two small horned lizards, swallowed whole. The horned lizard consumed by the fox was likely one of three species of Phrynosoma found in New Mexico: Texas Horned Lizard (P. cornutum), Greater Short-horned Lizard (P. hernandesi), or Round-tailed Horned Lizard (P. modestum; Sherbrooke, 2003). Middendorf and Sherbrooke (1992) cite an unpublished document (Snow 1973) as SONORAN HERPETOLOGIST 22 (1) 2009

reporting horned lizards in the stomach contents of a Kit Fox, but Snow (1973) obtained her information from Cutter (1958), who actually studied the stomach contents of a Swift Fox (see above). Duncan et al. (1994) found chewed, but uneaten, lizard remains on an active Kit Fox den mound and reported that the Kit Fox was the only mammalian predator identified for the Flat-tailed Horned Lizard (P. mcallii) during their study about 10 km east of Fish Creek Mountains, Imperial County, California. In addition to these findings, Sherbrooke and Middendorf (2004) conducted a series of fascinating experiments to determine if the blood-squirting behavior exhibited by Texas Horned Lizards is a canid antipredator defense, as it is beneficial for the horned lizard to deliver irritant-laden blood into the mouth of a potential predator before being fatally mauled (Sherbrooke, 2003; Hodges, 2004). Middendorf et al. (2001) observed interactions between horned lizards and Kit Foxes and concluded that it is not the blood squirting that is the defense mechanism, but that the blood itself contains an irritant that deters the foxes. The experiments, conducted with four captive juvenile Kit Foxes, showed that naïve “hungry” foxes killed and ate adult Yarrow’s Spiny Lizards (Sceloporus jarrovi) and Texas Horned Lizards. The foxes exhibited head shaking behavior in five of six trials in which Texas Horned Lizards squirted blood. When mice were applied with horned-lizard blood and fed to foxes, the foxes shook their heads as if the mice were actually horned lizards. When fed untreated mice and mice covered with mouse blood, foxes did not behave in this manner, demonstrating that Phrynosoma blood and its chemical properties altered the foxes’ normal behaviors toward mouse prey. Interactions between foxes and horned lizards make an interesting topic to explore, however sparse the literature. In two locations, a species of horned lizard is known to co-occur with a desert fox species. The Coast Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma coronatum), a California species of special concern found in the San Joaquin Valley, co-occurs with the San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), and the Desert Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma platyrhinos) co-occurs with the Desert Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis arsipus). There are no records of predation of either of these horned lizard species by these foxes, although based on my review of the literature, it is certainly possible to have occurred.

6

Literature Cited Burns, R.D. 1960. Stomach contents of a Kit Fox. Ecology 41:365. Cutter, W.L. 1958. Food habits of the Swift Fox in northern Texas. Journal of Mammalogy 39:527532. Duncan, R.B., T.C. Esque, and K.L. Echols. 1994. Phrynosoma mcallii (Flat-tailed Horned Lizard). Predation. Herpetological Review 25:68. Hodges, W.L. 2004. Defensive blood squirting in Phrynosoma ditmarsi and a high rate of humaninduced blood squirting in Phrynosoma asio. The Southwestern Naturalist 49:267-270. Middendorf, G.A., III, and W.C. Sherbrooke. 1992. Canid elicitation of blood–squirting in a horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum). Copea 1992:519-527. Middendorf, G.A., III, W.C. Sherbrooke, and E.J. Braun. 2001. Comparison of blood squirted from the circumorbital sinus and systemic blood CURRENT RESEARCH SUMMARY

in a horned lizard, Phrynosoma cornutum. The Southwestern Naturalist 46:384-387. Sherbrooke, W.C. 2003. Introduction to Horned Lizards of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley. California Natural History Guides 64:1-178. Sherbrooke, W.C., and G.A. Middendorf, III. 2004. Responses of Kit Foxes (Vulpes macrotis) to antipredator blood-squirting and blood of Texas Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma cornutum). Copeia 2004:652-658. Snow, C. 1973. San Joaquin Kit Fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, related subspecies and Swift Fox, Vulpes velox. Habitat management series for endangered species, Report 6. US Bureau of Land Management, Denver, Colorado. Young, K.V., E.D. Brodie, Jr., and E.D. Brodie, III. 2004. How the horned lizard got its horns. Science 304:65.

Phylogeography and Species Boundaries of the Nightsnake

The subspecies concept has received considerable debate throughout the past century. Subspecies were
originally used to delineate potential incipient species, but were later employed to simply capture geographic variation. There is a recent trend to eliminate the trinomial in light of new evidence. Discrete, diagnosable lineages are elevated to specific status, while those that show clinal variation or appear to represent ecological pattern classes are placed in synonymy with the parent species and the subspecific epithets are disregarded. The author of the current study examined the species boundaries of Nightsnakes (Hypsiglena torquata) using phylogeographic methods and mtDNA data from 178 individuals. Previously, 17 subspecies of H. torquata were described. Here, the author recognized 6 species in what was previously considered H. torquata. One species is novel, the Cochise clade (H. sp. nov., Hooded Nightsnake), and occurs in southeastern Arizona. Two were previously recognized subspecies, the Sinaloan (H. torquata) and Rio Grande de Santiago (H. affinis) nightsnakes. The remaining three are widespread, polymorphic lineages composed of multiple subspecies. The Chihuahuan Nightsnake (H. jani) occurs in the Chihuahuan Desert, Great Plains, and southeastern Colorado Plateau, with H. j. texana (Texas Nightsnake) entering southeastern Arizona north of the Cochise clade and northeastern Arizona on the Colorado Plateau. The Desert Nightsnake (H. chlorophaea) ranges from near Alamos, Sonora, through the Sonoran and Mojave deserts, to the Great Basin and the northern Colorado Plateau. Three subspecies occur in Arizona: the Sonoran Nightsnake (H. c.

Sonoran Nightsnake (Hypsiglena chlorophaea chlorophaea), as recognized by Mulcahy (2008), from the Rocking K Ranch east of Tucson. Photo by Roy C. Averill-Murray.

chlorophaea) throughout the Sonoran Desert, the Great Basin Nightsnake (H. c. deserticola) on the Arizona Strip, and the Mesa Verde Nightsnake (H. c. loreala) in the Four Corners region. Finally, the Coast Nightsnake (H. ochrorhyncha) ranges from the cape of Baja California to the San Francisco Bay. The author suggests maintaining the subspecific lineages in the wideranging species because they are geographically cohesive, morphologically discrete, and may represent incipient species within each complex, which have not yet achieved speciation. Maintaining these subspecies’ designations facilitates future investigations, as well as provides a useful identity for the taxonomy of this diverse lineage. Mulcahy, D.G. 2008. Phylogeography and species boundaries of the western North American Night Snake (Hypsiglena torquata): revisiting the subspecies concept. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46:1095-1115. SONORAN HERPETOLOGIST 22 (1) 2009 7

crossbands were somewhat bolder and some were complete across the dorsum, dark spots and stripes on the dorsal scales, as well as the contrasting brownish

color atop the head, were reduced, and the light and dark patterns on the supralabials and preocular and postocular scales, were quite bold (see Fig. 1 for the expression of this character in an adult). Similar Species Two other species of Coluber (C. bilineatus and C. flagellum) occur sympatrically with C. mentovarius in Sonora (Rorabaugh, 2008) and western Chihuahua (Lemos-Espinal and Smith, 2007). Coluber bilineatus is conspicuously striped and has 15 scale rows at mid-body. Coluber flagellum has mottling on the chin and throat (absent in C. mentovarius striolatus from our area) and lacks the distinctive and contrasting brown or tan coloration atop the head characteristic of C. mentovarius. Juvenile C. mentovarius and C. flagellum both have crossbands anteriorly, but juvenile C. flagellum have a light crossbar on the nape of the neck and brown-centered labials (not so in juvenile C. mentovarius, Lemos-Espinal and Smith, 2007). Ventral scales usually number <190 in C. mentovarius from Sonora and >190 in C. flagellum. Coluber mentovarius is a more robust snake with a broader head than either C. bilineatus or C. flagellum.

Johnson (1977) recognized 5 subspecies. Coluber mentovarius striolatus is found from Sonora and western Chihuahua south to Jalisco and Michoacán, Mexico.



Figure 3. Coluber mentovarius localities in Sonora.

Unlike the other two Coluber, which typically move away from people at high speed, the C. mentovarius encountered at Las Palomas stood its ground with a writhing movement. However, similar to other Coluber, this species is aggressive and quick to bite.

ENE Imuris (UAZ 56736-PSV [Fig. 4], Avila et al., 2008). The latter locality is about 159 km (98.8 mi) from downtown Tucson, which places it within the Tucson Herpetological Society’s “100 mile circle”. Two or three additional specimens of C. mentovarius were observed at Las Palomas by S. Avila on 24 May 2008, and a juvenile was observed by C. Robles Elías on 4 November 2008. The species was first collected in Sonora in 1941 (at Güirocoba, AMNH R63721). Lemos-Espinal and Smith (2007) list three localities for C. mentovarius in Chihuahua, including Chínipas, La Mora, and Moris, all of which are in the southwestern portion of the state near the Sonoran border. A specimen from extreme eastern Chihuahua (Webb, 1960) may represent a disjunct population, a misidentification (Lemos-Espinal and Smith, 2007), or may possess faulty locality data (R.G. Webb, pers. comm. 2008). The individuals observed at Las Palomas in the Sierra Azul were located only 57 km (35.4 mi) south of the Arizona border in mesquite and oak grasslands very similar to that which is found in the Patagonia Mountains to the north in Arizona. A nearly continuous band of mesquite savanna and oak woodlands connect the Sierra Azul and the Patagonia Mountains. These savannas and woodlands are interrupted only by the Ríos Cocospera and Santa Cruz. Given the proximity to the Arizona border and the continuity of habitats, it is not inconceivable that a C. mentovarius might one day be found in Arizona. SONORAN HERPETOLOGIST 22 (1) 2009

Habitat Rangewide, Johnson (1982) characterized the habitat preference of the species as “tropical or subtropical semiarid to semimoist habitats (e.g., tropical deciduous forest, thorn forest, thornscrub, desert scrub, and tropical savanna)”. In Costa Rica, Savage (2002) noted its occurrence in open areas and thickets within lowland dry forest, premontane moist forest, and marginally in premontane wet forest. Hardy and McDiarmid (1969) reported this species in tropical deciduous forest and thornscrub in Sinaloa, especially in open areas, near cultivated areas, and in heavily grazed pasturelands. In Sonora, the majority (17) of records are from tropical deciduous forest, sometimes at the upper limit of that vegetation community. Seven occur in thornscrub. Another (21 km [13.0 mi] NE of Mazocahui) is in a thornscrub/mesquite grassland transition, and one (Las Palomas, NW slope of the Sierra Azul, Rancho El Aribabi) is in mesquite and oak grassland. The specimen from “Cueva Creek near Tres Rios” is from a riparian zone within oak woodland. One specimen (from near El Trigo E of Yécora) was found in an open oak savanna with pine-oak woodland on the adjacent slopes, another (Highway 16, 27.4 km [17.0 mi] W of Maycoba) was found in a grassland/ pine-oak association, and one from near La Otra Banda, Yécora, was in pine-oak woodland. Elevational ranges of Sonoran records are from approximately 36 to 1618 m (118-5308 ft), although most (18) are from 280-590 m (919-1936 ft). Behavior This is a fast, diurnal snake. It is much more terrestrial than either Coluber bilineatus or C. flagellum, although it is occasionally found short distances into shrubs or trees. Unlike the other two Coluber, which typically move away from people at high speed, the C. mentovarius encountered at Las Palomas (Fig. 4) faced SA and stood its ground with a writhing movement. However, similar to other Coluber, this species is aggressive and quick to bite. In Sonora, this species has been observed as early as 26 March and as late as 4 November. The month with the greatest number of records (11) is August. Coluber mentovarius

	

Figure 4. Adult Coluber mentovarius at las palomas, rancho El Aribabi, EnE of Imuris, Sonora (uAZ 56736-pSV). photo by S. Avila.

feeds primarily on ground-dwelling lizards, such as Aspidoscelis, but will also take rodents, snakes, and probably birds and bird eggs (Savage, 2002; LemosEspinal and Smith, 2007). Bogert and Oliver (1945) reported a Perognathus from a juvenile collected at Güirocoba. Juveniles may also take arthropods (Savage 2002). Reproductive behavior has not been studied in northwestern Mexico; however, elsewhere within its range, clutches of 16-30 eggs are laid in the spring months (Savage, 2002). Literature Cited Avila, S., C. Robles Elias, and J.C. Rorabaugh. 2008. Geographic distribution. Coluber (=Masticophis) mentovarius (Neotropical Whipsnake). Herpetological Review 39:370. Bogert, C.M., and J.A. Oliver. 1945. A preliminary analysis of the herpetofauna of Sonora. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 83:297426. Hardy, L.M., and R.W. McDiarmid. 1969. The amphibians and reptiles of Sinaloa, México. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 18:39-252 + plates and figures. Johnson, J.D. 1977. The taxonomy and distribution of the neotropical whipsnake Masticophis mentovarius (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 11:287-309. Johnson, J.D. 1982. Masticophis mentovarius (Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril) Neotropical whipsnake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 295:1-4.

Lemos-Espinal, J.A., and H.M. Smith. 2007. Anfibios y Reptiles del Estado de Chihuahua, Mèxico/Amphibians and Reptiles of the State of Chihuahua, Mexico. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mèxico y Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. 613 pp. Liner, E.A., and G. Casas-Andreu. 2008. Nombres Estándar en Español en Inglés y Nombres Cientificos de los Anfibios y Reptiles de México/ Standard Spanish, English, and Scientific Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of Mexico, Second Edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetological Circular 38. Rorabaugh, J.C. 2008. An introduction to the herpetofauna of mainland Sonora, México, with comments on conservation and management. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 40:20-65. Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London. 934 pp. Tanner, W.W. 1985. Snakes of western Chihuahua. Great Basin Naturalist 45:615-676. Utiger, U., B. Schätti, and N. Helfenberger. 2005. The oriental Colubrine genus Coelognathus Fitzinger, 1843 and classification of old and new world racers and ratsnakes (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae, Colubrinae). Russian Journal of Herpetology 12:3960. Webb, R.G. 1960. Notes on some amphibians and reptiles from northern Mexico. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 63:289-298. 	 SONORAN HERPETOLOGIST 22 (1) 2009	 

Predation and Behavioral Interactions between Horned Lizards and Arid Land Foxes
Howard O. Clark, Jr. H. T. Harvey & Associates, Fresno, California, USA; hclark@harveyecology.com
Juvenile Desert Horned lizard (Phrynosoma platyrhinos), San Bernardino County, California. photo by Howard o. Clark, Jr.

Middendorf et al. (2001) observed interactions between horned lizards and Kit Foxes and concluded that it is not the blood squirting that is the defense mechanism, but that the blood itself contains an irritant that deters the foxes.

One wouldfox would consider too risky towould be think that a lizard with horns something a attack

and eat (see Young et al., 2004). However, based on a review of the small amount of literature on predation of horned lizards by kit and swift foxes, it appears that foxes do eat horned lizards, but as an opportunistic prey item, not a frequent food staple. Whether this is because of successful anti-predator behaviors displayed by the lizards or that the lizards themselves are not common enough on the landscape to serve as an important food item is not known. Herein, I summarize the literature on predation of horned lizards by kit and swift foxes and examine the associated behaviors exhibited by these species. Records of predation of horned lizards by foxes are scarce; however, the few records that do exist are important to note because they serve to supplement the literature on the behavioral interactions of these species. In Hansford County, Texas, Cutter (1958) collected 12 Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) stomachs and 250 scats from six localities. Four lizards were found in three scats and one stomach: three were identified as the Eastern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus undulatus), the Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum), and the Six-lined Racerunner (Aspidoscelis sexlineatus), and the fourth lizard could not be identified. Burns (1960) found a road-killed Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis) along U.S. Highway 70 in Doña Ana County, New Mexico. Examination of stomach contents yielded two small horned lizards, swallowed whole. The horned lizard consumed by the fox was likely one of three species of Phrynosoma found in New Mexico: Texas Horned Lizard (P. cornutum), Greater Short-horned Lizard (P. hernandesi), or Round-tailed Horned Lizard (P. modestum; Sherbrooke, 2003). Middendorf and Sherbrooke (1992) cite an unpublished document (Snow 1973) as SONORAN HERPETOLOGIST 22 (1) 2009

reporting horned lizards in the stomach contents of a Kit Fox, but Snow (1973) obtained her information from Cutter (1958), who actually studied the stomach contents of a Swift Fox (see above). Duncan et al. (1994) found chewed, but uneaten, lizard remains on an active Kit Fox den mound and reported that the Kit Fox was the only mammalian predator identified for the Flat-tailed Horned Lizard (P. mcallii) during their study about 10 km east of Fish Creek Mountains, Imperial County, California. In addition to these findings, Sherbrooke and Middendorf (2004) conducted a series of fascinating experiments to determine if the blood-squirting behavior exhibited by Texas Horned Lizards is a canid antipredator defense, as it is beneficial for the horned lizard to deliver irritant-laden blood into the mouth of a potential predator before being fatally mauled (Sherbrooke, 2003; Hodges, 2004). Middendorf et al. (2001) observed interactions between horned lizards and Kit Foxes and concluded that it is not the blood squirting that is the defense mechanism, but that the blood itself contains an irritant that deters the foxes. The experiments, conducted with four captive juvenile Kit Foxes, showed that naïve “hungry” foxes killed and ate adult Yarrow’s Spiny Lizards (Sceloporus jarrovi) and Texas Horned Lizards. The foxes exhibited head shaking behavior in five of six trials in which Texas Horned Lizards squirted blood. When mice were applied with horned-lizard blood and fed to foxes, the foxes shook their heads as if the mice were actually horned lizards. When fed untreated mice and mice covered with mouse blood, foxes did not behave in this manner, demonstrating that Phrynosoma blood and its chemical properties altered the foxes’ normal behaviors toward mouse prey. Interactions between foxes and horned lizards make an interesting topic to explore, however sparse the literature. In two locations, a species of horned lizard is known to co-occur with a desert fox species. The Coast Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma coronatum), a California species of special concern found in the San Joaquin Valley, co-occurs with the San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), and the Desert Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma platyrhinos) co-occurs with the Desert Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis arsipus). There are no records of predation of either of these horned lizard species by these foxes, although based on my review of the literature, it is certainly possible to have occurred.

	

Literature Cited Burns, R.D. 1960. Stomach contents of a Kit Fox. Ecology 41:365. Cutter, W.L. 1958. Food habits of the Swift Fox in northern Texas. Journal of Mammalogy 39:527532. Duncan, R.B., T.C. Esque, and K.L. Echols. 1994. Phrynosoma mcallii (Flat-tailed Horned Lizard). Predation. Herpetological Review 25:68. Hodges, W.L. 2004. Defensive blood squirting in Phrynosoma ditmarsi and a high rate of humaninduced blood squirting in Phrynosoma asio. The Southwestern Naturalist 49:267-270. Middendorf, G.A., III, and W.C. Sherbrooke. 1992. Canid elicitation of blood–squirting in a horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum). Copea 1992:519-527. Middendorf, G.A., III, W.C. Sherbrooke, and E.J. Braun. 2001. Comparison of blood squirted from the circumorbital sinus and systemic blood CurrEnT rESEArCH SuMMArY

in a horned lizard, Phrynosoma cornutum. The Southwestern Naturalist 46:384-387. Sherbrooke, W.C. 2003. Introduction to Horned Lizards of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley. California Natural History Guides 64:1-178. Sherbrooke, W.C., and G.A. Middendorf, III. 2004. Responses of Kit Foxes (Vulpes macrotis) to antipredator blood-squirting and blood of Texas Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma cornutum). Copeia 2004:652-658. Snow, C. 1973. San Joaquin Kit Fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, related subspecies and Swift Fox, Vulpes velox. Habitat management series for endangered species, Report 6. US Bureau of Land Management, Denver, Colorado. Young, K.V., E.D. Brodie, Jr., and E.D. Brodie, III. 2004. How the horned lizard got its horns. Science 304:65.

Phylogeography and Species Boundaries of the Nightsnake

The subspecies concept has received considerable debate throughout the past century. Subspecies were

originally used to delineate potential incipient species, but were later employed to simply capture geographic variation. There is a recent trend to eliminate the trinomial in light of new evidence. Discrete, diagnosable lineages are elevated to specific status, while those that show clinal variation or appear to represent ecological pattern classes are placed in synonymy with the parent species and the subspecific epithets are disregarded. The author of the current study examined the species boundaries of Nightsnakes (Hypsiglena torquata) using phylogeographic methods and mtDNA data from 178 individuals. Previously, 17 subspecies of H. torquata were described. Here, the author recognized 6 species in what was previously considered H. torquata. One species is novel, the Cochise clade (H. sp. nov., Hooded Nightsnake), and occurs in southeastern Arizona. Two were previously recognized subspecies, the Sinaloan (H. torquata) and Rio Grande de Santiago (H. affinis) nightsnakes. The remaining three are widespread, polymorphic lineages composed of multiple subspecies. The Chihuahuan Nightsnake (H. jani) occurs in the Chihuahuan Desert, Great Plains, and southeastern Colorado Plateau, with H. j. texana (Texas Nightsnake) entering southeastern Arizona north of the Cochise clade and northeastern Arizona on the Colorado Plateau. The Desert Nightsnake (H. chlorophaea) ranges from near Alamos, Sonora, through the Sonoran and Mojave deserts, to the Great Basin and the northern Colorado Plateau. Three subspecies occur in Arizona: the Sonoran Nightsnake (H. c.

Sonoran nightsnake (Hypsiglena chlorophaea chlorophaea), as recognized by Mulcahy (2008), from the rocking k ranch east of Tucson. photo by roy C. Averill-Murray.

chlorophaea) throughout the Sonoran Desert, the Great Basin Nightsnake (H. c. deserticola) on the Arizona Strip, and the Mesa Verde Nightsnake (H. c. loreala) in the Four Corners region. Finally, the Coast Nightsnake (H. ochrorhyncha) ranges from the cape of Baja California to the San Francisco Bay. The author suggests maintaining the subspecific lineages in the wideranging species because they are geographically cohesive, morphologically discrete, and may represent incipient species within each complex, which have not yet achieved speciation. Maintaining these subspecies’ designations facilitates future investigations, as well as provides a useful identity for the taxonomy of this diverse lineage. Mulcahy, D.G. 2008. Phylogeography and species boundaries of the western North American Night Snake (Hypsiglena torquata): revisiting the subspecies concept. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46:1095-1115. 	 SONORAN HERPETOLOGIST 22 (1) 2009	 

nEwS AnD noTES

Charles H. Lowe, Jr., Herpetology Research Fund
2009 Call For Proposals - Due 1 March 2009

Thewas established to Jr., Herpetology Research Charles H. Lowe, Fund support research that

• • • • • • •

Focuses on herpetofauna of the Sonoran Desert; Contributes to conservation; Contributes to education; Is novel or unique; Is not supported by other means; Provides geographic distribution data; Allows equipment to be shared among projects.

contributes to the conservation of the herpetofauna of the Sonoran Desert, including the states of Arizona, southern California, Sonora, and on the Baja California peninsula and gulf islands. Dr. Cecil R. Schwalbe spearheaded the fund in honor of the many contributions to our understanding of herpetology in the Sonoran Desert by Dr. Lowe. The fund was inaugurated at the Current Research on the Herpetofauna of the Sonoran Desert II Conference in April 2002. Application Procedures Eligibility.--Any current THS member is eligible to receive awards from the C.H. Lowe Research Fund. Researchers need not be affiliated with an institution and need not have previous experience. Pre K-12 educational institutions and students are encouraged to apply. THS Board Members and Lowe Fund Committee Members are not eligible. Funding.--Proposals are reviewed annually. Decisions to award will be made on the value of the research being proposed and not on the experience or status of the person making the request. No requests will be approved that involve collecting animals for personal collections or profit. Requests are not to exceed $500. Although the fund is primarily for the purchase of equipment, requests can include personnel and travel costs. All awards are subject to THS board approval. Awards may not necessarily be granted every period and are subject to availability of funds. Proposals.--Proposals should be submitted electronically as a Word Document to the C.H. Lowe Fund Committee Chair (Taylor Edwards). Proposals should include a cover page including contact information but the body of the proposal should avoid reference to the applicant to maintain anonymity during the review process. Proposals should include a general description of the project, its objectives and methods, and time frame for both equipment use and project closure (not to exceed 2 pages, single-spaced). A detailed budget should be included (not to exceed 1 page). The C.H. Lowe Research Fund Committee will review proposals blind (i.e., reference to the submitter will be removed by the Committee Chair before proposals are distributed to reviewers). Proposals meeting the following criteria have a better chance of success: SONORAN HERPETOLOGIST 22 (1) 2009

Deliverables All awardees are required to submit a project description for publication in the Sonoran Herpetologist within three months of receiving the award. This report will include a description of the project and may consist of just a few lines to several paragraphs, depending on the scope of the work. A final report summarizing the project outcome or results and suitable for publication as a full-length feature article in the Sonoran Herpetologist should be submitted within 18 months of receiving the award. Equipment Equipment already owned by the THS can be requested at any time from the Committee Chair. Equipment may not be available if already in use, and equipment may need to be shared among multiple projects. Committee members can authorize use of equipment without board approval and will balance multiple requests to the best of their ability. All equipment purchased from the C.H. Lowe Fund is the property of the THS and can be withdrawn from a project at any time upon request of the committee. Expendable items may remain property of the awardee. It is understood that damage to and loss of field equipment can occur. Equipment lost or damaged on a project will not necessarily be replaced. Additional Information Researchers must adhere to federal and state Fair Labor, Civil Rights and ADA Regulations. Awardees must be in accordance with all federal and state laws regarding wildlife, animal welfare, and land access. Awardees will be responsible for acquiring the proper permits for conducting such research (wherever that research may be conducted), which may be requested by the committee. Awards will be revoked immediately if compliance is not met. The THS holds no responsibility for research deliverables that may be required by other participating parties on the project. For further information, please contact: Taylor Edwards taylore@u.arizona.edu C.H. Lowe Research Fund, Committee Chair Tucson Herpetological Society PO Box 709, Tucson, AZ 85702-0709

Any current THS member is eligible to receive awards from the C.H. Lowe Research Fund.

	

BoArD MEETIng SYnopSIS 25 November 2008 Philip R. Brown, Secretary Directors Present: Philip Brown, Young Cage, Dennis Caldwell, Taylor Edwards, Heidi Flugstad, Roger Repp, Robert Villa Directors Absent: Paul Condon, Kent Jacobs, Elissa Ostergaard, Erin Zylstra Members Present: Jeff Stensrud The meeting was called to order at 7:05 p.m. by President Taylor Edwards. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved with two corrections. (Moved by Cage, seconded by Flugstad, unanimously approved.) Treasurer’s Report - Jacobs 24 October 2008 Beginning Balance $6,885.60 Deposits $178.00 Expenses $973.07 Ending Balance $6,090.53 Speaker’s Bureau $808.13 Jarchow Award $632.05 FTHL Fund $634.00 C. H. Lowe Research $7,244.50 General Fund $9,621.85 Mexican Tortoise $2,150.00 Total $21,090.53 (less) Savings $15,000.00 Checking Balance $6,090.53 Itemized Deposits (26 Octoberr - 24 November 2008): Raffle $178.00. Itemized Expenses: Newsletter $150.82; Hats $822.25. Committee Reports Web Site - Edwards for Marty Tuegel: Marty will begin posting the 2008 issues of SH online at year’s end. Conservation - Caldwell: A letter written on behalf of the THS stating our point of view and concerns (roadkill, etc.) to the 2010: Statewide Motorized and Non-motorized Trails Committee was approved (moved by Cage, seconded by Villa, passed unanimously). A pond at the headwaters of Cienega Creek poses continual threat of invasive crayfish into the creek system. Several attempts at pumping the pond have not eradicated the crayfish. At a meeting of concerned parties in December, professional help will be solicited from AGFD.

A new frog pond is going to be built in the region of Saguaro National Park (East). Anyone interested in helping with construction should contact Dennis. Speaker’s Bureau - Robert Villa: 1 November - Robert gave a presentation at Wilmot Library’s Science Saturday with his newly-hatched Trans-Pecos Ratsnakes, their egg shells, and the parent snakes. 14 November - Ed Moll provided 3 hours of training in herpetology for 16 volunteers at Tucson Mountain Park. 19 November - Ed gave an hour presentation on the importance of reptiles to 32 third and fourth grade students and 6 adults as part of the Prince Elementary School Youth Science Education Foundation Series. He was accompanied by four snakes and a turtle. Sonoran Herpetologist - Edwards for Roy AverillMurray: Phil Rosen’s paper will continue in the next two issues of SH. This will be followed by the 2008 year-end report, then the membership issue. Program - Repp: Upcoming programs include: 20 January - Ed Moll, “Patronyms of Southwestern Amphibians and Reptiles: The Unexpurgated Version” 17 February - Jeff Lovich, “In Pursuit of Desert Turtles: From the Mojave to Morocco.” C.H. Lowe Research Fund - Edwards: The first announcement for the new round of grants has been posted in. Proposals are due in by March 1. Our robust funding will allow for more and larger grants. Student Chapter of the THS - Villa for Emma Mujica: Robert accompanied the Student Chapter on a November 16 visit to Biosphere 2, along with 4 live snakes. Emmanuela Mujica (president of the SCTHS), Whitney Henderson, Catalina Ross, Krista Schmidt, Hunter Wilson, Nick Massimo, and Jayme Yamaguchi attended. Robert reports that members of the Student Chapter have given public programs on reptiles, presenting good and factual information. THS 2008 Photo Contest - Cage and Flugstad: The show was a great success. There were many fine photographs, and they were well received by the audience. THS Elections - Repp: The final piece of the election was completed with the appointment of Robert to fill the one-year Board Member position vacated by Young in ascending to the vice presidency (Moved by Caldwell, seconded by Flugstad, passed unanimously).

	

SONORAN HERPETOLOGIST 22 (1) 2009	



Old Business THS-sponsored projects critera - Edwards: Taylor presented a list of criteria that must be adhered to by any group seeking to do research under the THS not-for-profit status. After discussion and amendment, it was approved (Moved by Cage, seconded by Repp, passed unanimously). Van Devender Book Donation - Edwards: Discussion of this subject was tabled until future meetings. Video Archive - Edwards: The means of making videos of our meetings available, to whom and how, are still to be determined. New Business Appreciation of Fred Wilson’s Service - Edwards: Fred has been providing the THS with its mailing labels for many years. A means of publicly thanking him will be devised. SIA Green Holiday Party (17 December) Edwards for Trevor Hare: This year-end gettogether of people throughout the conservation community, hosted by the Sky Island Institute, is considered a nice year end networking opportunity. The BOD voted to donate $100 to this function (Moved by Cage, seconded by Repp, passed with one abstention). Kevin Bonine’s Reassignment - Repp: It was noted that Kevin will not be teaching herpetology in the next term at the University of Arizona, instead reassigned to other biology classes. It seems to many of us to be not a good policy, since Kevin has demonstrably taught the course in an inspiring and meaningful way. Many of his students have continued in the field, and some have been hired by the university. Letters will be written both on behalf of the THS and by individuals to ask the university to reconsider.

M E M B E r S H I p u p DAT E

Membership Information

Individual $20 Sustaining $30 Family $25 Contributing $50 Student $14 Life $500 To receive a membership form and recent issue of Sonoran Herpetologist call (520) 624-8879 or write: Tucson Herpetological Society, P. O. Box 709, Tucson AZ 85702-0709.

Time to Renew Your THS Membership?

I hope this is a helpful reminder to those of you whose membership renewal is due this month. Please call or email with corrections and errors. 624-8879 or dhardysr@theriver.com Dave Hardy Sr., Membership Secretary

Due in January

Paul, Steven & Lorna Condon Eric Dugan Bethany Gray John Gray Trevor & Janet Hare Dennis & Gracie Jex Marcia Lincoln & Victor Ong Phil Pugliese Jenna Ramsey Justin & Li Shen Schmidt Eric Stitt John Sullivan Don Swann Bill & Beth Woodin

Membership Update - 1 January 2009
Contributing Jay Cole and Carol Townsend Sustaining Members Jenna Ramsey Michael & Mary Ann Smith New Member Ciri Johnson Jarchow Conservation Award E. Linwood Smith Speakers Bureau Michael & Mary Ann Smith Horned Lizard Fund Chip Hedgcock Michael & Mary Ann Smith Lowe Research Fund E. Linwood Smith Tucson

La Mesa, CA Tucson

Sonoran Herpetologist Natural History Observations

Tucson

The Tucsonto our Natural History Notes section. Herpetological Society invites your contributions

Tucson

We are particularly interested in photographs and descriptions of amphibians and reptiles involved in noteworthy or unusual behaviors in the field. Notes can feature information such as diet, predation, community structure, interspecific behavior, or unusual locations or habitat use. Please submit your observations to Dale Turner (dturner@theriver.com), who is editor for this section. Submissions should be brief and in electronic form. 10	 SONORAN HERPETOLOGIST 22 (1) 2009

Tucson

Tucson Tucson

Tucson

Sonoran Herpetologist is the newsletter-journal of the Tucson Herpetological Society, and is Copyright 2009. The contents of Sonoran Herpetologist may be reproduced for inclusion in the newsletters of other herpetological societies provided the material is reproduced without change and with appropriate credit, and a copy of the publication is sent to the Tucson Herpetological Society. Occasional exceptions to this policy will be noted. Contents are indexed in Zoological Record. A complete set of back issues are available in the Special Collections area of the University of Arizona library. They are accompanied by a copy of The Collected Papers of the Tucson Herpetological Society, 1988-1991. Editor Roy Averill-Murray, averill-murray@sbcglobal.net Associate Editors Robert Bezy, bezy@comcast.net Don Swann, donswann@dakotacom.net Dale Turner, dturner@theriver.com Art Editor Dennis Caldwell, dennis@caldwell-design.com Book Review Editor Eric Stitt, stitt@cox.net Distribution Fred Wilson, fredtj@comcast.net Trevor Hare, trevor@skyislandalliance.org Membership Dave Hardy Sr., dhardysr@theriver.com

Officers

President Taylor Edwards, taylore@u.arizona.edu Vice President Young Cage, ydcage@aol.com

The Tucson Herpetological Society is dedicated to conservation, education, and research concerning the amphibians and reptiles of Arizona and Mexico.
Tucson	Herpetological	Society	 is	a	registered	non-profit	 organization.

Secretary Philip Brown, philipandbarbara@earthlink.net Treasurer Heidi Flugstad, heidi_flugstad@hotmail.com Directors: Dennis Caldwell, dennis@caldwell-design.com Paul Condon, ptcondon@comcast.net Robin Llewellyn, robinia2@msn.com Tara Luckau, tkluckau@email.arizona.edu Jeff Stensrud, jeffstensrud@gmail.com Robert Villa, herpsandviolin@aol.com Past President	Roger Repp, repp@noao.edu

Society Activities

Monthly Members Meeting Roger Repp, Program Chair 3rd Tuesday, 7:15 PM Board of Directors Meeting Last Tuesday of each month (except December), 7:00 PM University of Arizona, BIO5/Keating Building 1657 East Helen Street Speakers Bureau	(scheduled presentations) Robert Villa, Director Ed Moll, Director Conservation Committee	 Dennis Caldwell, Director Herpetological Information Hotline Bob Brandner 760-0574 Jarchow Conservation Award Taylor Edwards, Chairperson Publications: Sonoran Herpetologist, Backyard Ponds brochure, Living with Venomous Reptiles brochure, THS Herp Coloring Book, THS Collected Papers, 1988-1991 THS Internet World Wide Webpage http://tucsonherpsociety.org Marty Tuegel, Webmaster, mtuegel@cox.net

Information for Contributors
Authors should submit original articles, notes, book reviews to the Editor, either via email using an attached word processed manuscript or by mail to the Society’s address. The manuscript style should follow that of Journal of Herpetology and other publications of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. For further information, please contact the editor.

Deadline for Sonoran Herpetologist 22(3): February 8

For more information about the THS and the reptiles and amphibians of the Tucson area visit

tucsonherpsociety.org
11

	

SONORAN HERPETOLOGIST 22 (1) 2009	

Newsletter-Journal of the Tucson Herpetological Society January 2009, Volume 22, Number 1 H E r p E To FAu n A o F T H E 100- M I l E C I r C l E 2 An Addition to the 100-Mile Circle: Neotropical Whipsnake (Coluber mentovarius) SHorT ArTIClE 6 Predation and Behavioral Interactions between Horned Lizards and Arid Land Foxes CurrEnT rESEArCH SuMMArY 7 Phylogeography and Species Boundaries of the Nightsnake nEwS AnD noTES 8 Charles H. Lowe, Jr., Herpetology Research Fund Call for Proposals

Your membership has expired. This is your only reminder. Please renew!

tucsonherpsociety.org


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:731
posted:1/5/2009
language:English
pages:2
Description: Clark, H.O., Jr. 2009. Predation and behavioral interactions between horned lizards and arid land foxes. Sonoran Herpetologist 22:6-7.