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					Agriculture
Your turn: do a spider map of all things to do with
farming
Agriculture as a system
Farming can be thought of as a system:-
Inputs:     “what goes into the system” e.g. fertilisers
Processes: Activities carried out on the farm e.g. harvesting
Outputs:    Products of the system e.g. crops
     Inputs                       Processes (stores)            Outputs
     Physical:                    Planting                      Crops – cereals & fruit
     Relief                       Ploughing                     Milk
     Soils                        Spraying                      Meat: beef, pigs
     Climate                      Feeding stock                 sheep, lamb & poultry
     Drainage                     Harvesting                    Wool etc
                                  Shearing
                                  Milking
     Human:                       Treatments e.g. dipping
     Labour                       Crop storage
     Machinery
     Energy subsidies
     e.g. agrochemicals and animal feed
     New varieties (crops and animals)
             Types of farming
   Arable        .....................................................................................
   Pastoral      .....................................................................................
   Mixed         .....................................................................................

   Subsistence   .....................................................................................
   Commercial    .....................................................................................

   Intensive     .....................................................................................
   Extensive     .....................................................................................

   Sedentary      .....................................................................................

   Nomadic       .....................................................................................
                                                             TRRSS
Factors affecting farming




                                  Sunshine




                Rainfall                         Soil type
                                  Physical
                                  factors




                           Temp              Relief
                                                 LFMTG
Factors affecting farming



                        Human
                        Factors

                                    Labour


                                    Finance


                                    Market


                                   Tradition

                                  Government
                                  Intervention
     Patterns of farming in the UK
Pastoral farming dominates the north and west of the British Isles
Arable farming is abundant in the south and eastern parts.

This pattern reflects differences in environmental conditions:
• Climate    In the east and S-east of England the low precipitation ( less than
             700 mm/yr) rates and relatively warm summers( 16C) favour crop
             growing. The high precipitation levels of the west (1000mm/yr)
             makes it ideal for grass growing, which lends itself to sheep and
             cattle rearing.
• Relief    ..............................................................................................................
            ..............................................................................................................

            ..............................................................................................................
• Soils     ..............................................................................................................
Case study:
                Market Gardening


    The Netherlands is one of the most intensively
     farmed countries and is the result of the
     traditional skill passed on the farmers and the
     high land values. Holland is also a densely
     populated state and so any farming must
     profitable in order to compete with other land
     uses.
    Market gardening is concentrated in a strip land
     behind the coastal sand dunes in the west.
    The physical and human factors that allow for
     this:
 Relief:  Low lying and flat
 Soil: light and sandy soils that help seed
  germination of bulb plants.
The increased use of intensive technology
  e.g. green houses that have environmental
  conditions such as temp, light and
  moisture levels often controlled through
  the use of computer systems (hi-tech)
  farming.
Case study:
                 East Anglia
 Arable farming:
• Intensive commercial arable farm
• Politics and farming
• Environmental damage
      Intensive commercial arable farm
Changes on the farm in East Anglia. Farming today is much different to that
practised during the mid 20th Century. The traditional Norfolk four-course crop
rotation has ceased and animals were often kept to provide a source of
organic fertiliser (manure). The farms tended to have a relatively large
workforce compared to today. All in all farms have become more Intensive

   Chemicals:
   Land reclamation:
   Mechanisation:
   Improved buildings:
   Development of agribusiness:
                       Politics and farming
Agriculture employs around 2.5% of the population. The government department is
charge of food production in the UK is the MAFF - Ministry for Agriculture, Fisheries
and Food.

                                             East Anglia has benefited from CAP
The Aims of the CAP:                         through:
 Increase productivity and                    1. Price support
  achieve self sufficiency
                                               2. Subsidies
 Ensure a fair standard of
  living for all farm workers
 Control (stabilise) prices
 Maintain food supplies
 Ensure “reasonable”
  prices for customers
                    Environmental Damage


    Hedgerow  removal – 45% loss in Norfolk
    Eutrophication – nitrate pollution
    Reduced biodiversity – agrochemicals
Discuss the environmental consequences of the EU and UK government’s
desire to increase food production, since the 1950s. Make particular reference
to hedgerow removal, eutrophication and reduced biodiversity.               (12)
Case study:
                          The Lake District
Hill sheep farming: Recent problems & changes
Problems
1. Removal of EU subsidies may cause some farmers to go bankrupt
2. Maintenance cost have risen whilst sheep & lamb prices have fallen
3. Fewer young people are carrying on this traditional form of agriculture – many
are turning to other, more profitable forms of employment – usually in cities
4. Widespread use of the countryside means more conflict with tourists not following
the Countryside Code e.g. by leaving gates open and damaging dry stone walls.
5. Strict planning regulations in National Parks mean that many farmers are not
allowed to invest in profit making schemes
Changes – improvements in hill sheep farming

The animal stock has been enhanced by buying in better animals to breed form and
pasture have been improved through the use of artificial fertilisers containing NPKs
Fell Farm grants have been used to build sheds to shelter animals over winter and
build slurry towers to store manure.
Many farmers take advantage of the CAP for Less Favoured Areas to claim extra
subsidies.
Definition of
LFAs: areas in danger of depopulation and where the conservation of the countryside is
necessary.
Diversification:      Taking up other forms of economic activity to
                      supplement farm incomes e.g. bed and breakfast




                                      Grow
                                      crops
                         Env                       Organic
                      initiatives                  farming


                                       Diver-
                    Sports           sification
                                                         Tourism
                   activities


                                 Other
                                              Forestry
                                animals
                       Shifting cultivation
Shifting Cultivation: is an example of Subsistence farming. This type of
farming is practiced in areas of the world where there are small populations of
people and where there are poor soils, which become exhausted after three to
four years. In the Amazon rainforest of Brazil the Amerindian natives e.g. the
Kayapo practice shifting cultivation commonly known as-“slash and burn”.


SC is usually combined with hunting (animals) fishing and gathering of fruit and
vegetables form the forest.
The clearings known as “chagras”, are often managed by women who plant
staple crops such as manioc, a root crop, that is processed to make cassava
flour used to make bread.

This form of traditional agriculture is sustainable provided the farmer does not
return to the same clearing within 30 years. This time gap will allow revegetation
to take place and species of plant and animals should return - through
processes of succession.
The “slash and burn” cycle: Use the information below and put it in the correct
                            order onto the flow chart provided.
              A                                                              B
  Cutting down trees and                                            The Kayapo then
    burning the fallen                                            abandons this area of
 vegetation clears an area                                      infertile land in search of
        of the forest                                           a new forest area to clear


             C                                                               D
 The land is worked and                                          Within 3-4 years the soil
crops are planted. Plants                                         becomes exhausted
grow well in the warm and                                          and the crop yields
    humid conditions                                               start to quickly fall


                                            E
                                 With time the clearing
                              becomes invaded by weeds
                                and later by shrubs and
                             larger trees until it returns to
                                      natural forest
Shifting cultivation

                 E                  A




                       The “slash
                       and burn”
                         cycle

           B                            C




                           D

				
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