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TOURISM AND MINING TOURISM AND MINING THE MINING SUMMIT The Mining

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					                        TOURISM AND MINING

THE MINING SUMMIT

The Mining Summit in February 2000 in a tripartite agreement between
Government, Labour and Business agreed, inter alia, on strategies to promote
South Africa’s mining industry with the ultimate objective of creating more job
opportunities. One of the strategies agreed was to promote the concept of
mining and tourism.      Out of the Summit came the formation of a Sector
Partnership Committee {SPC} coordinating five implementing structures, one
of which is the Mining Industry Promotion Implementing Structure {MIPIS}.
Among a number of other tasks this Implementing Structure has the
responsibility   to   develop   the    strategy   of   promoting   nationally   and
internationally the linkage between mining and tourism.


TOURISM AS AN ECONOMIC GROWTH SECTOR
The White Paper on the Development and Promotion of Tourism in South
Africa published in May 1996 noted that up to that time tourism development
in this country had largely been a missed opportunity and that tourism played
a relatively small role in the economy of South Africa with a contribution to the
Gross Domestic Product {GDP} in the vicinity of 4%.                Nevertheless, it
concluded that South Africa’s resource base and potential for the
development of the tourist industry was phenomenal.


The White Paper went on to emphasise that the country’s tourism
attractiveness lay in its diversity.    It identified some of the features which
make South Africa an incredibly attractive tourism proposition including
accessible wildlife, varied and impressive scenery, unspoiled wilderness
areas, diverse cultures, a generally sunny and hot climate, no “jet lag” from
Europe, a well-developed infrastructure and virtually unlimited opportunities
for special interest activities such as whale-watching, white water rafting,
hiking, bird-watching, bush survival, deep-sea fishing, hunting and diving. In
addition, unique archaeological sites, battlefields, the availability of excellent
conference and exhibition facilities, a wide range of sporting facilities, good


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communication and medical services, internationally known attractions {Table
Mountain, Cape of Good Hope, Sun City, Kruger National Park, the Garden
Route, Maputaland} and unrivalled opportunities to visit other regional
internationally known attractions {e.g., Victoria Falls and the Okavango
Swamps} make South Africa an almost complete tourist destination.


Since the publication of the White Paper tourism in South Africa has grown by
leaps and bounds and is rapidly becoming one of the world’s sought-after
tourist destinations with concomitant growth in its share of the GDP and in the
variety of work opportunities that have become available.             There is still
enormous potential for tourism development. The responsible Government
Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism has clearly spelt out its
vision and mission for the development of tourism and various tourism
organisations such as South African Tourism {previously Satour} have been
restructured. The private sector has acknowledged the tremendous potential
of the tourist industry and has given its support in a multitude of ways.


Despite mining’s heritage in South Africa and its past, present and future
importance to the economy of the country as well as its operations all around
the country, with historical significance and potential tourist attractiveness, it is
noteworthy that the White Paper did not perceive any opportunities for tourism
related to mining and did not identify any possible linkages between the
country’s major economic sector and the potential to use the mining industry
as part of the expansion plans for the tourist sector.


SOUTH AFRICA’S MINING HERITAGE
“This diamond is the rock upon which the future success of South Africa will
be built”; so said Richard Southey, the Colonial Secretary of the Cape in
1867, when referring to the discovery of the Eureka diamond. This may very
well have been a spur of the moment hyperbole, but rarely have truer words
been spoken. The mining industry has since then provided the foundation for
economic growth and development in the domestic economy.




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In fact, the mining sector has played a major role in elevating South Africa to
the level of the most developed country by far in Africa. The discovery of
diamonds and then gold led to an influx of capital and skills and enhanced
technology, which provided the impetus for the development of the country’s
infrastructure.    They were instrumental in the establishment of secondary
industry and tertiary services during the first half of the twentieth century and
provided employment to hundreds of thousands of people throughout
Southern Africa. The Johannesburg Stock Exchange, currently the world’s
17th largest stock exchange, was established to accommodate the capital
requirements of the mining industry.      These are direct contributions. The
fundamental nature of the mining industry means that a number of multiplier
effects come into play, i.e., the overall contribution is bigger than the direct
contribution.      Mining and related activities continue to drive growth,
investment and industrialisation in South Africa.


Although diamonds, gold, coal and platinum group metals mining have
achieved the most prominence, it is fitting to record that South Africa is a
veritable minerals treasure chest. In 2001, some 55 different minerals were
produced from over 700 mines and quarries.            Mineral commodities were
exported to 87 countries. Only two strategic minerals are problematic in terms
of domestic production in the country – Crude oil is unavailable in reasonable
quantities and bauxite is not commercially exploitable.


Part of the heritage of mining in South Africa has been its role in the
development of cities and towns around the production and beneficiation
sites. Numerous towns have been established because of mining or have
grown from small agricultural villages to mining towns. Among these, without
being inclusive, one thinks of Kimberley, Johannesburg, the Reef towns of
Germiston, Benoni, Boksburg, Brakpan, Springs, Maraisburg, Florida,
Roodepoort,       Krugersdorp   and   Randfontein,    Westonaria,   Carletonville,
Stilfontein, Klerksdorp, Orkney, Witbank, Ermelo, Bethal, Secunda, Kinross,
Leslie, Vryheid, Dundee, Molteno, Rustenburg, Cullinan, Potgietersrust,
Ellisras,   Messina,    Phalaborwa,   Eersteling,    Pilgrims   Rest,   Barberton,



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Steelpoort, Sishen, Kathu, O’Kiep, Springbok, Welkom, Odendaalsrust and
Allanridge.


Growing towns presented new market opportunities for commercial
agriculture. The demand for raw materials necessitated a network of roads
and railways linking the interior to the ports.


Mining created a demand for engineers and artisans and a broad range of
other professional skills. In 1896 the South African School of Mines was
established in Kimberley followed in 1904 by the Transvaal Technical
Institute, the forerunner of the University of the Witwatersrand. The University
of Pretoria also established a Department of Engineering and most of the
other Universities set up Geology Departments.


EXISTING TOURISM IN MINING


The major mining areas are set out below highlighting some of the mining
operations. In certain cases there is already a fair amount of tourist activity.
 Gauteng – Johannesburg including Gold Reef City, diamond cutting and
   jewellery manufacturing and design.
 the Witwatersrand other than Johannesburg, including industrialisation
   around supplies to the mining industry e.g., electricity, water, explosives,
   steel, etc., and the development of the rail links to the ports.
 the remainder of Gauteng including gold at Westonaria and Carletonville,
   uranium as a by-product of the gold mines, Eskom power stations, Iscor
   steel plants, Ferro-steel, coal around Vereeniging and diamonds at
   Cullinan, including cutting and jewellery manufacture.
 Mpumalanga including gold at Kinross, Barberton, Pilgrims Rest and
   Sabie, the coalfields around Witbank, Bethal, Middelburg and Ermelo,
   Eskom power stations and Secunda, including iron ore and asbestos
   mining in Swaziland.
 Limpopo (formerly the Northern Province) including chrome ore, ferro-
   chrome and vanadium around Steelpoort, platinum group metals, copper
   at Phalaborwa and Messina, Mica, diamonds at Venetia, coal at Ellisras,


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   iron ore at Thabazimbi, tin at Rooiberg and the Waterberg coal deposits,
   gold at Eersteling and Giyani.
 North West Province including gold at Stilfontein, Klerksdorp and Orkney,
   platinum group metals at Rustenburg and its environs, asbestos at
   Pomfret.
 Northern Cape Province including diamonds at Kimberley and its
   surrounds, semi-precious stones including tiger’s eye at Griquatown and
   Postmasberg, and Hopetown, iron ore at Sishen and the iron ore railway
   line from Sishen to Saldanha Bay, the steel development at Saldanha Bay,
   manganese around Kathu and Hotazel, copper at Prieska and Copperton,
   copper in Namaqualand, particularly Springbok and O’Kiep, zinc and lead
   at Aggeneys and Gamsberg, diamonds at Alexander Bay, Kleinzee and
   Koingnaas.
 Free State including gold at Welkom, Odendaalsrust, Allanridge and
   Virginia, diamonds at Koffiefontein, Bultfontein and Jagersfontein, coal in
   the northern Free State and Sasolburg.
 Kwazulu Natal including coal around Dundee, Weenen and Vryheid, steel
   production at Newcastle, titanium in the Richards Bay area, the
   development of the aluminium industry at Richards Bay, the coal railway
   line from Broodsnyersplaas to Richards Bay and the development of coal
   exports from Richards Bay.
 Eastern Cape Province including the first South African coal discoveries
   around Molteno, Maclear, Ugie, Eliot, Indwe and Dordrecht.
 Western Cape Province including early gold mining at Millwood outside
   Knysna and marine diamond mining.


EMPLOYMENT BY TOURISM IN MINING
An attempt was made to obtain statistical information on the number of
current jobs held in tourism related to mining. In the case of Cullinan about
400 jobs are provided in jewellery manufacture, direct tourism, agriculture and
social investment programmes related to tourism and mining in the area.


It was impossible to obtain any meaningful data that differentiates
employment for tourism in mining from other tourism. The mines do not keep


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statistics. A guesstimate would probably be around 4000 employees for the
country as a whole. This could rise to a rough estimate of some 10 000
people over a period of three years if tourism in mining projects and other
tourism projects in mining towns are developed as expected.


Most mines do not employ more than one or two people specifically for tourist
purposes and even in these cases they are also used for other
communication and public relations purposes.               Senior management are
usually also involved in giving presentations when tourists or VIPs visit a
mine.


All mines have some arrangements for VIPs, students and pupils from local
schools to visit the mines. It is also clear that most mines are integrated into
the local communities and they form part of the potential for tourism which
more and more towns are promoting, Kimberley, Barberton and Pilgrims Rest
are good examples. The provinces are also beginning to actively promote
tourism in mining as part of their general tourism marketing.


In many cases the approach is not to market the mine itself as a tourist
destination as such, but to develop tourism in the area as part of the
development of complementary non-mining businesses.                    The focus is,
therefore, in these situations to empower                 previously disadvantaged
communities in the area by including them in mine tourism initiatives, thus
playing a developmental and coordinating role. As part of these initiatives,
mines are reaching out to communities, assisting them for example to develop
4x4 trails and to train tour guides.


OPPORTUNITIES FOR EXPANSION OF TOURISM IN MINING


The more one studies the subject, the more opportunities there seem to be for
tourism in mining. The most effective route for the mining industry would be
to:
 promote visits to mines as part of the general promotion of tourism
      activities in the area e.g., 4x4 trails, hiking, history, conferences, etc.


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 promote educational tours, both local and international, mainly in
   conjunction with pre and post conference and seminar tours.
 integrate tourism in mining into special tours by tour operators organising
   tours in the fields of palaeontology, archaeology, geology, anthropology,
   culture, history and nature illustrating the origins of our planet, life and
   humankind.


Some samples of itineraries that are being offered by tour operators or are in
the planning stages are listed below:


 The Geological Kaleidoscope Tour (18 days)
     o    Visit a gold mine in “Egoli”, City of Gold
     o    Explore the origin of mankind at the Sterkfontein Caves and visit the
          Kromdraai Gold Mine (1881)
     o    View the Premier Diamond Mine in Cullinan
     o    Follow the gold rush trail to scenic Barberton and visit a local gold
          mine
     o    See evidence of the earliest formation of the earth’s crust and the
          earliest forms of life on our planet
     o    A chance to see the “Big Five” in the Kruger National Park
     o    View the lush scenery of the Great Escarpment : Pilgrim’s Rest,
          God’s Window, Blyde River Canyon and Bourke’s Luck Potholes
     o    Tour the Bushveld Igneous Complex and visit a platinum mine
     o    Travel along the Garden Route and see evidence of the formation
          and break-up of the ancient super-continent of Gondwana and
          numerous ice ages
     o    Experience the unspoilt wilderness of the Tsitsikamma Nature
          Reserve and visit the Millwood gold mine near Knysna
     o    Visit Oudtshoorn, the ostrich feather capital of the world, the
          spectacular Swartberg Pass, Seweweekspoort and Meiringspoort
          and explore the beautiful dripstone formations of the Cango Caves.
     o    See Table Mountain and the Cape of Good Hope
     o    Experience a “geological” wine tasting during a tour of the Cape
          Winelands


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 The Palaeontology – Anthropology Tour (21 days)
    o     Visit Cape Town and travel along the scenic Garden Route to the
          Tsitsikamma Nature Reserve and the Millwood Gold Mine near
          Knysna.
    o     Travel to Port Elizabeth and view the sites of some of the first
          dinosaur fossils found outside Europe
    o     Visit the Addo Elephant Park
    o     Travel via Grahamstown through the Great Karoo to Graaf-Reinet
          and the Valley of Desolation
    o     Explore the diamond town of Kimberley and the Big Hole and see
          the glacial pavements and rock engravings
    o     Go underground in a gold mine at Gold Reef City
    o     Explore the origin of mankind at the Sterkfontein Caves and view
          the discovery site of “Mrs. Ples” and “Little Foot”, the hominid
          discoveries of the century.
    o     Travel through the scenic Barberton Mountain land, visit a local gold
          mine and see evidence of the earliest formation of the earth’s crust
          and the earliest forms of life on our planet
    o     Visit the gold rush town of Pilgrim’s Rest
    o     A chance to see the “Big Five” in the Kruger National Park and to
          visit the Albasini ruins.
    o     Travel to the Archaeological sites of Thulamela and Mapungubwe
          near the Limpopo River where we see evidence of 12 Century
          African civilisation
    o     Visit the dinosaur tracks and fossils at Pontdrif
    o     See the historic cave of Makapansgat and some of the oldest
          “missing link” fossils.
 Gauteng’s Historical Gold Tour (1 day). An early start takes us to the top
   of Northcliff Hill in the north-western suburbs of Johannesburg, for a
   panoramic and regional geological overview. We then drive north-west of
   Krugersdorp to the Magaliesberg to trace the discovery and early
   production of gold in Gauteng, and end with the founding of Johannesburg
   in 1886. The tour includes visits to:



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     o    The old Blaaubank Mine near Magaliesberg started in 1874 for a
          fascinating guided underground trip
     o    The old Kromdraai Mine within the Black Reef formation, centre of
          the first goldfield proclaimed in 1885. The mine is located within the
          “Cradle of Humankind”, a World Heritage site
     o    Next we visit the scenic Witwatersrand National Botanical Garden
          near Krugersdorp and see the newly established Geological Rock
          Garden and walk part of the JCI Geological Trail
     o    After lunch we drive to the Old Struben’s workings dating from
          1884, on the Confidence Reef at Kloofendal
     o    Thereafter we make our way to the most famous gold discovery site
          of all, the Main Reef group of conglomerates in George Harrison
          Park at Langlaagte. It was here in 1886 that George Harrison and
          George Walker discovered the first “payable gold” on the
          Witwatersrand
     o    Our drive back to Johannesburg takes us through the famous
          Crown Mines area where we visit a turn of the century mining
          village, go underground at Gold Reef City and view the
          reprocessing of old gold mine dumps and into the old inner city
          mining district
     o    We drive past some of the magnificent suburban homes of the
          Randlords in Parktown
 The Eastern Bushveld Complex, Pilgrim’s Rest and the Northern
   Drakensberg Escarpment
 Diamonds and Daisies in Namaqualand (4 days)


MINING AND THE ENVIRONMENT
The mining industry has been focussed in recent years on the need to
rehabilitate mining land and many of the programmes and projects are of
interest to a variety of tourists.   The MMSD and MMSD Southern Africa
Reports have highlighted areas where the mining industry will have to
concentrate resources to make mining operations acceptable to compare with
modern international benchmarks.        The World Summit on Sustainable
Development to be held in Johannesburg from 26 August to 4 September


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2002 will bring many tourists to South Africa and the mining industry is
planning visits to mines, which will hopefully provide a perspective of the
dynamics of the industry and future opportunities for investment.


CONCLUSION


The Mining Industry Promotion Implementing Structure (MIPIS) has
investigated in some depth the present situation related to tourism in mining,
including a tentative estimate of the number of jobs being provided in this
endeavour. It is clear that there is quite extensive activity around the major
mining areas in encouraging tourism.


The role of the MIPIS would be to promote tourism in mining on a national
basis, to ensure where possible that new employment opportunities are
created in tourism in mining and that municipalities and provinces are aware
of the possibilities for tourism in mining and that these are integrated into their
tourism promotional activities. At the same time, the MIPIS should promote
tourism in mining to the various national and international tour operators.




RECOMMENDATIONS


   1. The MIPIS should continue to investigate the possibilities for expanding
       mining in tourism.
   2. The mine managements should encourage tourism in mining and strive
       to create linkages between the municipal and provincial tourism
       activities.
   3. Tourism in mining should be integrated with other tourism opportunities
       that are being encouraged around the country.
   4. Tourism in mining should be integrated with tourism opportunities in the
       fields of palaeontology, archaeology, geology, anthropology, history,
       culture and nature.


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   5. The municipalities and provinces should be encouraged to promote
      tourism in mining.
   6. The MIPIS should investigate what opportunities exist to publicise and
      promote tourism in mining both nationally and internationally
   7. The MIPIS should promote tourism in mining to the various national
      and international tour operators.
   8. The MIPIS should continue to endeavour to refine data on current jobs
      in tourism in mining and the potential job opportunities.
   9. The MIPIS should coordinate its activities with the provinces, the
      mines, the Chamber of Mines, the Geological Society, the DME, the
      Institute for Geosciences, Mintek and the Universities.
   10. The MIPIS should encourage the tour operators to expand the types of
      tours available and to publicise them widely.
   11. The MIPIS to investigate funding agencies for the promotion on a
      national basis of tourism in mining.
   12. The MIPIS should appoint a champion for tourism in mining.
   13. The MIPIS should encourage the use of the guidelines for responsible
      tourism development.




TOM MAIN
08 April 2010




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