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Adapting to Change Adapting to Change

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Adapting to Change Adapting to Change Powered By Docstoc
					     Adapting to Change
I.   Change & Development in
          Organizations
II. Org Culture as source of
          stability and change
III. National Culture
IV. Reactions to Change/Stress
             Org Change
•   The Case for Change
•   Pressures for Change
•   Resistance to Change
•   Dealing with Resistance/Changing Jobs
•   Example of Successful Change
Why Should a Firm Change?
• Change is inevitable, if only a little less
      dramatic than most predictions
• Unplanned change
   –government regulations
   –dramatic events
   Survival Rates for U.S. firms
Ages in years     % Surviving
      5                38
      10               21
      15               14
      20               10
      25                 7
      50                 2
      75                 1
      100               0.5
Pressures for Planned Change

 •   Changing technology
 •   Knowledge explosion
 •   Product obsolescence
 •   Changing workforce
 •   Competition
Why Individuals Resist Change
  1.   Habit/consistency
  2.   Fear of the unknown
  3.   Selective attention
  4.   Economic/security reasons
Why Organizations Resist Change
  1.   Organiz. Structure (inertia)
  2.   Threats to power/influence
  3.   Resource limitations
  4.   Inter-organiz. agreements
What Should be Changed?

•   Strategy
•   Technology
•   Structure
•   People/Jobs
Designing/Changing Jobs

•   Job simplification
•   Job timing
•   Job rotation/enlargement
•   Job enrichment
                A Sample “4-40” Work Schedule

Employee   Mon     Tues   Wed.   Thurs. Fri.    Sat.   Sun.
Smith      On      On     On      On    Off     Off    Off
Jones      Off     On     On      On    On      Off    Off
      Flexible               Core                Flexible               Core               Flexible
       Time                  Time                 Time                  Time                Time




6:00 a.m.        9:00 a.m.          11:00 a.m.              1:00 p.m.          3:00 p.m.         6:00 p.m.


                 Schedule A             One-Hour Lunch

                                    Schedule B              One-Hour Lunch


                             Schedule C           Two-Hour Lunch
Designing/Changing Jobs

•   Job simplification
•   Job timing
•   Job rotation/enlargement
•   Job enrichment
                  The Job Enrichment Model

                           CRITICAL          PERSONAL
     JOB
                        PSYCHOLOGICAL        AND WORK
CHARACTERISTICS
                            STATES           OUTCOMES
      Job Characteristics

•   Skill Variety
•   Task Identity
•   Task Significance
•   Autonomy
•   Feedback
Two Examples of Successful
        Change
 • U. S. Army
 • Harley Davidson

				
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posted:4/8/2010
language:English
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