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					   Effective Instruction for
Adolescent Struggling Readers
   Professional Development Module
       Training of Trainers (TOT)
    Christy S. Murray, Jade Wexler, Sharon Vaughn,
         Greg Roberts, Kathryn Klingler Tackett
            The University of Texas at Austin

                  Marcia Kosanovich
                Florida State University
                    The Center on Instruction is operated by RMC Research Corporation
                in partnership with the Florida Center for Reading Research at Florida State
                   University; RG Research Group; The Texas Institute for Measurement,
                         Evaluation, and Statistics at the University of Houston; and
          the Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk at The University of Texas at Austin.

   The contents of this PowerPoint presentation were developed under cooperative agreement S283B050034
              with the U.S. Department of Education. However, these contents do not necessarily
                    represent the policy of the Department of Education, and one should not
                                assume endorsement by the federal government.

                                                   2008

The Center on Instruction requests that no changes be made to the content or appearance of this product.

                  To download a copy of this document, visit www.centeroninstruction.org.
               Objectives of the TOT


 Enhance your understanding of selected research-based
  instructional practices associated with positive effects for
  adolescent struggling readers.

 Teach you how to:
   – Enhance others’ understanding of these research-based
     practices;
   – Teach others to implement these research-based practices.
                  TOT Presentation


 This presentation contains all the slides from the PD
  Module.
 Slides in teal color are inserted specifically for this TOT
  presentation and do not appear in the general PD Module.
 A few additional ―TOT NOTE‖ comment boxes appear
  throughout to provide the TOT participant with additional
  information.
 Feel free to use this TOT presentation with other facilitators
  who need to be trained.
                     Your TOT Materials


Binder should include:
   – TOT slides from this presentation (3 per page)
   – Color-coded handouts to use today for practice
   – Master Copies of:
       •   PD Module slides and speaker notes (full pages)
       •   PD Module Facilitator’s Guide
       •   Practice Brief
       •   Meta-Analysis
   – CD containing electronic copies of all documents and
     presentations
            Facilitator Qualifications



Facilitator should be someone:
   – with strong knowledge of reading in the upper grades;
   – with experience with providing effective instruction to
     adolescents with reading difficulties;
   – who has the ability to communicate effectively with
     peers.
                             Delivery Options


         One-Day Format                                      Two-Day Format
     Morning                Afternoon                    Morning                    Afternoon
  Introduction--30         Reading                Introduction--45 minutes    Brief Review of Day 1--
       minutes         Comprehension--90                                             30 minutes
                           minutes
  Word Study--60      Motivation--20 minutes      Word Study--90 minutes           Reading
     minutes                                                                 Comprehension--2 hours

Fluency--60 minutes   Putting It All Together--    Fluency--90 minutes        Motivation--45 minutes
                            15 minutes

                                                  Vocabulary--75 minutes     Putting It All Together--30
  Vocabulary--45
                                                                                       minutes
     minutes
             Customizing the PD Module



 This PD Module can be used with a wide range of
  professionals and therefore may be tailored to
  participants’ needs and interests.
 Following are some recommendations for training.

   Note: Final decisions for customizing this training are left to the
                      discretion of the facilitator.

For more detailed information, see Customizing the Professional Development Module.
State, District Staff & Other TA Providers
             Recommendations for PD



Train participants in two “chunks”
  1. Ensure that participants have a strong understanding
     of effective, research-based reading strategies; do not
     focus on any TOT strategies initially.

  2. Teach participants how to disseminate this information
     by identifying facilitators and developing TOT
     strategies.
     State and District Staff Participants
                     During Initial Training

 Provide participants with a copy of the meta-analysis before the
  training: state and district staff may have high interest in the research
  base behind the selected strategies.

 Devote time to discussing the findings from the meta-analysis
  (e.g., effect sizes) for each section of the PD and the highlighted
  research studies in the Word Study and Comprehension sections.
  (See also the new Professional Development Module Reference
  Guide.)

 Spend less time modeling strategies or incorporating instructional
  examples into the training and more time discussing how the
  research findings translate broadly and which effective
  instructional strategies should be incorporated into classrooms.
   State and District Staff Participants
               After the Initial Training


 Discuss capacity building:
   – Developing or improving secondary literacy initiatives,
     ways to disseminate the PD Module

 Assist state and district staff in identifying
  appropriate facilitators

 Provide a TOT session to identified facilitators
Secondary Reading Teacher Participants
            Recommendations for PD



 Use entire PD Module in the pre-established order
 Discuss research findings broadly
 Focus on delivering recommended effective
  practices
 Provide a copy of the COI’s practice brief on
  adolescent literacy
      Secondary Content-Area Teacher
               Participants
               Recommendations for PD


 Rearrange the order of the modules
   – Ex: Present Vocabulary or Comprehension first
 Discuss research findings broadly
 Focus on delivering recommended effective practices
   – Build in more time for modeling strategies and examples,
     including samples of expository text
 Provide a copy of the COI’s practice brief on adolescent
  literacy
           Logistics: Preparing for PD



   Determine number of participants
   Secure a location
   Position tables conveniently
   Use two tables at front of the room
   Load PPT onto computer
   Set up and check all equipment
   Check sound quality
             Necessary Equipment



   Laptop
   LCD projector
   Overhead projector
   Large screen
   Microphone(s)
   Speakers
                             Materials


   Electronic copy of PPT
   Copy of the speakers notes (for Facilitator only)
   Laser pointer
   Timer
   Sticky notes, pens, etc. at each table
   Name badges
   Name tents
   Copies of slides and handouts
   Transparencies of some handouts
   Index cards, pre-made flashcards
   Copies of the MA and Practice Brief (optional)
                Speaker Notes


 Speaker notes are lengthy and very thorough to
  provide necessary information and background to
  less knowledgeable Facilitators.
 Once comfortable with content, Facilitators DO NOT
  have to read from the script.
 Make sure to convey the most important ideas
  accurately and answer participants’ questions.
                         Pattern


 What is ….?
 Definition of component
 Findings and implications from the meta-analysis
 Successful readers vs. struggling readers
 Reasons for difficulties
 Instructional strategies (with examples and activities)
 Highlighted studies from the meta-analysis (Word Study
  and Comprehension only)
 Implications for the classroom
 Conclusions
                Explicit Instruction


Throughout the PD Module, explicit instruction of strategies is
                 a recommended practice.

                           Model.


                Provide guided practice.


       Provide supported, independent practice.
              Provide immediate feedback to students.
    How Does this PD Module Relate to
          Other COI Materials?


 PD Module is aligned with the following documents:
   – Interventions for Adolescent Struggling Readers: A
     Meta-Analysis with Implications for Practice
   – Practice Brief
   – All Reading Strand documents on adolescent literacy

 Participants may find it help to study these
  additional documents, but it is not mandatory.
                                 Content


The PD Module contains these sections:
   –   Introduction
   –   Word Study
   –   Fluency
   –   Vocabulary
   –   Comprehension
   –   Motivation
   –   Putting It All Together
                     Introduction


 The first section of the PD Module introduces the
  topic of struggling adolescent readers
 Time: 30 minutes (one-day format) or 45 minutes
  (two-day format)
 Materials Needed:
   – PowerPoint
   – Copies of slides for participants
   – Meta-analysis and/or Practice Brief (optional)
                                 Adolescent Literacy:
                                Research and Practice



           One in three fourth-graders is
            reading below a basic level.
           Only 31 percent of eighth-
            graders are proficient readers.




(Lee, Grigg, & Donahue, 2007)
Essential Components of Reading
     Elementary Level vs. Secondary Level



Component            Elementary    Secondary
Phonemic Awareness
                        
Word Study
                                    
                                   (Advanced)
Fluency
                                    
Vocabulary
                                    
Comprehension
                                    
Motivation
                                    
                                   Objectives



 Enhance your understanding of selected research-based
  instructional practices associated with positive effects for
  adolescent struggling readers.
 Learn how to implement these research-based practices.
                                                TOT NOTE:
                                                The Reading Strand’s Assessment
                                                document will nicely complement this
                                                PD Module!




   NOTE: Assessment and its influence on instruction will not be a focus of this presentation.
            Reading Interventions for
          Adolescent Struggling Readers:
        A Meta-analysis With Implications for Practice



1.    Overall, how effective are the reading interventions for adolescent
      struggling readers that have been examined in research studies?
2.    What is the specific impact of these reading interventions on
      measures of reading comprehension?
3.    What is the specific impact of these reading interventions on
      students with learning disabilities?

Available for download: www.centeroninstruction.org.




                      (Scammacca, Roberts, Vaughn, Edmonds, Wexler, Reutebuch, & Torgesen, 2007)
Scientific Rigor of Highlighted Studies



        All highlighted studies used
            random assignment
                     and
         standardized measures.
   General Findings of the Meta-Analysis


Various levels of intervention effectiveness:

 Students with LD vs. students without LD;
 Researcher-implemented vs. teacher-implemented; and
 Students at the middle school level vs. students at the high school
  level.
          Highlighted Studies: Caveat


 The instructional practices used in the studies we selected
  represent some of the practices associated with improved
  outcomes for students in grades 4–12.
 The scope of this presentation does not allow us to present
  all studies and referenced practices from the meta-analysis.
Essential Components of
Reading for Adolescents


       Word Study

         Fluency

        Vocabulary

      Comprehension

        Motivation
                                Word Study


 Includes instruction in two instructional practices, a highlighted study
  from the MA, and a participant activity
 Time: 60 minutes (one-day format) or 90 minutes (two-day format)
 Materials:
    –   PowerPoint
    –   Copies of slides for participants
    –   Copies of Handout 1
    –   Blank index cards
    –   ―Portfolio‖ flashcard (pre-made by Facilitator)
             What is Word Study?




What do I do when my students with reading disabilities and
   difficulties cannot read grade-level words accurately?
                                  Word Study
             Practices that improve word-level reading



                       Research indicates that…

Older students in need can benefit from word study instruction
(Edmonds et al., in press; Scammacca et al., 2007).
               COI Meta-analysis



     FINDING                  IMPLICATION

Interventions focused on   For older students struggling
word study had a           at the word level, specific
moderate overall effect.   word study intervention is
                           associated with improved
                           reading outcomes.
                                       Word Study


           Successful Readers                                     Struggling Readers
 Read multisyllabic words and use strategies to         Often read single-syllable words effortlessly but
 figure out unknown words.                              have difficulty decoding longer, multisyllabic
                                                        words.
 Make connections between letter patterns and           May lack knowledge of the ways in which sounds
 sounds and use this understanding to read              map to print.
 words.
 Break words into syllables during reading.             Have difficulty breaking words into syllable parts.


 Use word analysis strategies to break difficult or     Often do not use word analysis strategies to
 long words into meaningful parts such as               break words into parts.
 inflectional endings, prefixes, suffixes, and roots.



(Bhattacharya & Ehri, 2004; Nagy, Berninger, & Abbott, 2006; Boardman et al., 2008)
    Reasons for Word Study Difficulties


 Students might not have been effectively taught how to
  decode in the earlier grades.
 Students might not have been given adequate opportunities
  for practice.
 Students may struggle to understand letter-sound
  correspondences or the ―rules of the English language.‖
 Strategies for Teaching Word Study




               Following are examples of two types of
               word study practices that can be used
                         with older readers.

TOT NOTE:
The following slides describe two different instructional practices, labeled ―Instructional
Practice #1‖ and ―Instructional Practice #2.‖ The numbers associated with these practices
have no bearing on the importance of the practice.
                 Word Study:
           Instructional Practice #1


Instruction in orthographic processing, or the ability to
       recognize letter patterns in words and their
                corresponding sound units.

     Instructional focus: Various advanced
        word study components such as
           syllable types and blending
               multisyllabic words.
Instructional Practice #1: Example



       Mumble = mum – ble

        Locate = lo – cate

       Invalid = in – val – id
           Instructional Practice #1:
              How do I Teach it?


 Teach students to identify and break words into syllable
  types.
 Teach students when and how to read multisyllabic words
  by blending the parts.
 Teach students to recognize irregular words that do not
  follow predictable patterns.
 Teach students to apply these practices to academic words
  (e.g., tangent, democracy, precision).
  Syllable Types and Examples


 Closed (e.g., cat) short vowel
 Open (e.g., no) long vowel
 Vowel-consonant-e (e.g., like): e makes vowel long
 Consonant-le (e.g., mumble)
 R-controlled (e.g., ar, or, er, ir, ur)
 Double vowel (e.g., team)
                Word Study:
          Instructional Practice #2


Expose students to information and strategies that will help
  students gain access to the meaning of words and make
   the connection between decoding and comprehension.




       Instructional focus: Prefixes, suffixes,
          inflectional endings, root words,
                   and base words.
  Instructional Practice #2: Example



                Transplanted =
      trans (across) + plant (base word)
          + ed (happened in the past)

Useless = use (base word) + less (without; not)


   Careful = care (base word) + ful (full of)
        Instructional Practice #2:
           How Do I Teach It?



 Teach students the meanings of common prefixes,
  suffixes, inflectional endings, and roots.
 Provide instruction in how and when to use structural
  analysis to decode unknown words.
          Highlighted Study:
      Bhattacharya & Ehri (2004)

                     Participants
            60 struggling readers (non-LD),
                  grades 6 through 9

Received one of two interventions         Received
    provided by a researcher for        current school
 four sessions totaling 110 minutes.     instruction.
                                        (Comparison Group)
 Syllable                Whole
Chunking                 Word                 n = 20
  n = 20                Reading
                         n = 20
 Syllable Chunking Intervention




Students were taught to:
   1. Orally divide multisyllabic words into syllables;
   2. State the number of syllables;
   3. Match syllables to their spelling; and
   4. Blend the syllables to say the whole word.
                  Five Steps
      in Syllable Chunking Intervention


               Students read the word aloud.
   If incorrect, they were told the word and repeated it.

         Students explained the word’s meaning.
   If incorrect, they were provided corrective feedback.

     Students orally divided the word’s pronunciation into
     its syllables or beats by raising a finger as each beat
    was pronounced and then stated the number of beats.
If incorrect, the experimenter modeled the correct response.
                    (e.g., fin – ish = two beats)
      Five Steps in Syllable Chunking
          Intervention (continued)



      Students matched the pronounced form of each beat
        to its spelling by exposing that part of the spelling
     as it was pronounced, while covering the other letters.
(Different ways of dividing words into syllables were accepted.)
   If incorrect, the experimenter modeled and explained the
    correct segmentation and students copied the response.




  Students blended the syllables to say the whole word.
   If incorrect, they were told the word and repeated it.
        Syllable Chunking Intervention
                Learning Trials


Words were presented on index cards one at a time over four learning
  Read and analyzed
trials in random orders. 25 words on each of the 4 days.

  Trial 1: Perform all five steps.
  Trials 2–4: Perform all steps except step 2.
Whole Word Reading Intervention




 Students practiced reading multisyllabic words
             with no applied strategy.
           Three Steps in
   Whole Word Reading Intervention


            Students read the word aloud.
If incorrect, they were told the word and repeated it.


      Students explained the word’s meaning.
      If incorrect, they were told the meaning.


Students read the word again by looking at the print.
If incorrect, they were told the word and repeated it.
  Whole Word Reading Intervention
         Learning Trials


Read and analyzed 25 words on each of the 4 days.


Words were presented on index cards one at a time
over six learning trials in random orders.
    Trial 1: Perform all three steps.
    Trials 2–4: Perform all steps except step 2.
    Trials 5–6: Read words as quickly as possible
     and record time.
          Highlighted Study:
      Bhattacharya & Ehri (2004)


                     Participants
            60 struggling readers (non-LD),
                  grades 6 through 9

Received one of two interventions          Received
    provided by a researcher for         current school
 four sessions totaling 110 minutes.      instruction.
                         Whole           (Comparison Group)
 Syllable                Word                  n = 20
Chunking                Reading
  n = 20                 n = 20
Current School Practice
(Comparison Condition)


Students received the school’s
  typical reading instruction.
           Which Strategy do You Think
            was Most Effective? Why?


                           Study Findings

 Syllable training enhanced readers’ decoding ability on transfer
  tasks.
 Syllable training enhanced readers’ ability to retain spellings of words
  in memory.
 Whole word training was not found to help struggling readers on any
  of the decoding or spelling transfer tasks.
         Implications for the Classroom



   There is value
                                                 Authors note
    in teaching
                         Instruction in     that the intervention
    adolescent
                      word study for the     could be enhanced
struggling readers
      to read         weakest readers is       by also teaching
                      needed as well as students information
multisyllabic words
                        comprehension         about root words
   by matching
                      strategy instruction.       and affixes,
    syllables to
                                              syllable types, etc.
  pronunciations.
         Participant Activity




You are teaching a sixth-grade reading class,
  and several of your students are having
           difficulty reading words.
    You decide to try a syllable chunking
        strategy with these students.
Syllable Chunking Intervention
Syllable Chunking Strategy



  Instruction    Dictionary




   Federal       Compensate
             Conclusions About
            Word Study Instruction


 For adolescent readers who struggle at the word level,
  instruction in word study skills can improve word
  identification skills.
 There are a variety of instructional methods for this
  purpose, but most involve teaching students to decode
  words by recognizing syllables types or by analyzing parts
  of words.
                             Fluency


 Discusses the difference between Wide Reading and
  Repeated Reading, implementation of Partner Reading,
  and several instructional scenarios for participants.
 Time: 60 minutes (one-day format) or 90 minutes (two-day
  format)
 Materials:
   – PowerPoint
   – Copies of slides for participants
   – Handouts 2, 3, & 4
               What is Fluency?




What do I do when my students with reading disabilities
  and difficulties cannot read words with automaticity?
                                         Fluency
               The ability to read text with speed,
               accuracy, and prosody (expression)



                      Research indicates that…
 Word study and comprehension are related to fluency (Shinn
  & Good, 1992).

 Fluency does not ―cause‖ comprehension, but is one
  necessary component of successful reading (Rasinski et al., 2005).



                   TOT NOTE:
                   This section on fluency contains noteworthy recommendations for instruction
                   based on the latest research. It will be helpful for Facilitators to become
                   familiar with the findings in the COI’s meta-analysis and the
                   recommendations in the COI’s practice brief.
                              COI Meta-analysis


              FINDING                                             IMPLICATION
        More research on                                        Fluency practices
        fluency is needed                                       associated with improved
        with older students.                                    outcomes with younger
 TOT Note: What does it mean when an effect size is not         students may apply to
  reliably different from zero? It means that based on very     older students struggling
   limited research, we are not able to confirm with older
  students the positive effects of fluency interventions that   with fluency.
 we have found with younger students. There are several
               reasons why this may be the case:
            1) The current research is inadequate.
 2) The fluency interventions used in the studies were not
adequately intensive to be associated with a positive effect.
 3) Effective fluency interventions for older students have
                 not been identified and tested.

 It does NOT mean that older students should receive
ZERO fluency interventions if they have a fluency deficit.
                                      Fluency


        Successful Readers                              Struggling Readers
Read 100–160 words per minute (at the middle   Read slowly and laboriously.
school level), depending on the nature and
difficulty of the text.
Decode words accurately and automatically.     May continue to struggle with decoding or
                                               may decode correctly but slowly.

Group words into meaningful chunks and         May not pause at punctuation or recognize
phrases.                                       phrases.

Read with expression.                          Often lack voice or articulation of emotion
                                               while reading.

Combine multiple tasks while reading (e.g.,    May lack proficiency in individual skills,
decoding, phrasing, understanding, and         resulting in dysfluent reading and limit
interpreting).                                 comprehension.

  (Boardman et al., 2008)
     Reasons for Fluency Difficulties


 Students are focusing too much cognitive effort on
  decoding the text.
 Students are not cognizant of punctuation’s role in reading.
 Students have a weak sight word vocabulary.
 Students have had limited exposure, instruction, and
  practice with reading text fluently or at all.
 Students are unfamiliar with the meaning of words in text.
 Fluency: Differing Instructional Needs

Adolescents whose oral reading rate on grade-level text is:
 Below 70 wcpm* need more practice with word
  recognition in addition to fluency practice;
 Between 70 and 120 wcpm* may benefit from regular
  fluency instruction; and
 Greater than 120 wcpm* may benefit more from
  increased vocabulary and comprehension instruction
  rather than increased fluency instruction.
                                    TOT NOTE:
                                    These ranges are recommendations from COI
                                    and illustrate the fact that not every student
* Ranges are approximations.        needs the same amount or type of fluency
                                    instruction.
               What are
   Repeated Reading and Wide Reading?


Repeated Reading               Wide Reading

Reading and listening to the   Reading many different types
same passage several times     of text
  Rationale for Repeated Reading at the
             Secondary Level


 Repeated reading may be appropriate when providing students
  with practice on a targeted list of words.
 Students will have multiple exposures to words that may build their
  sight vocabulary and automaticity.
 Repeated reading interventions have been shown to have positive
  outcomes for students with reading difficulties in the younger
  grades (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002). Therefore, repeated reading
  interventions may have a similar effect for students in the
  secondary grades at an early reading level. (Please note that more
  research in this area is needed).
                Challenges Associated
                With Repeated Reading


Repeated Reading
 Increases in speed generally fail to transfer to other texts unless
  there is word overlap (Rashotte & Torgesen, 1985).
 May not be more effective than wide reading for increasing reading
  speed (Homan, Klesius, & Hite, 1993).
 Limits students’ exposure to content, vocabulary, and different text
  types.
      Rationale for Wide Reading at the
              Secondary Level


Wide Reading
 Students are exposed to a variety of text structures and vocabulary
  (which coincides with the expectations of reading a wide variety of
  text in the upper grades).
 Students are exposed to more content (when compared to repeated
  reading), which may increase word/background knowledge.
  Background knowledge can have a positive impact on
  comprehension (Hansen & Pearson, 1983).
 There is less likelihood that students will see the same words over
  and over again across a variety of texts.
  Wide Reading vs. Repeated Reading
       Which is More Effective?


More research is needed in the area of fluency
instruction for older students.

Recommendation:
Use a combination of repeated reading and wide reading.

 Repeated reading provides opportunities for students to improve
  and automate their sight vocabulary.
 Wide reading exposes students to new and different content,
  vocabulary, and text types.
              Repeated Reading
            Considerations for Use


 Combine with word learning.
 Select passages that include ―targeted‖ vocabulary and/or passages
  at the student’s independent level.
 Monitor progress and provide feedback to students.
 Support reading with modeling and feedback from teacher or peers.
 Involve students in progress monitoring of fluency goals.
 As students improve, increase passage difficulty.
                  Wide Reading
              Considerations for Use


 Select passages at the student’s independent or instructional reading
  level.
 Practice fluency with successive passages but do not reread the
  same passage repeatedly.
 Monitor progress and provide frequent feedback.
 Support reading with modeling and feedback from teacher or peers.
 Involve students in progress monitoring of fluency goals.
 As students improve, increase passage difficulty.
 Fluency Interventions Alone Do Not
      Improve Comprehension



Fluency practice is most effective when combined
 with instruction in decoding (for select students)
        and/or comprehension instruction.
                 Partner Reading



Partner reading is a widely used strategy that provides the
opportunity to practice oral reading with immediate and
explicit feedback and incorporates the opportunity to
engage in comprehension practice. Partner reading:

 May benefit both partners in fluency development;
 Engages students in fluency monitoring practices; and
 Improves self-monitoring practices during reading.
                Partner Reading
             Considerations for Use


 Use at least 3 days per week with students who need
  practice developing their ability to read fluently.
 Should last no more than 15–20 minutes per day or every
  other day. Spend a majority of instructional time on other
  components of reading.
 Pair partners based on data: Place slightly higher-level
  reader with lower-level reader. (Having a model of good
  reading is essential.)
            Partner Reading
    Considerations for Use (continued)


 Use reading materials that are at the independent or
  instructional level of the more struggling reader.
 Set individual and partner goals for reading fluency. Have
  students graph their best results.
            Specific Skills to Teach




   What counts as an incorrect response.
   How to sit with partners and locate materials.
   How to time each other.
   How to underline incorrect words.
   How to use correction procedures.
   How to calculate words correct per minute.
   How to graph results.
  TOT NOTE:
                         How Do I Implement
Provide Handouts
2, 3, and 4 here.         Partner Reading?


                      Discuss fluency and its importance.


                    Model use of partner reading strategies.


                           Provide guided practice.


               Provide independent practice with support.
        Teacher Responsibilities


 Prepare student folders with new passages (one for
  each student to read and/or follow along with their
  partner).
 Observe students during partner reading to monitor
  fidelity of procedures and accuracy of error checking.
 Check folders (accuracy, graphs).
 Move students to next level.
Practice: Who Needs Fluency Instruction?
               Example 1


  Anna is a ninth-grader reading 40 wcpm on eighth-grade-level text.
  Her teacher has noticed that she often has difficulty decoding words.
  She did not pass the state test. Does Anna need fluency instruction?


     YES, but she also needs explicit instruction in word study.
       She would also benefit from instruction to boost her
            vocabulary knowledge and overall verbal
                 reasoning/comprehension ability.
                       Example 2


Jose is a 10th-grader reading 111 wcpm on 8th-grade-level text and
is more than 95 percent accurate. He did not pass the state test.
What does this tell us about Jose? Does he need fluency instruction?

 Jose is fairly fluent. He may need some fluency instruction,
       but the fact that he is reading at least 100 wcpm
   and is very accurate and still not passing the state test
            tells us that Jose may need instruction
    to boost comprehension, verbal reasoning, and word
         knowledge in addition to fluency instruction.
                         Example 3


  Maria is reading 62 wcpm, but she is 96 percent accurate. She did
  pass the state test, but she had an extended time accommodation.
  Does Maria need fluency instruction?

 YES, Maria would most likely benefit from fluency instruction.
     She might benefit from some instruction in word study
  (especially in sight words), but because she is so accurate,
she needs practice to increase the rate at which she is reading.
       Although she is slow, with accommodations she
        was able to demonstrate good comprehension
    by passing the state test, which is a positive indication
                   of her comprehension ability.
              Fluency Instruction:
                  Conclusions


 The level of fluency required for secondary struggling
  readers to read effectively and understand text is not
  entirely clear.
 For some students, fluency may help build a link
  between decoding and comprehension, but fluency
  does not cause comprehension.
 Teachers should not spend a lot of time on fluency
  instruction and should pair it with instruction in decoding
  and/or vocabulary and comprehension-enhancing
  practices.
                     Vocabulary


 Contains information on Word Consciousness, Additive
  Vocabulary, Generative Vocabulary, and Academic
  Vocabulary. Also contains a participant activity.
 Time: 45 minutes (one-day format) or 75 minutes (two-day
  format)
 Materials:
   – PowerPoint
   – Copies of slides for participants
   – Handout 5
            What is Vocabulary?




What do I do when my students with reading disabilities
  and difficulties do not know what a majority of words
 in text mean and cannot use word-meaning knowledge
            to enhance their comprehension?
        Vocabulary is…



The ability to understand and use a
 word effectively and appropriately
     to foster comprehension.
                 Research on Vocabulary:
                 A Vocabulary Continuum


1. I’ve never heard of this word.
2. I’ve heard of this word, but I’m not really sure what it
   means.
3. I can recognize the word in context.
4. I know the word well, including its various forms,
   definitions, and uses.

  (Dale, 1965)
                             COI Meta-analysis



           FINDING                           IMPLICATIONS
Vocabulary interventions had           We know that directly teaching
the largest overall effect size.       students the meaning of words
                                       and how to use strategies to
                                       uncover meanings of words can
                                       improve students’ knowledge of
     TOT NOTE:
     CAUTION with this finding!        the words taught.
     See caveat on next slide.
                                       What we don’t know is whether or
                                       how vocabulary instruction
                                       influences comprehension.
          COI Meta-Analysis


                                            TOT NOTE:
                  FINDING                   It’s important that this
                                            be discussed thoroughly.
         Vocabulary interventions had the   See speaker notes for full
                                            discussion.
             largest overall effect size.


                  CAVEAT
     Standardized measures are not typically
used for measuring vocabulary knowledge and use.
 Only researcher-developed measures were used
         in the studies in the meta-analysis.
                                    Vocabulary


           Successful Readers                               Struggling Readers
Are exposed to a breadth of vocabulary words in   Have limited exposure to new words.
conversations and print at home and at school     May not enjoy reading and therefore do not select
from a very early age.                            reading as an independent activity.

Understand most words when they are reading       Read texts that are too difficult and thus are not
(at least 90 percent) and can make sense of       able to comprehend what they read or to learn
unknown words to build their vocabulary           new words from reading.
knowledge.
Learn words incrementally, through multiple       Lack the variety of experiences and exposures
exposures to new words.                           necessary to gain deep understanding of new
                                                  words.

Have content-specific prior knowledge that        Often have limited content-specific prior
assists them in understanding how words are       knowledge that is not sufficient to support word
used in a particular context.                     learning.

(Boardman et al., 2008)
   Reasons for Vocabulary Difficulties


 Lack of exposure to words (through reading, speaking,
  and listening).
 Lack of background knowledge related to words.
 Lack of direct vocabulary instruction.
              Teaching Vocabulary
               Words and Meaning


 Effectively teaching vocabulary words does not mean
  asking students to memorize definitions, nor does it mean
  teaching students unfriendly and complex descriptions of
  words.
 Effectively teaching vocabulary words assures that
  students have opportunities to know what words mean and
  how to use them in oral and written language.
              Vocabulary Instruction
Use All of These Approaches That Match Instructional Needs
                                           TOT NOTE:
        Facilitators not familiar with these terms should read the COI’s Practice Brief.




        Word                                                       Additive
    Consciousness                                                 Vocabulary




      Generative                                                  Academic
      Vocabulary                                                  Vocabulary
               Word Consciousness


 Word consciousness refers to an awareness that words
  have multiple meanings in various contexts.
   – Example: Assembly
 Use various instructional approaches.
       Additive Vocabulary Instruction


 Explicit instruction of specific words.
 Think about your goals for instruction when selecting
  words.
 Beck’s Three Tiers of Vocabulary.
Three Tiers of Vocabulary Words



                 Tier 3 Words
                Rarely in text or
                  are content
                    specific.

                 Tier 2 Words
             Appear frequently in
               many contexts.


                Tier 1 Words
       Words students are likely to know.



        (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002)
               Selecting Tier 2 Words


Tier 2 words are:
 Frequently encountered;
 Crucial to understanding the main idea of text;
 Not a part of students’ prior knowledge (not Tier 1
  words); and
 Unlikely to be learned independently through the use of
  context or structural analysis.
REMINDER: Tier 2 words should be taught before students read, and
discussed and used frequently afterward.
(Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002)
             Seventh-Grade Text


Alexander Graham Bell is known as the inventor of the
telephone. His assistant was named Thomas A. Watson.
Together, Bell and Watson discovered how sound,
including speech, could be transmitted through wires, and
Bell received a patent for such a device. In 1876, the
telephone was officially invented and the first telephone
company was founded on July 9, 1877.
                     Ninth-Grade Text
                  from Tuck Everlasting


The road that led to Treegap had been trod out long before
by a herd of cows who were, to say the least, relaxed. It
wandered along in curves and easy angles, swayed off and
up in a pleasant tangent to the top of a small hill, ambled
down again between fringes of bee-hung clover, and then
cut sidewise across the meadow.

(Babbitt, 1975)
      Which Words are Tier 2 Words?


The road that led to Treegap had been trod out long before
by a herd of cows who were, to say the least, relaxed. It
wandered along in curves and easy angles, swayed off and
up in a pleasant tangent to the top of a small hill, ambled
down again between fringes of bee-hung clover, and then
cut sidewise across the meadow.

(Babbitt, 1975)
       Additive Vocabulary Instruction:
              Specific Strategies


 Teach multiple meanings of words and provide many
  exposures to target words.
 Provide engaging activities: creating definitions and
  nondefinitions, drawing pictures, and other games.
 Restructure and clarify tasks, as necessary.
 Generative Vocabulary Instruction


Teaching words and related words
    Example: Involuntary
      volunteer = ―Choosing an action‖
      in = ―Not‖
      ary = ―Associated with‖
      Involuntary refers to something that happens not by
      choice.
      Example sentence:
      Blinking your eyes regularly is an involuntary action.
      Generative Vocabulary Instruction:
             Specific Strategies


 Promote wide reading of texts.
 Promote opportunities to use target words.
 Connect new words to oral language or reading materials.
 Play word games and explore interesting uses of words.
 Use key word strategies that provide phonetic or visual links
  to target words.
 Show students how to break words into parts and to use other
  strategies to identify meaning.
     Academic Vocabulary Instruction



    Concentrate on meanings of words within a
                 specific context.
 Can be taken from content-area materials.
 May be Tier 3 words.
 Example: Conductor.
     Academic Vocabulary Instruction:
           Specific Strategies


 Use content-area materials to identify vocabulary.
 Obtain depth of understanding by providing multiple
  exposures and various contexts.
 Use assessment procedures to identify words that students
  need to know.
 Provide explicit instruction.
 Use computer technology.
                    Conclusions About
                  Vocabulary Instruction


 A good reader uses vocabulary to foster comprehension.
 Teachers can do the following to effectively enhance students’
  vocabulary:
    – Promote word consciousness;
    – Use additive vocabulary instruction;
    – Use generative vocabulary instruction; and
    – Teach academic vocabulary.
 Teachers should carefully choose the type of vocabulary instruction
  they provide by examining the goals of their lessons.
                      Comprehension


 Contains instructional information on activating prior
  knowledge, answering/generating questions, monitoring
  comprehension, summarization, & multi-component
  instruction, as well as a highlighted study from the MA.
 Contains many participant activities.
 Time: 90 minutes (one-day format) or 2 hours (two-day
  format)
 Materials:
   –   PowerPoint
   –   Copies of slides for participants
   –   Handouts 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
   –   Transparencies of handouts 6, 7, 10, 12
    What is Reading Comprehension?




What do I do when my students with reading disabilities and
difficulties do not use strategies to enhance comprehension?
                  Comprehension is…




 The ability to construct meaning and learn from text
  using a variety of applied strategies.
 The ultimate purpose of reading.

Research indicates that to teach students to construct meaning from
text, teachers need a firm grasp of:
     – Strategies that successful readers use when creating meaning
        from text; and
     – Effective instructional methods to teach such successful
        strategies (National Reading Panel, 2000).
                 COI Meta-analysis


         FINDING                    IMPLICATIONS
The effect for reading        Reading comprehension
comprehension strategy        interventions can have a
                              significant impact on adolescent
interventions was medium to
                              struggling readers.
large.
                              Providing comprehension
                              strategy instruction throughout
                              the day provides opportunities
                              for multiple exposures and use
                              of strategies with a variety of
                              texts.
                                  Comprehension


         Successful Readers                                         Struggling Readers
Continuously monitor reading for                       Fail to use meta-cognitive strategies as they read.
understanding.
                                                       May not be aware when understanding breaks
                                                       down.
Link content with their prior knowledge.               May lack subject-specific prior knowledge.

                                                       Do not readily make connections between what
                                                       they are learning and what they already know.
Use a variety of effective reading strategies          Have limited knowledge and use of strategies for
before, during, and after reading.                     gaining information from text.

Set a purpose for reading and adjust their             Often do not enjoy reading and lack understanding
rate and strategy use depending on the text            of the utility of reading.
and content.
(Boardman et al., 2008. Adapted from Denton et al., 2007; Pressley, 2006.)
   Reasons for Comprehension
          Difficulties


 Lack of appropriate prior knowledge.
 Inability to relate content to prior knowledge.
 Over-reliance on background knowledge.
 Inability to read text fluently.
 Difficulty with decoding words;
 Inability to attend to meaning while reading.
 Inability to apply comprehension strategies.
 Difficulty with understanding meaning of words.
                Components of
        Comprehension Strategy Instruction



    Activate
                                                          Answer/Generate
     Prior
                                                             Questions
   Knowledge

                                        Multicomponent
                                          Instruction

                                                            Summarize
   Monitor
                                                           Using Graphic
Comprehension                                               Organizers

(Adapted from Simmons, Rupley, Vaughn, & Edmonds, 2006)
           Anticipate What You Will Learn


 Preview slides and handouts.
 Make a prediction: What will you learn during this portion of the
                                 TOT NOTE:
                                 Make sure participants understand
  professional development? this activity and how to fill out the chart.
Knowledge Before PD                          Statement                               Knowledge After
                                                                                          PD
 Agree     Disagree                                                                 Agree     Disagree
                      Teachers should explicitly teach students comprehension
                      strategies.
                      Having students make predictions about what they will learn
                      should take about 30 minutes when introducing text.
                      All students who can decode words can also comprehend
                      text.
                      Students who know comprehension strategies generally apply
                      them when they read.
               Component # 1:
          Activate Prior Knowledge


                        What is it?
  Existing information students have about a topic, skill, or
                            idea.


                  Why is it important?
Helps students make connections between what they already
             know and what they are reading.
Activate Prior Knowledge:
   Effective Strategies




      Previewing Text




Making/Monitoring Predictions
          Previewing Text


          Instructional Steps

1. Model by thinking aloud.
   Highlight headings, pictures, key words.
2. Provide small-group practice.
3. Provide independent practice.
     Making/Monitoring Predictions



After previewing text, ask students to make informed
comments about the text and what they will learn.
                                  TOT NOTE:

 Do not solicit guesses.
                                  Make sure participants understand
                                  that predictions are NOT the
                                  same as guesses.

 Keep it brief.
 Revisit after reading to confirm or disconfirm predictions.
 Provide key ideas or concepts to build background
  knowledge.
Other Ways to Activate Prior Knowledge



 Preview the material by identifying key words or concepts.
 Have students briefly discuss what they know about a topic.
 Explain the use of a word splash.
 Describe the use of a KWL chart.
 Demonstrate the use of an anticipation guide.
            Component #2:
  Answering and Generating Questions


                        What is it?
       Strategies that assist students in answering
comprehension questions and generating their own questions
        about the text to facilitate understanding.
                    Why is it important?
         Teaches students where and how to find answers.
Answering and Generating Questions:
        Effective Strategies



        Levels of Questions



          Self-Questioning
        Strategy #1: Determining Levels of
                    Questions


                                          Level 3: Making Connections
                                     Cannot be answered by looking in text alone

                                   Level 2: Putting it Together
                                     Put pieces of information
                             from text together to come up with answer


                                Level 1: Right There
                      Easier questions, one- or two-word answers


(Simmons, Rupley, Vaughn, & Edmonds, 2006; UTCRLA, 2003; Blachowicz & Ogle, 2001; Bos & Vaughn, 2002;
NIFL, 2001; NRP, 2000; Raphael, 1986)
        Goals of Using Leveled Questions


 Help students ask and answer increasingly sophisticated
  types of questions.
 Help students become better consumers of text by being
  able to ask and answer both simple and complex
  questions.
 Show students how to approach different types of
  questions.

 (Simmons, Rupley, Vaughn, & Edmonds, 2006)
   Explicitly Teach Each Question Level



       Introduce one level of question at a time.

   Model how to answer each level of question.


                         Provide guided practice.

          Provide supported, independent practice.
                       Provide immediate feedback to students.
(Simmons, Rupley, Vaughn, & Edmonds, 2006; UTCRLA, 2003; Blachowicz & Ogle, 2001; Bos & Vaughn, 2002;
NIFL, 2001; NRP, 2000; Raphael, 1986)
        Strategy #2: Self-Questioning


The act of asking yourself questions as you read, such
  as:
    Where is this story taking place?
    Why is this information important for me to know?

               This strategy is also used to
                   monitor comprehension.
Explicitly Teaching Self-Questioning



       Model how to self-question.


        Provide guided practice.


  Provide supported, independent practice.
       Provide immediate feedback to students.
What Does Self-Questioning Look Like?



 Materials:
  Handout 9, ―Tornadoes‖
  Scratch paper and pencils
          TOT NOTE:
          Refer to speaker notes as you lead
          participants through this activity.
           Component #3:
Monitoring Comprehension Strategies



                    What are they?
         Strategies that enable students to keep track
    of their understanding as they read and to implement
    ―fix-up‖ strategies when understanding breaks down.


              Why are they important?
    By monitoring their understanding, students become
   more independent in understanding what is being read.
 Effective Strategies for
Monitoring Comprehension




        Main Idea



   “Fix-up” Strategies
 Strategy #1: Finding the Main Idea



       Identify the most important ―who‖ or ―what‖.


       Identify the most important information
              about the ―who‖ or ―what‖.

      Write this information in one short sentence
                 (e.g., 10 words or less).
(Klingner, Vaughn, & Schumm, 1998)
               What Does Finding
            the Main Idea Look Like?


Materials:
 Handout 9, ―Tornadoes‖—one per participant
 Handout 10, ―Finding the Main Idea‖—one per participant



               TOT NOTE:
               Refer to speaker notes as you lead
               participants through this activity.
Strategy #2: ―Fix-Up‖ Strategies



                    Rereading, restating


            Stopping when you come to a
              word that you do not know

         Using strategies to figure out
         unfamiliar words or phrases
(e.g., context clues, breaking the word apart)

(Klingner, Vaughn, Dimino, Schumm, & Bryant, 2001)
           Component #4:
Graphic Organizers and Summarization




      Graphic organizers
          can be used
         to aid students
      with summarization.
      Graphic Organizers


            What are they?
 Visual representations of ideas in text.


       Why are they important?
Assist students in identifying, organizing,
    and remembering important ideas.
     Graphic Organizers can be Used to:


 Activate relevant background knowledge;
 Guide students’ thinking about the text;
 Help students remember important elements and information
  in texts;
 Help students see and understand how concepts relate to
  one another within a text;
 Promote both questioning and discussion as students
  collaborate and share ideas; and
 Provide a springboard for organizing and writing summaries.
  (Simmons, Rupley, Vaughn, & Edmonds, 2006)
    Graphic Organizer for Summarization


                        Main idea of                        Main idea of
                        first section                        second
                                                              section

                                               Big Idea
                                             (provided by
                                             the teacher)


                         Main idea of                       Main idea of
                         third section                         fourth
                                                              section

(Simmons, Rupley, Vaughn, & Edmonds, 2006)
  Summarization Instruction


                 What is it?
     Strategies to help students identify
the most important elements of what they read.

           Why is it important?
Enhances ability to synthesize large amounts
   of information during and after reading.
                  Before Summarizing:
               Using the Graphic Organizer

1. Teacher introduces the graphic
   organizer (GO) and explains its            Main              Main
   purpose.                                   Idea              Idea

2. Teacher provides the ―big idea‖
   of the passage and writes it in                   Big Idea
   the center of the GO.
3. Students read the passage,                 Main              Main
   paragraph by paragraph, and                Idea              Idea
   record the main idea of each
   paragraph on the GO.

 (Simmons, Rupley, Vaughn, & Edmonds, 2006)
Summarization Steps for Students



1   Write a topic sentence using the big idea.


2   Include main ideas in an order that makes sense.


3   Delete information that is redundant or trivial.


4   Reread for understanding and edit if necessary.
       How do I Teach it?


       Model summarization.


      Provide guided practice.

Provide supported, independent practice.
     Provide immediate feedback to students.



  Provide examples and nonexamples.
      What Does Summarization
 With Graphic Organizers Look Like?
                    TOT NOTE:
                    Refer to speaker notes on the next

Materials:          slide as you lead participants through
                    this activity.

    Handout 9, ―Tornadoes‖—one per participant
    Handout 11, ―Graphic Organizer: Main Idea and
     Summarization‖ (for ―Tornadoes‖)—one per
     participant
    Handout 12, ―Graphic Organizer: Main Idea and
     Summarization‖ (blank)—one per participant
Summarization Steps for Students



1   Write a topic sentence using the big idea.


2   Include main ideas in an order that makes sense.


3   Delete information that is redundant or trivial.


4   Reread for understanding and edit if necessary.
    Highlighted Study:
Klingner & Vaughn (1996)


         Participants
    26 students (some LD),
        grades 7 and 8


         Reciprocal
          Teaching

           15 days
               Reciprocal Teaching
                Strategies Taught


 Predict what a passage is about.
 Brainstorm what you know about the topic.
 Clarify words and phrases.
 Highlight the main idea of a paragraph.
 Summarize the main idea.
 Identify important details of a passage.
 Ask and answer questions.
     Reciprocal Teaching
Strategies Taught (continued)

                  Participants
             26 students (some LD),
                 grades 7 and 8


                  Reciprocal
                   Teaching

                    15 days
 Cross-Age                            Cooperative
  Tutoring                              Groups

   n = 13                                n = 13
           Reciprocal Teaching
      Strategies Taught (continued)


   Cross-Age Tutoring                         Cooperative Learning

Participants provided tutoring to           Participants implemented the
    sixth-grade students on                 comprehension strategies in
  comprehension strategies.                 cooperative learning groups
                                             (3–5 students) for 12 days.



             For both interventions, the researcher:
                        Circulated around the room;
                          Monitored behavior; and
                      Provided assistance, as needed.
                     Findings


 Initial reading ability and oral language proficiency
  seemed related to gains in comprehension.
 A greater range of students benefited from strategy
  instruction than would have been predicted.
 Students in both groups continued to show
  improvement in comprehension when provided
  minimal adult support.
      Implications for the Classroom



 Implementing comprehension strategy practice
  within peer groups frees up the teacher for monitoring
  student performance.
 Teachers may want to consider comprehension
  instruction for a wide range of students, including those
  with very low reading levels.
               Components of
       Comprehension Strategy Instruction


     Activate
                                                          Answer/Generate
      Prior
                                                             Questions
    Knowledge

                                        Multicomponent
                                          Instruction

                                                            Summarize
   Monitor
                                                           Using Graphic
Comprehension
                                                            Organizers

(Adapted from Simmons, Rupley, Vaughn, & Edmonds, 2006)
 Multicomponent Comprehension
        Strategies are…


The combination of several reading comprehension
    strategies in order to gain meaning from text.

               Why is it important?

 The combination of strategies increases the level of
  comprehension.
 It leads to eventual automaticity.
                 TOT NOTE:
                 Multicomponent instruction can also be thought of as combining strategies
                 from different components of instruction (e.g., combining strategies used
                 to learn vocabulary words with self-questioning techniques into one lesson).
                 However, for this presentation, we concentrate on combining strategies
                 within the comprehension section.
               How do I Teach it?


  After teaching two or more comprehension strategies,
give students opportunity to practice and apply knowledge.

             Model using the strategies together.



                    Provide guided practice.


             Provide supported, independent practice.
                 Provide immediate feedback to students.
           Teach students to self-regulate their use of strategies.
           Revisit Your Anticipation Chart



Knowledge Before PD                                                                 Knowledge After PD

Agree      Disagree
                                             Statement                              Agree      Disagree

                      Teachers should explicitly teach students comprehension
                      strategies.
                      Having students make predictions about what they will learn
                      should take about 30 minutes when introducing text.
                      All students who can decode words can also comprehend text.
                      Students who know comprehension strategies generally apply
                      them when they read.
          Confirm/Disconfirm Predictions



Prediction:

Based on:


 Confirmed?
 ___ Yes
 ___ No
        Conclusions About
     Comprehension Instruction



           TEACH STRATEGIES

   Do not just ask comprehension questions.

Eventually, show students how to combine these
      strategies and use them concurrently.
                       Motivation



 Contains some basic information on instructional
  strategies that motivate students.
 Time: 20 minutes (one-day format) or 45 minutes
  (two-day format)
 Materials:
   – PowerPoint
   – Copies of slides for participants
       What is Motivation?




     How can I incorporate motivation
into my lessons for my students with reading
         disabilities and difficulties?
              Research on Motivation




Motivation:
   Makes reading enjoyable;
   Increases strategy use; and
   Supports comprehension.

    (Guthrie & Wigfield, 2000)
                                        Motivation


       Successful Readers                                Struggling Readers
Interact with text in a motivated and         May engage in reading as a passive process
strategic way.                                without effortful attention given to activating prior
                                              knowledge, using reading strategies, or employing
                                              other strategic thought processes.
Have improved comprehension and reading       Often have low comprehension of text.
outcomes when engaged with text.


Read more and, thus, have more access to a    Fail to access a variety of wide reading
variety of topics and text types.             opportunities. Given the choice, prefer not to read.

Are interested and curious about topics and   May not be interested or curious to find out about
content in texts and read to find out more.   topics or content by reading.



(Boardman et al., 2008)
    Instructional Practices Associated
         With Improved Motivation

           Four critical instructional practices can improve
                          students’ motivation.
                                                  TOT NOTE:
     1. Provide content goals for reading.        Motivation was not a factor
                                                  included in the COI’s
     2. Support student autonomy.                 meta-analysis.
                                                  More info on each of these
                                                  strategies can be found in
     3. Provide interesting texts.                the practice brief.

     4. Increase collaboration during reading.


(Guthrie & Humenick, 2004)
            Instructional Practice #1:
                  Content Goals

 A content goal is a question or purpose for reading. It
 emphasizes the importance of and increases interest in
 learning from what we read. A teacher could:
 Facilitate the use of relevant background knowledge.
 Arrange hands-on experiences.
 Make content goals interesting and relevant.
 Model behaviors of a curious reader.
 Involve students in creating and tracking content goals.
 Provide feedback on progress of meeting goals.

(Guthrie & Humenick, 2004)
                Instructional Practice #2:
               Support Student Autonomy

Student autonomy refers to students making instructional decisions
for themselves.

          Provide opportunities for students to select which text they
           read.
          Allow students to choose aspects of the task in which they
           are to engage.
          Provide opportunities for students to either select partners
           or groups, or to work alone.


         (Guthrie & Humenick, 2004)
             Instructional Practice #3:
               Use Interesting Texts

  Students enjoy reading texts they find interesting and
  choose to continue reading these texts during free time.
  Here are several guidelines for selecting appropriate
  and interesting material:
   Choose texts for which students possess background
    knowledge.
   Choose texts that are visually pleasing and appear readable.
   Choose texts that are relevant to students’ interests.
   Provide stimulating tasks.

(Guthrie & Humenick, 2004)
      Instructional Practice #4:
Increase Collaboration During Reading


 Adolescents are motivated by working together.
 Collaboration increases the number of opportunities
 struggling readers have to respond.
    Allow students to collaborate by reading together, sharing
     information, and presenting their knowledge.
    Teach collaborative group work skills.
    Use collaboration to foster a sense of belonging to the
     classroom community (Anderman, 1999).

   (Guthrie & Humenick, 2004)
                  Motivation:
                 Practical Ideas


   Provide            Provide        Allow students
weekly/monthly     student choice.      to choose
   rewards.                             incentives.


  Schedule         Allow students    Allow students to
   student         to graph their        participate
 conferences.         progress.      in goal setting or
                                     lesson planning.
    Effective Reading Instruction at the
  Secondary Level: Putting it all Together

            A Review of Instructional Recommendations
 Teach word study skills to adolescent readers who struggle at the word level.
  There are a variety of methods to teach this information, but most involve
  teaching students to decode words by recognizing syllable types or by
  analyzing parts of words.
 Use data to decide how much fluency intervention students should receive and
  whether it should be paired with instruction in decoding, vocabulary, and/or
  comprehension-enhancing practices.
 Teach the meanings of words to students to enhance their vocabulary. Your
  instructional goals will guide the words and instructional approach you select.
 Teach students specific comprehension strategies that they can use to
  enhance their comprehension. Once individual strategies are taught, combine
  two or more into a single lesson.
 Use instructional practices that promote student motivation.
 Considerations for Implementation


Adjust the focus and intensity of interventions
according to individual student needs.
  Assess and monitor the progress of students.
  Provide targeted support in well-planned, small-group
   sessions over a long period of time.
Considerations for Implementation
           (continued)



 Provide professional development and support
  to teachers in general education classrooms
       to provide classwide interventions.
 Considerations for Implementation
            (continued)

Create ways for general education teachers and
specialists to collaborate and coordinate on:
  Instructional techniques and content.
  Programwide decisions.
  Implementation of reading instruction.
                       Continue to Learn!


Use Center on Instruction resources to build your background
knowledge of reading instruction for older struggling readers.
   Academic Literacy Instruction for Adolescents: A Guidance
    Document from the Center on Instruction
   Adolescent Literacy Resources: An Annotated Bibliography
   Interventions for Adolescent Struggling Readers: A Meta-analysis
    With Implications for Practice
   Effective Instruction for Adolescent Struggling Readers: A Practice
    Brief

  Continue to seek out other sources of support and knowledge.
  Visit www.centeroninstruction.org.

				
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