Early Childhood Speech and Langu

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					Early Childhood Speech and
  Language Development
                 Presented to:
                 Happy Talkers
               Bright Beginnings
                 May 17, 2008
             Pleasanton, California

                       By:
       Dr. Deborah Ross-Swain, Ed.D., CCC
          Speech-Language Pathologist
                The Swain Center
               795 Farmers Lane
                    Suite 23
                 Santa Rosa, CA.
           dswain@theswaincenter.com
             www.theswaincenter.com
    What is Speech?
Speech refers to the sounds that
come out of our mouth and take
shape in the form of words. Humans
produce both consonant and vowel
sounds. Children learn to produce 16
vowel sounds and 24 consonant
sounds.
    What is Language?
Language refers to the content of
  what is spoken, written, read or
  understood. Language can also be
  gestural, as when we use body
  language or sign language. Language is
  categorized into receptive and
  expressive language.
 Receptive language…
Refers to the ability to comprehend
and understand speech or gestures.
Receptive language is the input
system of language. It is what we see
and hear and the information that we
take in. It is the comprehension of
information.
  Expressive language…
Refers to the ability to formulate and
 express wants , needs, ideas and
 opinions. Expressive language is the
 output system of language. It is the
 expression of communication.
    Precursors to Language
         Development
•   The ears must hear well enough for the child to distinguish one word from
    another.
•   Someone must show, or model, what words mean and how sentences are put
    together.
•   The ears must hear intonation patterns, accents and sentence patterns.
•   The brain must have enough intellectual capacity to process what those
    words and sentences mean.
•   The brain must be able to store all of this information so that it can be
    retrieved later.
•   The brain must have a way to re-create words and sentences heard
    previously when it wants to communicate an idea to someone else.
•   Children must have the physical ability to speak in order for the words to
    be heard or understood when used.
•   Children must have a psychological or social need and interest to use these
    words and communicate with others.
•   Another interested person must reinforce attempts at communication.
    What is Listening?
Listening is an active process of
  hearing and processing to
  comprehend what is being said.
  Listening is what the brain does with
  what the ears hear.
Steps involved in listening
• Sound waves must carry the spoken words to our
  ears.
• The sound must travel through the outer ear
  canals without obstruction.
• The sound must then pass through the inner ear
  which must be functioning properly.
• The sound must travel through the auditory nerve
  to the cortex of the brain.
• The brain then tries to compare what it hears to
  previously stored sounds and words to make sense
  of the message.
         Listening…
• Provides the foundation for processing,
  speech and language development and
  learning.
• Involves the skills of auditory
  perception and discrimination,
  immediate memory, auditory attention,
  auditory closure, auditory association,
  auditory comprehension and auditory
  cohesion.
    Additional language
       precursors…
• Develop from birth to between 18
  and 24 months.
• Divided into 3 skills
  Cognition
  Communication development
  Sound production
           Cognition
• Cognition refers to thinking skills.
  For children at a “pre-language” level,
  thinking skills develop by using and
  playing with toys and other objects.
   Object Permanence
This is knowing that something exits even
though it is out of sight.
   Example: A baby looks down to find a
   dropped rattle… the beginning of the
   development of object permanence.
Soon the baby uncovers a toy that has been
hidden under a blanket… advancing in the
development of object permanence.
      Means and Ends
• Means and ends refers to the ability
  to use their bodies or other objects
  to get what they want.
  – Example: When your baby reaches and
    grasps for your hair.
  – Example: When your baby crawls across
    a room to get a toy.
  – Example: A toddler climbing on a chair
    to get a treat.
   Cause and Effect
Cause and effect refers to a child‟s
ability to use objects to create
interesting events, sign, and sounds.
Early developing cause and effect skills
are developed with the use of toys.

  •Example: Shaking rattles or squeezing
  toys.
  •Example: Pushing down a knob or button to
  make a toy operate.
  •Example: Winding a handle and something
  pops up.
              Object Use
• Object use refers to a child‟s ability
  to manipulate objects.
  Examples: Babies mouth objects as a way to explore
  them. Later, they use objects by looking at them, banging
  them together, dropping them or throwing them.
  Eventually, they will use objects in socially appropriate
  ways.
  Social Communication
      Development
Children communicate to:
  1.   Satisfy wants or needs.
  2.   Control someone.
  3.   Establish or maintain social contacts.
  4.   Express feelings.
  5.   Respond to their surroundings.
   Skills used in early
communication development
Sound: Crying is the newborn‟s most
powerful way to communicate. The early
communication effort of crying is
reinforced as babies are fed, picked up
or changed. Infants soon learn to make
sounds when someone talks to them,
when they see a familiar adult, or when
they want attention.
   Skills used in early
communication development
•Facial expressions: Eye contact between
babies and their caregivers is a very early
way to communicate. Smiling, which occurs
a few months later, is an important
response for developing interaction.
Eventually, babies develop facial
expressions to indicate when they are
happy, sad, angry, hurt and excited.
   Skills used in early
communication development
•Gestures and body movements: From
birth, babies move their bodies to
communicate when they are upset or to
protest when they are being put down.
Soon, they may indicate the desire for an
activity to continue or to happen again.
As babies learn to control their bodies,
their movements become more and more
deliberate.
   Skills used in early
communication development

Children must have a reason to talk or
 they will not develop language. The
 use of sounds, facial expressions,
 body movements and gestures lays
 the groundwork for talking.
    Sound Development
• Talking requires very precise
  coordination of the tongue, lips,
  teeth, and jaw, along with breathing
  and vibration of the vocal cords. This
  coordination develops as babies
  develop physical control and are able
  to experiment with a variety of
  sounds.
     Experimenting with
          Sounds
• Cooing is the use of varying vowel sounds. From
  early on, babies make “ah” sounds if someone talks
  to them. These sounds are soon followed by other
  vowel sounds. Cooing expands when they imitate
  others. As they develop more control of the
  articulators, they will begin to produce consonant
  sounds.
• Babbling is the use of consonant sounds in short
  and specific sound patterns such as “ba-ba-ba.”
• Babbling and cooing are essential to the speech
  and language development process.
    Typical Receptive
  Language Development
1 month: responds to voice
2 months: eyes follow movement
3 months: coos in response to pleasant voice
4 months: turns head in response to sound
5 months: responds to own name
6 months: Appears to recognize words like
daddy, bye-bye, and mama
     Typical Receptive
   Language Development
7 months: shows interest in the sounds of objects
8 months: recognizes the names of some common
   objects
9 months: follows simple directions (“Find the ball.”
   “Give me the ball.”
10 months: understands no and stop
11 months: appears to understand simple questions
   (“Where is the ball?”)
12 months: recognizes names of objects, people,
   pets and action verbs
     Typical Receptive
   Language Development
13-18 months: understands some new words each week,
   identifies pictures in a book, identifies a few body parts,
   identifies some common objects
19-24 months: recognizes many common objects and pictures
   when named, understands possession (“Where‟s mama‟s
   shoe?”), follows many simple directions
25-30 months: understands the use of objects, understands
   prepositions (in, on, off, on, up, down), understands simple
   questions, understands pronouns (I, me, my, mine)
31-36 months: listens to simple stories, follows a two-part
   direction, understands taking turns
     Typical Expressive
   Language Development
• During the first month: Vowel-like sounds and crying
  emerge
• By 2 months: Baby is able to produce different kinds of
  cries.
• By 3 months: Baby begins using m, p, and b, which are made
  with the lips and are easy to see and imitate.
• By 6 months: May spend long periods of time making
  sounds. May begin producing simple syllables, such as ma and
  pa. This vocal play is a very important foundation for spoken
  language, which will emerge during the next six months.
• By 7 months: Begins to put together two syllables while
  babbling. Some sounds begin to sound almost like real words.
  Vocal play is more frequent.
      Typical Expressive
    Language Development
•   By 9 months: May sing along with music and has probably learned
    to play “peek-a-boo” or “pat-a-cake.” Can babble a number of
    different syllables and is learning to produce new sounds. Asks for
    toys and food by pointing and making sounds. Shakes head for “no.”
•   By 10-12 months: Tries to imitate new words and usually says
    first words. More sentence-like sounds are present. May “talk” to
    family members without using true words. May make music sounds
    and if singing along while listening to music and may wave “bye bye”
    when prompted.
•   By 1 year: The baby who is developing language normally will use
    from one to three spoken words. However, these words may have
    uncommon and unexpected meanings– baby may use bird not just
    for birds but also kites and even airplanes!
     Typical Expressive
   Language Development
• By 18 months: Toddler repeats some overheard words and
  usually tries to communicate using real words– not just
  gestures. May begin getting ready to put phrases together
  by linking single words with a long pause in between.
  (“Mommy…cookie!”)
• By 21 years: Most children use simple two word phrases
  such as bye-bye daddy or more cookie. Single words, pauses
  between words decrease. During this year, the child begins
  making different kinds of short phrases in order to talk
  about objects, locations and actions. The two year old will
  use words to control adults‟ behavior, to request toys, to
  answer questions and to reject some foods.
    Typical Expressive
  Language Development
•By 2 ½ years: Children use more short
phrases than single words. They usually begin
to put together some three and four words
phrases. At this age, your probably will sit with
you and go through a picture book, repeating
names of animals or vehicles and making the
appropriate noises. More turn-taking is obvious
during conversations.
   Speech, Language and
   Listening Milestones
Birth to 3 months:
         Reacts to sudden noises by crying or
         jerking body.
         Reacts to familiar objects, such as a
         bottle, or familiar people, such as parents.
         Differentiates the cry of pain from the cry
         of hunger.
         Coos, begins to form prolonged vowels with
         changes in intonation (Ahhhh-AH-ahhh!)
         Watches objects intently.
   Speech, Language and
   Listening Milestones
• 3 to 6 Months:
  – Begins to babble, using syllables with a consonant and a
    vowel (“baa-ba-BA-ba-ba”) and uses intonation changes.
  – Laughs and shows pleasure when happy
  – Turns the head to see where the sound is coming from
  – Reacts when his or her name is heard
  – Uses a louder voice for crying and babbling than before
  – Shows delight when bottle or breast in presented.
   Speech, Language and
   Listening Milestones
• 6 to 9 months:
   – Begins to comprehend simple words such as “no” and looks at
     family members when named.
   – Babbles with a singsong pattern at times.
   – Controls babbling to two syllables, which sometimes sounds like
     words such as MaMa, although meaning is typically not
     understood by the baby yet.
   – Understands facial expressions and reacts to them.
   – Attempts gestures to correspond to pat-a-cake and bye-bye.
   – Shakes head to show no.
   – Uses more and more sounds when babbling, such as syllables
     with da, ba, ka, pa, ma and wa.
   Speech, Language and
   Listening Milestones
• 9 to 12 months:
   –   Has fun imitating simple sounds and babbling.
   –   Begins to say “Mama” or “Dada” or another word, sometimes
   –   Begins to understand that words represent objects
   –   Jabbers loudly
   –   Responds to music
   –   Gives or seeks a toy or common object when requested.
   –   Imitates common animal sounds
   –   Gestures and whines to request something
   –   Looks directly at the source of sound immediately.
   –   Will watch and imitate what you do.
     Speech, Language and
     Listening Milestones
•   12 to 18 months:
    – Understands 50-75 words.
    – Uses 3-20 “real” words, even if not produced completely clearly
    – Will point to the right place or answer (“Bed”) when asked questions
      (“Where‟s your pillow?”)
    – Points to known objects when named
    – Points to a few simple body parts (eyes, nose)
    – Babbles and uses nonsense words while pointing
    – Follows simple one-step commands
    – Uses words like more, all-gone, mine and down
    – Imitates words
    – Pronounces some understandable words
    – Typical utterances include: “Daddy, doppit” (Stop it) or “Appuh” (Apple)
     Speech, Language and
     Listening Milestones
•   18 months to 2 years:
     –   Comprehends about 300 words
     –   Uses about 50 recognizable words, mostly nouns
     –   Speaks often with mostly real words, but still babbles and uses jargon some of
         the time.
     –   Wants to hear the same stories over and over.
     –   Uses rising intonation pattern to show a question
     –   Shakes head to answer yes/no questions
     –   Follows two related commands (“Go upstairs and get your bottle.”
     –   Begins to use some verbs (go) and adjectives (big).
     –   Joins two related words to make one word (geddown for get down)
     –   Starts to ask “What‟s at?” (for What‟s that?)
     –   Speech is often difficult to understand
     –   Tells you his or her name when asked
     –   Joins in nursery rhymes or songs, but often mumbles or just gets a word or two
     –   Speaks with many pauses between words
     –   Typical utterances include “Dawddie bad” (Doggie bad) or “Go „way” (Go away)
     Speech, Language and
     Listening Milestones
•   2 to 3 years:
     –   Understands about 900 words
     –   Uses about 500 words
     –   Speech is understandable 50-70% of the time
     –   Engages in eye contact during conversation with occasional prompting
     –   Makes frustrations known more with words and less with temper tantrums and crying
     –   Wants to show you things and get your attention constantly
     –   Identifies a boy and a girl
     –   Answers simple questions beginning with who, where, and what
     –   Understands and uses simple prepositions such as in, on and so forth
     –   Begins to ask yes/no questions (“it raining?”)
     –   Talks to self while playing
     –   Begins to use function words (“Ball is red.”)
     –   Begins to use past tense
     –   Stutters when excited sometimes by repeating whole words (“I-can-I-can play now?”)
     –   Pronounces these sounds consistently in words: m, n, p, f, b, d, h, y, m
     –   Typical utterances include: “Daddy‟s tar so big!” (Daddy‟s car so big.) “I doe wannit” (I don‟t
         want it.”
     Developing Listening
            Skills
• Provide the most comfortable, secure, and loving family life
  possible.
   – Spend time together listening to soothing music.
   – Play a recording of the mother‟s heartbeat for a fretful infant.
   – Rock and sing to your infant– this universal effect relates to
     the comfort and protection of the womb.
• Repeat and expand on what the young child says without
  making an issue of how clear the speech is. This lets the
  child know that you are listening with criticizing.
• Be a good role model for listening. Look at the child when
  you speak and listen. Call the child‟s name and touch the
  child‟s shoulder when you begin to speak to help the child
  focus on your voice. Avoid interrupting.
    Developing Listening
           Skills
• Provide sounds that children find interesting–
  especially music and voices
   – Buy tapes or CDs of children‟s music.
   – Reading and telling stories are essential to
     speech, language and listening development.
• Set aside a special listening time each day
  with your child. Sing songs, speak in rhymes,
  and describe what you hear, see or touch.
    Home Activities for
 Developing Language Skills
• Mealtime Concepts:
  – Nouns: names of food and food groups, dishes, utensils,
    furniture, napkin, placement, etc.
  – Actions: eat, drink, taste, chew, swallow, cut, pour
  – Opposites: hot/cold, sweet/sour, more/less, empty/full,
    etc.
  – Adjectives: colors and shapes of foods: crunchy, mushy,
    soupy, baked, fried, all gone, etc.
  – Location: on the table, next to the plate, under the
    chair, etc.
    Home Activities for
 Developing Language Skills
• Bath time concepts:
   –   Nouns: towel, washcloth, bathtub, faucet, etc.
   –   Body parts
   –   Actions: rub, wash, scrub, splash
   –   Adjectives: wet/dry, clean/dirty, empty/full, etc.
   –   Location
   –   Time concepts: before/after, next, first, last, now, later
   –   Water concepts: sink/float, solid/liquid, bubbles, waves,
       pour, spray, etc.
       Home Activities for
    Developing Language Skills
•   Getting Dressed concepts:
     – Nouns: shirt, socks, shoes, etc.
     – Major body parts: arm, leg, belly, etc.
     – Less obvious body parts: fingers, cheeks, chin, elbow, wrist, etc.
     – Actions: push, pull, put, raise, stand up, sit down, button
     – Prepositions: on/off, in/out, through, around, over, etc.
     – Time/Sequence: first, next, last, before, after, now, later, today, etc.
     – Adjectives: colors, dirty/clean, new/old, same/different, pretty/ugly,
       light/dark, hot/cold
     – Categories: things to wear on your feet, head, hands, etc.
     – Things that keep you warm or cool
     – Number: one, two, etc, every, each, same size, etc.
    Home Activities for
 Developing Language Skills
• “TV Talk” Activities
   – Give background information.
   – Focus attention. (i.e. alert your child to watch for
     certain details)
   – Relate TV information to the real world.
   – Interpret events
   – Predict events (i.e. ask what might happen next)
   – Discover humor
   – Discover feelings
   – Shape values (i.e. identify good and bad values in
     characters.)
    Home Activities for
 Developing Language Skills
• Vacation activities:
   –   Walk and talk.
   –   What animal am I?
   –   Follow the leader
   –   Hide and seek.
• Indoor activities:
   – Silly pictures. (cut up old magazines and make silly
     pictures. i.e. glue a car in the air. Your child will enjoy
     talking about why the pictures are silly.)
   – Cartoons. (Save from newspapers and allow child to color
     them, add speech bubbles and read your new cartoons to
     each other.)
    Home Activities for
 Developing Language Skills
• Travel activities:
     •   Find this…
     •   Rhyming…
     •   Memory Games…
     •   Guessing Games…
     •   Singing…
     •   TV Talk…
     •   Memories…
    Home Activities for
 Developing Language Skills
• Songs and Fingerplays
   –   This little piggy
   –   Pat-a-cake
   –   Open, Shut them
   –   Knees and toes
   –   My Balloon
   –   Ring Around the Rosy
   –   London Bridge is Falling Down
   –   Wheels on the Bus
   –   Nursery Rhymes
       Home Activities for
    Developing Language Skills
•   Using photographs to teach language skills…
     –   Use photographs to learn about symbols.
     –   Use photographs to develop sorting skills.
           •   Let‟s fine all the words that start with this sound.
           •   Circle every picture with two animals.
           •   Find all the animals that change color in the winter.
     –   Make category photo albums with your child. (i.e. things I like/don‟t like, yellow
         things, round things, food, animals, etc.)
     –   Identify categories to which photos belong.
     –   Take photos of albums in a category.
     –   Talk about memorable events using photos.
     –   Talk about sequences of an activity using photos.
     –   Encourage discussion of topics important to your child using photos.
     –   Facilitate home/school interaction using photos (i.e. allow teacher to take photos
         and send them home with child for discussion.)
     –   Provide practice in learning language skills. (Photographs can be reviewed and
         discussed repeatedly.)