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Input _ output devices

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					Input & Output Devices



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  Input Devices
Input devices are used to feed data and
instructions to the computer systems.They
consist of a range of devices that take data and
programs from the outside world that people can
read or comprehend and convert them to a form
that the computer can manipulate.




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 Input Devices...
The form of the input may be by means of
  Keyboard, Pointing device
  Writing & drawing input devices
  Video, Text, voice input




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Key board

It’s similar as normal typewriter keyboard, plus a
number of special keys.
Standard keys are used to enter words & numbers.
Special keys so called “function keys” labeled as
F1,F2 ... are used to enter commands.
A numeric keypad that resembles an electronic
calculator’s keypad.

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Key board

Cursor-movement key
QWERTY keyboard
104-key enhanced keyboard


Used for data entry and to issue commands into the
system.


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Pointing device - Mouse

 A mouse is a device that can be rolled on a
 desktop to direct a pointer (cursor) on the
 computers display screen. The cursor is the
 symbol on the screen that shows where data
 may be entered next or the command to be
 activated.
 Pointing devices commonly have two or three
 buttons that are used to issue commands to the
 computer.
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Pointing device - Mouse

 Command Actions
 Point - an act of moving the pointing device
 to an object on-screen.
 Click - select the object on-screen.
 Drag - holding down the pointing-device
 button while moving the selected object on-
 screen.
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Pointing device - Trackball

 A trackball performs like a stationary,
 upside-down mouse.
 Most portable laptop computers use a built-in
 or clip-on trackball.




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Pointing device - Joystick

 A joystick is a small lever that can be moved
 in any direction to move an object on the
 screen.
 Usually associated with playing computer
 games.




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Graphics Input - Scanner
Image scanners or graphic
scanners convert the printed
or photographic image on
paper into electronic signals
and then into digital form.
These digital information
then can be stored in a
computer & manipulated.

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Text Input - Scanner

Text are scanned from the printed page into
the computer, as an attempt to reduce errors
in data entry while speeding up the process
as well. The software incorporated converts
the scanned images into character codes and
thus enables text processing.



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Text Input - OCR
Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
An input device that can read and recognise the
symbols of text (special printed characters) &
convert them to the machine readable form.




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  Writing & Drawing Input Devices -
             Light Pen

The light pen is a light sensitive stylus, or pen
like device, connected by a wire to the computer
terminal.
The user brings the pen to a desired point on the
display screen and presses the pen button, which
identifies that screen location to the computer.

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  Writing & Drawing Input Devices -
            Touch Screen

The touch screen is video display screen that has
been sensitized to receive input from the touch of
a finger.




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  Writing & Drawing Input Devices -
           Digitizing Tablet
A digitizing tablet consists of a tablet connected
by a wire to a stylus or puck.
A stylus is a pen like device with which the user
“sketches” an image.
A puck is a copying device with which the user
copies an image as it is moved over a desired path
on a sketch.
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  Writing & Drawing Input Devices -
           Digitizing Tablet


More sophisticated stylus or pointing devices with
high accuracy are used by designers, architects,
artists, desktop publishers, map makers, etc.




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Video input (Digital Camera)

As with sound, most films & video are generated
and recorded in analog forms in which the signals
are in continuously varying nature. Thus the
signals come from the systems such as VCR,
videodisk or laser disk, or a camcorder must be
converted to digital form through a special video
capture card installed in the computer.


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Video input
Two type of video cards,
  • Frame grabber video card
     can capture & digitize only a single frame at a time.

  • Full motion video card
     can convert analog to digital signals at the rate of 30
     frames per second, giving the effect of a
     continuously following motion picture.

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Voice input (Voice Recognition)

Converts the person’s speech in to digital code
by comparing the electrical patterns produce by
the speaker’s voice with a set of prerecorded
patterns stored in the computer.




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Source Data Input - MICR
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
MICR characters which are printed with magnetic ink ,
containing magnetic particles are read by MICR
equipment producing digitised signals.
Used by banks to read the information such as printed
serial numbers on the bottom of cheques using magnetic
ink.
MICR reader/sorter can process cheques and other
documents at speeds of up to 2000 documents per
minute.                                             20
Source Data Input - Magnetic strip

Used on the backs of credit cards and bank debit
cards, and various other plastic cards.
Enables readers, such as automated teller
machines (ATM) to read account information.




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Source Data Input - OMR
Optical-Mark Recognition (OMR)
An input device that senses marks on a piece of
paper, using a light beam, and converts them into
electronic signals which are sent to the computer
for processing.
Commonly used to mark the questionnaires or school
examination answer sheets where the students, using
pencils mark certain boxes on the examination answer
sheets provided.
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Source Data Input - Bar codes

Commonly used by sales and stock people in
retail stores and supermarkets.
Point-of-sale (POS) terminal scans the bar codes
of the Universal Product Code (UPC) to register
the price, which is programmed into the host
computer, as well as to deduct the item from
stock.

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Output devices
Translate information processed by the computer
into a form that human or another machine can
recognize. The two principle kind of output are
hardcopy & softcopy .
  • Hardcopy refers to a printed output.
  • Softcopy refers to the information that is
  shown on the display screen or is in audio or
  video form.
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Output devices
There are several ways to produce output
  • Text output
  • Graphics output
  • Sound output
  • Video output



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Output devices
 Text Output
   is simply the alphanumeric characters that
   make up our language. Text output
   appearance ranges from typewritten to typeset
   quality.




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Output devices
Graphics Output
  includes line drawings, maps, presentations
  business graphics, computer-aided design,
  computer painting, photographic
  reproduction.




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Output devices
Sound output
  ranges from the message beeps produced by
  the computer system to the human voice to
  music and other forms of sound




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Output devices
Video output
  Photographs (still images) or moving images
  such as television and videotaped material




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Printer
A printer provides hard copy output on paper.
The basic criteria for evaluating printers include:
   • Quality of the printed output.
   • Speed at which printed pages are produced.
   • Sound level during printing.
   • Cost of printing media (ribbons, cartridges).
   • Conservation of paper.
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Printers
Impact Printers
Form characters or images by striking a mechanism such
as print hammer or wheel against an inked ribbon leaving
an image on paper. Make high noise. Now used less.

Non- Impact Printers
Form characters or images without making direct physical
contact between printing mechanism and paper.


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Impact Printers
First printing technology.
Early days typewriters were adapted, produced
same high-quality output. Cannot change fonts nor
can print graphics or colours. Only the symbols
available in the printing mechanism can be
produced on the paper.
     e.g. daisy wheel printer, drum and belt printers.


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Impact Printers
Followed by dot-matrix printers.
Dot-matrix output is produced by printers that use
wires in the print head. These wires extend out in
different patterns, pressing against the ribbon to
print the characters on paper. As this mechanism
enables the print control up to the dot level on the
paper, the can be used to produce both text and
graphics.
Fast, but noisy. Wear out ribbons very quickly.
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Non-Impact Printers -
            Laser Printing
Provide high-quality non-impact printing. Output is
created by directing a laser beam onto a drum to
create an electrical charge that forms a pattern of
letters or images.
As the drum rotates, it picks up black toner on the
images and transfers them to paper. The heating
process then fixes the toner particles permanently
on the paper.
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Non-Impact Printers - Laser Printing
Excellent print quality and font selection.
Fast printing. E.g. 8-500 pages per minute
High quality graphics with colour. High resolution.
Medium level noise, but high cost.
Primary disadvantages are expensive
maintenance and the high cost of toner
cartridges.

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Non-Impact Printers - Inkjet Printing

Inkjet printer transfers characters and images to
paper by spraying a fine jet of ink.
Offers nearly the quality of laser printing, but not
the speed. Low-cost alternative for high quality
printing.




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Plotters
It is a specialized output device designed to
produce high-quality graphics in a variety of
colours. That are especially useful for creating
maps and architectural drawings, although they
may also produce less complicated charts and
graphics.
Type of plotters
  • Pen plotter
  • Electrostatic plotter
  • Thermal plotter
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Video Monitor

Provides soft copy output.
Comes in either monochrome or colour.
• A monochrome display a single colour against
  a different coloured background, such as
  green on black amber on black or white on
  black.
• Colour display can show a variety of colours.
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Video Displays

Resolution - describes the degree
of details in a video display.
• The higher the resolution the characters and
  images are sharper and crisper as film image.
• Conventional television display is low
  resolution as we can see lines, jagged edges
  and graininess in the image.

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 Video Displays
Bit-mapped display offers extremely high-
resolution. Bit map means that each dot on
the screen, called a pixel (for picture
element) is represented by one bit (a 1 or 0)
by the computer. (monochrome)
Bit-mapped graphics is the colour version of
a bit map display. Each pixel identifies a
number (e.g. 1-256 on a 256-colour palette)
indicating what colour that pixel should be.
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Video Displays

 The liquid crystal
 display (LCD) is a
 flat-screen display
 commonly used
 with portable
 computers.


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Terminal

A monitor-keyboard combination.
Has no system unit of its own, but instead uses
the facility from a central computer via a
communication link.
Mainframes, minicomputers and workstation
systems support multiple terminals.


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Terminal

Dumb terminal performs the simplest input and
output operations but no processing.
     e.g. A bank ATM

Smart (intelligent) terminal may have its own
CPU or processing capabilities, as well as built-
in disk for storage
     e.g. Point-of-sale (POS) cash register

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Virtual Reality

An artificial, three-dimensional reality created
by the computer giving the real world-like
feeling to the user.
Involves many human senses. Special gloves
and stereoscopic eyewear are used.
Pilots being trained in a flight simulator


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