Essential by fjhuangjun

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Essential Computer Concepts




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                          Course Objectives
             At the end of the course, you will understand:


• The components of a               • Hardware and software
  computer system                     used to establish a
• The different types of              network connection
  computers                         • Internet, e-mail, and
• Personal computer                   World Wide Web
  hardware and its functions        • System software
• Peripheral devices                • Popular application
                                      software
                                    • Data sharing among
                                      different application
                                      software
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                    What is a Computer?


A computer is a device that :
• Accepts input
• Processes data
• Stores data
• Produces output

• A computer executes machine instructions.

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                How a Computer Works


The data you type into the computer is called
 input.

The result of the computer processing your
 input is called output.



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                  What is a Computer?


A Computer System is made up of:
• Hardware—the physical components
  (physical body of a human being)
• Software—the programs or lists of
  instructions (mind, thought of a human
  being, issuing instructions to control the
  hardware to work properly)
• Peripherals (optional, not the core)—the
  additional components
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                     How a Computer Works


The hardware,
 software, and you
 work together to
 complete tasks.




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                       What is a Computer?


Architecture or configuration is the design of
 the computer.
As in, what does the computer consist of?


Specification is the technical detail about each
  component.
As in, how big is the monitor?


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                     Types of Computers


The categories of computers are:
• Personal or microcomputers
  – Desktop
  – Notebook, Laptop, Table PC
• Hand-help or PDAs
• Mainframes
• Supercomputers


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                   Types of Computers


Personal computers
  are used for general
  computing tasks
  and fit the needs of
  most users




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                   Types of Computers




Hand-held computers fit in the palm of your
 hand and run on batteries.

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                  Types of Computers



Mainframes are used by companies to provide
 centralized storage, processing, and
 management for large amounts of data.




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                      Types of Computers


Supercomputers are the
  largest and fastest of
  computers, and can
  process an enormous
  volume of data.




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                   Computer Hardware


Computer hardware includes:
•   CPU (processor, microprocessor)
•   Memory
•   Storage devices and media
•   Input devices
•   Output devices
•   Communication devices

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                    Processing Hardware


• The two most important components of personal
  computers hardware are CPU (the microprocessor)
  and memory. (Together they can be compared to
  the brain of a human being.)

• These two factors directly affect the computer‘s
  price and performance.


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                      The Microprocessor


• The microprocessor is a silicon chip designed to
  manipulate data.

• Its speed is determined by:
   – Clock speed
   – Word size
   – Cache size



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                   Computer Hardware


• The most important computer function is
  data processing.

• Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the
  processing hardware responsible for
  executing instructions to process data.


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                                  Memory


Computer memory is a set of storage locations on the
  motherboard.
There are four types of memory:
• Random access memory (RAM)
• Virtual memory
• Read-only memory
• Complementary metal oxide semiconductor
  memory (CMOS)
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                               Memory


RAM is temporary memory that is constantly
 changing while the computer is on.

Virtual memory is extra memory that
 simulates RAM if more is needed.



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                                  Memory


Read-only memory (ROM) is the permanent storage
  location for a set of instructions the computer
  uses.

CMOS memory is semi-permanent information
 about where essential software is stored.




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                     Processing Hardware


• Computers interpret every signal as ―on‖ or ―off.‖

• 1 (―on‖) and 0 (―off‖) are referred to as bits.

• Eight bits is a byte. Each byte represents a unique
  character. For example ‗A‘ usually consumes 1
  byte.


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                    Data Representation


Storage and memory capacity is the amount of data
  the storage device can handle.

• Kilobyte (KB) is about one thousand bytes
• Megabyte (MB) is about one million bytes
• Gigabyte (GB) is about one billion bytes



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                          Storage Devices




A storage device receives data from RAM and writes
  it on a storage medium. Later, it can be read and
  sent back to RAM.
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                             Storage Devices


Data is stored as files.

Executable files tell computers how to perform
  specific tasks.

Data files are created by the user, usually with
  software.


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                           Storage Devices


Files are kept on storage devices.

There are:
Magnetic storage devices and
Optical storage devices.




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                               Storage Devices


Some common
                                              A floppy disk
  magnetic storage
  devices are:
•   Floppy disks
•   Hard disk drives
•   Tape drives
•   Zip drives

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                            Storage Devices


Some common optical storage devices are:

•   CD-ROM drives
•   DVD drives
•   CD-R drives
•   CD-RW drives



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                          Storage Devices


CD-ROMs are for ―read-only‖ access.

CD-R drives allow you to record data on a CD-R
 disk.

CD-RW drives allow you to write data on a CD-RW
 disk and access and modify data.


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                         Computer Hardware


Some input devices are:
•   Keyboard
•   Mouse
•   Wireless pointer
•   Touch pad
•   Track point

                                                     Cordless mouse

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                 Computer Hardware


Output devices are:
Monitors and Printers are common output
 devices.

CRT monitors and LCD (or flat panel display)
 monitors are two types of monitors.


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                     Computer Hardware


Factors that influence a
  monitor‘s quality are:
• Screen Size

• Resolution

• Dot Pitch


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Types of Printers include:


                • Laser

                • Ink-jet

                • Dot Matrix



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                      Other media devices

• Media devices are generally related to storage,
  input and output functionalities.

• Multimedia devices are peripheral devices that
  include text, graphics, sound, animation, and
  video.

• Speakers and sound cards are common multimedia
  output devices

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               Data Communications


Data Communications is the
 transmission of text, numeric, voice, or
 video data from one computer to
 another.




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                           Data Bus



The data bus is the communication
 between microprocessor, RAM, and
 the peripherals.



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                            Data Bus


Computer
 expansion ports




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                             Data Bus


USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports replace
 numerous connectors with one plug
 and port combination. The device you
 install must have a USB connector.




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                             Networks


A network connects one computer to
 other computers and peripherals.

In a local area network (LAN),
  computers and peripherals are close to
  each other.

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                              Networks


A client/server network is a network
 with a file server. A file server acts as
 the central storage location.

A network without a file server is a peer-
 to-peer network. All of the computers
 are equal.
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               Networks




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                               Networks


Each computer that is part of the network
  must have a network interface card and
  network software.
Then it becomes a workstation.

Any device connected to the network is called
 a node.

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                  Telecommunications

Telecommunications is communicating over
  a telephone. In the telecommunications
  process, the modem converts digital signals
  to analog signals at the sending site and a
  second modem converts them back at the
  receiving site.
For example, if you dialup to the Internet
  from your home, it is a kind of
  telecommuncation.

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  Telecommunications




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                          The Internet


The Internet is the world‘s largest
 network.

E-mail and the World Wide Web are two
 benefits of the Internet.


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                          The Internet


A hyperlink is a place on a Web page
  allowing you to connect to a particular
  file.
http://www.course.com/newperspectives



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                         The Internet


A Web browser is
the communications
  software that
  allows you to
  navigate the
  WWW.


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                  Computer Software



Software is the instructions and data that
 direct the computer to accomplish the
 task. It can refer to a single program or
 a package.


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                             Software



Software bridges the human beings‘ world
 and machines‘ world.

Two levels
– Operating system software
– Application software
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                      System Software


System software helps the computer
 carry out it s basic operating tasks.

Application software helps the user carry
 out a variety of tasks.


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                      System Software


The operating system controls the I/O or
 input/output, the flow of data from
 microprocessor to memory to peripherals.

The operating system makes multitasking
 possible.


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• If you have a computer, then you must have heard
  of operating systems, since you are actually
  interacting with them everyday.




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• Any desktop or laptop PC that you buy normally
  comes pre-loaded Windows XP or its variants.
• Macintosh computers come pre-loaded with its
  proprietary operating system – MAC OS X.
• Many corporate mainframe servers use the Linux
  or UNIX operating systems.




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• The operating system (OS) is the first thing loaded into a
  computer‘s main memory to be run by CPU and is the
  most important program that runs on a computer.
• The "OS" performs basic tasks such as recognizing input
  from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen,
  keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and
  controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and
  printers.
• It provides a stable, consistent way for applications to deal
  with the hardware without having to know all the details of
  the hardware.

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Functionalities of Operating System




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                         Application software


• Built upon system software, application oriented.
   –   Office 2003 suite (What we will learn!)
   –   Photoshop, photo processing software
   –   Winzip, a tool which can compress your file.
   –   Too many to list




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               Office 2003 Application Software

Enables you to perform specific tasks.
Office 2003 suite software includes:

   –   Document production software
   –   Spreadsheet software
   –   Database management software
   –   Graphics and presentation software
   –   Personal web page development
• An earlier version of Office 2003 is Office XP

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                  Application Software


Document production software includes word
 processing, desktop publishing, and Web
 authoring software that assist you in writing
 and formatting documents.




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                     Application Software


It often has grammar and spell-checking, thesaurus,
   search and replace, and template features.




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                       Application Software




With spreadsheet software, you can create formulas that
  perform calculations. Spreadsheet software creates
  worksheets with columns and rows. The intersection of a
  column and row is a cell.

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                  Application Software


Database management software creates
 structured databases to contain information.

Graphics and presentation software allow you
 to create illustrations, diagrams, and charts
 to be presented or transmitted. Most allow
 you to include graphics.

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                 Application Software


Multimedia authoring software allows
 you to record digital sound files, video
 files, and animations that can be
 included in presentations and other
 documents.


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          Application Software Integration


Object linking and embedding (OLE) is
 the ability to use data from another file,
 called the source.

This integration between applications
 has become an important skill in
 business.
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