WHY DID THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS FREQUENTLY FAIL IN ITS AIM TO KEEP

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					WHY DID THE LEAGUE OF
NATIONS FREQUENTLY
FAIL IN ITS AIM TO
KEEP THE PEACE?


This is the hard and boring one!!
What were the aims of the League?

 There are TWO key points to remember here


 To maintain peace through collective security.
  All the states of the League would act
  together to stop aggression
 To encourage international co-operation in
  order to solve economic and social problems
Problems from the start
 USA, the strongest country in the world, did
  not join the League
 Germany was not invited into the League
  despite being one of the largest European
  countries
 The organisation of the League made
  decision making difficult
How was the League organised?


                                       Council of
 Secretariat
                                      the League


                General Assembly


International                            Court of
Labour Office                         International
                                         Justice

                Special Commissions
  What did each of these sections do?

 General Assembly – all member nations met annually and voted
 Secretariat – the Civil Service which carried out the League’s
decisions
 Council – an inner council which took all the major decisions
 International Labour Office – aimed to improve working
conditions
 Court of International Justice – to settle international disputes
 Special Commissions – targeted specific social problems


                   So what were the strengths and
                      weaknesses of the League?
Early successes
 Territorial disputes settled:
      Upper Silesia 1921 – Germany and Poland
      Aaland Islands 1921 – Sweden and Finland

 Bulgaria 1925 – Greece and Bulgaria
      War prevented after border dispute


 Successes in social and economic areas
Other peacekeeping attempts
 Washington Conference 1921 – countries
  agreed to limit military forces
 Locarno Treaties 1925 – Germany accepts
  borders with France and Rhineland
  demilitarisation. Agrees to settle future
  disputes via the League
 Kellogg-Briand Pact – 65 nations signed an
  agreement to condemn war
The Manchurian Crisis 1931 – 6 points
 Japanese army wanted to solve country’s
  economic problems by expanding empire
 Japanese troops invade Manchuria (a
  province of China) after their railway line is
  bombed
 China appeals to League of Nations
 Lytton Commission investigates
 Japan told to withdraw
 Japan responds by invading further and
  resigning from the League
Effects of the Manchurian Crisis – 3 Points

 Economic sanctions couldn’t work because
  USA continued to trade with Japan
 Britain and France would not send troops to
  back up the League’s decision
 League was shown to be powerless in
  enforcing its decisions against major powers.
The Abyssinian Crisis 1935 – 4 points

 Mussolini targetted Abyssinia as a way of
  expanding Italian territory
 Border skirmish gave him the excuse to
  invade – October 1935
 Abyssinian Emperor – Haile Selassie –
  appealed to League for support
 Sanctions imposed but were ineffective
Abyssinian outcome – 4 Points
 Britain and France wanted to keep Mussolini
  as an ally against Hitler
 Samuel Hoare and Pierre Laval made a secret
  deal with Italy (Hoare-Laval Pact) which gave
  Mussolini two-thirds of Abyssinia if he stopped
  the war
 Public outcry when leaked – both men sacked
 Showed countries working for self-interest
  rather than the good of the League
Why did the League fail in the 1930s
 America did not join
 Lack of troops
 Decisions were slow
 Sanctions didn’t work
 The treaties it had to uphold were unfair
 Self-interest of leading members

				
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