GSM & CDMA AT WIKIPEDIA VIEW W-CDMA W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) is a type of 3G cellular network. W-CDMA is the higher speed transmission protocol used in the Japanese FOMA system and in the UMTS system, a third generation follow-on to the 2G GSM networks deployed worldwide. More technically, W-CDMA is a wideband spread-spectrum mobile air interface that utilizes the direct sequence Code Division Multiple Access signalling method (or CDMA) to achieve higher speeds and support more users compared to the implementation of time division multiplexing (TDMA) used by 2G GSM networks Only key features are cited below. Radio channels are 5MHz wide. Chip rate of 3.84 Mcps Supports two basic modes of duplex, frequency division and time division. Current systems use frequency division, one frequency for uplink and one for downlink. For time division, FOMA uses sixteen slots per radio frame, where as UMTS uses fifteen slots per radio frame. Employs coherent detection on uplink and downlink based on the use of pilot symbols. Supports inter-cell asynchronous operation. Variable mission on a 10 ms frame basis. Multicode transmission. Adaptive power control based on SIR (Signal-to-Interference Ratio). Multiuser detection and smart antennas can be used to increase capacity and coverage. Multiple types of handoff between different cells including soft handoff, softer handoff and hard handoff. W-CDMA was developed by NTT DoCoMo as the air interface for their 3G network FOMA. Later NTT DoCoMo submitted the specification to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as a candidate for the international 3G standard known as IMT-2000. The ITU eventually accepted W-CDMA as part of the IMT-2000 family of 3G standards, as an alternative to CDMA2000, EDGE, and the short range DECT system. Later, W-CDMA was selected as the air interface for UMTS, the 3G successor to GSM. Code Division Multiple Access communication networks have been developed by a number of companies over the years, but development of cell-phone networks based on CDMA (prior to W- CDMA) was dominated by Qualcomm, the first company to succeed in developing a practical and cost-effective CDMA implementation for consumer cell phones, its early IS-95 air interface standard. IS-95 evolved into the current CDMA2000 (IS-856/IS-2000) standard. In the late 1990s, NTT DoCoMo began work on a new wide-band CDMA air interface for their planned 3G network FOMA. FOMA's air interface, called W-CDMA, was selected as the air interface for UMTS, a newer W-CDMA based system designed to be an easier upgrade for European GSM networks compared to FOMA. FOMA and UMTS use essentially the same air interface, but are different in other ways; thus, handsets are not 100% compatible between FOMA and UMTS, but roaming is supported. Qualcomm created an experimental wideband CDMA system called CDMA2000 3x which unified the W-CDMA (3GPP) and CDMA2000 (3GPP2) network technologies into a single design for a worldwide standard air interface. Compatibility with CDMA2000 would have beneficially enabled roaming on existing networks beyond Japan, since Qualcomm CDMA2000 networks are widely deployed, especially in the Americas, with coverage in 58 countries in 2006. However, divergent requirements resulted in the W-CDMA standard being retained and deployed. Despite incompatibilities with existing air-interface standards, the late introduction of this 3G system, and despite the high upgrade cost of deploying an all-new transmitter technology, W- CDMA has been adopted and deployed rapidly, especially in Japan, Europe and Asia, and is already deployed in over 55 countries as of 2006 UMTS, using W-CDMA, supports up to 14.0 Mbit/s data transfer rates in theory (with HSDPA), although at the moment users in deployed networks can expect a performance up to 384 kbit/s for R99 handsets, and 3.6 Mbit/s for HSDPA handsets in the downlink connection. This is still much greater than the 9.6 kbit/s of a single GSM error-corrected circuit switched data channel or multiple 9.6 kbit/s channels in HSCSD (14.4 kbit/s for CDMAOne), and—in competition to other network technologies such as CDMA2000, PHS or WLAN—offers access to the World Wide Web and other data services on mobile devices. Precursors to 3G are 2G mobile telephony systems, such as GSM, IS-95, PDC, PHS and other 2G technologies deployed in different countries. In the case of GSM, there is an evolution path from 2G, called GPRS, also known as 2.5G. GPRS supports a much better data rate (up to a theoretical maximum of 140.8 kbit/s, though typical rates are closer to 56 kbit/s) and is packet switched rather than connection oriented (circuit switched). It is deployed in many places where GSM is used. E-GPRS, or EDGE, is a further evolution of GPRS and is based on more modern coding schemes. With EDGE the actual packet data rates can reach around 180 kbit/s (effective). EDGE systems are often referred as "2.75G Systems". Since 2006, UMTS networks in many countries have been or are in the process of being upgraded with High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), sometimes known as 3.5G. Currently, HSDPA enables downlink transfer speeds of up to 3.6 Mbit/s. Work is also progressing on improving the uplink transfer speed with the High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA). Longer term, the 3GPP Long Term Evolution project plans to move UMTS to 4G speeds of 100 Mbit/s down and 50 Mbit/s up, using a next generation air interface technology based upon OFDM. UMTS supports mobile videoconferencing, although experience in Japan and elsewhere has shown that user demand for video calls is not very high. Other possible uses for UMTS include the downloading of music and video content, as well as live TV. Evolusi WCDMA dengan HSDPA Wujudkan “Mobile Broadband” Jadi Kenyataan JAKARTA – Evolusi WCDMA dari Ericsson adalah evolusi alami WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access), yang merupakan standar komunikasi bergerak generasi ketiga. Evolusi WCDMA dimungkinkan dengan diperkenalkannya High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). Langkah evolusioner pertama ini akan meningkatkan downlink peak data rate hingga mencapai 14 Mbit/s dan lebih dari dua kali lipat kapasitas sistim data dengan spektrum radio yang sama. Para operator sangat tertarik dengan teknologi baru ini dan Ericsson baru-baru ini telah melakukan beberapa percobaan dengan operator di dunia. Evolusi WCDMA adalah wujud dari kepemimpinan Ericsson dalam sistem komunikasi bergerak. Teknologi ini memungkinkan operator untuk menawarkan pelayanan mobile broadband yang canggih seperti Internet dan akses Intranet perusahaan dengan kecepatan data yang sangat tinggi, di mana audio, video Asafile atau dokumen yang besar dapat di-download dengan lebih cepat daripada dengan menggunakan WCDMA yang ada. Bagi pengguna, evolusi WCDMA dapat memenuhi keinginan konsumen untuk mendapatkan kepuasan pelayanan komunikasi bergerak yang lebih baik. Bagi operator, teknologi ini merupakan jawaban dari kebutuhan mereka akan kapasitas yang lebih besar, serta peningkatan efisiensi jaringan. Nilai Tambah Pengalaman yang didapat dari fase awal menunjukan bahwa sangatlah penting bagi operator untuk dapat menawarkan nilai tambah yang besar bagi pelanggan, termasuk di antaranya kapasitas sistim yang lebih besar. Inilah fokus dari langkah evolusioner pertama dari evolusi WCDMA. Langkah kedua dari evolusi WCDMA antara lain adalah menyediakan fitur untuk melengkapi uplink dengan cakupan yang lebih luas, dan kecepatan data yang lebih tinggi. Langkah pertama dari evolusi WCDMA adalah berdasarkan teknologi HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access). Teknologi ini merupakan bagian yang tidak dapat dipisahkan dengan WCDMA dan mengikuti standar WCDMA 3GPP keluaran 5. Standar ini antara lain mencakup format transmisi baru bernama high-speed downlink shared channel yang memungkinkan pelayanan interaktif, latar belakang dan streaming yang lebih baik. Kelebihan yang ditawarkan HSDPA antara lain, meningkatkan layanan mobile data bagi pengguna, dengan membuat waktu download menjadi lebih pendek melalui kecepatan data yang lebih tinggi (14 Mbits/peak rate). HSDPA juga mengurangi keterlambatan (delay) dan memberikan respon yang lebih cepat saat pengguna menggunakan aplikasi interaktif seperti mobile office atau akses Internet kecepatan tinggi, yang dapat disertai pula dengan fasilitas gaming atau download audio dan video. Kelebihan lain HSDPA, meningkatkan kapasitas sistim tanpa memerlukan spektrum frekuensi tambahan, sehingga pasti akan mengurangi biaya layanan mobile data secara signifikan. HSDPA hanya membutuhkan software upgrade pada WCDMA base station yang sudah ada. Hal ini sesuai dengan tradisi Ericsson yang sudah dikenal di mana selalu menawarkan produk yang dapat disesuaikan dengan perkembangan teknologi masa depan. Sebagai perbandingan, proses upgrade jaringan WCDMA yang sudah ada untuk menjadi evolusi WCDMA dengan HSDPA, jauh lebih sederhana dari pada implementasi EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolutiori) ke dalam jaringan GSM. Ericsson percaya bahwa kecepatan data lebih tinggi yang ditawarkan oleh HSDPA pada awalnya pasti akan memberikan keuntungan bagi pengguna korporat. Ini membuat WCDMA menjadi teknologi akses yang lebih dipilih untuk mobile office dan aplikasi Internet yang membutuhkan kecepatan data tinggi, di samping tersedianya keamanan, mobilitas dan kemudahan pemakaian. (tot) HSDPA High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA, also known as High-Speed Downlink Protocol Access) is a 3G (third generation) mobile telephony communications protocol in the High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) family, which allows networks based on Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. Current HSDPA deployments support down- link speeds of 1.8, 3.6, 7.2 and 14.4 Mbit/s, and can provide each customer with 30 gigabytes of data per  month. Further speed increases are planned for the near future. The networks are then to be upgraded  to Evolved HSPA, which provides speeds of 42 Mbit downlink in its first release. HSPA High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is a collection of mobile telephony protocols that extend and improve the performance of existing UMTS protocols. Two standards HSDPA and HSUPA have been established and a further standard HSOPA is being proposed. The two existing standards (HSDPA and HSUPA) in the family provide increased performance by using improved modulation schemes and by refining the protocols by which handsets and base stations communicate. These improvements lead to a better utilization of the existing radio bandwidth provided by UMTS HSDPA provides improved down-link performance of up to 14.4 Mbit/s theoretically. Existing deployments provide up to 7.2 Mbit/s in down-link. Up-link performance is a maximum of 384 kbit/s. Service providers such as T-Mobile cap this rate to 1.4Mbit/s despite the fact that modern 3G handsets are designed to handle speeds of up to 3.6 Mbit/s. Voice calls are usually prioritized over data transfer. Croatian VIPnet network supports the speed of 7.2 Mbit/s in down-link. FOMA FOMA, officially short for Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access, is the brand name for the 3G services being offered by Japanese mobile phone operator NTT DoCoMo. FOMA was the world's first W-CDMA 3G service when launched in 2001. FOMA is compatible with standard UMTS, both via the radio link as well as via USIM card exchange, and hence provides several alternative options for global roaming: either with or without change of handset. Since mobile services in Japan are generally more advanced than in most other countries, e.g. FeliCa-i-Mode Wallet Phones, i- Mode mobile data services etc, to obtain full benefit of FOMA services local Japanese handsets are used.  Initially - as the first full-scale 3G service in the world - FOMA handsets were of experimental character targeting early adopters, and were big, had poor battery life and the network covered the center of Japan's largest towns only. For the first 1-2 years, FOMA was essentially an experimental service for early adopters - mainly communication industry professionals. Around March 2004, with almost full national coverage including subway stations and the inside of most  major buildings , and with the introduction of DoCoMo's 900i series of handsets, FOMA achieved the breakthrough into mass sales, and sales soared. As of September 2006, FOMA has over 29 million subscribers and is the fastest growing cellphone network in Japan IMEI The International Mobile Equipment Identity or IMEI (IPA /aɪ'mi:/) is a number unique to every GSM and UMTS mobile phone. It is usually found printed on the phone underneath the battery and can also be found by dialing the sequence *#06# into the phone. The IMEI number is used by the GSM network to identify valid devices and therefore can be used to stop a stolen phone from accessing the network. For example, if a mobile phone is stolen, the owner can call his or her network provider and instruct them to "ban" the phone using its IMEI number. This renders the phone useless, regardless of whether the phone's SIM is changed. Unlike the Electronic Serial Number or MEID of CDMA and other wireless networks, the IMEI is only used to identify the device, and has no permanent or semi-permanent relation to the subscriber. Instead, the subscriber is identified by transmission of an IMSI number, which is stored on a SIM card which can (in theory) be transferred to any handset. However, many network and security features are enabled by knowing the current device being used by a subscriber. The IMEI (14 digits plus check digit) or IMEISV (16 digits) includes information on the origin, model, and serial number of the device. The structure of the IMEI/SV are specified in 3GPP TS 23.003. The model and origin comprise the initial 8-digit portion of the IMEI/SV, known as the Type Allocation Code (TAC). The remainder of the IMEI is manufacturer-defined, with a Luhn check digit at the end (which is never transmitted). As of 2004, the format of the IMEI is AA-BBBBBB-CCCCCC-D, although it may not always be displayed this way. The IMEISV drops the Luhn check digit in favour of an additional 2 digits for the Software Version Number (SVN) in the format AA-BBBBBB-CCCCCC-EE AA BBBBBB CCCCCC D EE Reporting Body The remainder of Serial sequence of Luhn check digit of Software Version Identifier, indicating the TAC the model the entire number Number (SVN). the GSMA-approved (or zero) group that allocated the model TAC Prior to 2002, the TAC was 6 digits long and followed by a two-digit Final Assembly Code (FAC), which was a manufacturer-specific code indicating the location of the device's construction. For example the IMEI code 35-209900-176148-1 or IMEISV code 35-209900-176148-23 tells us the following: TAC: 352099 so it was issued by the BABT and has the allocation number 2099 FAC: 00 so it was numbered during the transition phase from the old format to the new format (described below) SNR: 176148 - uniquely identifying a unit of this model CD: 1 so it is a GSM Phase 2 or higher SVN: 23 - The 'software version number' identifying the revision of the software installed on the phone. 99 is reserved. The format changed from April 1, 2004 when the Final Assembly Code ceased to exist and the Type Approval Code increases to eight digits in length and became known as the Type Allocation Code. From January 1, 2003 until this time the FAC for all phones was 00. The Reporting Body Identifier is allocated by the Global Decimal Administrator; the first two digits must be decimal (ie less than 0xA0) for it to be an IMEI and not an MEID. The new CDMA Mobile Equipment Identifier (MEID) uses the same basic format as the IMEI. On many devices the IMEI number can be retrieved by entering *#06#. The IMEI number of a GSM device can be retrieved by sending the command AT+CGSN. For more information refer the 3GPP TS 27.007, Section 5.4 /2/ standards document. Retrieving IMEI Information from a Sony or Sony Ericsson handset can be done by entering these keys: Right * Left Left * Left * (Other service menu items will be presented with this key combination). The IMEI information can be retrieved from most Nokia mobile phones by pressing *#92702689# (*#WAR0ANTY#), this opens the warranty menu in which the first item is the serial number (the IMEI). The warranty menu also shows other information such as the date the phone was made and the life timer of the phone. The IMEI can frequently be displayed through phone menus, under a section titled 'System Information', 'Device', 'Phone Info' or similar. Many phones also have the IMEI listed on a label in the battery compartment. Many countries have acknowledged the use of the IMEI in reducing the effect of mobile phone theft,  which has increased exponentially over the last few years . For example, in the United Kingdom under the Mobile Telephones (Re-programming) Act, changing the IMEI of a phone, or possessing equipment that can change it, is considered an offence under some circumstances. There is a misunderstanding amongst some regulators that the existence of a formally allocated IMEI number range to a GSM terminal implies that the terminal is approved or complies with regulatory requirements. This is not the case. The linkage between regulatory approval and IMEI allocation was removed in April 2000 with the introduction of the European R&TTE Directive. Since that date, IMEIs have been allocated by BABT (acting on behalf of the GSM Association) to legitimate GSM terminal manufacturers without the need to provide evidence of approval. Other countries use different approaches when dealing with phone theft. For example, mobile operators in Singapore are not required by the regulator to implement phone blocking or tracing systems, IMEI- based or other. The regulator has expressed its doubts on the real effectiveness of this kind of systems in the context of the mobile market in Singapore. Instead, mobile operators are encouraged to take measures such as the immediate suspension of service and the replacement of SIM cards in case of loss or theft When mobile equipment is stolen or lost, the operator or owner will typically contact the Central Equipment Identity Register (CEIR) which blacklists the device in all operator switches so that it will in effect become unusable, making theft of mobile equipment a useless business. The IMEI number is not supposed to be easy to change, making the CEIR blacklisting effective. However this is not "New IMEIs can be programmed into stolen handsets and 10% of IMEIs are not unique." According to a BT-Cellnet spokesman quoted by the BBC.  Facilities do not exist to unblock numbers listed in error on all networks. This is possible in the UK, however, where the user who initially blocked the IMEI must quote a password chosen at the time the block was applied. High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) adalah sebuah protokol telepon genggam dan kadangkala disebut sebagai teknologi 3,5G. Teknologi ini dikembangkan dari WCDMA sama seperti EV-DO mengembangkan CDMA2000. HSDPA memberikan jalur evolusi untuk jaringan Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) yang akan dapat memberikan kapasitas data yang lebih besar (sampai 14,4 Mbit/detik arah turun). HSDPA merupakan evolusi dari standar W-CDMA dan dirancang untuk meningkatkan kecepatan transfer data 5x lebih tinggi. HSDPA memdefinisikan sebuah saluran W-CDMa yang baru, yaitu high-speed downlink shared channel (HS-DSCH) yang cara operasinya berbeda dengan saluran W-CDMA yang ada sekarang, tetapi hanya digunakan dalam komunikasi arah bawah menuju telepon genggam. Mobile Equipment Identifiers (MEIDs) are globally unique numbers identifying a physical piece of CDMA mobile station equipment. The number format is defined by the 3GPP2 standard S.R0048 but in practical terms it is an IMEI with a two-digit hexadecimal prefix. An MEID is 56 bits long (14 hex or 18 decimal digits). It consists of three fields, including an 8-bit regional code (RR), a 24-bit manufacturer code, and a 24-bit manufacturer-assigned serial number. The MEID replaces the Electronic Serial Number (ESN) which has been exhausted. Special Pseudo ESNs (pESNs) can be computed from an MEID for backward compatibility. A Pseudo ESN (pESN) has 0x80 as its Manufacturer Code, followed by 24 bits of the SHA-1 hash of the 56 bit MEID. As of TIA/EIA/IS-41 Revision D and TIA/EIA/IS-2000 Rev C ESN is still a required field in many messages. In these cases pESN can be used in the ESN field and the MEID specified in the new MEID field (if any). Administration The separation between International Mobile Equipment Identifiers (IMEIs) used by GSM/UTMS and MEIDs is based on the number ranges. There are two administrators; the Global Decimal Administrator (GDA) for IMEIs and the Global Hexadecimal Administrator (GHA). As of August 2006, the TIA acts as the Global Hexadecimal Administrator (GHA) to assign MEID code prefixes (0xA0 and up), and the GSM Association acts as the Global Decimal Administrator. http://www.babt.com/gsm-imei-number-allocation.asp The middle ground between IMEIs and MEIDs is for inter-standard "worldphone" devices. These devices will have an IMEI with a prefix of 0x99. The GDA has responsibility for the allocation of these IMEIs, since they are decimal numbers. Display Formats There are two standard formats for MEIDs, and both can include an optional check-digit. This is defined by 3GPP2 standard X.S0008. The hexadecimal form is specified to be 14 digits grouped together. A check-digit can be calculated using a modified Luhn algorithm and appended to the end. The check-digit is never transmitted or stored. The decimal form is specified to be 18 digits grouped in a 5 5 4 4 pattern. A check-digit can be calculated using a modified Luhn algorithm and appended to the end. The Luhn algorithm is different from the one used for the hexadecimal form. pESN Conflicts Because the pESN is formed by a hash on the MEID there is the potential for hash collisions. These will have relatively severe impacts on a pure ESN-only network as the ESN is used for the calculation of the Public Long Code Mask (PLCM) used for communication with the base-station. Duplicates within the same base-station area will result in call setup and page failures. The probability of a collision has been investigated although further analysis using the birthday paradox may produce different results.