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									                                     Indoor Air Quality
Indoor air pollution is a major public health problem that threatens virtually all workers in offices and buildings. Contaminated
indoor air occurs when toxic substances combine with inadequate building ventilation, causing health problems such as eye,
nose and throat irritation; sinus discomfort; headaches; sneezing and coughing; respiratory infections; and fatigue.

                                                                   insecticides and pesticides. These highly toxic substances
           What Are the Sources?                                   can rem ain in the air long after being sprayed. The y are
Poor indoor air quality can be traced to many sources,             known to cause cancer and birth defects and they also
including office equipment, furniture, carpeting, and              irritate the skin, eyes and lungs.
construction materials. In addition, buildings are often
designed or renovated without attention to ventilation,            Biological Agents
resulting in sealed windows, blocked vents and a general           Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, pollen, dust
lack of fresh air.                                                 mites and other insec ts, animal dander (tiny scales from ha ir,
                                                                   fea the rs, or skin) and m olds. T hey can travel through the air
Office Equipment
                                                                   and are often invisible. They are usually inhaled, either alone
Elec trical equipm ent such as photo cop iers m ay g ive off       or by attaching themselves to particles of dust and then
ozo ne, w hich irritates the ey es a nd the res piratory trac t,   entering the respiratory system. Two conditions are essential
causes headaches, and has been shown to cause adverse              to support biological growth--nutrients and moisture.
genetic effects. Ink toner in photocopying machines use
                                                                   Bacteria, fungi and molds find nourishment and can flourish
ma ny d ang erou s su bsta nce s including me thyl alcoho l, a
                                                                   in improperly maintained air ducts, air conditioners,
solvent which can dry the skin, irritate the eyes, nose and
                                                                   humidifiers, air-cleaning filte rs, ca rpets and in improperly
throat and cause dizziness or even blindness.
                                                                   ventilated places where moisture is likely to collect, such as
Many comm on office supplies are also dangerous, releasing         bathrooms, kitchens, laundry rooms and basements. Viruses
vapors and dusts that can cause a variety of skin and              can be carried indoors by people, while plants, pets and
respiratory problems . The se inc lude glue, ru bbe r cem ent,     insects are potential sources of pollen, dander, and other
inks, carbon paper, carbonless paper, typewriter ribbon, and       allergies. Dust mites and other insects can thrive in sofas,
correction fluid.                                                  stuffed chairs, carpets and bedding.
Renovation and New Furnishings                                     When biological agents are allowed to flo urish in poorly
                                                                   maintained ventilation systems, severe health problems can
A variety of solvents are used in roofing, painting and
                                                                   result that can be experienced throughout an entire building.
renovation work and they can cause skin dryness,
                                                                   Infectious and noninfectious diseases can be caused by the
respiratory irritation, and with greater exposure, dizziness or
                                                                   various biological agents. They can make you sneeze, trigger
                                                                   allergic reactions, cause rashes, watery eyes, hoarseness,
Formaldehyde one of the most common pollutants in office           coughing, dizziness, lethargy, breathing problems, and
buildings, is found in furniture, new carpets, particle board,     digestive problems.
plywood, and many other products. As it deteriorates,
                                                                   Pe ople w ith asth ma are especially susceptib le to allergic
formaldehyde gives off fumes which - even at low levels -
                                                                   problems caused by biological agents.
can cause irritation of the eyes and respiratory system.
Recent studies show that prolonged exposure may also               Exhaust and Cigarette Smoke
cause cancer.
                                                                   Diesel exhau st, containing carbon dioxide and ca ncer-
Custodial and Maintenance Work                                     causing substan ces, c an enter buildings through improperly
                                                                   located air-intake vents or from loading docks. Carbon
Chemicals such as ammonia, solvents, paint strippers and
                                                                   dioxide causes headaches, dizziness and nausea, and can
cleansers are widely used by custodians and maintenance
                                                                   be tra ced to many sou rces, including boiler gas a nd c igarette
workers in the course of their jobs. Many of these
substances can lead to respiratory irritation, chronic lung
disease, and eye irritation. Making matters worse, these           Th e outs ide environment may be anoth er source of indoor air
chemicals can easily spread through the ventilation system,        pollution, particularly if toxic vapors or gases from
putting everyone in the area at risk.                              neighboring industrial plants or garbage dumps enter the
                                                                   ventilation system.
Two particularly dange rous group s of chem icals are
                                                                     or cooled. The air is passed through a filter, and sent back
              Ventilation Systems                                    out through the building. But the percentage of fresh air can
To eliminate indoor air pollution, there must be a good source       be as low as 5-10% and in the recirculated air, germs and
of fresh air as well as sufficient air movement. Unfortunately,      chemical contaminants multiply, significantly raising the risk
ventilation in both new and old buildings is frequently              of both irritation and infection.
inadequate. Most older buildings do not have a mechanical
ventilation system. While some fresh air may enter through           To remove fumes and dust from a specific operation, a local
doors, windows and cracks, it is often not enough. And               exhaust system is used. Examples are the dust control
during winter months or when energy conservation measures            system in a wood sh op or ventilation hood s in the chem istry
are implemented, fresh air may be cut off entirely.                  lab. But these systems may create as many problems as
                                                                     they solve. They may be weak, allowing pollutants to escape
New buildings with sealed win dows present th eir ow n air           into the general air supply, or they m ay pull toxic vapors
quality problems, relying solely on mechanical ventilation           through an area where people breathe.
sys tem s to bring outdo or air into the building a nd m ove it to
all areas. When the system fails because of contamination,           Every g eneral ventilation sys tem con sists of one or more
blockage or other problems, air quality may suffer                   blowers which move the air, ducts which carry the air from
dramatically. To save energy, some buildings use ventilation         one place to anothe r, and ven ts which distribute it. The ven ts
systems which recirculate air that has already been heated           ma y be either s upp lying air or rem oving (ex hau sting) it.

                                                                     fresh air gets sucked out of the room before it has
Evaluating Your Ventilation System                                   adequately circulated. This is called short-circuiting. It is the
Does your workplace have a ventilation system?                       result of poor engineering design, and is difficult to repair.
This is not as odd a question as it may seem. Some buildings         Are the vents blocked in any way?
do not have ventilating syste ms. Y ou can check to see if           Exhaust and supply vents will work only if the air can move
yours does by walking around and looking for vents and               freely around them. Blockage by walls, partitions, or even
ducts.                                                               piled up boxes or files, will obstruct the air flow and reduce
Is the system on all the time?                                       the ventilation efficiency.
Often, the air circulation in a building will stop at 5 P.M. or on   Are there any dead spaces in your office?
weekends even though people may regularly work late or               Dead spaces are those in w hich no air is replaced and in
night shifts. In many offices, large duplicating and printing        which pollutants will therefore build up. You can check to see
jobs are done at night, and machines can produce a high              if there are any in your workplace office by lighting a match
volume of pollutants.                                                and notic ing how the sm oke m oves. (C aution - be certain
You can test whether the system is on by holding a tissue            that an open flame is allowed in your workplace and does not
near the vent. If it moves, air is being circulated . Do this        present a safety hazard.) Inexpensive smoke tubes are also
before and after 5 P.M.                                              ava ilable for this purpos e.

Is the system continuous or does it go on and off during             Do es th e sm oke flow tow ard an e xhaust ve nt o r sim ply
the day?                                                             stay in one place?
Some ventilation systems are on a time cycle. This means             If it doesn't move, pollutants too will remain in the air; they
tha t the blower will tu rn on and off at reg ular intervals         are not being exhausted. The principal reason for dead
throughout the day. If your wo rkplace is consta ntly                spa ces is poo r placem ent of supply an d ex hau st ve nts.
generating air pollutants, such a system may not be giving           Do office areas with printing and copying machines have
you enough fresh air. The pollutants may accumulate w hile           adeq uate air sup ply and exhau st?
the system is off. Check the airflow regularly during the day        You can find out by counting the vents, determining which
to find out if you are getting fresh air continuously.               way the air is moving and looking for dead spaces. For some
Doe s each room have a vent?                                         machines, general ventilation is insufficient. You will need
Walk around and make a listing of the number of vents per            extra vents near the source of the fumes emitted.
room. Make sure you look on the walls and floors--and                Do you have control over your vent system?
remem ber, no vents, no air.                                         Some offices make it possible for workers to have control
Are th e ven ts supplying o r rem ovin g air?                        over the ventilation. You may be able to enter the fan room
In each room there should always be a supply and an                  and to turn the blower or fan supplying the air up or down.
exhaust vent. This type of ventilation system is called dilution     Check with your building maintenance office to see if you can
ventilation . Yo u can determine wh ich vents are brin ging air in   do this.
and which are removing it by holding a tissue at the face of         Is there a smoke detector in your ventilation system?
the vent. If air is m oving pa st, you will be able to see it.       There s hou ld be o ne. It is es sen tial for early signaling of a
Are the vents for supply and exhaust right next to each              fire. Th e dete cto r should be locate d in the duct ta king the air
other?                                                               out of the office .
When supply and exhaust vents are too close, the clean,
                                                                  You m ay g et heada che s an d be com e m ore s usc eptible to
Are the temperature and hum idity adequate?
                                                                  colds, flu, and other infections. When the air is too humid you
The importance of a comfortable temperature is obvious. But
                                                                  also feel uncomfortable. Humidity makes a cold room feel
com fort also means p roper hum idity, or water in the air.
                                                                  colder and a ho t room feel hotter.
When the office air is too dry your nasal passages dry up.

                                                                  without exact measurements, are the following:
    Indoor Air Pollution Measurements                             Carbon monoxide--from cigarettes, gas heaters or any
In order to determine just how good or bad is the air in your     cooking or burning. This is a chemical asphyxiant which robs
office, you will have to test it. You may test for                your body of needed oxygen and can cause headaches,
•       the amount of air flow                                    nausea and dizziness.
•       the amo unt and types of air po llutants                  Carbon dioxide--from insufficient air exchange. This can
•       the amount of heat and moisture.                          also cause headaches, nausea, and dizziness.

So me of the se measurements a re easily determined w hile        Ozone--from any machine that produces an electric spark,
othe rs require spe cialized equ ipment.                          such as a duplicating machine. This can be a respiratory
For flow measurements you will need an airflow meter, also
called a velometer. Thes e are not very ex pensive an d are       Sm oke an d du sts--from powders, burning substances,
usually able to measure both air coming into a room from the      cigarettes. These can cause eye and throat irritation,
sup ply vent and a ir going out throug h the exh aus t vent.      coughing and, if particularly heavy, lung disease.

Smoke tubes, which are available in hardware stores, can          Microbes (bacteria, fungi and viruses)--from cooling water
also be used. B ut th ese w ill tell you only w here the air is   used in the ventilation system. These can cause colds,
going and not how much air is being moved.                        influenza and such infectious diseases as Legionnaires
The readings from a velometer are in cubic feet per minute of
air. The nu mb ers sho uld be :                                   Oxides of nitrogen--from high temperature machines, hot
                                                                  plates, cooking gas. These can cause watery eyes and
Air co nditioned spac e: 50-75.                                   irritations of the respiratory system.

Fixe d work station , general ventilation or sp ot cooling:       Mis cellaneou s ch em icals--such as solvents from glues,
sitting: 75-125; standing: 100-200                                paints and othe r office supplies, or chem icals used in
                                                                  duplicating machines, such as toners, dyers and developers.
Intermittent exposure, spot cooling or relief stations:
Light heat loads and activity: 1000-2000                          Measurements fo r temperature and moisture are easily
Moderate heat loads and activity:2000-3000                        made. Temperature can be determined by any common
High heat loads and activity: 3000-4000                           thermometer, but be sure that checks are made on such
                                                                  places as exhaust vents, supply vents, halls and dead
Your local health department will usually set required            spaces.
minimum ventilation standards for office buildings, but these
standards vary from state to state. Check with your state,        Moisture can be measured by a hydrometer, with the
county or city health department to see how your workplace        readings in percent relative humidity. The higher the num ber,
measures up to the health code, and if there is a violation.      the more w ater is in the air and, usually, the more discom fort
                                                                  there will be. But, as noted above, too low a moisture reading
Mea surem ent of specific air pollutants usually requires very    can also be bad.
specialized instruments which may be difficult to obtain.
However, some pollutants you may want to look for, even

                                                                          or fungi can grow.
      How Can Indoor Air Pollution
                                                                  •       Isolate machines that release toxic fumes, such as
         Problems Be Solved?                                              photocop ier.
What you can push management to do:
                                                                  •       Make sure hazardous work is done only on the
•       Increase air supply. Clean and maintain the                       weekends, and inform the union before it begins.
        ventilation system and open or unblock all sources of
                                                                  •       Ensure that people who work with hazardous
        fresh air.
                                                                          chemicals are protected with adequate ventilation or
•       Eliminate sources of contamination. Substitute less               protective equipment, such as respirators.
        dangerous chemicals, such as water-based paints,
                                                                  •       Provide information about all chemicals in use, as
        for more toxic substances, such as oil paints.
                                                                          required by the New York State Right-to-Know Law
•       Clean and dry damp areas or p laces wh ere bacteria               and the O ccu pation al Safety and H ealth
       Administration's Hazard Communication Standard.                 •       Develop recommendations and priorities for
                                                                               improving air quality.
•      Ma intain tem pera ture w ithin the c om fort zo ne o f 65 to
       75 degrees Fahrenheit and humidity within a relative            •       Write contrac t langu age that w ill protect y our rights
       humidity of 30 - 60%.                                                   to
                                                                               clean air. Your union representative can suggest
•      Ensure that all local exhaust systems pull polluted
                                                                               sample language and you may also want to use the
       vapors away from people's breathing area and that
                                                                               ASHRAE standard as a guide.
       local systems do not com pete with the primary
       ventilation system.                                             •       Co nsider filing a com plaint w ith the N ew York Sta te
                                                                               De partm ent of Labor's D ivision o f Safe ty and Health
•      Bring in a ventilation engineer to ensure that air
                                                                               or OSHA if you have a well-documented problem
       movement is sufficient and to recommend remedies
       for any problem areas. This investigation can
                                                                               you are n ot m aking an y pro gres s with ma nag em ent.
       determine if you meet the American Society of
                                                                               You m ay a lso w ant to file a requ est for a Health
       Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning
                                                                               Hazard Evaluation conducted by the National
       Engineers (ASHRAE) indoor air quality standards,
                                                                               Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
       which recommend 20 cubic feet per minute (cfm) of
                                                                               According to law, employers must provide safe,
       fresh air per person in offices. A simple tool called a
                                                                               healthful workplaces that are free of hazards,
       velometer is used to take these measurements.
                                                                               including indoor air pollution. (always work with your
•      Ca rry out any ch ang es a nd im prov em ents                           union representative when filing a complaint. But
       recom men ded by the v entilation engineer.                             don't stop working! Complaints to the Department of
                                                                               Labor, OSHA or DO SH are no substitute for
What your union can do:                                                        con sistent union ac tion.)
•      De velop a health a nd s afety com mittee to wo rk to           •       Find out about legislative activity - and get involved.
       correct indoor air, and other, problems.                                While there is no federal or Ne w Y ork State
                                                                               regulation on indoor air pollution, legislation has
•      Conduct a health survey of the members, looking for
       prob lems typ ical of indoor a ir pollution and che ck to
                                                                               proposed and several other states have enacted
       see if symptoms are linked to the job.
                                                                               indoor air pollution laws.
•      Investigate your building's ventilation system. Find
       out what type of ventilation system, if any, is used.
       (To check the effectiveness of a ventilation system,            (Adapte d from : Am erican Lu ng A sso ciation factshee t;
       hold tissue paper nea r the vents to see if they're             Wom en's Oc cup ationa l Hea lth Re sou rce factshee t)
       working - there should be both a supply and exhaust
                                                                       NYCOSH factsheet produced through a grant from the NY
       vent in each room. Also check for problems with local
                                                                       State Dept. of La bor, O ccu pation al Safety and H ealth
       exh aus t sys tem s.)
                                                                       Training and E duc ation G rant P rogram [CO O5 443 ]

                               For more information,
                see the NYCOSH website at
                                     or contact
             New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health
     116 John St., Suite 604, NY, NY 10038. Tel: 212-227-6440 Fax: 212-227-9854

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