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Using WebQuests _ STELLA with Pre-Service Teachers

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					Using WebQuests & STELLA
  with Pre-Service Teachers
                Richard Langheim, Ed.D.
         Associate Professor of Education
          Ramapo College of New Jersey
           Purpose


Engage in a conversation with
educators about developing effective
techniques for learning and using
systems thinking and dynamic
modeling
            Outline


Review some literature which supports
aspects of the effort
Draw some conclusions & reactions
Explain one effort at Ramapo College
of New Jersey [RCNJ] to foster
systems thinking
      RCNJ Audience

Pre-service teacher education
[TE]students
No background in modeling
Varied background in math
Varied background in using technology
No background in using technology to
enhance learning & teaching
      RCNJ Audience

Undergraduates or Post-
Baccalaureates
No certified teachers
Elementary & Secondary candidates
Wide variety of disciplinary majors
No unsupervised classroom teaching
Pre-service TE Students - Kay


Evaluating Strategies Used to
Incorporate Technology into Pre-
service Education: a Review of the
Literature
Robin Kay
Journal of Research on Technology in
Education - Vol. 38 No.4
Pre-service TE Students - Kay




Review of 68 referred journal articles
“…only a handful of studies have
carefully and rigorously pursued the
evaluation process.”
Pre-service TE Students - Kay



“Given the potential problems, it
should come as no surprise that pre-
service teachers are perceived as
unprepared to use technology.”
Pre-service TE Students - Kay

Kay Model
Multiple Strategies - integration with
content, workshops, single course,
multimedia
Authentic tasks & modeling the use
of technology by faculty and teacher-
mentors
Attitude & ability
Pre-service TE Students - Kay




A rigorous research-based
framework for developing the
effective use of technology does not
yet exist.
    Bathtub Dynamics - Booth Sweeney &
                 Sterman



o   Bathtub dynamics: initial results of a
    systems thinking inventory
o   Linda Booth Sweeney, John D.
    Sterman
o   System Dynamics Review - Vol. 16
    No. 4
Bathtub Dynamics - Booth Sweeney &
             Sterman




Surprisingly low level of performance
by numerous groups of students
Systems thinking is not intuitive nor
easily developed
    Modeling - Penner


Cognition, Computers, and Synthetic
Science: Building Knowledge and
meaning Through Modeling
David Penner
Review of Research in Education,
2000-2001
    Modeling - Penner


Carey - weak conceptual change or
weak restructuring
Enrichment process - develops new
relationships between concepts for
problem solving
     Modeling - Penner

Carey - strong conceptual change or strong
restructuring
“… holds that people‟s intuitive conceptions
of the natural world are often at odds with
current scientific understanding of
phenomenon.”
“… a key goal in science education should
be to help students restructure or replace
their conceptions of the world.”
     Modeling - Penner

“In order to use STELLA, students must
conceptualize a phenomenon in terms of
four types of icons available, regardless of
their current understanding and ways of
thinking of the phenomenon under
investigation.”
Advocates use of „programmable media‟ to
model phenomenon
Instructional Practice - Rakes

 The Influence of Teachers‟
 Technology Use on Instructional
 Practices
 Glenda Rakes, Valerie S. Fields &
 Karee E. Cox
 Journal of Research on Technology in
 Education Vol. 38 No.4
Instructional Practice - Rakes


 Study of the relationship between the
 level of technology implementation
 [LoTi] and personal computer use by
 teachers [PCU] on (constructivist)
 current instructional practices of
 teachers [CIP]
Instructional Practice - Rakes


 186 total 4th and 8th grade teachers
 with 123 voluntary participants
 11 school districts
 Rural, southern schools with 20% or
 more below the poverty line
Instructional Practice - Rakes

 “…teachers who scored higher on the
 LoTi and the PCU have higher levels
 on the CPI.”
 Confirms Moersch 1999 study -
 “…appropriate use of technology can
 reinforce higher cognitive skill
 development and complex thinking
 skills as promoted through the use of
 constructivist teaching practices.”
Technology Integration -
        Wright

From Preservice to Inservice
Teaching: A Study of Technology
integration
Vivian H. Wright & Elizabeth K. Wilson
Journal of Computing in Teacher
Education vol. 22 No. 2
Technology Integration -
        Wright
Preservice social studies teachers
Methods block - pre & post survey of
perceptions of technology [22]
Student teaching - survey [11] &
interview and observations [3]
First year teaching - interview one in
teaching position and two in graduate
school
Technology Integration -
        Wright


“Overall, participants were more likely
to emulate what „they were taught‟
than to apply individually their own
creative technology integration plans.”
Technology in Schools - Wenglinsky



  Using Technology Wisely: The Keys to
  Success in Schools
  Harold Wenglinsky
  2005
Technology in Schools - Wenglinsky



  Focuses upon student achievement -
  NAEP results from 1996, 1998 and
  2000
  4th, 8th and 12th graders
  Technology use across disciplines
Technology in Schools - Wenglinsky

  “The effective use of educational
  technology is enmeshed in the kind of
  pedagogy employed.”
  “Constructivist uses of technology help
  students learn better than they would
  otherwise,..”
  “…whereas didactic uses of technology
  make the technology useless or even
  damaging.”
Technology in Schools - Wenglinsky



  “The date indicate that, of the
  nontechnological instructional practices of
  teachers, it is primarily the constructivist
  ones that are associated with high student
  performance.”
Technology in Schools - Wenglinsky


  “In math and science, computer use is
  positively associated with student
  performance when computers are used in a
  constructivist fashion, and is either
  unassociated or negatively associated with
  student performance when computers are
  used in a didactic fashion.”
Technology in Schools - Wenglinsky


  “In reading, inferences are somewhat more
  difficult to make but suggest that when
  students use computers for word
  processing for meta-analytic purposes,
  student perform better, and when they are
  used for spellchecking or reading stories,
  students perform worse.”
       The Challenge

Introduce students to systems thinking
& dynamic modeling
Develop student use of technology as
a tool to enhance learning through
webquests
Foster a constructivist approach to
teaching and technology
A Proposal - WebQuests &
           ST

Preservice teacher education students
Build instructional WebQuests
Involve using & building models
Explain phenomenon, model(s) and
instructional foundation of webquest to
peers, faculty and teachers
   WebQuests - Dodge

Introduction
Tasks
Process
Evaluation
Conclusion
Teacher Resources
   WebQuests - Dodge


“The task focuses learners on what
they are going to do - specifically,
the culminating performance or
product that drives all of the
learning activities.”
   WebQuests - Dodge



Process “outlines how the learners
will accomplish the task. Scaffolding
includes clear steps, resources, and
tools for organizing information.”
   WebQuests - Dodge



Evaluation “describes the … criteria
needed to meet performance and
content standards.”
         Examples




Student samples from Systems
Thinking at RCNJ
         An Example

Meadowlands WebQuest
Sequential structured series of model
using and building activities embedded
in a webquest about the New Jersey
Meadowlands
Evaluation of teachers during staff
development and student achievement
after classroom use
•   Thank you
Using WebQuests & STELLA
  with Pre-Service Teachers
                Richard Langheim, Ed.D.
         Associate Professor of Education
          Ramapo College of New Jersey
             References

Dodge, B. Building Blocks of a WebQuest.
Accessed on 5 June 2006,
http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/staffdev/buildingbloc
ks/p-index.htm
Goodman, M. (2005). Systems thinking as a
language. Accessed on 5 June 2006,
http://www.thesystemsthinker.com/tstlang.html.
             References

Heinbokel, J., & Potash, J. (2006). Curricular
Innovation Accessed on 5 June 2006,
http://www.ciesd.org/influence/curricula.shtml.
Kay, R., (2006). Evaluating strategies used to
incorporate technology into pre-service education: a
review of the literature. Journal of Research on
Technology in Education, 38(4), 383-402.
             References

Lou, Y., Abrami, P.C., & d’Apollonia, S. (2001).
Small group and individual learning with
technology: a meta-analysis. Review of Educational
Research, 71(3), 449-521.
Mason, C., Berson, M., Diem, R., Hicks, D., Lee, J.,
& Dralle, T. (2000). Guidelines for using technology
to prepare social studies teachers. Contemporary
Issues in Technology & Teacher Education
[Electronic Version], 1(1).
             References


Penner, D.E. (2000-2001). Cognition, computers,
and synthetic science: building knowledge and
meaning through modeling. Review of Research in
Education, 25, 1-37.
Rakes, G.C., Fields, V.S., & Cox, K.E., (2006). The
influence of teachers’ technology use on
instructional practice. Journal of Research on
Technology in Education, 38(4), 409-424.
             References


Richmond, B., (2001). An Introduction to Systems
Thinking. Hanover, NH: High Performance
Systems.
Rakes, G.C., Fields, V.S., & Cox, K.E., (2006). The
influence of teachers’ technology use on
instructional practice. Journal of Research on
Technology in Education, 38(4), 409-424.
Booth Sweeney, L. & Sterman, J.D.
           References initial
(2000). Bathtub dynamics:
results of a systems thinking inventory.
System Dynamics Review, 16(4), 249-
286.
Wright, V.H. & Wilson, E.K. (2005-
2006). From pre-service to inservice
teaching: A study of technology
integration. Journal of Computing in
Teacher Education, 22(2), 49-55.
Wenglinsky, H. (2005). Using
technology wisely: The Keys to

				
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