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Race relations Act 1976 _amended 2001_

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					Race relations Act 1976
   (amended 2001)
L/o- to know the main principles
of the Race Relations act and to
    discuss the strengths and
     weaknesses of the act.
• The Race Relations act (RRA) shares many of
  the features of the Sex discrimination act in terms
  of
  –   Employment
  –   Education
  –   Goods
  –   Facilities and services
  –   Housing
• There are 4 types discrimination covered by the
  act
  –   Direct discrimination
  –   Indirect discrimination
  –   Victimisation
  –   Harassment
Direct discrimination
Examples
  – Denying entry to a club, school or other
    establishment because of race, or operating
    quotas limiting the numbers of black or white or
    other racial groups.
  – To refuse employment because the customers will
    not like being treated by a person of that race
  – Segregation is also direct discrimination – providing
    separate facilities or limiting the job roles of black or
    other ethnic minority employees where they have
    no contact with the public, whilst allowing others a
    full range of job roles.
Indirect discrimination
Examples
• Applying criteria which only some people can meet –
  requiring employees to be clean shaven would
  disadvantage Sikhs whose cultural beliefs require they
  wear a beard. Special arrangements must be made to
  allow equal access.
• Victimisation and harassment was added as an
  amendment in 2003, is defined as
   – ‘unwanted conduct with the purpose of effect of violating dignity or
     creating a hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment
     on the grounds of race or ethnic origin.’
• Covers housing, employment, education, the provision of
  goods, facilities and services, harassment and
  victimisation.
Employment
  – Training opportunities
  – Promotion
  – Hours of work
This covers
  –   permanent and temporary jobs,
  –   apprentices and trainees
  –   employment agencies
  –   police
Only exceptions are genuine occupational
 requirements such as drama or theatre
 productions
Most organisations have equal opportunities
 policies which should be made available to staff
 and be monitored
• Trade unions and professional
  associations cannot refuse to let
  people join, provide different benefits,
  facilities or services.
• Licensing bodies such as Director
  general of fair trading, magistrates or
  the police cannot discriminate on the
  basis of race
• The act also covers discrimination
  between any racial groups, or between
  any ethnic minority groups.
Education
• Specifically to schools and colleges
  maintained by a local education authority
• Also to independent and fee-paying
  schools, special schools, grant maintained
  schools and universities.
• Only exception is that overseas students
  may be charges higher fees by educational
  establishments if they are not British
  Citizens
Housing
• Renting form landlords (Public or private)
• Buying and selling
  – It is illegal to discriminate by making members
    of ethnic groups wait longer or pay different
    charges
Strengths of the Race Relation Act
• Wide ranging in its application covering
  most areas of life
• Following the death of Stephen Lawrence,
  the Macpherson report (1999) saw that the
  act was amended to extend the police.
• Act covers all racial and ethnic groups
  covering discrimination between minority
  groups as was as majority and minority
  groups.
Weaknesses of the Race Relations Act

• Act has made open racial discrimination socially
  unacceptable to most people, however this has
  led to it becoming more hidden and indirect
• Legislation does not change deeply held
  attitudes, but it can be effective in preventing
  unacceptable behaviour in the long term
• Taking action (invoking) the Act requires
  individuals to know their rights and what options
  are available to them.
The Commission for Racial Equality
• The commission for racial equality (CRE) is the
  body responsible fro monitoring and enforcing
  the RRA and has wide ranging powers.
• Their responsibilities are:-
  – Working towards the eliminations of discrimination
  – Promoting equality of opportunity and good relations
    between persons of different racial groups
  – Regularly reviewing the implementation for the Act
    and submitting proposals for amendment to the Home
    Secretary

				
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