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					Group Dynamics Camp 2005
     Rocky Creek Group


STAFF BOOKLET




 Monday 19th- Thursday 22nd September
                                         Index
Introduction                                                            3
Staff contact details                                                   3
Group allocation                                                        4
Basic camp plan                                                         5
Duty Groups                                                             5
In depth camp overview (timetable, transport, staffing & daily notes)
        - Monday                                                        5
        - Tuesday                                                       7
        - Wednesday                                                     7
        - Thursday                                                      8
Transport Directions                                                    9
Risk management overview                                                10
Student organisational roles                                            10
Equipment                                                               11
Base Camp                                                               12
        - Procedures                                                    12
        - Risk management plan                                          12
Catering                                                                18
        - General notes/ Menu                                           18
        - Risk management plan                                          18
Bushwalk                                                                19
        - Route Plans                                                   19
        - General notes                                                 22
        - Risk management plan                                          25
Environmental activities                                                 32
        - Desired outcomes/ guidelines for achieving these               32
        - Activities                                                     32
Initiative Activities                                                    37
        - Desired outcomes/ guidelines for achieving these               37
        - Guidelines on giving feedback                                 37
        - Logistics / Necessary equipment                               40
        - Activities                                                     40
        - Initiative and Environmental Risk management plan             44
Rogaine                                                                 47
        - Desired outcomes/ Guidelines for achieving these               47
        - Group preparation, guidelines, necessary equipment,
           procedure on returning to camp                               47
        - Rogaine risk management plan                                   50
        - Procedures for lost groups                                     51
        - Checkpoints and course notes                                  52
High Ropes                                                              54
        - Desired outcomes/ Guidelines to achieve this                  54
        - Logistics/ equipment                                          54
        - High ropes risk management plan                               55
Navigation skills                                                       56
Ecological footprint information                                        58
Games for around the campfire                                           60
Tutorial session outlines                                               63




                                                                              2
Hi All
This is the staff booklet for the Group Dynamics camp 2005. Hopefully it contains all the
information you will need. Please take the effort to read through it and find out all the information
pertinent to you and your group. Remember to bring it to camp with you as well as you never
know when it may come in useful. We’re very grateful of having you all on board and appreciate
the time and effort you will be contributing.

The camp will run from September 19th- 22nd. All leaders need to meet in the main central car
park at the Magill Campus of UniSA at 0645 on Monday the 19th. Students will arrive at 0700
and we aim for a departure time of 0730. Please read this booklet and have a good
understanding of where your group will be going and what they will be required to take.

We really want to make this a positive learning experience for all of the participants and one of
the most important things that will help that occur is the positive attitude of the staff. We also
want this to be an environmentally friendly camp and hence many of our activities will
incorporate environmental awareness components as well as utilising minimal impact principles.
In this regard it is important for all leaders to remember that the first years will be looking at YOU
as ROLE MODELS.

For the students, in addition to being an assessment item, this is an opportunity for them to put
into practice what they have been learning in class. We hope that you can assist them in this
learning and also that you have a good time yourselves. Ultimately, it’s important that we
remember that camp is for the camper. If you have any questions, don’t hesitate to ask one of
us, we’ll be more than happy to help.

Bethany Walker & Toby Clarke
Camp Coordinators

Staff Contact Details:
Camp Coordinators:
Bethany Walker       walbj009@students.unisa.edu.au             8274 4259      0402 350 321
Toby Clarke          clatc002@students.unisa.edu.au             8382 4044      0422 021 334
Group leaders:
Sara Chapell         chask009@students.unisa.edu.au             8381 9857      0401 195 140
Jo Mansell           manjy012@students.unisa.edu.au             8353 1409      0439 460 584
Andrew Stace         staay013@students.unisa.edu.au             8362 6993      0403 307 859
Brad Smith           smibp001@students.unisa.edu.au             8396 4543      0412 630 675
Nick Glover          glonj001@students.unisa.edu.au             8271 1438      0421 612 340
Kathryn Reedy        reekl002@studentrs.unisa.edu.au            8532 6116
Ray Prideaux         prirj005@students.unisa.edu.au             8255 1159      0414 34 022
Michael King         kinmy004@students.unisa.edu.au             8325 1630      0412 391 860

Assistant Leaders:
Jessica Northcott    norjl003@students.unisa.edu.au             83321761
Chris Pahl
Shaun Falls          falsy004@students.unisa.edu.au             8568 5370      0417 825 099
Shane Hill           hilsy003@students.unisa.edu.au                            0418837901

UniSA Staff:
Jim Townsend         Jim.Townsend@unisa.edu.au                                 0417899920
Peter Kellett        Peter.Kellett@unisa.edu.au

                                                                                                     3
Bushwalking and Activity Groups:
                  Group A                        Group B
     Leader: Sara Chapell          Leader: Nick Glover
     Assistant: Shaun Falls        Assistant:
     Students:                     Students:
                Jesse Abfalter                 Tarsha Autio
     1         Matthew Curnow                 Luke Mensforth
                Cara Gleeson                    Beau Gora
                Toni Hamood                      Kate Hay
                Sarah Howley                  Andrew Jacobs
                 Evan Hurse                    Katrina Johns
             Matthew Politarhis*            Rowena Yeomans
                Gemma Barich                   Josh Bottrall*
                Owen Rowsell                    Heidi Wood
             Stephanie Tompson


                   Group C                       Group D
     Leader: Andrew Stace          Leader: Ray Prideaux
     Assistant:                    Assistant: Jessica Northcott
     Students:                     Students:
                Kristy Baldock              Megan Birchmore
                  Nick Heath                  Francis English
                 Brodie O‟Dea                 Abby Dunnicliff
                  Brett Hains                Travis Harriman
                  Ben Jones                  Peter Kleemann
              Samantha Maiolo                Roxanne McKay
                 Nick Muxlow                James Raimondo
                Honorah Lowe*                Larissa Schinella
                Brock Weisman                   Holly Weir
              Rhianna Pezzaniti


                  Group E                        Group F
     Leader: Jo M                  Leader: Michael King
     Assistant:                    Assistant:
     Students:                     Students:
                Helder Borges              Zachariah Bradfield
             Stephanie Davidson               Natasha Delfos
                 Jenna Evans                  Steven Freeling
                 Rory Hawkins                   Erin Heard
                    Duc Le                 Samantha Minchin
                  Erin Parish                   Toby Moen
                 Liam Redden               Matthew Ridgeway
                Kara Smallman                   Terri Spiel
                 Stacey Sellar                 Chris Williams
                Todd Stebhens

                                                                  4
                      Group G                                  Group H
        Leader: Brad Smith                       Leader: Kathryn Reedy
        Assistant:                               Assistant: Chris Pahl
        Students:                                Students:
                   Emma Brown                              Melise Connelly
                  Kayla Chumbley                              John Cox
                      Ben Frick                              Brad Gerlach
                    Glen Hughes                             Victoria Hillier
                    Brad Newton                              Hieu Nguyen
                 Lauren Pisaniello                          Renee Rohde
                    Ben Rogers                              Justin Nickolai
                    Laura Stone                           Elizabeth Stuckey
                   Anthony Villani                         Nicole Wehrman
                Kristina Wassmann                          Rodrigo Ventura


                      A        B         C        D      E      F      G             H
       Mon AM       Enviro   Enviro     HR       HR     BW     BW     BW            BW
       Mon PM        HR       HR       Enviro   Enviro  BW     BW     BW            BW
       Tue AM        Init.    Init.     Rog.     Rog.   BW     BW     BW            BW
       Tue PM        Rog.     Rog.      Init.    Init.  BW     BW     BW            BW
       Wed AM        BW       BW        BW       BW     HR     HR    Enviro        Enviro
       Wed PM        BW       BW        BW       BW    Enviro Enviro  HR            HR
       Thur AM       BW       BW        BW       BW     Init.  Init.  Rog.          Rog.
       Thur PM       BW       BW        BW       BW     Rog.   Rog.   Init.         Init.

Duty Roster

                          Breakfast          Lunch          Tea Prep      Tea clean up
        Monday                -                A               B               C
        Tuesday              A                 C               D               B
        Wednesday            E                 G               F               H
        Thursday             G                 E                -               -


Monday:
General Plan
  -   0645 staff arrive at Magill for pre departure briefing
  -   0700 Students arrive at Magill
  -   0730- aim to depart by
  -   0845- A, B, C, D arrive and begin environmental activities/ High ropes: E, F, G, H arrive at
      Rocky Creek for camp guidelines and equipment handout/ packing
  -   1045 E, F to depart Rocky and be dropped off at walk point, G, H to walk out of Rocky.
  -   1200 A, B pick up from Botanic Gardens
  -   1215 A, B prepare lunch at Woodhouse
  -   1230, A, B, C, D eat lunch
  -   1300 A, B to begin high ropes, C, D to pack up lunch
  -   1330 C, D to leave Woodhouse to be dropped off at Mt Lofty Botanic Gardens
                                                                                                 5
   -   1700 A, B, C, D to depart Woodhouse and Mt Lofty Botanic Gardens
   -   1730 A, B, C, D Arrive Rocky Creek and have camp guidelines by Beth and Toby and tent
       handout / setup
          o Dinner prep to start ASAP after briefing
   -   1900 Dinner / clean up
   -   2030 group debriefing about day, then free time, with option of campfire games eg Mafia

Staffing
       - Bushwalks with group leaders
       - Environmental activities to be lead by group leaders
       - High ropes
              - am = Andrew, Toby and Jim or PK
              - pm = Beth, Toby and Jim or PK (possibly both)

Transport / movement:
0730 All groups depart Magill
     - Groups A & B In Uni bus 1. driven by ___________to Mt lofty botanic gardens- bottom
          entrance -arrive 0845 (bus then goes to Woodhouse so Jim or PK can help out on
          high ropes)
     - Groups C & D In hired bus to Woodhouse (HR)- arrive 0845
     - Groups E & F In Hired Bus to Rocky Creek- arrive 0845
     - Groups G & H In Uni bus 2. driven by __________to Rocky Creek- arrive 0845
     - Beth in 4WD to Rocky Creek-arrive 0845
1045
     - Groups E & F in Uni bus 2. driven by _________ to walk drop off point at __________
             o Uni Bus 2 then continues- with trailer- onto bottom entrance to Mt Lofty Botanic
                 gardens for pick up of groups A&B at 1200
     - Beth to go to Woodhouse in 4WD once walk groups departed

1640
       -   Groups A & B in Uni Bus 1. driven by ____ from Woodhouse to Rocky Creek- arrive
           1730
       -   Groups C & D in Uni Bus 2. driven by _____ from Mt Lofty Botanic Gardens to Rocky
           Creek- arrive 1730

1800-1900
      - Beth or Toby in 4WD to make water drop to walking groups at……………..

Notes:
       -   Groups C & D will need to remove their gear from the trailer on the hired bus when
           they arrive at Woodhouse. Will need to have some tarps so that this can be covered
           over in case of rain. This will be transferred to trailer on Uni Bus 2 when it arrives later
           in the day.
       -   Beth need to take food and equipment for lunch to Woodhouse in 4WD
       -   Equipment for environmental activities needs to be in Uni Bus 1
       -   Tool kits in both buses, first aid kit in bus 1
       -   Need to ensure there are enough rain jackets in Uni Bus 1. for groups A,B,C,D in case
           of rain whilst at Woodhouse/ Mt Lofty.




                                                                                                      6
Tuesday
General Plan
     -0700- 0830- wake up and breakfast
     - 0830 – 1200 – Groups A,B to do initiatives at Rocky, Groups C,D to do Rogaine at
     Rocky.
     - 1200-1300 – Groups A,B,C,D lunch at Rocky
     - 1300-1630- Groups A,B to do Rogaine, Groups C,D to do initiatives
     - 1530- Pick up walking groups G & H
     - 1615- Groups E,F,G,H hand in equipment. Groups A,B,C,D, to collect equipment once
     activities finished
     - 1715- Dinner Prep
     - 18:00-19:30 Dinner and dinner clean up
     - 1930- 2130 Organised entertainment

Staffing:
     -   Initiatives to be done with group leaders, Beth to oversee am session, Toby to oversee
         pm session
     -   Rogaine to be done in pairs. Group leaders to assist with patrolling area. Toby to
         oversee am session, Beth to oversee pm session.
     -   Bushwalk with group leaders

Transport/ Movement
     -   15:15 one Uni bus driven by Jim or PK to depart Rocky and pick up walk groups G &
         H

Notes:
     -   4WD available to be used around Rogaine course
     -   Groups E,F to walk back into Rocky, groups G,H to be picked up
     -   Groups coming back into base camp from bushwalks need respect other groups still
         doing activities and try not to disturb them. May be a good time to do group debriefs,
         set up you tents and hand in other equipment. Will be given instructions by Beth/ Toby
         as to appropriate place to set up.
     -   Equipment handover to be completed by dinner to give those going on bushwalk in 2 nd
         half a chance to organise themselves.


Wednesday
General Plan
     -   0700 wake up and breakfast
     -   0800 groups E,F in Uni bus 2 to go to woodhouse and G,H in Uni bus 1 go to Mt Lofty
         Botanic Gardens
     -   0845 arrive. E,F begin high ropes and G,H begin environmental activities. Uni bus 1 to
         return to Rocky.
     -   1030- Groups A,B to be dropped off in Uni bus 1 at walk start point. Groups C,D to
         walk out of Rocky.
     -   Uni bus 1 to return to Mt Lofty by 1200 for pick up of G,H
     -   1215 groups G,H to prepare lunch at woodhouse
     -   1230 E,F,G,H eat lunch

                                                                                              7
      -    1300- G,H high ropes, E,F lunch pack up and then dropped off at Mt Lofty Botanic
           Gardens, approx 1330 for environmental activities
      -    1700 E,F,G,H depart woodhouse and Mt Lofty Botanic Gardens
      -    1730 E,F,G,H arrive Rocky creek, begin dinner prep
      -    1830 dinner/ dinner clean up
      -    2000 debrief of day then free time with option of campfire games eg mafia

Staffing
      -    Bushwalks with group leaders
      -    Environmental activities with group leaders
      -    High ropes am and pm – Beth, Toby and PK or Jim (possibly both in pm)

Transport
     - 0730 Beth to go to Woodhouse in 4WD and assist in ropes set up
      -    0800 E,F,G,H to go to Woodhouse and Mt Lofty Botanic Gardens in uni bus 1 & 2
           driven by Jim & PK
      -    0930 Uni bus 1, driven by ……. to return to Rocky
      -    1030 Groups A,B in uni bus 1 driven by…….. to be dropped off at walk start point. Uni
           bus 1 then returns to Mt Lofty Botanic Gardens for 1200 pick up of G,H.
      -    1700 Groups E,F,G,H in uni bus 1 & 2 driven by Jim and PK to return to Rocky from
           Mt Lofty Botanic Gardens and Woodhouse. 4WD driven by Beth or Toby to return to
           Rocky.
      -    1800-1900 Beth or Toby to do water drop in 4WD at………

Notes:
      -    Lunch food and equipment needs to go to Woodhouse in bus 2
      -    Beth to arrive at Woodhouse early and assist in ropes set up
      -    Equipment for environmental activities needs to be in Bus 2
      -    Tool kit in both buses
      -    First aid in bus 2

Thursday
General Plan
      -    0600 wake up, breakfast and pack up of individual tents and return of uni equipment.
      -    0800 -1130 Groups E,F initiatives, Groups G,H Rogaine
      -    1130-1230 Early lunch/ lunch cleanup
      -    1230-1530 Groups G,H Initiatives, groups E,F Rogaine
      -    1500 bus 1 driven by …… picks up groups C,D from walk end point and returns to
           Rocky
      -    1530 A,B,C,D return uni equipment. E,F,G,H pull down big tents, pack up equipment
           etc. Pack buses.
      -    1630 aim to depart (earlier if possible)
      -    1800 arrive Magill, clean buses, put equipment away etc

Staffing:
      -    Initiatives to be done with group leaders, Beth to oversee am session, Toby to oversee
           pm session
      -    Rogaine to be done in pairs. Group leaders to assist with patrolling area. Toby to
           oversee am session, Beth to oversee pm session.
      -    Bushwalk with group leaders
                                                                                                  8
Transport
      -   1445, Uni bus 1, driven by……….leaves Rocky to do pick up of groups C,D from ……..
      -   1630- Uni buses 1 & 2 driven by Jim and PK and hired bus 1 & 2 depart Rocky with all
          students and head to Magill

Notes:
      -   Earlier start than previous days to allow all to fit in
      -   Leaders not assisting in Rogaine after lunch can start pulling down big tents, tarps etc
      -   4WD available for patrolling Rogaine course
      -   Aim to be out of Rocky by 1630 to allow sufficient time to return to Magill and clean up.

Directions:
Magill to Rocky Creek:
       - West along Magill Rd towards town
       - Turn left onto Portrush Rd
       - Travel along Portrush Rd and turn left at the Toll gate onto the Freeway
       - Travel up freeway, exit at Hahndorf exit.
       - Drive down main street which then turns into Mount Barker Rd as you enter Hahndorf,
          turn right on Pine Av.
       - Follow Pine Av down as it turns into Echunga Rd.
       - Follow Echunga Rd all the way to its end where it meets Aldgate – Strathalbyn Rd,
          turn left here.
       - Proceed to turn right down Battunga Rd (Next right).
       - Follow Battunga Rd till you reach Razor Back Rd on your left (Some 4km out of
          Meadows) turn right down Razor Back Road.
       - Follow Razor Back Road for 2 km and the main gate entrance to Rocky Creek Camp
          Site will be on your left.

Magill to Woodhouse
       - West along Magill Rd towards town
       - Turn left onto Portrush Rd
       - Travel along Portrush Rd and turn left at the Toll gate onto the Freeway
       - Travel up freeway, exit at Crafers exit.
       - Drive down main street of Crafers, veering left on Piccadilly Rd.
       - Turn Right onto Spring Gully Rd
       - Turn left into woodhouse approx 1 km down road.
       - Go past car park and follow road around to left to ropes course/ climbing tower

Rocky Creek To Woodhouse
      - Follow Razor Back Road Back to Battunga Rd, turn Left.
      - Drive back up Battunga Rd till it meets Aldgate – Strathalbyn Rd, turn left.
      - Follow Aldgate – Strathalbyn Rd, turn left here.
Proceed to turn right down Battunga Rd (Next right).

Mt Lofty Botanic Gardens (bottom entrance):
      - Exit at Crafers as when heading to Woodhouse DO NOT go to Mt lofty Summit
      - Veer Left onto Piccadilly Rd
      - Travel past Spring Gully Rd and turn left onto Sprigg Rd, (this shortly turns into Lampert
Rd.)
      - Drop off and pick up in lower car park
              *should be able to follow signs once on Piccadilly Rd.
                                                                                                  9
Risk Management:
In order to keep this a safe, happy and injury free camp, risk management plans have been
formulated for all aspects of the program and can be found in the relevant sections of this
booklet. Please take the time to read these over and become familiar with the relevant
guidelines/ procedures etc that are in use. Whilst the format may vary the general equation used
remains the same.

1. Identify the objectives of the activity in question.
2. Identify the risks in achieving these objectives.
3. Can you meet these objectives in a way, or in an environment, of less risk?

If YES, then the degree of risk involved is unacceptable and the program component or activity
is unacceptable.
Therefore, the risk must be reduced to an acceptable level or the activity cancelled.

Student organisational roles:
(Instructions as given in student booklets)

Entertainment:
      Leader : Bethany
          o Your role is to come up with an evening of entertainment to be shared by all on
            Tuesday night, when everyone is at base camp. If you decide you need any
            equipment let Beth know ASAP so she can organise it.
Finance:
      Leader: Andrew
          o Your role is to ensure all individuals from your walking group pay their food money,
            collect and record their receipt numbers and hand them in to your leader.
Medicals:
      Leader: Sara
          o Your role is to collect all the medical forms from your walking groups and make a
            summary of any medical problems. Once completed hand it all into your leader.
Equipment:
      Leader: Jo M
          o Your role is to make a list of all the bushwalking equipment that your walking group
            needs. Lists should include tents, Trangias, sleeping mats, rain jackets etc, and
            needs to be handed up to you leader ASAP to ensure that we have enough
            equipment for everyone.
Catering
      Leader: Brad
          o Your role is to work with your leader to finalise the meal plan and check for any
            food allergies/ special requirements within your walking groups.
Transport:
      Leader: Toby
          o Your role is to liaise with your walking group and check to see if anyone has to take
            their own car (not recommended). You will also need to find out who is leaving their
            car parked at Magill so that parking tickets can be arranged for them.




                                                                                                 10
Equipment:

    Marquee Tent                2 (1 marquee 1 storage, more if
                                possible)
    Gas burner ring             2 X 2 burners
    Gas bottles                 4
    Gas hose                    4
    Lantern                     4 with bottles
    Eskies
    Trestle tables (inc legs)   2
    Axe                         1
    Washing up tubs             6
    Water containers            4
    Tarps                       5 big ones
    Poles (for tarps)
    Rope                        Lots of smaller for tying up tarps
    Cooking utensils            2 openers, 8 knifes, 4 flips, 2 grater, 2
                                ladle, 3 serve spoons, 2 wood
                                spoons, 2 peeler, 15 egg rings, 8
                                tongs
    Cooking pot                 6
    Frypans                     1
    Cutting boards              8
    Serving trays               4
    Serving bowls               6
    Food storers                5
    TV/video
    Video camera
    Extension cord
    Compasses                   22
    Maps                        15 X Heysen trail, 15 X Rogaine
                                (eucalypt map)
    Padlocks
    Tool kit                    2
    Trailer kit                 1
    First aid kit - Hiking      4
                  - Base camp   2
    Rubbish bins                4
    Trowels                     6
    Consumerables               6 pack scourers, 12 tea towels, 2L
                                detergent, 6 hand wash, 40 garbage
                                bags, 1 pack toilet paper.
    Bushwalk equipment
    Bushwalk tents
    Packs
    Sleep mats
    Maps                        See above
    Compasses                   See above
    Rogaine equipment
    Orienteering markers        21
    Markers (textas)            21
                                                                            11
       Tape measure                          1 (to mark out a 100m track)
       Initiative equipment
       Rope                                  1 shorter rope (10m),
       Plank                                 1 solid 2m plank
       Cones                                 15
       Pool noodles                          4
       Tarps                                 2
       Blindfolds                            20
       Helmets                               8
       Bungee cord                           15+ m
       Environmental equipment               We need to get
       Blindfolds                            20


Base Camp:
   -   Bethany and Toby will be based at Rocky Creek for the whole camp and any queries
       as to procedures etc can be directed to them.
   -   The Hut is not to be used as a staff hangout.
   -   Leaders need to make and effort to socialise with the students, not just each other
   -   First aid will available in the hut
   -   Only designated staff, trained in its use, are allowed to use the axe. Closed shoes
       must be worn.
   -   Cars are to be parked in the designated area and students need to hand in keys on
       arrival.




                                                                                         12
Base Camp Risk Management Plan:
Location: Rocky Creek Campsite, Kuitpo Forest
Dates: 19th – 22nd September, 2005
References:
A.     UniSA Risk Assessment Policy & Procedures
B.     Aust Journal Outdoor Education Vol 1, No. 2. Oct 1995
C.     AS/NZS 4360: 1999 Risk Management
              Human                Health, medical, fitness problems
                                   Emotional problems
                                   Inadequate supervision
                                   Lack of instruction
                                   Inadequate nutrition & hydration
                                   Participant misbehaviour
                                   Driving / transportation
                                   Poor hygiene
                                   Presence of public
                                   Meal preparation
                                   Incorrect use of equipment
                                   Ignorance of SOPs

              Environmental         Poorly sited facilities
                                    Hot weather
                                    Bushfire
                                    Cold weather
                                    Electrical storms
                                    Remote sites
                                    Public access / roadways
                                    Venomous animals
                                    Toxic plants
                                    Suitability of location to program
                                    Camp fire hazards

              Resources and         Equipment fault / failure
              Equipment             Loss of equipment
                                    Poor manual handling
                                    Lack of required equipment
                                    Hazardous substances (fuel, gas, chemicals)
                                    Bike riding




                                                                                  13
RISK ASSESSMENT SUMMARY
Note: The definitions and classification used in this table are from Reference A.

PPE= personal protection equipment
FA= First aid
SOP= Standard operating procedures
MSDS= Material safety data sheets
Trg Prg= Training program


                                              Risk Level               Risk Control Measures                    Residual        Control
 Risk                 Consequenc                                                                                  Risk          Implemented / By
                      e/                                                                                         Level          Whom ?
                      Probability
 Health, medical,     C: Life threatening                        1. Health Forms completed                         Low         Staff medical coordinator
 fitness problems     P: Unlikely            High                2. Staff to be aware of problems & monitor                   Student medical coordinator
                                                                     accordingly                                                     Group leaders
                                                                 3. Individuals to carry self med                                 Camp coordinators
                                                                 4. Med checks prior if required
                                                                 5. Students to be informed of nature of
                                                                     activities.
                                                                 6. FA available
                                                                 7. Emergency Response Plan

 Emotional            C: Negligible                 Low         1. Where known staff to be aware of & monitor    Negligible          Group leaders
 problems             P: Unlikely                                2. Front load nature of activity                                  Camp coordinators
                                                                 3. Debriefing

 Inadequate           C: Life threatening           High         1. Appropriate staff ratios                       Low             Camp Coordinators
 supervision          P: Unlikely                                2. Nominated staff supervising sessions                             Group leaders
                                                                 3. Adherence to safe practice
                                                                 4.

 Lack of              C: Detrimental             Medium          1. Provide appropriate instruction                Low                UniSA staff
 instruction          P: Unlikely                                2. Allow practice opportunities                                   Camp coordinators
                                                                 3. Performance in context                                           Group leaders
                                                                 4.

 Inadequate           C: Harmful                 Medium          1. Describe need for this                         Low            Catering coordinator

                                                                                                                                                         14
nutrition &        P: Unlikely                            2.   Carry food & drink                                 Individual responsibility
hydration                                                 3.   Provide breaks for snacks
                                                          4.   Monitoring by leader
                                                          5.   Encourage self monitoring

Participant        C: Negligible             Low          1. Safety brief                            Negligible       Group leader
misbehaviour       P: Highly Unlikely                     2. State behaviour expectations                           Camp coordinator
                                                          3. Supervision by leaders                                    UniSA staff

Poor hygiene       C: Harmful              Medium         1. Covered in Trg Prog                       Low          Camp coordinator
                   P: Likely                              2. Provide hygiene products & facilities                   Group leaders
                                                          3. Adherence to appropriate standards in
                                                              food prep
                                                          4. Monitoring by camp staff

Presence of        C: Negligible           Medium         1. State behaviour expectations              Low          Camp coordinators
public             P: Likely                              2. Awareness of security                                     UniSA staff
                                                          3. Supervision by Camp & UniSA staff

Meal preparation   C: Harmful                High         1. Covered in Trg Prog & SOP               Medium        Catering coordinator
                   P: Very Likely                         2. Ensure personal hygiene                                Camp coordinator
                                                          3. Clean equipment / area                                  Group leaders
                                                          4. Adherence to appropriate standards in
                                                              food prep
                                                          5. Monitoring by Uni staff



Incorrect use of   C: Life Threatening       High         1. Training required prior to use of       Medium         Camp coordinators
equipment          P: Likely                                  equipment. (Note 1)                                     Group leaders
                                                          2. SOPs adhered to
                                                          3. PPE available
                                                          4. Supervision by staff
                                                          5. FA available
                                                          6. Emergency Response Plan

Poorly sited       C: Detrimental            High         1. Recon to identify safe sites            Medium         Camp coordinators
   facilities      P: Likely             eg under trees   2. Supervision by staff                                     Group leaders
                                                          3. Designated areas established

Hot weather        C:Negligible            Medium         1. Monitor weather                           Low          Camp coordinators
                   P: Very likely                         2. Assess impact on activity                                Group leaders
                                                          3. Amend activity as required

                                                                                                                                              15
Bushfire            C: Life Threatening   Medium   1.   Camp fire SOPs                            Low      Camp coordinators
                    P: Highly Unlikely             2.   Safety Brief                                      Equipment coordinator
                                                   3.   Monitor weather report
                                                   4.   Fire fighting equipment
                                                   5.   Emergency Response Plan


Cold weather        C: Harmful            Medium   1. Monitor weather and activity by leader      Low       Camp coordinator
                    P: Unlikely                    2. Amend activity as required                              Group leader
                                                   3. Provision of appropriate equipment (warm
                                                       clothes, facility)

Electrical storms   C: Life threatening   Medium   1.    Monitor weather                          Low         Group leader
                    P: Highly unlikely             2.    Assess impact on activity                          Camp coordinator
                                                   3.    Move to safe location
                                                   4.   Brief “Actions On”

Remote sites        C: Harmful            Medium   1. Lodge Trip Intentions                       Low      Camp coordinators
                    P: Likely                      2. Apply security as appropriate (veh,
                                                       equip)
                                                   3. Emergency Response Plan for area
                                                   4. Communication Plan

Public access /     C: Harmful             High    1. Identify hazards                           Medium      Group leaders
roadways            P: Very likely                 2. Brief group on these
                                                   3. Monitoring by leader
                                                   4. Individual need to be observant

Venomous            C: Life threatening    High    1.   Appropriate clothing                      Low        Group leaders
animals             P: Unlikely                    2.   Avoid known locations
                                                   3.   Brief to all
                                                   4.   FA on hand
                                                   5.   Emergency Response Plan / Evacuation

Toxic plants        C: Negligible          Low     1.   Appropriate clothing                      Low        Group leaders
                    P: Highly Unlikely             2.   Avoid known locations
                                                   3.   FA on hand
                                                   4.   Emergency Response Plan / Evacuation

Camp fire           C: Detrimental        Medium   1. Training program in advance. Ground         Low       Camp coordinator
   hazards          P: Unlikely                        rules
                                                   2. Monitoring by staff

                                                                                                                                  16
                                                             3. Fire equipment on hand
                                                             4. Safety brief about fires
                                                             5. Not left unsupervised

 Equipment fault /   C: Harmful                Medium        1.   Regular maintenance                                                Group leader
 failure             P: Unlikely                             2.   Checks prior to use
                                                             3.   Correct usage explained
                                                             4.   Supervise or monitor as appropriate by
                                                                   staff

 Loss of             C: Negligible             Medium        1. Regular checks                                    Low                Group leader
    equipment        P: Likely                               2. Secured prior to moving
                                                             3. Individual responsibility encouraged


 Poor manual         C: Detrimental            Medium        1. Brief & demonstrate appropriate methods           Low                Group leader
 handling            P: Unlikely                             2. Adherence to safe practice
                                                             3. Supervision / intervention by staff / leader

 Lack of required    C: Negligible               Low         1.   Develop equipment list in advance            Negligible       Equipment coordinator
 equipment           P: Unlikely                             2.   Equipment checked prior to camp                                   Group leader
                                                             3.   Improvisation if possible
                                                             4.   Suspend activity until equipment available
                                                                   (if safety issue)

 Hazardous           C: Detrimental            Medium        1. MSDS available                                  Medium          Equipment Coordinator
 substances (fuel,   P: Unlikely                             2. Appropriate handling                                              Camp coordinator
 gas, chemicals                                              3. Appropriate storage

 Bike riding         C: Life threatening        High         1. Adherence to road rules                         Medium          Equipment coordinator
                     P: Unlikely                             2. PPE - helmet                                                      Camp coordinator
                                                             3. Nominate intention / route
                                                             4 Communication equipment required (Y/N
                                                                 ?)
                                                             5. Common sense


Notes:
1.     Training session to be conducted. To include; wood chopping, camp fire operation, use of tools, food handling & camp hygiene, lanterns.
2.     Certain machinery (eg: tractors, chainsaw) to only be operated by qualified and/or experienced personnel.
3.     Consider the requirement for development of SOP for various aspects (i.e.: cycling, camp fire, meal prep,

                                                                                                                                                        17
Catering:
- Brad in charge of overall organization

General notes:
         - All members of the group participate in meal prep/clean up
         - A high level of hygiene is maintained throughout procedure. Eg. Wash basin &
            soap, use of utensils (not hands), clean preparation area, dishes cleaned properly.
         - General student safety (knives, heat, flame)
         - That assistance is offered concerning correct meal preparation methods.
         - Adequate cleanup of dishes, utensil, and meal prep area.
         - No packaging, rubbish or food scraps left on the ground.
         - Storage of rubbish bags and waste is in an area not accessible by animals.
         - Everyone is happy and well fed!

Menu

Monday
Lunch (1/2)                          Wraps
Dinner (1/2)                         Spaghetti, garlic bread
Tuesday
Breakfast (1/2)                      Cereal, eggs, bacon, toast
Lunch (1/2)                          Hotdogs
Dinner (Whole group)                 Hamburgers
Wednesday
Breakfast (whole group)              Cereal, toast
Lunch (1/2)                          Wraps
Dinner (1/2)                         Spaghetti, garlic bread
Thursday
Breakfast (1/2)                      cereal, eggs, bacon, toast
Lunch (1/2)                          Hotdogs

Extras- cordial, biscuits, fruit, coffee and Milo

* Fruit to go with every meal
** Cost per person $35
*** This has been planned so that each group gets each meal once. There will be wraps on days
when high ropes are on, lunch at base camp will be hotdogs.




                                                                                             18
Catering risk management plan (in addition to base camp RMP):
Location: Rocky Creek campsite, Kuitpo Forest
Dates: 19th – 22nd September

Risk             Consequence/   Risk     Risk control measures              Residual risk   Control
                 probability    level                                                       implemented by
Burns from       C: harmful     medium   1. First aid available             Medium          Catering
stoves &         P: likely               2. Instruction on use of                           coordinator
BBQ‟s                                        equipment by staff                             Camp coordinators
                                         3. adequate space around
                                             equipment to prevent
                                             crowding
                                         4. Check equipment for
                                             faults/ wear and tear
                                             before use
                                         5.
Food poisoning   C: Harmful     Medium      1. Proper food storage          Remains         Catering
                 P: likely                       eg covered and cold        medium          coordinator
                                                 (in eskies etc).                           Camp coordinators
                                            2. Clean food preparation                       Group leaders
                                                 surfaces and
                                                 equipment
                                            3. Facilities to wash
                                                 hands
                                            4. Facilities to wash and
                                                 rinse utensils after use
                                            5. Clean cloths and tea
                                                 towels.
                                            6.
Knife injury     C: Harmful     Medium      1. Ensure appropriate           Unlikely        Catering
                 P: likely                       handling                                   coordinator
                                            2. Safe storage
                                            3.
Cross            C: Harmful     Medium      1. Clean food prep.             Low             Catering
contamination    P: Likely                       surfaces                                   coordinator
                                            2. Separate cutting                             Equipment
                                                 boards, utensils, pots                     coordinator
                                                 and serving trays for                      Group leaders
                                                 meat and vegetables
                                            3.




                                                                                                            19
Bushwalk
            -    Jo M in charge of overall organization

Route Plan:

Route Planning Sheet (Route Card)

Group: UniSA Group Dynamics Students                  Area: Kuitpo/Mt Bold
Dates: 19-22/9/05        Day:                         Activity: Buswalking (Groups 1& 2)
Field trip supervisor:                                Student coordinator:
Prepared by: Jo Mansell
Map [s]: The Heysen Trail: Mt Magnificent to Mt Lofty


        Stage            Objective    Bearing     km         Height   Time for   E. T. A   Terrain/Remarks
                                                                      stage
        (describe)       (grid ref)   (initial)              + or -
                                                                      (hrs)

        Start            921 051      SW          4                   1                    Flat, open, along
                                                                                           Heysen
        Rocky Creek
                                                                                           Trail/Claren Rd
        campsite to
        Dashwood
        Gully Rd

        Dashwood         918 018      S           4.5        -10      1.5                  Along Mallawa Rd
        Gully Rd to                                                                        and vehicle track
        Brookman Rd



        Brookman Rd      918 993      SE          4          +30      2                    Along Heysen
        to campsite                                                                        Trail


        Campsite to      907 005      NW          2.2        -70      0.25                 Along Rd/Heysen
        Information                                                                        Trail
        Centre



        Information      903 024      NW          2.5        -20      0.5                  Light scrub, along
        Centre to                                                                          creek
        Wicks Rd



        Wicks Rd to      892 026      W           5          +30      1.5                  Light scrub, along
        corner of                                                                          trail
        Onkeeta Trail



        Bottom of        879 030      N           4          +20      1.5                  Along Onkeeta



                                                                                                                20
        Onkeeta Trail                                                               Trail, follows part
        to top corner                                                               of Heysen Trail
        of Onkeeta                                                                  also
        Trail



        Onkeeta         880 068   NW         3.3       +90      2                   Navigate through
        Trail to                                                                    scrub over Mt
        Dashwood                                                                    Panorama
        Gully Rd


                                                       +170
        Totals                               29.5      -100     10.25


Evacuation and phone range routes:

       1. Information Centre on        2. Evacuation possible from        3. Evacutation possible from
       Brookman Rd has phone           Dashwood Gully Rd                  Wicks Rd
       Coverage




Time Calculations (Naismith’s Rule):
For novices: 3-4km/hr for easy terrain; 2-3 km/hr for light scrub; 1-2 km/hr for heavy scrub, scrambling.
Add 1 hour for every + 500m, every - 1000m.




                                                                                                            21
Route Planning Sheet (Route Card)

Group: UniSA Group Dynamics Students                  Area: Kuitpo/Mt Bold
Dates: 19-22/9/05        Day:                         Activity: Bushwalking (Groups 3 & 4)
Field trip supervisor:                                Student coordinator:
Prepared by: Jo Mansell
Map [s]: The Heysen Trail: Mt Magnificent to Mt Lofty


        Stage            Objective    Bearing     km         Height   Time for   E. T. A     Terrain/Remarks
                                                                      stage
        (describe)       (grid ref)   (initial)              + or -
                                                                      (hrs)

        Start            897 030      SW          3.3        +90      2                      Navigate over or
                                                                                             around Mt
        Mt.
                                                                                             Panorama
        Panorama
        gate
        (Dashwood
        Gully Rd to
        top of
        Onkeeta Trail

        Top of           892 024      E           5.4        -30      1.5                    Crosses Heysen
        Onkeeta Trail                                                                        Trail, then meets it
        to bottom left                                                                       later on
        of Onkeeta
        Trail



        Bottom of        920 016      E           3.7        -10      1                      Along Heysen
        Onkeeta Trail                                                                        Trail, cross
        to                                                                                   Brookman Rd
        Chookarloo



        Chookarloo       903 023      NW          3          -10      0.75                   Along Heysen
        to Wicks Rd                                                                          Trail to Wicks Rd
                                                                                             turn off

        Wicks Rd to      914 036      NE          3.8        +40      1.5                    Along Wicks Rd
        Dashwood
        Gully Rd



        Dashwood         922 031      NE          2                   0.75                   Along Heysen
        Gully Rd to                                                                          Trail to meet
        Claren Rd                                                                            Claren Rd




                                                                                                                    22
        Claren Rd to   936 083    N          4         +20      1.5                 Continue along
        Rocky Creek                                                                 Heysen
        campsite                                                                    Trail/Claren Rd




                                                       +150
        Totals                               25.2      -50      11


Evacuation and phone range routes:

       1. Information Centre on        2. Evacuation possible from        3. Evacutation possible from
       Brookman Rd has phone           Dashwood Gully Rd                  Wicks Rd
       Coverage




Time Calculations (Naismith’s Rule):
For novices: 3-4km/hr for easy terrain; 2-3 km/hr for light scrub; 1-2 km/hr for heavy scrub, scrambling.
Add 1 hour for every + 500m, every - 1000m.


Notes/ Logistics:
   o Students will need to carry all of their own tents, clothes, equipment, food and water for
     one day.
   o There will be a water drop at your overnight campsite
   o Campsites will have two groups in them overnight.
   o The use of campfires will be left to the discretion of the leaders, however if they are used
     need to remember that only wood off the ground can be collected and only from pine
     plantations- leave it alone if it‟s native bush or Eucalyptus. Also need to ensure no trace is
     left when you depart.
   o Remember to define boundaries of overnight campsites and point out areas that should
     be used for toileting.
   o Have a debrief/ chat about the day when in the campsite at night.
   o Try to keep groups separated whilst walking as walking with 20+ people will lessen the
     experience
   o Have the students take responsibility for navigation, preferably in pairs- you may need to
     give them some instruction and help them at various points. But don‟t be afraid to let them
     go the wrong way for a little while- although intervene if safety is likely to be
     compromised.
   o A group first aid kit will be provided for each group- ensure you have this before you
     depart.
   o Each group will have 3 compasses and 3 Maps- be sure to look after these and return
     them when you get back to base camp.
   o Upon return to base camp ensure you don‟t disturb the groups doing their initiatives/
     rogaines and get group returning Trangias/ packs ASAP.


                                                                                                            23
Monday/ Tuesday bushwalk group:
Your groups will hopefully have a basic understanding of how to use a compass from the
introductory session in class, but this cannot be relied upon (will probably be forgotten).
Hence, you will probably need to start from scratch and teach them the basics of navigation
on the first day. The following is a list of skills that should be covered. The most important are
the basic navigation skills, such as grid references, contours, scale and finding map and field
bearings. Introduce some of the more advanced skills if you have the opportunity to do so. A
more detailed explanation of these terms is given at the end of the booklet.
       - Grid References
       - Contours
       - Scale
       - Map and field bearings
       - Resections
       - Handrails
       - Attack points
       - Aiming off
       - Walking on a bearing
       - Magnetic declination
       - Pacing

Wednesday/ Thursday Bushwalking group
Your groups will already have an idea of basic navigation, having covered this for the
Rogaine. Initially you should aim to review all of the skills they have learnt previously, cover
things that were missed and then look for some opportunities for extension. Some
suggestions include:
       - Going off track for a while and having the group walk on bearings/ leapfrog etc to
           next point
       - Stopping the group and asking for current location on the map giving 5 points of
           justification
       - Going for a short night walk (stay on tracks and leave information with other groups
           if you plan to do this)
       - Having a discussion on how to use clues in the environment to find direction eg
           sun, moon, stars etc

Other things to be re-taught or taught as required:
       -   fitting rucksacks
       -   what to do if you get lost or separated
       -   what will happen if a medical issue arises
       -   walking rhythm
       -   minimal impact walking
       -   Group management (front and back markers etc)




                                                                                                24
25
Bushwalk Risk Management Plan
Location: Kuitpo Forest
Dates: 19th -22nd September 2005

RISK IDENTIFICATION
References: as in base camp RMP


            Human            Lack of prior experience, preparation & training
                             Inappropriate performance
                             Inappropriate clothing
                             Health, medical, fitness problems
                             Emotional problems
                             Inadequate supervision
                             Solo / Unsupervised bushwalks
                             Lack of instruction
                             Inadequate nutrition & hydration
                             Participant misbehaviour
                             Poor navigation strategies
                             Poor manual handling technique
                             Fatigue
                             Separation from group

            Environmental    Unstable / steep or exposed terrain
                             Hazardous route
                             Navigationally challenging terrain
                             River crossings
                             Hot weather
                             Bushfire
                             Cold weather
                             Blizzard / white out
                             Electrical storms
                             Remote sites
                             Public roadways
                             Venomous animals
                             Toxic plants
                             Poorly sited campsites (eg: drainage, over hanging gums)
                             Specific location dangers. (i.e.: Crux Points)
                             (eg:– Forks in track, crossing public roads, fences/gates )

            Resources and    Equipment fault / failure
            Equipment        Loss of equipment
                             Inappropriate/ incorrect use of equipment (eg: stove)
                             Lack of appropriate equipment
                             Inappropriate use/handling of hazardous substances




                                                                                           26
                                                                                                                                              27




RISK ASSESSMENT SUMMARY


Activity: Outdoor Education Bushwalking
              Consequence /     Risk Level             Controls and Benefits        Residual Risk Level           Control Implemented /
Risk            Probability                                                                                       By whom ?
Lack of prior      C.   Detrimental       Medium       Lead up teaching phase      C. reduces to Harmful.        Camp coordinators
experience,        P.   Unlikely                       Checks by Student leaders   P. assessed as Highly         Group leaders
preparation &                                          Matching of experience      Unlikely.                     Uni supervising staff member
training                                                levels                      Low
                                                       Supervision by Uni staff

Inappropriate      C.   Harmful           Low          Establish ground rules      Low                           Camp coordinators
performance        P.   Highly Unlikely                Behaviour expectations                                    Group leader
                                                       Removal from activity

Inappropriate      C.   Harmful           Medium    Lead up teaching phase         P. reduces to        Highly   Camp co-ordinator
clothing           P.   Likely                      Checks by Student leaders      Unlikely. Low                 Group leader
                                                    Spares on hand
                                                   
Health, medical,   C.   Life              High      Health Forms completed         Situation potentially Life    Camp coordinators
fitness                 threatening                 Leader reviews forms           threatening but now           Group leader
problems           P.   Unlikely                    Discuss with student any       Highly unlikely to occur.     Student in charge of medicals
                                                      issues                        Medium
                                                    Ensure required medication
                                                      carried by student
                                                    Monitoring by leader
                                                    FA available
                                                    Emergency Response Plan
Emotional          C.   Negligible        Low       Monitoring by leader           Low                           Camp coordinators
problems           P.   Unlikely                    Debriefing as required                                       Group leaders




                                                                                                                                              27
                                                                                                                                       28




                                                 Referral SOP
Inadequate          C.   Detrimental   Medium    Provide prior training         Remains a Medium risk       Course co-ordinator
supervision         P.   Unlikely                Apply suitable staff/student                               Camp coordinators
                                                   ratio                                                     Group leader
                                                 Activity Brief (inc Actions
                                                   On)
                                                 Supervising staff appointed
Solo         /      C.   Detrimental   Medium    Prior education & training     Remains a Medium risk
Unsupervised        P.   Unlikely                Develop Grading System to                                  Not applicable
Experience                                         match walks/exp
                                                 Assess suitability of walk
                                                 Assess individual
                                                   experience

Lack           of   C.   Harmful       Medium      Provide prior training       Consequence remains         UniSA supervising staff
instruction         P.   Unlikely                  Safety brief                 Harmful. Probability now    member.
                                                   Indicate „actions on‟        assessed as Highly          Camp coordinators
                                                   Progression of activity      Unlikely.                   Group leader
                                                     commensurate with skill     Low


Inadequate          C.   Harmful       Medium    Brief on reqm for this         Probability    reduces to   Camp coordinators
nutrition &         P.   Likely                  Monitoring by leader           Highly Unlikely. Low        Group leaders
hydration                                        Encourage self monitoring                                  Catering group
                                                                                                             Individual monitoring
Participant         C.   Negligible    Low       Establish rules for            Even with controls this     Group leader
misbehaviour        P.   Unlikely                  participation                 remains a Low risk.         Camp coordinator
                                                 Exclusion of disruptive                                    UniSA staff member
                                                   person/s
                                                 Additional staff on hand to
                                                   supervise

Poor manual         C.   Harmful       Medium    Demonstration / instruction    With controls reduces to    Group leader
handling            P.   Unlikely                  by leaders of techniques      Highly Unlikely.            Camp coordinators
technique                                        Monitor throughout activity    Low




                                                                                                                                       28
                                                                                                                                      29




Poor navigation   C.   Harmful           Medium        Lead up teaching phase         Reduces to Highly       Group leader
strategies        P.   Unlikely                        Prior recon of route           Unlikely.               Camp coordinators
                                                       Identify possible nav issues   Low
                                                      Establish trip intentions
                                                      Regular nav checks
                                                      Awareness of position on
                                                         map
                                                      Inform group of progress
                                                      along route
Fatigue           C.   Harmful           Low          Monitoring of group /           Low                     Group leader
                  P.   Highly Unlikely                individual progress by leader
                                                      Ensure adequate rest breaks
                                                       Consider amendments to
                                                      plan if considered necessary
Separation from   C.   Negligible        Low            Apply suitable                Low                     Camp coordinators
group             P.   Highly Unlikely                   leader/student ratio                                  Group leaders
                                                       Activity Brief (inc Actions
                                                         On)
                                                        Appoint front/back markers
                                                         or other control measure
Unstable /        C.   Detrimental       Medium      Prior recon of route             Remains a Medium risk   Bushwalk coordinator
steep or          P.   Unlikely                       Identify terrain of concern                             Camp coordinators
exposed terrain                                       Develop route to avoid                                  Group leaders
                                                     Implement GMT principles
                                                      Safety brief to group
                                                       Emergency Response Plan
Hazardous         C.   Detrimental       Medium      Prior recon of route             Remains a Medium risk   Bushwalk coordinator
   route          P.   Unlikely                       Identify terrain of concern                             Camp coordinators
                                                      Possibly develop route to                               Group leaders
                                                         avoid
                                                      Implement GMT principles
                                                      Safety brief to group




                                                                                                                                      29
                                                                                                                                         30




                                                    Emergency Response Plan
River crossings   C.   Life              High       Conduct of prior training      Remains High.                 Not applicable
                       threatening                  Provide safety measures as
                  P.   Likely                          required                     To be treated as a crux
                                                    Safety brief to group          point (see below).
                                                    Indicate „actions on‟
                                                    Equipment inspections
                                                    Emergency Response Plan

Hot weather       C.   Negligible        Medium     Monitor weather and activity   Adoption    of     controls   Group leaders
                  P.   Likely                        by leader                      reduces probability to Low
                                                    Ensure adequate rest breaks
                                                    Monitor Sun Smart /
                                                     Hydration
                                                    Amend activity as required
Bushfire          C.   Life              Medium     Check forecast & fire          Remains Medium.               Group leader
                       Threatening                   warnings                                                     Camp coordinators
                  P.   Highly Unlikely              Monitor weather in field
                                                    Safety brief to group
                                                    Indicate „actions on‟
                                                    Emergency Response Plan
Cold weather      C.   Harmful           Medium     Monitoring of weather and      Remains a Medium risk.        Group leaders
                  P.   Unlikely                      activity by leader                                           Camp coordinators
                                                    Monitor group / individuals
                                                  Amend activity as required
Electrical        C.   Life              Medium     Monitor weather                Remains Medium                Group leaders
storms            P.   threatening                  Assess impact on activity                                    Camp coordinators
                       Highly unlikely              Safety brief to group
                                                    Move to safe location
                                                    Brief group on “Actions On”

Remote sites      C.   Harmful           Medium     Lodge Trip Intentions          Remains a Medium risk.        Bushwalk coordinator
                  P.   Likely                       Check communications                                         Camp coordinators
                                                     coverage                                                     Group leaders




                                                                                                                                         30
                                                                                                                                            31




                                                 Apply security as
                                                   appropriate (vehicle,
                                                   equipment)
                                                 Emergency Response Plan
                                                   for area

Public         C.    Life              High        Safety brief by Group Leader     With controls probability   Group leaders
roadways             threatening                   State behaviour expectations     of this risk reduces.
               P.    Likely                        Supervision by Leader/Staff      Still High though due to
                                                    All to apply common sense       potential fatality.
                                                      & traffic awareness

Venomous       C.    Life              Medium       Adherence to safe practice      Medium                      Group leaders
   animals           Threatening                    Correct „actions on‟                                        Bushwalk coordinator (ER
               P.    Highly Unlikely                Appropriate clothing                                        plan)
                                                    First Aid & Emergency
                                                      Response Plan

Toxic plants   C.    Harmful           Low          Appropriate clothing            Low                         Group leaders
               P.    Unlikely                       Adherence to safe practice
                                                    First Aid available
Poorly sited   C.    Life              Medium       Leader responsible to           Remains Medium              Bushwalk coordinator
campsites            Threatening                      identify suitable site                                     Group leaders
               P.    Highly Unlikely                Avoid overhanging trees
                                                    Avoid drainage problems
Hazardous      C.   Detrimental        Medium       Identified in advance (map      Remains Medium              Bushwalk coordinator
locations      P.   Unlikely                          or recce)                                                  Group leaders
(Generic)                                           Create route plan that
                                                      avoids/minimises exposure
                                                    Leader to identify safe route
                                                    Brief on course of action
                                                    Outline “Actions On”
                                                    Provide safety measures as
                                                      required




                                                                                                                                            31
                                                                                                                                                                 32




Specific location   For example: forks in track, crossing public roads, fences/gates, cliff edges, thick scrub etc
dangers.            C.          Detrimental         Medium                   Specific location hazards will be       Even            with
(i.e.: Crux         P.          Unlikely                                     identified either during recce or       reduction         of
Points)                                                                      whilst on trip.           The safe      probability risk is
                                                                             negotiation or avoidance will be        still Medium
                                                                             determined by the Group Leader
                                                                             considering all the above stated
                                                                             controls.



Equipment fault     C.           Life               Medium                 Maintenance & inspection                 Remains            a    Equipment coordinator
/ failure                        Threatening                                 program                                 Medium risk             Group leaders
                    P.           Highly Unlikely                           Inspection by user prior to use                                  Camp coordinators
                                                                           Spares carried
                                                                           Ability to conduct field repairs

Loss of             C.           Negligible         Low                    Checked & secured                        Low                     Group leaders
equipment           P.           Unlikely                                  Personal responsibility for issued
                                                                             items
                                                                           Spares available

Inappropriate/      C.           Detrimental        High                   Provide prior training                   Controls     reduce     Group leaders
incorrect use       P.           Likely                                    Demonstration / instruction by           probability        to   Camp coordinators
of equipment                                                                 leaders of techniques                   Highly      Unlikely.
                                                                           Monitor throughout activity              Medium

Lack           of   C.           Negligible         Low                    Equipment requirement                    Low                     Equipment coordinator
appropriate         P.           Highly Unlikely                             established in advance                                          Camp Co-ordinator
equipment                                                                  Load lists confirmed                                             Group leader
                                                                           Ensure availability of items




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                                                                                   33



Environmental activity:
      -   Andrew Stace is in charge of overall organization

Desired Outcomes:

      -   Learn something about this environment (knowledge based) i.e.
          flora and fauna knowledge.
      -   Learn to appreciate the environment.
      -   Help students understand the connections between this
          environment and all of the resources we use in our every day lives.
          What are positive ways we can affect this?
      -   Students make greater connections within the group of peers.
      -   Fun and sense of achievement.

Guidelines to achieve this:

      -   All staff supervising groups have thoroughly read and understood
          these activities.
      -   Staff play facilitator role within group but do not impinge on the
          group‟s sense of freedom or decision making. Intervene if safety is
          compromised. At the same time we want staff members to
          promote the outcomes above and lead by example. i.e. encourage
          group members to be fully involved in the activity!
      -   Be respectful of other groups - some activities require silence.
      -   Do our bit for the environment - pick up any rubbish found and pull
          out any Salvation Jane.

Activities:

The activities will occur in the Mt Lofty Botanical gardens, a short drive from
Woodhouse. You will be dropped off and picked up at the lower entrance
(Lampert Rd, off of Piccadilly Rd.). There is a semi-cleared area in native
bushland if you walk up past the National Species Rose Collection and the
base of the BankSA Nature Trail. Maps of the park will be included in the
activity kit. Please respect other users of the park and keep to the designated
paths.

Sequencing:
The progression that these activities occurs in plays an important part in the
impact they will have on the students. Hence, the following sequence has
been put together with notes on aims/ objectives and how to achieve these.
See below for full details of the activities.

  Introduction      This is the stage that will set the tone for the rest of the
                    activities. You may want to take the students on a short
                    walk around the park, or may want to head straight into
                    the first activity. However you do it, be sure that you
                    frame it in a positive and environmentally sensitive way.


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                                                                               34


                    The success of these activities is really up to you (the
                    leader) and the effort you put in.


  Blind walk      To occur at beginning, can be done as an introduction
                  to the park, beginning at bus and perhaps ending up
                  near top of lake somewhere. Ensure the student who is
                  guiding is remembering to describe what they go past.
  Touch and Sniff Perhaps done as a journey from the lake to the area
                  where you will do solitude time. Emphasise trust
                  between pairs and make sure no one abuses this. Can
                  also have students trying to identify some of the native
                  plants etc (as covered in guide or on signs by plants)
  Sensory tasks   Suggest making way to area up past BankSA nature
                  trail for this section as it provides an area with fewer
                  people and more native bushland. Important to be able
                  to give students adequate space for these tasks.
  Art             Encourage students to think about what surface they
                  will use for their backdrop and emphasise that you want
                  it to convey something about them and their story
  Word            This has been placed last as we want the students to
  association     go away thinking about more than themselves. Its aim
                  is to get the students thinking about what they can do in
                  their individual lives to positively help the environment.
                  * You (the leader) will need to have a solid
                  understanding on what the ecological footprint concept
                  is and how it applies. Some notes have been provided
                  and further information can be found on the internet if
                  you want it. Would encourage you all to take the test
                  and find out your own before you go.
  Extra activity  An activity to further appreciation of our native
                  environment.

1. Blind Walk              (20-30 mins)

Outcomes:
Build trust and communication skills amongst peers and heighten appreciation
of nature using other senses than sight.

Instructions:
Have all but one of the students blindfolded. The one with sight must then
verbally guide the group through a designated area (decided by leader),
describing the surrounds as they go.

2. Touch and Sniff:        (25 mins)

Outcomes:
To build trust between peers and enhance appreciation of nature by using
different senses.



                                                                               34
                                                                                     35


Instructions:
Have the students in pairs with one blindfolded. Have the one with sight lead
the blindfolded student around either verbally or by the hand (the leader can
allocate method or the other or let them choose for themselves), and take
them to different things to touch and smell- get them to try and identify what it
is. Swap over after 10 mins or so.

3. Individual sensory tasks         (20-30 mins)
Outcomes:
This is a chance for the students to appreciate nature through their different
senses. Through the use of limiting one to highlight another.

Instructions:
Instruct the group to find an individual place the sit, preferably somewhere
where they can‟t see or hear other people (although this may not be always
possible given the number of students). They will then have two 10 min
sessions.

       - 10 mins suggest eyes closed only, what do they hear?
       - 10 mins with blocked ears (may have ear plugs, otherwise will just
have to use fingers.
       *These times are a guide only, adjust if you see your group becoming
restless or think they would like to go longer.

In a group time at the end of these sections have the group discuss how they
felt about each of these stages and how it affected their feelings.

4. Art        (25 mins)
Outcomes:
To enhance the students perceptions of nature by having them draw what
they see/ feel.

Instructions:
 In this activity we want the students to create their own masterpiece using
only those things that can be found in this environment. Their art should help
tell us a little about „their story‟, and help us to get to know them a little better.‟
Remember to emphasise using only what they find on the ground- no picking
of flowers or plants etc.
Perhaps 10-15 mins and then share with group.

5. Word association                 (20 -30 mins)
Outcomes
Firstly to get the students reactions to a range of words about nature and
man‟s influence on it. Secondly to examine some of these reactions and get
the students thinking about what they can change in their own lives to lessen
their impact.

Instructions:
Have the students write down the first word that comes into their heads when
you say the following words.


                                                                                     35
                                                                                36




Trees, pollution, rubbish, River Murray, cliffs, Beauty, dams, Koalas, Gum
Trees, waves, roads, ponds, fences, development, bushland, nature,
environment, ozone layer, rubbish, bushwalking, ecological footprint,
undergrowth, rock-climbing, oceans, construction, mountains, cars, ozone
depletion, scrub, camp.

Once the list has been read out ask the students:
      - how did you respond to the words about physical things in nature
          i.e. trees, river, etc
      - How did you respond to the words about activities in the natural
          environment i.e. bushwalking, rock-climbing
      - How did you respond to the words about mans impact on nature i.e.
          construction, ozone depletion
      - What did people respond when the word “Ecological footprint‟
          (notes on this at end of booklet) came up?
          o Do you know what it is?
          o Do you know how big it is?
          o What‟s it created by?
          o What are some ways you can reduce it?

6. Extra activity
Take the students on a walk of the garden and have them identify some of the
native and non-native species. Have them discuss the differences between
them, possible reasons for these and see which ones they like best.

*If you need further debriefing questions see the initiatives section of this
booklet.

Environmental Activity Risk Management Plan:
       Contained within Initiative RMP, see page…….




                                                                                36
37




37
                                                                                 38



Initiative Activities:
      -    Sara in charge of overall organisation

Desired Outcomes:

      -    Reflect analytically on the development and performance of small
           groups
      -    Demonstrate the ability to work effectively as a group member of a
           team.
      -    Describe and apply principles of team leadership within various
           group settings.
      -    Demonstrate the ability to communicate and resolve problems
           effectively within a group context.
      -    Participate in the process of collaborative problem solving.
      -    Identify, reflect and critically appraise personal behavioural patterns
           that influence group performance and define goals and strategies
           for personal development.
      -    Break down boundaries and have fun.


Guidelines to achieve this:

      -    Staff debrief with groups after activities, using guidelines in
           initiatives section of the handbook.
      -    Staff overlooks all activities and promote a positive environment
           where the above outcomes can take place. eg. discourage
           negatives such as sledging etc.
      -    Encourage whole group participation.
      -    Ask questions of the group to stimulate ideas/processes rather than
           telling them what to do.
      -    Allow the group the freedom to problem solve with minimum outside
           help.
      -    Remember, the initiatives should be a fun and enjoyable experience
           which builds upon the group functions that have already been
           established during the group dynamics course.

          Guidelines for giving feedback and debriefing the
                             experiences:

Debriefing:
      -    When facilitating an activity debrief concentrate on the following:
      -    Team roles
      -    Communication cycle (inclusive opening remark, active listening
           and feedback remark).
      -    Trust and the elements that promote trust within a team.
      -    Emotional Intelligence
      -    Planning and process rather than task.


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                                                                                 39




Tips on Giving Feedback:
      -   Decide whether the feedback should be to the entire group or to an
          individual. If you are giving feedback to an individual, decide
          whether it needs to be done in private.
      -   Feedback should be descriptive rather than evaluative.
      -   Feedback should focus on specific behaviours and actions rather
          than on generalizations.
      -   Give feedback that focuses on behaviour the person can change.
          People will only be frustrated if they are reminded of something over
          which they have no control or can't change quickly.
      -   Feedback can be focusing on positive aspects of the person or
          group, or negative aspects. When focusing on negative aspects, be
          sensitive to focusing on specific behaviour that is problematic. Make
          sure that you express that you value the person, but have a
          problem with the specific behaviour. Use "I language" to
          communicate.
      -   Make sure the timing is right to give someone feedback. In general
          it is best to give feedback at the earliest opportunity. However, if the
          person is not going to be receptive to feedback at this point
          (disappointed, angry, etc.), then giving it will not be helpful.
      -   Try to express your feedback from a point of reference that will
          make sense to the person.
      -   Where possible incorporate questions to the students as a form of
          feedback. This gives them a chance to learn about and recognise
          person or group behavioural patterns.

Instructions to the Facilitators:
      -   Final Debriefing:

      -   The final debriefing should be held at the conclusion of all initiatives.
          This series of questions is adapted from the Thresholds Program as
          a method of processing an experience. The group should form a
          circle and the leader(s) should ask the questions below. (Other
          questions can be used, but notice the format of the questions
          below. They begin as easy to answer, without needing much
          sharing and work up to more intimate questions. Whatever
          questions you use, follow this format).
      -   Everyone should answer each question. Hop around the circle
          asking people for their thoughts. If someone doesn't have anything
          to say at that point, remind them that they have the right to pass but
          you do want to hear from everyone so you'll come back to them


                                                                                39
                                                                               40


         later. Everyone should answer a particular question before you
         move on to the next question. Make the participants aware that
         there are no right or wrong answers. They should say whatever
         they feel. Leaders should acknowledge all responses with a nod or
         yes or some other sign of acceptance. Be conscious of your body
         language and attitude as you ask a question; often the attitude you
         take can influence the willingness of the group to respond.
         Remember that leaders are also participants in the debriefing
         process and should answer all the questions themselves.
     -   Once again, you are serving as role models so model a "pace" of
         self-disclosure that is appropriate for the whole group. Going "too
         deep too fast" will push the group back up to a superficial level,
         whereas, staying too superficial and light may never get people to
         really examine their feelings and the experience.


Sample Debriefing Questions:
     - A What?
     -   Were there any events today that you found to be particularly
         meaningful/enjoyable? Why?
     -   Did you have fun today?
     -   Today's favourite time was when I/the group...
     -   What kinds of challenges do you feel were overcome by yourself
         and the group today?
     -   Think of an animal that describes the person next to you.

     -   So What?
     -   What was something that made you stop and think?
     -   Did you feel leaders-of-the-day was useful for you? How?
     -   How do you think today went?
     -   Do you think that everyone else enjoyed today? How can you tell?
     -   Were there any challenges that you overcame?
     -   Which is one aspect of the group that you thought worked
         particularly well today?
     -   What memorable moment could you share with the group?

     -   Now What?
     -   Has any part of this trip brought you a physical or a mental
         challenge? How?



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                                                                                    41


       -   Were there any challenges that you feel you still need to work
           towards before achieving and how would you work towards them?
       -   Where do you think this is leading you in terms of values and
           judgments and how have your fellow participants helped your
           growing process?
       -   Personal qualities I want to work on in myself are....because...
       -   What do you think you have learned about yourself from the group
           and individual experiences of the trip?
       -   How well did the group work together today? Did everyone feel
           satisfied by our performance today?
       -   How do you think your experience differed from everyone else's?
       -   One interesting thing that I learned about someone else in the
           group was...
       -   What was something you learned about yourself when you're in a
           group situation?

Logistics:
       -   Initiatives are to occur in a 3- 3 ½ hr time slot
       -   They will occur at Base camp on the back oval and surrounding
           area
       -   Try to follow the plan set out, but don‟t be afraid to change things
           according to how to group is functioning.
       -   Be sure to leave time at then end for a debrief
       -   A list of needed equipment is shown below.

Human Knot                                -
Electric fence                            1 long strand of bungee cord, at least
                                          15 m long, 2m sturdy wood plank
Insect Warfare                            4 cones, 2 pool noodles, 4 helmets
Mine field                                15 cones, any other items to be put
                                          on ground as mines eg logs, hats etc
Magnetic balloons                         1 balloon for each person
Cure for cancer                           1 plastic cup for each member, two
                                          buckets filled with water
All In                                    1 rope
All Aboard/ magic carpet                  Tarp
Reward                                    Lollies or block of chocolate

Activities:

*The activities will be presented within the framework of the same story-
providing a line that runs through all the initiatives. The story goes like this:
          o You, the group, have been abducted by aliens and taken to a
               planet far far away to be used as test subjects- much the same


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                                                                              42


             as we use mice. To escape from this planet there are a variety
             of obstacles to be overcome. If you make it back to earth you will
             get a reward.

Human Knot:

Outcomes:
To get the group working as a team- a good one to warm them up with.

Instructions:
* the aliens have decided to tie you up…..
Have everyone stand in a circle and reach into the middle and grab two
different hands. The group then has to untangle themselves without breaking
up.

Electric Fence

Outcomes:
To get the group thinking and working together to solve a problem.

Instructions:
* the aliens have left you unsupervised in an electric enclosure with a long
plank of wood.
1. You (the team) have been fenced into an enclosure
2. The team needs to get out of the enclosure using the plank but they aren‟t
allowed to touch the wire or they will all be electrocuted and have to start
again.
     Have the Bungee cord set at approx chest height (of an average sized
         person)
     Explain the concept of „spotting‟ to the group before they start and
         ensure that they do this, you may also need to take part in this
         especially at the beginning when they‟re all on one side.
     Ensure the selected site has fairly even and soft ground
     There is to be no throwing of people or diving over the bungee
     Outline procedures for lifting eg bend knees, back straight etc
     Activity should take 20-40 mins
#To make it more challenging for groups that are doing really well, leaders
can make people- blind (blindfolds), mute, loose an arm or a leg etc-
remember to keep safety in mind if using these „injuries‟.

Insect warfare

Outcomes:
Enhancing communication, trust and listening skills amongst team members.

Instructions
*Living in close quarters with your fellow abductees has caused a little tension
and two opposing teams have been formed. Can they be reunited? Which
team will become the most dominant?



                                                                              42
                                                                                 43


Game will run approx 20 mins. Intervene and move on to the next activity if it‟s
taking too long.
1. The team splits into two and lines up on the edge of the square (5 X 10
m)as shown in the diagram
2. Blindfold and give a noodle and helmet to the first person in each line.
3. The two blindfolded people are then to walk into the middle of the square
and try to touch the opposing team member with their noodle. They can be
guided verbally by their team mates. Noodle is not to be swung above chest
height, anything above that will result in the opposing team gaining the point.
4. The person who is touched then goes to join that team.
5. Keep playing until there is only one person left on one team- this person will
be used for the following initiative.

                                            10m

                                                       5m




Minefield:

Outcomes:
Build trust, listening skills and communication amongst team members.

Instructions
*Now that the internal conflict has been resolved, the group is once again
focused on escaping from this planet. Unfortunately for them there is a
treacherous swamp filled with bombs and monsters that they need to cross.
Activity to take 20-30 mins
    1. Set up a relatively flat area (approx 25 m wide) with obstacles all over it.
    2. Have all team members but one (the one left from the last activity), line
    up on one side of the field with blindfolds on. Have the other team member
    stand on the other side (no blindfold).
    3. This person then needs to verbally guide their team across the field
    without letting them touch anything. If any one individual touches one of
    the obstacles you can either make the whole group start again or give that
    individual a „disability‟ i.e. no legs or hearing
    4. Once a team member reaches the other side they are allowed to
    remove their blindfold and talk.

Magnetic balloons

Outcomes:
Improve team problem solving skills and help enhance team bonding by
having them work in closer quarters (more likely to be out of comfort zone).

Instructions:


                                                                                 43
                                                                               44


*Having passed their previous challenges the group now finds that they are
suddenly attacked by magnetic balloons and need to work their way across
the field.
Activity to take approx. 20-30 mins
   1. Each team member is given a balloon
   2. The challenge is for the team to move across the field without any of
        the balloons touching the ground. They are not allowed to use their
        hands, link arms or hold onto each other with arms/hands in any way.
   3. If a balloon is dropped you can make the group start again of blind/
        injure someone

Cure for Cancer:

Outcomes:
Improve team problem solving skills and have enhance team bonding by
having them work in closer quarters (more likely to be out of comfort zone).

Instructions:
*The group is now so close to escaping, but have all suddenly been struck
down with a deadly disease. They can’t take it back to earth with them, but
luckily there is a cure…..
Activity should take approx 15 mins
   1. Have 2 buckets, one empty and one filled with water (or dirt/ sand if it is
        too cold), 5-10 m apart (depending on group size).
   2. Each person is given a plastic cup that they are not allowed to hold with
        their hands.
   3. The challenge is to get enough of the „cure‟ from one bucket to the
        other in a given space of time (5-10 mins). However, each member can
        only take two steps when holding the substance and all members must
        be involved in getting it from one end to the other.
   4. As with other activities, feel free to blind/ maim if they are doing too
        well.

All In

Outcomes:
Improve team problem solving skills and trust and have enhance team
bonding by having them work in closer quarters (more likely to be out of
comfort zone).

Instructions:
*You have almost escaped the planet of the aliens, all that remains is to get
through the portal and travel home, however, the portal only works once- so
everyone has to go through at the same time….
Activity can take as long as you wish, if you want it to go longer challenge the
team to make a smaller circle.
    1. A small circle is made on the ground using a piece of rope
    2. The challenge is for the group to get all members in the circle
        somehow, with nothing touching the ground outside the circle, and hold
        for 10 seconds.


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                                                                                   45




 All aboard:

 Outcomes:
 Improve team problem solving skills and have enhance team bonding by
 having them work in closer quarters (more likely to be out of comfort zone).

 Instructions:
 *Finally, the last leg of the trip, you are on the magic tarp and flying home- the
 only problem is the space ship is not that big and you all need to stay aboard.
 It also has to be flipped over half way through without anyone falling off……
 Activity to take approx. 15 mins
     1. Have the team all stand on a tarp
     2. If anyone falls off or touches the outside ground the team has to start
         again.
     3. They need to all move on the tarp from point A to B (20-30 m) and the
         tarp needs to be completely flipped over once during the journey.

 If the team makes it to the end they will be rewarded with a bag of lollies

 Extras:
 If the team is working super fast, here are some additional activities that can
 be added in to the sequence or used at the end:

 Group Push Up:

        Aim is to get the group work together to all get their feet off the ground
         for 5 seconds. Will require some thinking and a bit of muscle.
        Can be varied- i.e. let them have a total of three feet and five hands on
         the ground etc

 ABC

        Blindfold everyone and get them to all hold onto a rope (approx 10m)
         that is tied in a loop. Have them try the form a square, or the ABC
         symbol (i.e. channel 2) without letting go.




 Initiative and Environmental Activity Risk Management Plan
 Location: Initiatives- Rocky Creek campsite; environmental activities- Mt
 Lofty Botanic gardens
 Dates: 19th – 22nd September 2005
Participant      1. Injury whilst partaking in activities
Concerns            a. Failure to comply with direction
                    b. Fatigue
                    c. Failure to recognise a dangerous practice/situation



                                                                                   45
                                                                                              46


                         d. Failure to adhere to safety practice
                    2. Injury whilst lifting another participant
                         a. Failure to adhere to safe lifting directions
                    3. Psychological injury
                         a. In ability to control anxiety
                         b. Poorly managed group dynamics
                         c. Inappropriate debrief procedures
Environmental       4. Injury through uneven ground
Concerns                 a. Failure to use appropriate area
                    5. Injury through climate
                         a. Hypothermia
                        b. Dehydration
                         c. Sunburn
                         d. Inappropriate personal clothing
                    6. Damage to the environment
                         a. Too many activities done on the same area
                    Inappropriate activities
Resources and       7. Injury from equipment
Equipment               a. Equipment failure
Concerns                b. Failure to check equipment for points ( splinters, sharp edges)
                    8. Damage to equipment
                         a. Inappropriate use of equipment
Instruction &       9. Objective not met
Objective                 a. Inappropriate risk levels
Concerns                  b. Repetitive activity
                          c. Poor judgement
                          d. Failure to have effective communication
                          e. Failure to give effective and appropriate feedback
                          f. Failure to debrief
                    In ability to control activity




                Consequen            Risk         Controls and             Residu         Control
Risk               ce/               Level         Preventive              al Risk     Implemented
                                                                            Level        by whom
                Probability                        measures
Injury whilst   C: harmful           Extreme    1. Employment                 Low        Group leaders
partaking in    P: Very likely        ly High      practices
activities                                      2. Conduct of training
                                                3. Adherence to safe
                                                   practice
                                                4. Safety & first aid
                                                   equipment
                                                5. Area appropriate
                                                   for beginners
                                                6. Vigilance from
                                                   facilitators
Injury whilst   C: Harmful           Medium     1. Employment                 Low        Group leaders
lifting         P: Medium                          practices
another                                         2. Conduct of training
participant                                     3. Adherence to safe
                                                   practice
                                                4. Vigilance from
                                                   facilitators
Injury          C: medium            Medium     1. Employment                 Low        Group leaders
through         P: Unlikely                        practices                                 Camp
climate                                         2. Monitoring of                          coordinators
                                                   weather reports


                                                                                             46
                                                                         47


                                        and in field.
                                     3. Conduct of training
                                     4. Adherence to safe
                                        practice
                                     5. Appropriate
                                        clothing
                                     6. Emergency First
                                        Aid
Psychologic   C: Low         low     1. Employment            Low   Group leaders
al injury     P: Low                    practices                       Camp
                                     2. Appropriate                  coordinators
                                        training
                                     3. Adherence to safe
                                        practice
                                     4. Debriefs
                                        conducted
                                        appropriately
                                     5. Instructor
                                        monitoring of
                                        group dynamics
Injury        C: Harmful    Medium   1. Employment            Low   Group leaders
through       P: Likely                 practices
uneven                               2. Choose area
ground                                  carefully
                                     3. Appropriate
                                        footwear
                                     4. Adherence to safe
                                        practice
                                     5. Emergency First
                                        Aid
Damage to     C: Harmful    Medium   1. Choose area           Low   Group leaders
the           P: Likely                 carefully
environment                          2. Appropriate
                                        training
                                     3. Practice minimal
                                        impact policies
                                     4. Employment
                                        practices

Injury from   C: Harmful    Medium   1. Ensure equipment      Low    Equipment
equipment     P: Likely                 is checked for               coordinator
                                        suitability,                Group leaders
                                        reliability and
                                        sustainability.
                                     2. Check for sharp
                                        edges or broken
                                        parts
                                     3. First aid


Objective     C: Low         Low     1. Employment            Low   Group leaders
not met       P: Possible               practices                       Camp
                                     2. Appropriate                  coordinators
                                        training
                                     3. Debriefs
                                        conducted
                                        appropriately




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                                                                                48




Rogaine:
       -   overall organisation by Brad

Desired Outcomes:

          Learn something about this environment (knowledge based) i.e.
           flora and fauna knowledge.
          Learn to appreciate and navigate through new environments.
          Students make greater connections within the group of peers.
          Learn new, revise, or develop navigation skills.
          Fun and sense of achievement.

Guidelines to achieve this:

      All staff supervising groups have thoroughly read and understand this
       activity.
      Staff play facilitator role within group but do not impinge on the group‟s
       sense of freedom or decision making. Intervene if safety is
       compromised. At the same time we want staff members to promote
       the outcomes above and lead by example. i.e. encourage group
       members to be fully involved in the activity!
      Car to drive down Razorback rd. on the hour, every hour if there is a
       problem.
      If possible, run through a small navigation course prior to the camp.
      Use as many compasses as possible within each group.
      Do our bit - pick up any rubbish found and pull out any Salvation Jane

Preparation
As with the bushwalk, students will be approaching this activity differently
depending on when they do it- either the first or second half of the camp. The
guidelines that are given earlier in the booklet in regards to navigation for
bushwalking for the different groups should be followed for this section. For
those conducting the Rogaine on the Tuesday you will need to ensure your
groups can do the following:
               – Can find north on compass
               - Can take a bearing of an object i.e. dam at Rocky
               - Can read a map
               - Can walk on a bearing
               - Can identify objects on the Rogaine map i.e. termite mound,
               cherry tree etc.
If they already understand these than you may want to cover a few of the
more advanced navigation techniques such as pacing, handrails and aiming
off. We will bring a tape measure and mark of a 100m track so students can
measure their pacing. For those groups conducting their Rogaine on the
Thursday, you will almost certainly have to cover the more advanced
techniques, as given in the bushwalking section, as well as revising what was
learnt during the bushwalk.



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Pairs for navigation exercise
Leaders to check group members have:
Rain jacket, scroggin, water, sun protection (Hat, sun block, long t-shirt)
first aid, warm clothes, Whistle, & personal medication.

Each group needs:
Pencil, pen & camp booklet
1 Rocky Creek orienteering map            A bag to collect rubbish
2 or more compasses.                            Journal (everyone should
have)
Whistle (for emergency use only)          1 watch
Raincoat or other shelter
Water, nibbles


Instructions before they set out:
    Look at maps and explain how to use vegetation as a guide on a map.
    Start by drawing their route on the Eucalypts map with permanent pen.
    Find north on the compass and walk in that direction (walking on a
      bearing).
    Take a bearing of your tent, the campfire and the food tent.
    Must declare their route before setting out.
    Understand they must sign into the intentions sheets at designated
      checkpoints in case we need to find them
    Once they have departed from Rocky campsite they are not to return
      until either they have completed the course, are sick/ injured or have
      run out of time.

Group Management Instructions for Each Group
    Always stick together
    Participants must declare personal first aid issues to their partner.
    When walking along a road, walk on the right hand side or off the road
     in single file.

If the group becomes lost:
     DO NOT separate the group.
     Stay in one location and sound 3 short whistle bursts every 5 minutes
        until a leader finds you.
     Alternatively walk North until Razorback rd and wait for the instructors
        car

If a member of the group sustains an injury:
     If it is possible to safely move the injured person, stay as a group and
       locate Razorback Rd (runs on the north boundary of the activity area).
       A leader in a car will check this road every hour, on the hour, for
       the duration of the activity.
     If it is not possible to safely move the injured person, send two group
       members to Razorback Rd to alert the leaders. The rest of the group
       stays with the injured person.


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Extra interesting stuff
    This activity is aimed at cooperating with each other to navigate in a
       new environment.
    Be very aware of the differences in nature.
    Take this as an opportunity to get to know each other.
    There are 18 checkpoints in the main course
    There are 3 bonus checkpoints to be given to those groups who return
       early
    Do our bit, pick up any rubbish and pull out any Salvation Jane.

This activity can be framed into thinking about the differences between
modern society and the natural bush. Think of all the resources we have used
to get here, what could we do to give something back to nature?

Equipment

      Orienteering punches
      Rocky Creek orienteering maps in each pair & 12+ compasses
      Mountain bikes X 2 (?- Brad and Toby?) and a mobile for patrolling
       area.
      Coles or big bin bags for each group.
      Permanent Pens
      Intention forms
      40 punch sheets (1 per pair)
      Tape measure (for marking a 100m track)

Instruction upon return to camp
Upon return to base camp each group will be allocated a leader. These small
groups will spend approx. 30 minutes reflecting and debriefing. The guidelines
for this are as follows:

Ideas to debrief the day:
    Were the navigation activities at the start useful? How could they have
       been better?
    Ask what they learnt about themselves- were they good at navigation?
       Why? Why not? Did they get frustrated at all? How did their pair/ group
       work together? Did one person do all the work? How do they feel after
       completing the activity? Individuals make a shape with their body that
       reflects how they are feeling. Explain to the group why you have
       chosen your form.
    Share info learnt about Kuitpo Forest during activity.
    Use discretion on how much debrief to complete.
    Then they have free time.




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   Rogaine Risk management plan
   Analysis                              Description

   Participant Concerns                          Inadequate fitness level
                                                 Medical problems
                                                 Inadequate navigational skills
                                                 Inattention to task
                                                 Injury
   Environmental Concerns                        Uneven terrain
                                                 Cold and wet conditions
                                                 High UV or pollen count
   Resources and Equipment Concerns              Inadequate clothing
                                                 Inadequate shoes
                                                 Insufficient fluids

Risk          Consequence/   Risk     Controls and             Residual    Control
              probability    level    preventative             risk        implemented
                                      measures                             by whom
Injury        C: medium      Medium   7. Employment               Low       Group leaders
through       P: Unlikely                 practices                             Camp
climate                               8. Monitoring of                       coordinators
                                          weather reports
                                          and in field.
                                      9. Conduct of training
                                      10. Adherence to safe
                                          practice
                                      11. Appropriate
                                          clothing
                                      12. Emergency First
                                          Aid
Psychologic   C: Low           low    6. Employment               Low        Group leaders
al injury     P: Low                      practices                              Camp
                                      7. Appropriate                          coordinators
                                          training
                                      8. Adherence to safe
                                          practice
                                      9. Debriefs
                                          conducted
                                          appropriately
                                      10. Instructor
                                          monitoring of
                                          group dynamics
Injury        C: Harmful     Medium   6. Employment               Low        Group leaders
through       P: Likely                   practices
uneven                                7. Choose area
ground                                    carefully
                                      8. Appropriate
                                          footwear
                                      9. Adherence to safe
                                          practice
                                      10. Emergency First
                                          Aid
Damage to     C: Harmful     Medium   5. Choose area              Low        Group leaders
the           P: Likely                   carefully
environment                           6. Appropriate
                                          training
                                      7. Practice minimal



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                                                impact policies
                                             8. Employment
                                                practices

Lost             C: Serious         Medium   1.adequate preparation    Low         Group leaders
Students         P: likely                   of students                           Camp
                                             2. procedures when                    coordinators
                                             lost defined by staff
                                             3. boundaries designed
                                             4. sign in checkpoints
                                             5. Patrols of boundary
                                             on bike or foot or in
                                             vehicle

Poor             C: Harmful         Medium     Lead up teaching           Reduces   Group leader
navigation       P: Unlikely                        phase                  to Highly Camp
strategies                                     Prior recon of             Unlikely. coordinators
                                                    route                  Low
                                               Identify possible
                                                    nav issues
                                               Establish trip
                                                    intentions
                                               Regular nav
                                                    checks
                                               Awareness of
                                                    position on map
                                               Inform group of
                                                 progress along
                                                 route
                                                      st
Risk management strategies –           Administer 1 aid if qualified to do so.
Emergency                              Ambulance 000 – tell of location/ nearest road
Relevant industry standards            Senior first aid training, Drivers license
                                       Bush walking leaders certificate (optional)
Policies & guidelines recommended      Staff member back at base camp
                                       Medical history checked.
                                                                                        st
Skills required by staff               Navigation, communication, leadership, Senior 1 aid
                                       Introduction to outdoor education leadership course



     Procedure for leaders if a group does not return from activity when
     expected:
         Wait 30 minutes after scheduled time (to compensate for slower group
          progress)
         If they still do not return, one leader wait at the finish point, other
          available leaders take the car along Razorback Rd and bikes along off
          road activity trail for a 30 minute search. Also 2 bikes available for
          searching established tracks throughout course. All search groups
          with mobile phones and first aid kits.
         If the group is still not found, alert the Forestry SA 24hr info &
          emergency service on 8391 8800




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Checkpoints
                                           Correspondin    Correspondin
      Number               Hint              g Letter        g Colour

          1          Termite Mound               P
          2           Native Cherry             A
          3          Termite Mound              R
          4          Termite Mound              T
          5          Termite Mound              Y
          6          Termite Mound              @
          7                Log                  T
          8          Termite Mound              H
          9              Stump                  E
         10                Pit
         11              Stump
         12           Native Cherry
         13                N/A
         14                N/A
         15                N/A
         16                N/A
         17                N/A
         18                N/A
         *19               N/A
         *20               N/A
         *21               N/A

     Using The Eucalypts hard navigation map
     N/A points have yet to be determined
     Each point will have a punch and a letter attached
     3 of these points will have an intentions sheet
     *There will be 3 bonus check points
     Colours to be worked out when set up



                       Refer to Map Next Page




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54




54
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High Ropes
Desired Outcomes:
Provide a fun/new experience, step outside comfort zone, build trust in other
group members, team bonding. Complete activity with a high level of safety
and low actual risk. Remember this is a challenge by choice.

Guidelines to achieve this:

      Begin setting up the framework of team work, challenge by choice etc
       before they begin on the ropes. This will also help when it comes to the
       debrief at the end of the session.
      Ensure a safe environment so that experiential learning can take place.
      Instruction from Woodhouse instructors and trained OE staff and
       students.
      Supportive staff at all times, listening to individuals, trying to get a
       picture of where they are at and what they want to achieve in the
       session. (eg. Are they scared of heights? If so, an individual‟s
       achievement may be climbing up 1metre from the ground).
      Staff member at each station and back up belayer.
      Promote teamwork by having other students as first belayer.
      Leaders could experiment with debriefing for this session, eg. since
       small groups of will work together, you could facilitate some thoughts
       of how students are feeling now (at end of day) compared to the start.
       This could be encouraged to happen in the lunch time break.

Some Specific questions that could be asked:
  o How did you feel to be a part of a team that had success? What was
     your role in this?
  o What allowed you to achieve success on the ropes course?
        o Can then use this as a metaphor for their lives i.e. who are your
            belayers? Your trees? Etc and who do they play this role for?
Logistics
   o Not sure how it fits, but a pre- activity phone call to the staff actually
     doing the ropes course would be worthwhile, to ensure that the
     instructional methodology and tools used are consistent with your
     outcomes.
   o High Ropes will occur at Woodhouse. Directions can be found in the
     directions section of this booklet.
   o Students will go through in groups of approx 20 (two groups at a time).
   o There will be two Woodhouse Instructors and 3-4 qualified leaders per
     session.
   o There are three different levels low, medium and high as well as the
     trapeze (last 1 ½ hrs only).
   o If possible begin students at low to mid level and progress to high level
     once they are more confident.
   o Students will move between stations in groups of 4-5




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    o Students will be responsible for belaying each other, however must be
      supervised by one of the qualified staff (Jim, PK, Toby, Beth & Andrew
      Stace).
    o There are a large number of elements, some occurring at multiple
      levels. They include.
         o Burma bridge
         o Postman‟s walk
         o Hebe Jebe
         o Giants ladder
         o Jacobs ladder
         o Log crossings
         o Hanging obstacle courses
         o Hanging vines
                 And many more

Equipment Needed:
    o   All harnesses, helmets etc will be supplied by Woodhouse
    o   Students will need own rain jackets, drink bottles, sunscreen,
    o   First aid kit is provided and will be located in equipment shed
    o   Have extra warm clothes available as it can be VERY cold in the pine
        forest.

High ropes risk management plan
Location: Woodhouse High Ropes
Dates: 19th- 22nd September 2005

Major Risks: Equipment failure, falling from height/slipping, falling debris.
1) Falling Debris
Causal factors           People                    Equipment               Environment
(Risk Management         Position group away       Helmets                 Rain, erosion, heat
Strategies – Normal)     from base of the                                  can cause items to
                         trees                                             dislodge. Be
                         Instruct people to yell                           selective after rain or
                         out                                               avoid climbing after
                         No kicking or                                     rain.
                         throwing debris

2) Equipment Failure/ Use of equipment
Causal Factors         People                      Equipment               Environment
RMS- Normal            Maintenance of              Nylon equipment         Keep ropes out of the
                       equipment                   replaced every 5 yrs.   sun.
                       Using equipment             Inspect all equip       Protect nylon from
                       appropriately               before climbing         abrasion
                       Inspections by              Cables inspected
                       qualified people
                       before climbing

3) Falling from height
Causal factors           People                    Equipment               Environment




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                                                                                               57


RMS – Normal                                     Appropriate footwear      Do not climb in heavy
                                                 (on information           rain or where
                                                 sheet)                    conditions could be
                                                 And safety checks         slippery.




RMS – Emergency           Call „000‟
                          Get the rest of the group away from the danger
                                       st
                          Administer 1 aid if trained
                          Refer to doctor or hospital




4) Relevant industry standards            - SAREA qualified instructors or equivalent (PACI,
                                          ACIA)

5) Policies and guidelines                - Maximum instructor student ratio 1:10

6) Skills required by staff               - Training day at Woodhouse, Group management



Navigation skills:
Grid references
-   A grid reference contains six numbers; the first three represent the
    Eastings whilst those following represent the three Northings numbers.
-   Eastings are indicated by the lines running up and down the page and
    have their numbers running across the top of the map.
-   Northings are indicated by the lines running horizontal on the page thus
    indicated by the numbers running up and down the side of the map.
-   When reading grid references, there are read Eastings first then Northings.

Contour lines
-   On a topographical map, contour lines represent increases/decreases in
    height above and below that of mean sea level. Each map may have
    different distance between each contour.
-   Thus one continual contour represents the same height above sea level
    the whole distance it travels.
-   The closer the contour lines, the steeper the ground is relative to this. Thus
    wide spacings of contours represent gentle or no slope.

Orientating a map
-   Lay the map flat.
-   Place the compass on the map lining up the lines within the housing of the
    compass with the Eastings on the map.


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-   Making sure the compass is pointed towards the top of the map with the
    north of the housing also pointed to the top, rotate the map, but not the
    compass, so that the red needle is in the larger arrow of the housing and
    you have north (what is known as putting the RED in the SHED).


Taking a bearing to a feature
-   Hold the compass flat at waist level and point the arrow on the base plate
    of the compass at the intended object/feature.
-   Rotate the housing so that the RED is in the SHED.
-   The magnetic bearing is now set and can be read off the compass at the
    index line.

Taking a bearing from a map
-   Line up your current location and the destination using the long edge of
    the base plat on the compass so that the arrow on the base plate is facing
    the direction of travel.
-   Rotate the adjustable housing dial until its lines are parallel with the
    easting.
-   The grid reference is set and that is read at the index line.
-   Convert this grid bearing to the magnetic bearing by subtracting 7 (rotate
    the dial back 7).
   This is now the bearing you need to walk on and do this by keeping the red
    in the shed and following the arrow on the base plate of the compass. Grid
    References

Resections (or triangulations)
-   The process of determining your position using the land features, compass
    and map.
-   Identify two or more prominent land features that you can see in the
    landscape and on the map.
-   Take bearings to these features.
-   Draw a line on your map along these bearings
-   Your position is the point where these lines intersect

Handrails:
-   Definite linear features that are roughly aligned with your course eg
    fences, creeks, ridge lines etc

Aiming off:
-   A technique use to find a point on a definite linear line eg a fence, creek,
    ridgeline etc
-   The course is deliberately set off to one side of the desired objective so
    that when the line is reached there is no doubt as to which way travel must
    then proceed.

Attack point:
-   An object which is near your destination but much easier to find. Once
    found you can then work your way to your destination


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Catching Features:
-   Obvious features that are past your destination. Hence if you reach them
    you know you have gone too far.

Magnetic Declination:
- Map and compass navigation works on the principle that you know one thing
at all times and that is where north is. To find north, you simply look at where
the red end of your compass needle is pointing.

The problem is that navigation is based on knowing where "true north" is, i.e.
the North Pole. And unfortunately, that's not where compass needles really
point. Compass needles actually point toward "magnetic north," a point that is
close to true north, but not right on top of it. And this is where "declination"
comes in.

Declination is the angular difference between „true‟ and „magnetic‟ north. The
tricky thing about declination is that this angle is different depending upon
where you are standing in the world.

Declination is usually indicated diagrammatically with a series of arrows drawn
on a map. These diagrams are often not to scale so always use the values,
not the drawing to set your compass.

People navigate successfully with maps and compasses all the time, even
though magnetic north and true north don't always line up. How? They simply
figure out what the angle of declination is in their general area, and then make
sure that they take that angle into account when they make their navigation
calculations (basically, by adding or subtracting the angle of declination from
the compass bearing numbers that they read off their compasses). Some
compasses can be set so that they remain adjusted for an entire trip.
       (http://www.paddypallin.com.au/page.asp?partID=126)

Pacing:
-   This is a skill whereby you can judge the distance travelled by counting the
    number of steps taken.
-   Needs prior preparation to set up a 100m line so that individuals can count
    the number of their steps in 100m
-   Will vary depending on wether a pack is carried or not
-   Generally count every second foot placement (eg every time left foot
    moves forward)

Ecological Footprint:
The Ecological Footprint is a resource management tool that measures how
much land and water area a human population requires to produce the
resources it consumes and to absorb its wastes, taking into account prevailing
technology.




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In order to live, we consume what nature offers. Every action impacts the
planet's ecosystems. This is of little concern as long as human use of
resources does not exceed what the Earth can renew. But are we taking
more?
Today, humanity's Ecological Footprint is over 20% larger than what the
planet can regenerate. In other words, it now takes more than one year and
two months for the Earth to regenerate what we use in a single year. We
maintain this overdraft by liquidating the planet's natural resources. This is a
vastly underestimated threat and one that is not adequately addressed.
By measuring the Ecological Footprint of a population (an individual, a city, a
nation, or all of humanity) we can assess our overdraft, which helps us
manage our ecological assets more carefully. Ecological Footprints enable
people to take personal and collective actions in support of a world where
humanity lives within the means of one planet.
Steps to take to reduce your ecological footprint
At home we can:

      Start composting
      Use more energy-efficient light bulbs, shower heads etc
      Switch to forms of recreation and tourism which have a low impact on
       the environment
      Grow some of our own food
      Live closer to work (or the other way around)
      Use bicycles and public transport rather than cars
      Buy items made or grown locally rather than far away
Households can start by reducing their resource consumption. At the urban
level we must develop an infrastructure that leaves options open, rather than
one which dictates resource-intensive lifestyles for our own and future
generations. Along with personal lifestyle changes, there must be changes in
our economies.
Cities and towns can:

      Plan attractive increased population density areas such as town
       centres and urban villages instead of accommodating further sprawl
      Offer living, working and shopping spaces in integrated
       neighbourhoods
      Reallocate urban space to encourage decreased use of cars. (e.g.
       reduce road and parking space) and increased use of public transport,
       bicycles and walking (e.g. build bicycle speedways and attractive
       pedestrian areas)



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      Encourage the planting of trees and green spaces
      Establish urban land-trusts to give the community more control over
       land use
      Promote various kinds of affordable high density housing such: as
       secondary suites and cooperatives
      Introduce housing construction guidelines which minimize the
       consumption of resources
      Develop comprehensive waste reduction systems which include
       municipal resource reuse and reduction schemes
In doing business we can:
      Rely on using locally available resources rather than imported ones
      Regain local control over production and distribution of those resources
      Secure local needs so that the long term livelihood of a region can be
       protected without compromising the livelihoods of other people in other
       regions
      Charge the true costs for private transportation, pollution and resource
       use
      Support community-based non-cash, volunteer and mutual aid
       networks
      Encourage ecologically sound businesses
      Offer tax breaks and other incentives for encouraging sustainable
       lifestyles, and tax and regulate unsustainable behaviour.



Games for around the campfire:
The following is a list of activities that you may find useful if you have time to
waste or the group needs something to occupy them.

Singing:
We will attempt to have a few guitars for around the campfire and will also
bring copies of the Norwegian camping song guide – contains lyrics and
chords for all types of songs.

Crossed and uncrossed:
All you need for this is two sticks. The actual game has nothing to do with the
sticks, but they are used to confuse people. Hold the sticks (either crossed or
uncrossed) and pass them to the person next to you saying‟ I received these
sticks crossed/ uncrossed and pass them to you crossed/uncrossed. The way
you receive them is dependent on how your legs are positioned (either


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crossed or uncrossed) and they way you pass them on is dependent on the
legs of the person you are passing too. Don‟t let people give away the trick if
they already know.

Mafia
Game for any number of people (need about 6 minimum). Characters involved
include:
Facilitator- this is a person who knows how to run the game and makes it all
happen- they are not involved in the actual activity but play a pivotal role in
keeping the game flowing. It is best filled by a person who is familiar with the
game as it can get a bit confusing.
Mafia: These are the bad guys.
Spy: Good guys who get to know the status of others in the village
Doctor: also a good guy, attempts to save other good guys i.e. villagers, spies
etc
Villager: a normal plebeian
Priest: Gives resurrection powers to one person at the start of the game
Village Idiot: impersonates one other group member of their choosing (subtle,
i.e. reflecting and agreeing with whatever they say etc).

Aim: Mafia and Villagers are battling it out, each wanting to save themselves.
Mafia win if they kill all the good guys (other than the villagers). Everyone else
wins if they are able to kill off the mafia.

Instructions: The game begins with everyone receiving a randomly drawn
card with their character on it (i.e. spy, villager etc). The Facilitator then tells
everyone to go to sleep i.e. close their eyes, and will then proceed to wake up
different groups. For the first round only the facilitator will wake up the priest
and ask who he wants to give resurrection powers to (this can be themselves
if they wish). If this person gets killed at either during town voting or by the
mafia then they are brought back to life. This occurs once only. The priest is
then put back to sleep and the village idiot woken up. They point out who they
are going to impersonate for the duration of the game. If this person is killed
off they become a normal villager. Once the VI is asleep, the mafia are woken
up and asked who they would like to kill that round. Mafia go to sleep and the
Spies are woken up and asked who they would like to know the real identity
of- the facilitator will silently indicate either good or bad, according to their
choice. Finally the doctor is woken up and asked who he wants to save. If it is
the same as the person the mafia chose to kill then that person will live on.

Once all this has occurred the facilitator wakes everyone up and tells them if
there has or has not been a successful murder and who it was (if it was
successful). This person is then out of the game. The village, i.e. all
characters, then discusses what has occurred and picks someone who they
think is a mafia to be voted out of the town. The cycle then repeats itself until
either the mafia or village wins.

Woops Johnny
Someone who knows the game initiates it, but don‟t give the secret away.
Holding one hand up with the fingers spread out, move a finger from the


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opposite hand up and down the fingers of the hand in front of you whilst
saying „whoops Johnny, whoops Johnny, Johnny Johnny Whoops‟ (or
something similar). Ask everyone to repeat exactly what you have just done.
The trick is to either say um, ok or subtly wipe your nose before beginning
(pick one only).

Alternative version
An alternative version is done with a stick. One person leans forward with a
stick and whilst bouncing it from side to side says „this is a dumb stick, a
dumb, dumb stick‟ , again putting a sniff, cough etc at the start or end.

A further alternative version is done with a tea towel held by the corners and
moving from side to side and goes „my name‟s not JoJo and I don‟t like tea
towels”.

Psychologist
Send one or two people away from the group and explain to the rest of the
group the following: “When they come back we will tell them that we have
developed a few „issues‟ of a psychological nature and it is their job to
determine what they are by asking yes or no questions. Everyone has
something wrong with them- you all become the person on your right and take
on their characteristics” You can them bring back those sent away and instruct
them to diagnose what everyone has wrong with them. The game can go on
for as long as you like, if a large group then you may just choose a few people
to be diagnosed.

There’s been a murder……..
Similar to above, send one or two people away and explained the following to
the rest of the group. “When they come back they will be told there has been a
murder and they need to determine the who, what, when, where, how and
why. They will ask their yes or no questions directly to members of the circle,
one question per person at a time. Each member of the circle will have a
designated answer, either yes or no. Have everyone choose what their reply
will be, ensure a relatively equal distribution, and then call them back.” The
beauty of this game is that there is no real story, it‟s made up as you go along.

Alternative version
Once played once, the trick won‟t work the same way, but can be altered.
Have the group respond as a whole, their answer will be determined by the
last word of the interviewers question/ sentence. If it contains the letter „e‟ then
it is a yes, in not then it is a no.

Story Games:
Many versions, make up stories by going around the circle and saying a word,
sentence or paragraph at a time.

Wink Murder:
Have one person leave the group, they become the detective. Whilst they are
gone nominate a murderer. The detective then returns, their task is to catch
the murderer before everyone is killed. The murderer then attempts to kill


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everyone by winking at them, if you are winked at you need to die, without
being caught by the detective. The detective has two or three guesses to
determine who the murderer is
.
I’m going on a holiday (multiple variations)

Many different versions and formats, but generally going like:
       “I‟m going on a holiday and I‟m going to take an apple but not a pear”
Started by someone who knows the game. Others then repeat the sentence
changing what they want to bring/ leave behind and are then told if they can
or can‟t come based on what they wanted to bring- only those bringing items
with a double letter in them are allowed to come along.

Alternative versions:
Item they want to take must begin with a vowel (A,E,I,O,U)
Item the want to take must or must not, depending on what you choose,
contain an E
Items must begin with the first letter of their first or last names
       There are many other alternative versions, see what you can come up
with.

Tutorial lesson Plans:
There will be five 1 hr tutorials in total, running in weeks 3,4,6,7,8 (X Country
ski trip in week 5). It would be great if you could attend all of them, but if you
need to miss some that‟s fine, just let us know sometime before.

Week 3:
What                            Who          Notes/ Equipment           Time
Introduction                    Beth &                                  3 mins
- who we are                    Toby
- what our roles are
What this is all about/ camp    Beth /                                  8 mins
overview                        Toby
- general camp outline
- how groups walking
    groups will work
- how organisational
    groups will work
Meet your walking groups        All                                     15 mins
- get to know you game
- work out tent pairs
- make preliminary
equipment list
Split into organisational       All                                     15mins
groups
- go through what‟s required
for each group
Wrap up                         Beth /                                  5 mins


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- remind no tutorial in week   Toby
5

Week 4:
Greetings                      Beth/                            3 mins
                               Toby
Trangia use/ food for          Andrew    Need approx 16         30mins
bushwalking                              Trangias, fuel,
- students in walking                    matches and
     groups                              examples of food.
- take outside to cover
     trangia setup and how to
     light
- discuss types of food
     they might consider
     taking
Walking groups                  All                             7 mins
- go over everyone‟s
names, perhaps short game
if time permits
- final check of equipment
lists
Meet organisation groups        All                             12 mins
- any needed planning
- equipment group needs
     to have completed list by
     end of session
- Medicals need to have
     handed out and
     collected most, if not all
     of the forms so they can
     take them away and
     compile a master sheet
     for each group.
- Catering need to find out
     if there are any dietary
     requirements in their
     walking groups.
Wrap Up                         Beth /   Remember to remind     2 mins
                                Toby     about no tutorial in
                                         week 5.


Week 6:
Greetings                      Toby                            3 mins
Equipment you might need/      Jo M      Rucksack, examples of 25 mins
How to pack a rucksack                   equipment
- Done as a whole group
   with presentation at
   front. May use a few


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    students as examples.
- Perhaps, time
    permitting, will meet in
    walking groups a little
    early and have an
    activity on what to
    include in a rucksack
    and where to put it to
    test what they just
    learnt.
Meet in walking groups        All                            5 mins
- go over any needed info,
complete medicals if not
already done.
Meet in Organisational        All                            15 mins
groups
- Medicals should be
    almost done, hand in
    master sheets to leader.
- Transport need to
    confirm how many
    travelling in bus and how
    many cars being left at
    Magill
- Entertainment need to
    submit list of any
    needed equipment etc to
    leader so it can be
    purchased
- Equipment need to
    submit any changes
- Catering need to have
    preliminary quantities
    worked out
Wrap Up                       Toby                           5 mins

Week 7:
Greetings                     Beth/                          3 mins
                              Toby
Navigation                    Beth    20 Heysen trail maps   15 mins
- To be done in walking               20 compasses
groups, but lead overall by
Beth.
- how to orientate a map
- how to orientate a
   compass
- How to take a bearing
   on a map
- How to identify features
   on a map


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Tents                           Toby     1 tent for example       15 mins
- care of
- do‟s and don‟ts
- Basic setting up
    procedure
Meet walking groups             All                               5 mins
- just a check in to see
everyone is there and to
check that they are all ok
with equipment and food
organisation.
Organisational Groups           All                               10 mins
- all groups should be
wrapping up preparations
and submitting FINAL lists
etc to their leaders.
Wrap up                         Beth/                             5 mins
                                Toby

Week 8:
Greetings                       Beth /                            3 mins
                                Toby
Minimal Impact/ Toileting       Sara     ??                       20 mins
- how to take a dump in
    the bush
- Women‟s business in
    the bush
- Minimal impact
    principles eg walking on
    the track, taking out all
    rubbish, conserving
    resources etc
Meet in walking groups          All                               5 mins
- Final check in
Meet in Organisational          All                               5 mins
groups
- Final check in
Wrap Up                         Beth/    Final chance for info!   15 mins
- reiterate where and when      Toby
to meet, go over any final
info they might need.




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