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Theories of Management

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					Theories of
Management
  EDUC 4128
 Management Theories

                   Theorists




          Rogers               Jones
          Kounin         Mendler and Curwin
                                               Canter
Skinner    Kohn               Glasser         Dreikurs
          Gibbs               Gordon          Bennett
          Brophy               Hewitt
          Wong
   Classroom Management as Reacting
         to Discipline Problems



 Skinner’s
  Behavioural
  Management
  Theory
    Skinner – Behavioural
        Management
Definition: The practice of providing
   consequences for both positive
   and negative behaviour.
The teacher develops a process of
   systematically applying rewards
   (reinforcements) and
   consequences for behaviour.
   Skinner – Behavioural
       Management
This model of classroom management
   is also known as:
 behaviourism
 behavioural techniques
 behaviour modification
 social-learning theory
Classroom Management with
  a Preventative Approach
   Carl Rogers
   Jacob Kounin
   Alfie Kohn
   Jeanne Gibbs
   Jere Brophy
   Harry Wong
           Carl Rogers
 Experiential Learning and Self-
  Actualization
 Experiences need to be relevant, non-
  threatening and participatory
 Teachers need to be real, prize students,
  empathetic and understanding
 All students strive for self-actualization
  and self-fulfillment
        Jacob Kounin
 Effective Teaching includes group
  alerting and accountability, high
  participation and smooth transitions
 Effective teachers are ‘withit’, use
  the ripple effect, overlapping and
  they don’t dangle, flip flop or get
  distracted
              Alfie Kohn
 Beyond Discipline: From Compliance to Community”
 There is a difference between „working with‟ and
  „doing to‟ classes
 „Doing to‟ classes include compliance, punishment
  and rewards, grading and reliance on marks or test
  results
 „Working with” classes include active participation,
  high interest, discovery, and love of learning
            Jeanne Gibbs
 “Tribes” theory includes an emphasis on active
  listening, appreciation, mutual respect, the right to
  pass, a helping attitude, setting goals, monitoring
  progress and celebrating accomplishments
 Tribes‟ focus is on learning, a caring culture, a
  community of learners and student-centredness
 The curriculum includes social learning skills
 Tribes training includes various school groups
  including parents and administrators
            Jere Brophy
 “Classroom Strategy Study”
 Good teaching includes enthusiasm, instructional
  goals, organization, and teacher as problem-solver
 Good teachers present the concepts, include
  discussions and activities and give assignments to
  practice new knowledge
 Assessments are used to provide feedback, to note
  the zone of proximal development and to
  develop/revise the curriculum
 Students need to see the purposefulness of the
  curriculum
           Harry Wong
 „The Effective Teacher‟ videos and „The First
  Days of School‟ book
 The first impressions are lasting
 Classes need only 3-5 rules and the size of
  groups is determined by the roles to be
  assumed
 Important aspects of a class are teacher
  readiness, meeting students, a seating plan,
  „bell work‟ and immediate feedback
    Preventative and Reactive
           Strategies
   Richard Mendler and Allen Curwin
   William Glasser
   Fred Jones
   Thomas Gordon
   Jean Hewitt
     Mendler and Curwin
 “Motivating Students Who Don‟t Care”
 „Discipline with Dignity‟
 To motivate students: be a role-model.
  nurture responsibility not obedience, be fair,
  give natural and logical consequences, be
  private, try for win-win situation, control
  anger, diffuse power struggles and develop a
  plan
         William Glasser
 Reality Therapy -Control/Choice Theory
 All humans have a need for love a feeling of self-
  worth
 Steps: build a relationship, focus on behaviour not
  person, give student responsibility and evaluation,
  develop a plan, student commits to plan, follow-up
  and follow-through, move beyond class if necessary
 Emphasize effort ( redo, retake, revise), create hope,
  respect power, build relationships and express
  enthusiasm
         Fred Jones
“Positive Classroom Discipline”:The teacher
   systematically strengthens desired
   behaviour while weakening
   inappropriate behaviour by using
   proximity control, negative reinforcement,
   incentives, body language and peer
   pressure.
Jones’ Four Step Model

1. Classroom Structure: setting up classroom
   rules, routines and the physical environment
2. Limit Setting: rule reinforcement through the use
   of body language, and low-key responses
3. Responsibility Training: establishment of group
   rewards or incentives to create group
   responsibility and accountability for behaviour
4. Back-up System: hierarchic organization of
   negative sanctions, a) Private with Student, b)
   Public within Classroom, c) Public with Two
   Professionals
           Thomas Gordon
 Teacher Effectiveness Training (T.E.T.)
 Based on the philosophy of Carl Rogers-children are inherently
  rational and if directed and forced teachers by teachers, they
  will be stifled
Assumptions: student is internally motivated to be good, should be
  supported by an accepting relationship and is capable of
  solving own problems
Teachers are taught to: observe the behaviour, identify who owns
  the problem, demonstrate understanding, be understood,
  confront if necessary and use win-win problem-solving
Curriculum design involves structured activities, student
  ownership, communication and analysis of learning
            Jean Hewitt
 “Playing Fair”
 Based on the society‟s concept of “fair “ behaviour
 Steps: create positive environment, support student
  efforts for self-control,deal with problems
  immediately and monitor the class
 All consequences should create learning
 Have specific rules that consider safety and well-
  being of others
 Avoid confrontations, power struggles or rumours
      Reactive Strategies
   Lee and Marlene Canter
   Rudolf Dreikurs
   Barrie Bennett and Peter Smilanich
   B.F.Skinner
      Canters’ Assertive
          Discipline
Definition: The teacher‟s response style
 sets the tone of the classroom as well
 as impacting on the student‟s self-
 esteem and success.
The Canters identified three basic
 response styles used by teachers when
 interacting with students
             Canters’ Assertive
                 Discipline
Nonassertive Teachers
These teachers fail to make their needs or wants known. They appear indecisive
   which confuses students. They threaten but students know there will be no
   follow through.
Hostile Teachers
These teachers respond in a manner that disregards the
  needs and feelings of students. Their response to
  students are negative, condescending, sarcastic or
  hostile. They often make unprofessional comments
  about students and their peers. Consequences are
  overly severe.
      Canters’ Assertive
          Discipline
Assertive Teachers
These teachers clearly and firmly express
 their needs. They have positive
 expectations of students. They say
 what they mean, and mean what they
 say. They are consistent and fair.
          Dreikurs’ Logical
           Consequences
Definition: The teacher considers the motivation and
  goals of the student behaviour in the development of
  a management plan.
 A more humanistic approach than just focusing on
  discipline.
 The teacher then applies Logical Consequences to
  assist students in taking responsibility for their
  actions and behaviours.
       Dreikurs’ Goals of
         Misbehaviour
Based on Alfred Alder‟s concept that all
   behaviour had a purpose or goal, Dreikurs
   identified 4 student goals of misbehaviour:
1. To seek attention
2. To gain power
3. To seek revenge for some perceived
   injustice
4. To avoid failure
       Dreikurs’ Logical
        Consequences
Logical Consequences:
 Must be tied directly to the misbehaviour
 Must not involve moral judgments
 Must distinguish between the deed and
  the doer
 Must be applied in a non-threatening
  manner
 Must present choice for the student
 Barrie Bennett and Peter
         Smilanich
 “The Bumping Model” of the teacher‟s
  responses to student misbehaviour
 Increasingly severe responses by the
  teacher based on the degree of the
  student‟s BUMP.
 Implies that teacher must take more
  drastic measures as behaviour persists
     The Bumping Model
 Bump1:Prevent misbehaviour by low-key response
 Bump 2:Square off Response
 Bump 3: Give choice
 Bump 4: Implied choice
 Bump 5: Diffuse the Power Struggle ( ignore, use
  humour…)
 Bump 6: Informal Agreement
 Bump 7,8, 9,10: Informal contracts with other
  persons involved
    Common Elements of
        “Theories”
 What do the theories have in common
  as prerequisites to good classroom
  management?
 What are the features that differ among
  the theories?
                Ultimately…
 The teacher is responsible for establishing a community and for
  maintaining classroom control
 The teacher is the difference between a chaotic or caring
  classroom
 Effective classroom management includes: planning and
  implementing teaching strategies thoroughly , keeping students
  actively engaged in meaningful learning, and preventing
  disruptions through proactive management strategies.
 When a teacher needs to react to misbehaviour, careful thought
  should be applied to the situation to ensure that the self-esteem
  of the student is respected and to ensure that the
  consequences are realistic and appropriate
  Good luck in your practice
teaching and your second term
           courses!

				
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