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					                                                                           Objectives
                                                         • Recognize material handling hazards and
   Material Handling and                                   how to control them
                                                            – Manual material handling
          Storage                                              • Storage
                                                               • Hand trucks
                                                            – Conveyors
     Occupational Health and Safety                         – Powered Industrial trucks (forklifts)
          November 3, 2008                                     • Accident statistics
                                                               • Cause, consequences and prevention of trailer
                                                                 creep
                                                               • Forklift safety
                                                            – (Cranes will be addressed later)
                                                     1                                                           2




    Material Handling and
                                                                          Introduction
           Storage
• Outline                                                • 600,000 overexertion injuries, 27% of all lost-
  – Introduction                                           workday cases
                                                            – 370,000 injuries caused by lifting
  – General Practices                                       – 93,000 pushing/pulling
  – Storage                                                 – Strains and sprains from loads that are too heavy
                                                              or large
  – Manual Material Handling                                – Fractures, cuts and bruises from improper storage
  – Powered Industrial Trucks                            • 100 annual deaths from Powered Industrial
                                                           Trucks (forklifts)

                                                     3                                                           4




             Introduction                                                 Introduction
• General Work Practices
  – Get help for large loads or use mechanical           • General Work Practices (cont.)
    devices!                                                – Do not overload equipment
  – When blocking a raised load:                               • Refer to equipment rated capacity
     • Keep hands from underneath before releasing
       load                                                 – General forklift procedures
     • Use blocking materials of adequate strength             •   Center load on forks and close to mast
     • Look for cracks, splintered pieces, rounded             •   Do not overload
       corners, etc.
  – Attach handles or holder to loads                          •   Do not add extra weight to counterbalance
  – Use appropriate PPE                                        •   Travel with load at lowest position
     • Gloves, eye protection, safety boots (for heavy
       loads)
                                                     5                                                           6
            Materials Storage                                               Materials Storage
• Precautions for stored materials                                 • Precautions for stored materials (cont.)
   – Stacked loads correctly piled and cross-tiered                  – Employees in silos, hoppers or tanks equipped with
   – Stored material must not create hazard                            lifeline and safety harness
                                                                     – Bound material stacked, on racks, blocked or
   – Areas free of accumulated material
                                                                       interlocked to keep it from sliding, falling or
   – Keep materials in buildings away from exterior                    collapsing
     building walls, hoistways, etc.                                 – Don't exceed load capacity for the structure
   – Store non-compatible material separately                            • Post load limits
   – Keep 18 inches clear space below sprinklers                     – Stacking height
                                                                         • Mark walls or posts to indicate maximum height
                                                                     – Use bins or shelves for materials that cannot be
                                                                       stacked
                                                               7                                                          8




Lumber and Masonry Storage                                         Box and Drum Storage
• Lumber                                                           • Boxed materials
   – Stacks stable and self-                                         – Hold in place using cross-ties,
     supporting                                                        or shrink plastic
• Bricks, masonry blocks                                           • Drums, barrels, kegs                         Box storage
   – Taper stacks                             Lumber storage         – Stack symmetrically
• Bags and bundles                                                   – Block bottom tiers to prevent
   – Stack in interlocking rows                                        rolling, if stored on side,
   – Step back at least every 10                                     – Use planks, pallets, etc.
     layers                                                            between each tier, if stacked on
   – Remove from top of stack first                                    ends
                                                Masonry blocks
                                                               9                                                          10
                                                                                                             Drum storage




                Manual Lifting                                                 Manual Lifting
                                                                   • Recommendations for specific
• Manual lifting precautions                                         tasks
   –   Avoid manual lifting when possible                            – Grasp opposite corners on boxes,
   –   Limit vertical lifting (knuckle-to-shoulder height)             cartons & sacks
   –   Be in good physical shape                                     – Use mechanical assistance for barrels
   –   Plan the lifting operation                                      and drums
   –   Get a good grip                                               – Wear leather gloves when handling sheet
                                                                                                                     Drum jack
   –   Keep the load close to the body                                 metal
   –   Do not twist or bend sideways                                 – Plate glass
   –   Get help for large or heavy loads                                • Carry with bottom edge in gloved
                                                                          palm, other hand on top edge
                                                                        • Never carry plate glass under the arm
                                                                     – Use a team for long objects
                                                 Manual lifting
                                                              11                                                          12
    2-wheeled hand trucks                                                             2-wheeled hand trucks
• Safe hand truck use                                                       • Powered hand trucks
  – Tip load forward and slip tongue
    underneath
  – Keep center of gravity low
  – Let the truck carry the load - don't
    lean it too far                      Hand truck      Appliance
  – Walk forward - keep load height                      truck
    low enough to see
  – Secure bulky items to the truck
  – Use specialty equipment                                                    PowerMate video
      • Drums                                                         http://www.powermate.info/powermate.htm                  Magliner video
      • Appliances                                                                                                    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9lWS
      • Stairs                                               13                          (I am not endorsing these products)        w-gTWM        14
                                  Stair-climbing truck   Drum truck




                     Dollies                                                                        Conveyers
                                                                                • Conveyer basics
• Dollies can be used to                                                             – Hazards
  move heavy objects that                                                               • Nip points (rollers, near frame)
  don’t have wheels                                                                     • Material may fall from conveyor
                                                                                        • Persons may be caught in the
                                                                                                                           Inclined belt conveyor
                                           Furniture dolly
                                                                                          conveyor
                                                                                     – Controls
                                                                                        • Emergency stop button or pull cord
                                                                                            – Must be reset after use
                                                                                            – Never ride on conveyor
                                                                                        • Guards over aisles or
                                                                                          work areas
                                                                                        • Screw conveyors covered,
        Machinery dolly                 Drum dolly           15                           interlocked                         Screw conveyor




   Powered Industrial Trucks                                                       Powered Industrial Trucks
          (Forklifts)                                                                     (Forklifts)
• Forklift injuries and deaths                                              • Forklift injuries and
  – 100 annual deaths, 95,000 injured                                         deaths (cont)
  – Cause of fatality:                                                           – “Classic” forklift accidents:
     • 42% crushed by vehicle tipping                                                 • Forklift overturns when
     • 25% crushed between vehicle and surface                                          traveling or lifting a load
     • 11% crushed between two vehicles                                               • Trailer moves while being
     • 10% struck or run over by vehicle                                                loaded or unloaded, causing
     • 8% struck by falling material                                                    the forklift to fall (“trailer
     • 4% fall from platform or forks                                                   creep”)
     • 2% accidental activation of controls

                                                             17                                                                                   18
    Powered Industrial Trucks
           (Forklifts)
• Forklift safety
   – ANSI Approved
      • Identifying label
   – Owner modification
      • Only with mfg.
        approval
      • New label required
   – Front-end attachments          Typically forklift capacity
      • Should have new             is based on load center
        label
                                    24 inches out and 24                        Typical forklift configuration
                                    inches up from forks
                                                                        (counterbalanced, solid tires, sit-down rider)
                                                                  19                                                     20




                 Forklift types                                                    Forklift types
 – Forklifts are selected from several configurations                  – Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks (solid
   and fuel types, according to the desired use                          tires)
    •   Solid tires for smooth, hard floor
    •   Pneumatic tires for outdoor or rough surfaces
    •   Battery powered, for indoor use
    •   Extended reach, for construction
    •   Capacity
    •   Clearance
    •   Etc.



                                                                  21                                                     22




                 Forklift types
• Electric Motor, Sit-down Rider, Counter-
  Balanced Trucks (solid and pneumatic tires)




                                                                  23                  Forklift battery                   24
              Forklift types                                                       Forklift types
– Electric Motor Hand Trucks or Hand/Rider Trucks                   – Internal Combustion Engine Trucks (pneumatic tires)
  Internal Combustion Engine Trucks                                 – Rough Terrain Extended Reach Forklift Trucks
                                                                      (pneumatic tires)




                                                                                                         Rough Terrain Extended-
                                                                                                         Reach Forklifts
                                                           25                                                                  26




                                                                         Powered Industrial Truck
              Forklift types
                                                                                 Safety
• “Explosion proof” forklifts                                      • Fuel, liquid or gas
                                                                      – Handled in accord with NFPA standards
  are used to control ignition
                                                                   • Batteries
  hazards                                                             – Hazards
  – Example:                                                             • Lifting and handling                  Forklift battery
     • DS (Diesel), EE (completely                                       • Acid (electrolyte)
       enclosed electrical), or EX                                       • Hydrogen produced during charging
       trucks where containers of                                     – Precautions
                                                                         • Designated battery charging area
       flammable gases or liquids are
                                                                         • Spill control, fire protection,
       handled                                                             ventilation, etc.
                                                                         • Mechanical handling equipment
                                                           27            • No smoking                       Battery charging station




    Powered Industrial Truck                                             Powered Industrial Truck
            Safety                                                             Operation
• Trucks and Railroad cars                                         • Safe forklift operation
  – Many deaths occur when a truck moves                             – Never drive toward a person standing in front of a
    as it is loaded (“trailer creep” or “dock                          fixed object
    walk”)                                                           – No person under any elevated portion
     • Forklift travel and braking action cause Wheel chock          – Do not place arms or legs in the mast or outside the
       the truck to move away from the dock                            truck
     • The forklift falls into the gap and the                       – Unattended trucks must be shut off with lowered load
       driver is crushed                                             – Set brakes and wheel blocks when loading vehicles
  – Precautions                                                        (trucks, rail cars, etc.)
     • Brakes set, wheel chocks (trucks)                             – Maintain headroom under lights, sprinkler systems,
     • Wheel stops (railroad cars)                                     etc.
     • Trailer restraints secure the truck to                        – Use overhead guard to protect from falling objects
       the loading dock                        Trailer restraint     – Use load backrest when necessary
                                                           29                                                              30
            Powered Industrial Truck
                                                                                                               Forklift Training
                  Operation
• Safe forklift operation                                                                         • OSHA standard, 1919.178(l)
    – Cross railroad tacks on the diagonal
    – Sound horn at blind intersections                                                              – Formal training program required
    – Back down ramps, drive forward up                                                                • OSHA specified topics
      ramps                                                                                                – Stability, operation, etc.
                                                                           A dockboard
    – Operate at safe speed, avoid quick turns                             is used to bridge
                                                                                                           – Training length is not specified
    – Personnel on loading platform must have                              the gap between             • Initial training required before use a forklift
      an emergency shut-off for truck power                                loading dock and            • Refresher training as needed (based on
    – Secure dockboards and bridge plates                                  truck/trailer                 observations of improper operation)
    – Loads must be stable and safely arranged                                                         • Employer must certify proper training
    – Disconnect battery before repairing
      electrical system
    – Replacement parts must be equivalent to
                                                                                       31                                                                            32
      original




                      Forklift Training                                                                         Forklift Training
                                                             Vehicle Center of
Stability Triangle:                            B             Gravity (Unloaded)                 Stability Triangle
                                                                                                                                        Load CG
                                                                                                        Load CG
                 A
                                                                                                        Vertical
                                                                                                        Stability
                                                                                                        Line
                                                                                                                                                          Combined CG
                                                                                                        (Line of Action)

                                               C             Center of Gravity                          Combined CG
                                                             of Vehicle and                                                                             Vertical
                                                             Maximum Load                               Truck CG                                        Stability
                                                             (Theoretical)                                                        Truck CG              Line
 Notes:                                                                                                                                                 (Line of Action)
 1. When the vehicle is loaded, the combined center of gravity (CG) shifts toward line B-C.
    Theoretically the maximum load will result in the CG at the line B-C. In actual practice,
    the combined CG should never be at line B-C.
 2. The addition of additional counterweight will cause the truck CG to shift toward point A              The vehicle is stable      This vehicle is unstable and
    and result in a truck that is less stable laterally.                               33                                             will continue to tip over      34




                           Conclusions
   • Material handling activities cause many injuries
     and deaths each year
   • Stacked materials must be stable
   • Avoid manual material handling if possible
   • Use mechanical devices for heavy loads
   • Most forklift fatalities caused by overturning
   • Wheel chocks and restraints prevent “trailer
     creep”
   • Forklifts have battery charging/handling and fuel
     hazards                                        35                                                                                                               36
   • Forklift operators must be trained