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					                          Parts of
                          speech

                                This presentation is full of facts and
                                activities to help you to revise the ‘parts
                                of speech’.
                                In speaking, reading and writing you
                                need to use the correct ‘parts of speech’
                                for your words to make sense and to be
                                understood.

The eight key parts of speech are: nouns, pronouns, verbs,
adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.
These are sometimes referred to as ‘word classes’.

                                    Please click here
                   Parts of speech
     adjectives                     nouns                     verbs
                                 pronouns                imperative
                                                           verbs
                             proper nouns                 adverbs
                                collective
                                  nouns
      preposition               conjunction               interjection

You will need a pen and some lined paper. Please click on a link to view the part
of speech that you would like to study.
                         adjectives
  Adjectives are describing words that usually come before a noun
  (the name of a person, place or thing).

  Adjectives can describe a look, a mood or even a character.

Examples:
The old house had a lovely garden.

It was a cold day.
                                                       Click here for an
The beautiful dress cost £400!                         activity

The grumpy teenager stamped her feet.

The lazy man never did any work.
                                                Click here to return to the main
                                                page ‘parts of speech’
Click here for the                                                             Click for a printable
answers                                                                        version
                              adjectives activity
    Task: re-write these sentences replacing the underlined word with
    the most fitting word from the box below (or your own word) to
    make these descriptive sentences more interesting.

    1. Leeds is a nice city with a good night life.
    2. Park Lane College is a good college with nice students.
    3. Returning to study is a nice thing to do.
    4. It can be nice to be able to sit and chat with friends.
    5. It can be nice to go for long walks in the summer.


    relaxing   pleasant       brilliant   vibrant     friendly   challenging
    hard-working     clever     fantastic    lively     rewarding

                                                            You can look up words using an
       Click here to return to the main                     online dictionary such as
       page ‘parts of speech’                               www.askoxford.com
                                                       Click here to return to the main page ‘parts of speech’


                    adjectives activity – type, print page & check.

Write an adjective in the boxes to make the
writing more interesting.


Salina thinks that George is a                   man. She likes to spend time with

George because of his                      personality. She thinks he is a

friend.



George likes Salina because she is a                        person. She makes him laugh.

George likes to watch                   movies with Salina, so that they have something

                    to talk about over dinner.




Adjectives you might use:     action   mean             kind      documentary          brilliant
genuine       happy     confident      interesting      funny          boring                 angry
               adjectives - answers
• Leeds is a vibrant city with a fantastic night life.

• Park Lane College is a friendly college with hard-working students.

• Returning to study is a rewarding thing to do.

• It can be pleasant to sit outside and chat with friends.

• It can be relaxing to go for long walks in the summer.


You may have used different words for your answers. This is just an example of
the selection you could have made. Ask your tutor to check your work.



                       Click here to return to the main
                       page ‘parts of speech’
                                    nouns
A noun is the name of something. A common noun is the name of a general
thing: ice cream, dog, cat and pen are all everyday nouns.

A concrete noun is something you can see, hear, smell feel or taste:
    It was a very tasty pizza dripping with cheese, ham and pineapple.
    It was a vanilla ice cream.
    She wore a woolly cardigan.


An abstract noun is an idea, feeling or quality that you cannot touch. It is something
you cannot see, smell, touch or taste. For example: loneliness, politeness,
happiness, sadness, faith, courage, embarrassment, bitterness.


Click here for an activity.

                                                  You can look up words using an
           Click here to return to the main       online dictionary such as
           page ‘parts of speech’                 www.askoxford.com
Click here for the
answers                      common and abstract
                                nouns activity
       Activity one: look at this piece of writing.
     “She had no more clean dishes, clean knives or clean forks.
      Although she was not known for her tidiness, the house was unusually
      messy today. Rather than do the cleaning and cook a meal, Bev
     decided she would go out and get a takeaway. She had had too many
     late nights and her tiredness was making it harder to cope with the
      housework.”


    Activity two: make a list of all the common nouns you see.
    Activity three: make a list of all of the abstract nouns you
    see. Do you notice anything about them?
                                                          Click here to return to the main
                                                          page ‘parts of speech’
                common and abstract
                  nouns - answers
“She had no more clean dishes, clean knives or clean forks.
Although she was not known for her tidiness, the house was
unusually messy today. Rather than do the cleaning and cook a meal,
Bev decided she would go out and get a takeaway. She had had too
many late nights and her tiredness was making it harder to cope
with the housework.”




Common nouns: dishes, knives, forks, house, takeaway,
housework, today, meal, nights
Abstract nouns: tidiness, tiredness
                                                    Click here to return to the main
    Click here for an activity on                   page ‘parts of speech’
    turning adjectives into nouns
         turning adjectives into nouns

Adjectives: happy          sad     weak      good       ready        tidy
forgetful
 She was a happy girl but she could also be a weak person.
 (Happy and weak are used here to describe the girl‟s character).

Activity: turn the adjectives in the box into nouns by adding
a –ness ending e.g. sadness.
Remember that when words end in „y‟ you should change the
„y‟ into an „i‟ e.g. readiness.
Extra activity: put two of these words into sentences of
your own.

                                                Click here to return to the main
                                                page ‘parts of speech’
                            pronouns
When we write about people using their names over and over
again our writing can become boring.

For example:
Ali is great at hands-on work. Ali wants to get onto an
apprenticeship scheme to become an engineer. Ali works
very hard at school. Ali is doing well in his exams.

You can replace the name Ali with the word ‘he’ because the
reader now knows (after the first Ali) who you are talking
about.

Click here for more on pronouns
                                   Click here to return to the main
                                   page ‘parts of speech’
            pronouns continued
The same piece of writing using the pronoun ‘he’:

Ali is great at hands-on work. He wants to get onto an
apprenticeship scheme to become an engineer. He
works very hard at school. He is doing well in his exams.


Personal pronouns:    it   he   she    they    I   we     you

Objective pronouns: me you her him it us you             them

Click here for an activity on using pronouns

                                                   Click here to return to the main
                                                   page ‘parts of speech’
                                                        Click here to return to the main
                                                        page ‘parts of speech’

                   pronouns activity
Re-write the following sentences choosing the best
pronoun to replace the person / people being written
about.

1. Sharon is a brilliant swimmer. Sharon wants to compete professionally.
   Sharon is a very fast swimmer.
2. Bob, Mat and Bev go to the pub a lot. Bob, Mat and Bev like to drink.
   Bob, Mat and Bev are best friends and spend most nights together in their
   local pub.
3. I like to go to the shops. Jane likes to go to the shops too. Jane and I
   often go shopping together. Jane and I can spend a lot of money if Jane
   and I are not careful.


 Use either: I, we, they, you, it, he or she.
Click here for an activity


                              proper nouns
    • A proper noun is the name of something
      unique.
    • A proper noun could be the name of a person
      or a place, for example:
      James, Samera, Leeds, Bradford, Park Lane
      College, England, Gregg‟s, Cineworld and
      Burger King.

                             Click here to return to the main
                             page ‘parts of speech’
Click here to return to the main               Click here for interactive, printable
page ‘parts of speech’                         activity

                 proper nouns - activity
    1.   Draw a table like the one on the
         right.                             Common           Proper noun
    2.   Look at the following nouns and    noun
         write them under the correct
         heading.

    •    The Corn Exchange
    •    shops
    •    pool
    •    Lightwaves
    •    Tracy
    •    college
    •    biscuit
    •    Park Lane
    •    Jaffa Cakes
    •    girl
Click here to return to the main
page ‘parts of speech’
             proper nouns – type, print and check

              Common noun                        Proper noun




          The Corn Exchange         college
          shops                     biscuit
          pool                      Park Lane
          Lightwaves               Jaffa Cakes     Click here for the answers

          Tracy                    girl
Click here to return to the main
page ‘parts of speech’

                proper nouns - answers
             Common noun                   Proper noun
    Shops                          The Corn Exchange

    pool                           Lightwaves

    girl                           Tracy

    college                        Park Lane

    biscuit                        Jaffa Cakes
Click here to return to the main
page ‘parts of speech’


                          collective nouns
    Collective nouns are used to show a collection of people or things
    regarded as a unit. Common collective nouns are:

       team                        enemy              public



       committee                   group



       clergy                      family
                                                        Click here for an
                                                        activity on using
                                                        collective nouns
       company                     flock
             using collective nouns
When we use collective nouns we have to think about whether we are talking
about them as singular (one group as a whole e.g. the team is playing well…)
or plural (a group of people in a team = the team have been playing well).

For example:

The police are having trouble catching a gang of thieves
(‘are’ shows we are talking about more than one unit)

Her family is falling apart.
(We are talking about one family, this is singular and so we use ‘is’).

Activity: take the collective nouns „family‟, „class‟ and „company‟ and write
sentences showing their meaning. Take care and discuss your sentences with
your tutor to get advice on your grammar if you are unsure about whether you
are using them as singular or plural nouns.
                                                      Click here to return to the main
                                                      page ‘parts of speech’
                                 verbs
                                     Some verbs show feelings or states
Some verbs are action words:         and are there to act as links to add
                                     description to a noun.
Explain
                                     is     (he is boring)
Instruct
                                     am     (I am boring)
Speak
                                     been (he has always been
Cook
                                             boring)
Run
                                     was     (he was always told he
                                               was boring)
                                     have (I have always been
                                             boring)
                                     feel   (I feel I have been boring
  Click here to return to the main              today)
  page ‘parts of speech’
Click here to return to the main
page ‘parts of speech’

                         imperative verbs
    Silence! Shut the door! Sit down!
    Stir the rice. Light the fire.
     Imperative verbs can be orders or commands.
     These are words that tell you what to do.
     Imperative verbs are often used in instructional
     writing such as:
     •Recipes
                                                        Click here for an activity page
     •Manuals
     •Washing labels
     •Medicine packets
Click here to return to the main
page ‘parts of speech’

             imperative verbs - activity
    Write down all of the imperative verbs that you can
    see in this recipe.

     Method:
     1. Fill a pan with cold water
     2. Bring the water to the boil
     3. Stir-fry the onion and garlic in a little oil
     4. Place the pasta into the pan of boiling water – reduce the heat and allow
        to simmer for ten minutes
     5. Add the stir-fry vegetables to the wok and fry on a high heat for two
        minutes
     6. Remove the pasta from the heat, drain and empty onto the plates
     7. Add the stir-fried vegetables and serve.

                                                        Click here for the answers
        imperative verbs - answers
Method:
1. Fill a pan with cold water
2. Bring the water to the boil
3. Stir-fry the onion and garlic in a little
    oil
4. Place the pasta into the pan of
    boiling water – reduce the heat and
    simmer for ten minutes
5. Add the stir-fry vegetables to the
    wok and fry on a high heat for two
    minutes
6. Remove the pasta from the heat,
    drain and empty onto the plates
7. Add the stir-fried vegetables and
    serve.

 Answers are in bold.

    Click here to return to the main
    page ‘parts of speech’
                                  adverbs
                                   Adverbs often have an -’ly’ ending such
An adverb can tell us:             as:
how something is
                                   •slowly (how)
done, time, place,
cause or degree.                   •quickly (how)
                                   •gently (how / manner)
An adverb can answer
                                   •happily (manner)
questions such
as: "how," "when,"                 •noisily (manner)
"where," "how much".               •lately (time)
                                   •occasionally (how often)
                                         Click here to return to the main
Click here for adverbs activity          page ‘parts of speech’
Hint: to check the meaning of an
adverb take off the „ly‟ when looking
for the word in the dictionary          adverbs - activity
  Activity: re-write these sentences using the best adverb from the box
  below.
  1. She spoke to the man so ____________ that she made him cry.
  2. He sang so ___________ that all of the judges laughed.
  3. The pan was balanced so ______________ close to the edge it was amazing
     that it didn‟t fall off.
  4. They laughed ____________ at the comedian – because he was so bad!
  5. Her hair was styled _____________.
  6. Get ready _________ or you will miss the bus!
  7. Come over here __________. The baby is asleep.




    quietly            beautifully      harshly   dangerously     terribly    uncontrollably

           Click here to study adverbs as joining words         Click here to return to the main
                                                                page ‘parts of speech’
      adverbs (as conjunctions – joining words)

„Instead,‟ „although,‟ „also,‟ „otherwise,‟ „still‟ and „therefore‟
are a few examples of adverbs that can be used to join
ideas together in your writing.
Examples of adverbs as conjunctions in sentences:


She did not have enough money for the dress; therefore she
chose a different outfit.


The fans waited patiently; finally the doors to the stadium were
opened.
                                                 Click here to return to the main
                                                 page ‘parts of speech’
For additional work and online activities on prepositions visit:
http://www.englishpage.com/prepositions/location_prepositions_2.htm

                                  prepositions
 Prepositions can show time, direction and place.
 Look at the table below for a few examples.




            Time                           Direction            Place
 in                                 into                at
 on                                 onto                next to
 at                                 up                  on
 since                              down                under

Click here for an activity of directional              Click here to return to the main
prepositions                                           page ‘parts of speech’
                  prepositions - activity
 Decide which preposition for direction should be used and re-write the following
 sentences inserting the correct preposition.


  1. Put the bowl of porridge ___________ the microwave.

  2. Put the cup __________.

  3. Could you pick the laundry _______ for me, please?

  4. Take care as you skate ________ the ice.

  5. Go _______ the garden and I will bring out some chairs.

  6. Are you travelling ________ to London by car, train or coach?



 For direction:       into   onto    up    down

                                                       Click here to return to the main
Click here for the answers                             page ‘parts of speech’
               prepositions - answers
•   Put the bowl of porridge into the
    microwave.

•   Put the cup down.

•   Could you pick the laundry up for me,
    please?

•   Take care as you skate onto the ice.

•   Go into the garden and I will bring out
    some chairs.

•   Are you travelling down to London by car,
    train or coach?



                                                Click here to return to the main
                                                page ‘parts of speech’
Click here to return to the main page                            Click here for an activity
‘parts of speech’



                                        conjunctions
    Co-ordinating conjunctions can join two simple
    sentences together. These form a ‘compound
    Sentence’ which is made of two ideas that are equally
    important.
                                           Examples:
    Co-ordinates:
    •     and
                                           Simon likes tea, and Jan likes coffee.
    •     but
                                           Simon likes tea, but Jan likes coffee.
    •     or
    •     nor
                                           Will you go to the shops, or shall I go to the
    •     for                              shops?
    •     so
    •     yet                              You should go to the shops, so I don‟t have to go
                                           to the shops.
Click here to return to the main                                           Click here for the answers
page ‘parts of speech’

                   conjunctions - activity
    Join these simple sentences together to form ‘compound’
    sentences using the best co-ordinating conjunction from the box
    below.
    1.     I like porridge. Sam likes a fried breakfast.

    2.     Kevin watches Eastenders. I prefer to watch Coronation street.

    3.     Abby loves Jim. Kirsty loves Jim too.

    4.     Mohammed likes to paint. Pat enjoys painting.

    5.     I enjoy watching movies. We could go to the pictures together.

    6.     I do not like my flat. Simon says it‟s nice.


                                                           Click here for a mini printable version of the
         and but or      nor   for    so yet               conjunctions task
Click here to return to the main page
‘parts of speech’

               conjunctions – type, print & check
1.   Retype the sentences joining the two simple sentences with the best word from the box
     below.

I like porridge. Sam likes a fried breakfast.


Kevin watches Eastenders. I prefer to watch Coronation street.



Abby loves Jim. Kirsty loves Jim too.



Mohammed likes to paint. Pat enjoys painting.




                                                                    Click here for the answers
     and but or           nor    for    so yet
      conjunctions – sample answers
 1. I like porridge, but Sam likes a fried breakfast.
 2. Kevin watches Eastenders, but I prefer to watch Coronation
      street.
 3. Abby loves Jim, but Kirsty loves Jim too.
 4. Mohammed likes to paint, and Pat enjoys painting.
 5. I enjoy watching movies, so we could go to the pictures
 6.       together.
 7. I do not like my flat, yet Simon says it‟s nice.

Click here to return to the main
page ‘parts of speech’
                            interjections
Interjections are nearly always used at the start of a sentence - they are there to show
emotion and to grab your attention.



Common interjections include:
wow, ouch, oops, hey, watch, oh, yes, no,
move, stop, help… they are usually followed by an
exclamation mark!

                     “Oh, you‟re coming too?
                     Wow! That‟s a surprise.”
                                                         Click here to return to the main
                                                         page ‘parts of speech’

				
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