Florida Volusia European Contact Shamy

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					Engaging Students in the Study of History
            European Contact

     The Civil War Era Liberty Fellowship
        Volusia County School District
               Fall Colloquium
            October 16-17, 2009
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN THE STUDY OF
HISTORY
Investigating Historical Writing
The Changing and Differing Interpretations of
  History

                THE TEXTBOOK
• Not historical facts, but an invitation to join
the historical debate.
• Every generation writes its own history.
• Uncovering as Opposed to Covering History.
What to think about?
   •   Opposing Forces
   •   Contradictory Interpretations
   •   Consensus
   •   Paradoxes


Questions and Considerations:
• When was it written?
• Who wrote it?
• Where was it written? (Setting)
• What was the intention of the writer? (Audience)
• Are eye witness accounts reliable?
• The Question of Bias
Turning the historical debate into a
narrative: (written, spoken, poetry, prose,
images, song, theater or dance)
    • Using S.P.E.E.C.H. an AIHE
    Signature Strategy
    • Essential questions
       What really happened at Sand
       Creek?
       How could the framers of the
       Constitution talk so nobly about
       liberty while owning slaves?
    • Digital Story Telling
                 The Mystery of History


Time and again strangers came to a strange land
Scandinavians, Iberians, French and English meet
Americans for the first time
Cultures exchanged, interacted
and clashed

  Seek out and prepare a
  SPEECH on one of
  these chance meetings
Your investigation should follow the S.P.E.E.C.H. outline
Social: Who is involved in this event and what social factors define them and their
interactions? Think of social class, schooling, work, etc.

Political: What is the power structure of the people involved and how does it influence
the chain of historical events? Think of structure of government, who holds the
power?

Economic: What resources are available and how do these resources influence the
interactions of the people involved? What finances the society and describe their
economic system?

Environmental: How does the geographic location impact this chain of historical
events? What are the major problems or benefits of the location?

Cultural: What cultural factors defined these people and how did it impact their
relationship? What are their values, attitudes, beliefs and ethnicity? Religion
generally plays a large part in the evolving cultural relationships in history.

Historical:
• How does this event influence the course of history over time?
• What other historical events can you find that are similar to what we have
investigated in this research?
    Native
   American
    History




European Contact
   Native Americans in North America:
    A More Than 12,000 Year Legacy

Anthropologists have identified three major variations
of the foraging subsistence pattern:
1. pedestrian (diversified hunting and gathering on foot)
2. equestrian (concentrating on hunting large mammals from
horseback)
3. aquatic (concentrating on fish and/or marine mammal
hunting)
 Native
American
 Culture
  Areas
  Cultural patterns and societies were largely
   shaped by a specific natural environment
Important factors:
 Climate and the availability/variability of animal and
plant species – Deer/Polar Bear/Buffalo
 The density and distribution of population and its
impact on the forms of cooperation between individuals
and groups within society – Cahokia/Plains/Woodlands
 The political and religious features of community
life –
     Kinship/Clan/Tribe/Nation
     Shamanism/Priest Cult
      CAHOKIA


     A wide range of
        adaptation
     patterns largely
      determined by
     the environment


PLAINS INDIANS




Egalitarian Societies
                                 Egalitarian societies are
                                 comprised of people who are
                                 considered to be equal amongst
                                 one another and choose the
                                 amount of power given to
                                 individual members of a certain
                                 group.

                                    Inuit
                                 Hunting Seal

Laws were not written, but rather communal
understandings. Punishment for breaching laws
were mild, usually aimed at injuring a man's
position in society (through gossip, ridicule or
ostracism). Inuit punishments were not
created to reprimand the criminal, but to
reestablish the desired peace.
                  Pueblo Indian History
Paleo Indian: 9500 to 5500 BC or Earlier: Nomads

            Archaic Period: 5500 to 1000 BC
             Seasonal Campgrounds - Atlatl - Low Population
             Density - Weaving, but limited.



                 Basket Maker 1000 BC to AD 750
                 Domesticated Plants Added to Diet - Three Sisters
                 of the Garden - Elaborate Basketry - Plain Pottery
                 - Bow and Arrow appears at the end of this period.


                Pueblo I: AD 750 TO 900
                Large Villages with some Dispersed Settlements -
                Living Rooms - Pithouses - Ceremonial Activities -
                Wood and Adobe - Pottery becomes more decorative
                             Pueblo II: AD 900 - 1150
                            Public Meeting Houses - Stone Masonry - Below
                            Ground Kivas for religious rituals, associated with
                            the kachina belief system. Hopi: Qatsina or
                            anything that exists in the natural world -
                            element, quality, natural phenomenon, concept.

                            Pueblo III: AD 1150-1300
                             Large and Small Pueblos -
                             Cliff Dwellings - Towers -
                             Beautiful Elaborate Pottery


Pueblo IV: AD 1300-1600 Large Villages - Perhaps the
Ancestors of the Navoho come to the region at this time.

                                After 1600 the Navajo stole sheep and
                                horses from the Spanish. Craftsmen and
                                Traders.
                                Present Day: The largest tribe f North
                                American Indians.
           Mimbres Pottery
http://www.princetonol.com/groups/iad/Files/mimbres.htm
                A.D. 100 and A.D. 1150
    Indians - Europeans
Technology
The Earth
Religion
Political Structure
Social Structure
Language
Concept of Ownership
Warfare
Economics

 Concentrate on Similarities
      and Differences
One of the major
advantages of
Europeans was the
use of steel weapons
and firearms




 Human history has been shaped by technological
 innovation. Those with a greater range of metal
 technologies have had the superior advantage in conflict.
                           THE EURASIAN ADVANTAGE

                       • The course of history has been shaped
                       by chance.
                       • America inherited different native
                       grass and animal species.
Cereal Grasses of
Eurasia A. Oats;         Domesticated
B. Barley; C. Bread        Animals of
Wheat; D. Rye                 Eurasia

Eurasia's animal species provided
another advantage:
• Meat                                        …and even
                                               religion
• Milk
• Draft animals for farming and building
The Spread of Ideas    Europeans had access to a wealth
                       of historical, cultural and military
Writing and Printing   knowledge from previous eras
                       Indians — a non-literate society.
  Continental Axis
 EUROPEAN CONTACT




Use a Venn Diagram to compare
and contrast these two cultures.
 Humans have more in common
than they do that is different.
Viking Voyages
                        Domesticated Plants
  The Columbian                                                 Eurasia
                  almond         opium        amaranth
    Exchange      apple          peach        avocado
                  apricot
                  artichoke
                                 pea
                                 pear
                                              bean
                                              bell pepper
                                                                Americas
                  asparagus      pistachio    blueberry
                  banana         radish       cashew
                  barley         rhubarb      chia
Domesticated      beet           rice         chicle            Infectious
  Animals         black pepper   rye          chili pepper       Disease
                  cabbage        soybean      coca
  bee                            sugarcane
                  cantaloupe                  cocoa
  cat                                                           bubonic plague
                  carrot         taro         cotton
  camel                                                         cholera
                  coffee         tea          Cranberry
  chicken                                                       influenza
                  cotton         turnip       huckleberry
  cow                                                           malaria
                  citrus         wheat        maize
  dog                                                           measles
                  cucumber       walnut       manioc
  goat                                                          scarlet fever
                  eggplant       watermelon   papaya
  goose                                                         sleeping sickness
                  flax                        peanut
  horse                                                         smallpox
                  garlic                      pecan
  rabbit                                                        tuberculosis
                  hemp                        pineapple
  pig                                                           typhoid
                  kiwifruit                   potato
  rock pigeon                                                   yellow fever
                  kola nut                    quinoa
  sheep                                                         syphilis (possibly)
                  lettuce                     rubber
  silkworm                                                      Great Pox
                  mango                       squash (incl.
  water                                                         yaws
                  millet                      pumpkin)
  buffalo                                                       yellow fever
                  oat                         sunflower
  alpaca          okra                        strawberry
  dog             olive                       (American
  guinea pig      onion                       species used in
  llama                                       modern hybrids)
  turkey                                      sweet potato
                                              tobacco
                                              tomato
                                              vanilla
1492 Begins Three Centuries of Spanish Expansion in the
                     New World
• Caribbean                           Aztec Scroll
• Central American             Bernal Diz del Castillo (1496 - 1584)

• South America
• Southwestern United States
                         The encomienda itself was a
                         grant of Indians within a
                         geographic region, which were
                         given to an encomendero, the
                         Spaniard who received the
                         grant of Indians.
Spain in the New World
The Encomienda System
                             Origins of the Slave Trade

                             As large numbers of
                             Indians died under cruel
                             working conditions
                             landowners in New Spain
                             began to look for
                             alternative sources of
                             labor.
 Early Drawings of Florida
Indians at European Contact
                                               Ponce de Leon had sailed
                                               with Columbus, De Narvaez
                                               had fought against Cortez
                                               for his honors in Mexico, and
                                               Hernando de Soto, who
                                               undertook to finish the work
                                               they had begun in Florida,
                                               had served as soldier in the
                                               West Indies and then in
                                               Peru under Pizarro. When he
                                               planned an expedition to
                                               conquer Florida, so great
                                               was his reputation as a
                                               successful soldier that he
                                               had no difficulty in getting
                                               permission from the king of
                                               Spain.

Hernando de Soto (1496-97-May 21, 1542) served with Francisco Pizarro
(1471-June 26, 1541) in Peru during the years 1532-35. He returned to
Spain a wealthy man. In 1537 he was given permission by the Spanish Crown
to explore and settle Florida, albeit at his own expense. He was the first
explorer to bring livestock on an expedition.
        The French Empire




July 27, 1605, founded Port Royal in the
   colony of Acadia in North America

• France’s American venture was loosely controlled but covered a
large area of North America.
• The Fur Trade was the dominant focus and the French created
many alliances with the Indian tribes.
     Africa - India - The Caribbean - Southeast Asia
                      Ends in the 1960’s
                The British Empire




Proprietary Governors, appointed under mercantile
charters to English joint stock companies to found and
run settlements. Settlements based on the notion of
freedom and the establishment of new communities.
                     British Colonies in North America

                       1.   Newfoundland
                       2.   Nova Scotia
                       3.   The Thirteen Colonies
                       4.   Bermuda
                       5.   Bahamas
                       6.   Honduras
                       7.   Jamaica
                       8.   Lesser Antilles




The British Empire
      1897
Largest In History
                              The general pattern of
                              Indian response to white
                              settlement:

                              • Initial period of
                              increased prosperity
                              brought on by trade with
Native American prehistoric   whites
population of about
2,500,000 in what is now      • Followed by a period of
the United States             decline after the spread
(excluding Alaska),           of disease, and the game,
                              furs, and land for Indians
1890 numbers fell to a low
of about 250,000              became scarce.
   Smallpox
                        Disease was one of the leading
                        causes of population decline, for
                        the Indians had no immunity to
                        many diseases brought in by
                        settlers from Europe and slaves
                        from Africa. Some estimates are
                        as high as 95% of the population.


Malnutrition due to depletion of game and other food sources
was also a critical factor in the decline of population.

In addition, armed conflicts with whites and enemy Indians.

These various disturbances led also to generally inadequate
child care.
The period after European contact and before complete Euro-
American domination may be considered a “middle ground,” a
time when neither Native Americans nor Europeans were the
supreme rulers of a given territory and when the ties between
Indians and whites were stronger than their differences. The
1600s and 1700s.
                        Decline Timeline
• East Coast: The period of decline set in before 1700

• Great Plains: Stealing of the first horses from the Spanish
ranches in New Mexico about 1600. The decline did not come
until the buffalo were almost exterminated in the 1870s and
1880s.

• West Coast: The impact of the gold rush of 1849 was so
sudden that the period of prosperity failed to materialize at all
and that of decline began at once.
 Where do the                      The Treaty of
 Indians go?
                                   Easton, signed
 Forced Migration!                 between the Lenape
                                   and the English in
                                   1766, removed them
                                   westward, out of
                                   present-day New
                                   York and New Jersey
                                   and into Pennsylvania,
                                   then Ohio and
                                   beyond.


One rationale for these treaties
was that Indians were migratory
hunters who only followed the
game and had no attachment to
any particular lands.
                Indian Religious Beliefs
Life after death.

Ghosts, gods, and anthropomorphic spiritual personalities
with intelligence, emotions, and freedom of will to intervene
in human affairs.

All Indians further believed in a supernatural power,
shared by spiritual personalities, human beings, and the
entities of the natural world.

Their religiousness was an attempt to understand, enter
into relations with, appease, revere, and, if possible,
manipulate these sources of existence in order to promote
their own lives and the lives of their relatives.

                     The Vision Quest
       Shamanism
Shamanistic traditions have
existed throughout the world
since prehistoric times.


Every Native American
community had its medicine
men and women, shamans, or
priests. These were persons
who had especially close
contact with the supernatural
and who interceded on behalf
of others thought to have less
ability to communicate with
the spirits.
               Native American Prophet Movements
                 Contact with Christians proved traumatic
                 for Native American religions, as both
                 civil and religious authorities attempted
                 to repress native spirituality and force
                 conversion. Over the past three
                 centuries, this attempt has provoked the
                 rise of various native religious
                 movements.

The Longhouse Religion, also known as the Handsome Lake
cult, or Gai'wiio (Good Message in Seneca) is a religious
movement started by the Seneca Chief Handsome Lake
(Ganioda'yo). Founded in 1799, it is the oldest active
prophet movement in North America.
      Prophet Movements
• Mesoamerican Prophecies
• The Delaware Prophet
• The Shawnee Prophet
• Smohalla

….and WAVOKA and the Ghost Dance Cult. This leads to
the incident at Wounded Knee.

				
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