Minimum requirements for cars used on Official Business

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					                Matts Belin
                  Scientist
Department of Violence and Injury Prevention
             and Disability (VIP)
        World Health Organization
                      New policies and new legislations
                       Vision Zero           Chain of responsibility   Corporate manslaughter and corporate homicide
                                             legislation


Country                Sweden                Australia                 United Kingdom



When?                  1997                  2003                      2007


Who?                   System designers,     The transport industry    The organisations to which this section applies are—
                       First step the road   beyond drivers all        (a) a corporation;
                       authorities           parties with control      (b) a department or other body
                                             over the operations.
                                             These may include         (c) a police force
                                             primary producers,
                                             miners,
                                             manufacturers,
                                             retailers, importers,
                                             exporters and tourism
                                             operators.
What?                  Planning and design   Output focus              Outcome focus
                       focus                 Road law offences         (a) causes a person’s death, and
                       Everything that can                             (b) amounts to a gross breach of a relevant duty of care
                       prevent injuries                                owed by the organization to the deceased.

Focus on inspection    Inspection of         Inspections on the        When something has happened
                       organizations         road
                 Basic system model




                                   Outcome/
Definition                                       Outcome/
                                   Target
  of the              Output/                    Accidents
             Policy                groups,
 problem              Activities                  Injuries,
                                   Vehicle,
                                                 Fatalities
                                   Road
                                   environment
           Traditional Road Safety


• 90 % of all road traffic accidents are
  casued by the human factor
• Focus on behaviour modification
   Road                  Road
                                                                   Vehicle
environment              user



3                        57                                        2
    3                         57                                       2 12
        33                     19

              27                              6
                   27                             6
                     6                                6

                         3
                              37




                         1
                              1
                                  18


    34                                                                   12
                              93
                                       Evans 2004, (Rumar),Treat
                        Fatalities trend (1979=100)




                                                                100
                                                                      120




              0
                  20
                       40
                                          60
                                                           80
       1979
       1980
       1981
       1982
       1983
       1984
       1985
       1986
       1987
       1988
       1989
       1990
       1991
       1992
       1993




Year
       1994
       1995
       1996
       1997
       1998
       1999
       2000
                                                                            Trend of fatalities




       2001
       2002
       2003
       2004
       2005
       2006
       2007
                                                      UK


                                 Sweden
                                          Australia
               Diminishing returns??

70




60




50




40
                                                AUS
                                                GBR
                                                SWE
30




20




10




0
     1970   1980    1990   2000   2006   2007
Traditional road safety policy vs. Vision Zero

                Traditional road Vision Zero
                safety policy
Problem         Accidents           Injuries

Main cause      Human factor        Lack of
                                    appropriate
                                    system design and
                                    system operation
Main strategy   Behaviour           System design
                modification        and operation
Goal            Continuously risk   Eliminate all
                reduction           fatalities and
                                    serious injuries
   Road                    Road
                                                            Vehicle
environment                user



3                          57 19                            2
    33                                                          12
         33                     19                                12

              27                       6
                   6                        6
                       6                        6

                           3
                               7
                                   7




                           1
                               18
                                 18


     64                                                          43
                               38
                                       Stigson et al 2008
             Information




            Actors who "design"



            Physical environment

Education
                                   Inspection
                 Individual
                 road users



            Social environment




                Regulation
                             Percentage violating the speed limits
                        80




                        70



                        60




                        50
% violating the speed




                                                                                               Taxis
                                                                                               Trucks without trailer
                        40
                                                                                               Trucks with trailer
                                                                                               Bus drivers

                        30




                        20



                        10




                        0
                               50km/h   70km/h    80 km/h      90 km/h          110 km/h
                                                 Speed limit

                                                                     Data from Sweden, Swedish Road Administration

				
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