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Chapter 17 Section 1

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									Chapter 17 Section 1
   Mobilizing for Defense
      Selective Service & the GI
   GI: Government Issue stamped on
    everything
   5M Eager recruits wanted to be heroes
   Draft provides 10M more
   8 weeks basic training
   Bulk of armed forces were white males
    who were drafted/volunteered
        Expanding the Military
   Marshall (Army Chief of Staff General)
    pushed for WAAC/ WAC or Women’s
    Auxiliary Army Corp because of personnel
    shortages
   Official status & salary
   Nurses, ambulance drivers, radio
    operators, electricians, pilots
   No direct combat
        Expanding the Military
   (WAVES): Women Accepted for Volunteer
    Emergency Service in the Navy
   (WASPS): Women Air Force Service Pilots
     Recruiting & Discrimination
   Why die for democracy abroad when we
    don’t have it here
           Mexican Americans
   300,000 join armed forces
   Suffered 1/5 of LA’s city’s wartime
    casualties
   Fought in many crucial battles
   Most enlisted in Army
   Many participated in D-day
   Multilingual/good interpreters
            African Americans
   1 million served in military
   Segregated units & limited to non-combat
    roles
   Saw combat in April 1943
   92 Infantry Division or Buffalo Soldiers in
    bloody Italian campaign of 1943-1944
   Tuskegee Airmen
   Not allowed to join air force or marines
           African Americans
   Red Cross separated blood
   Men shortages toward end of war
    integrated Af. Am soldiers
               Asian Americans
   13000 Chinese joined armed forces
   33000 Japanese joined armed forces
       Spies & interpreters in the Pacific
       442nd Regimental Combat Team in Italy &
        France became most decorated unit in the
        war
       Internment camps in the United States
            Native Americans
   25000 enlisted including 800 women
   Navaho Code Talkers
   Denied right to vote in 3 states
          Industrial Response
   Auto plants convert to tanks, planes, boats
    and command cars
   Mechanical Pencil Plant makes bomb parts
   Bedspread co. made mosquito netting
   Kaiser and Liberty Ship (4 to 14 days)
   Coca-Cola 5 cents available to every
    soldier
          Labor’s Contribution
   18M workers working in defense plants
   6M were women
   Women did great job & earn 60% of men
   2M minority workers
   FDR passed nondiscrimination law in
    defense plants to keep Randolph & Af Am
    from marching on Washington
                 Hollywood
   War-oriented propaganda films
   U.S. movies make Soviets heroes
   Later produces escape films like musicals
    and romances
                 Scientists
   FDR in 1941 created OSRD or Office of
    Scientific Research & Development
    spurred improvements in radar, sonar,
    pesticides, penicillin
   Advisory Committee & Einstein give way
    to Manhattan Project & development of
    atom bomb
    Federal Government Control
   Little production of consumer products
    which meant big demand and possible
    price increases
   OPA or Office of Price Adm.: fought
    inflation by freezing prices on most goods
   Fed gov. raises taxes / less to spend
   Americans buy war bonds
    Federal Government Control
   WPB or War Production Board: who will
    make what, how many, by when & will get
    x amounts of material
   Nationwide drives to recycle
   Rationing or fixed allotment of goods
       Coupon books for meat, sugar, coffee & gas
       People do as asked for war effort
    Federal Government Control
   Secretary of State Stimson & cost plus
    system: Government paid all
    development & production costs on
    anything a company made for the war
   One-dollar a year men to decide on war
    contracts
   Deficit spending

								
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