Fordism and Mass Consumption Society IPE II Lecture 2 The French Regulation School The Response to 9/11? Lecture Outline • REGULATION THEORY • TAYLORISM • THE FORDIST FACTORY • NATIONAL FORDISM • INTERNATIONAL FORDISM Theoretical Antecedents • Neo-classical - ahistorical universalism of rational utility maximisers • Marxism - capitalism contradictory and crisis prone. But insensitivity to change and variety? • Institutionalism – there is no such thing as a self regulating market (Polanyi 1944). Markets need social and institutional foundations and mediations. Markets are historically and spatially situated. Guiding Problematic • Capitalism lacks ‘the capacity to convert the clash of individual interests into a coherent global system’ and, ‘is a force for change with no inherent regulatory principle’. (Aglietta 1998: 49, 62) • Why do societies founded on competition and conflict no lead to chaos? Conceptual Lens • Regime of accumulation - compatibility between accumulation and social progress (cohesion?) due to the implementation of evolving institutional architectures • Mode of Regulation - systems of mediation to temporarily ameliorate the conflicts, tensions, imbalances and contradictions capital accumulation unleashes and to translate accumulation into social and economic progress Taylorisation of the Labour process Frederick Taylor - Principles of Scientific Management (1911) Alienation • "This work [pig-iron handling] is so crude and elementary in its nature that the writer firmly believes that it would be possible to train an intelligent gorilla so as to become a more efficient pig-iron handler than any man could be.“ (Taylor 1911: 40) The Rise of Fordism The Model T Ford The Fordist Factory • Socialisation of actual work - Conveyor Belt 1913 • Socialisation of wage-nexus - $5 day • Socialisation of labour representation – Outlaw Trade Unions, Company feudalism • Socialisation of reproduction - Moral Fortification of Labour The Wage-Labour Nexus • Competitive, when workers' consumption is not inserted in capitalist production. • Taylorian, when the organisation of work enables mass production, without this profoundly modifying the life style of employees. • Fordist, which combines the development of consumption norms and production norms Institutionalisation of Reproduction 'The collective is deposited in each individual in the form of enduring dispositions such as mental structures' (Bourdieu, 1980: 29). - Sobriety - The New Priests? Company Social Worker ‘the new type of man demanded by the rationalisation of production and work cannot be developed until the sexual instinct has been suitably regulated and until it too has been rationalised’ (Gramsci 1971: 297) National Fordism and the New Deal 1933-38 • Generalised mass production economy, marginalisation of workshop production • Keynesian demand management. • Productivity-led collective bargaining, marginalisation of radical workers (function of anti-communism, Red scares) • Advertising culture, Prohibition (US 1920- 33, USSR 1914-25, Norway 1916-27) US Fordism • Public Works Administration • National Housing Act • National Labour Relations Act • Agricultural Adjustment Act • National Youth Administration • Social Security Act • National Recovery Act International Fordism • 1948 Marshall Plan or ‘Marshall Offensive’ (van der Pijl 1984) - Reconstruction of Europe - Keynesian Reflation - Re-making of European Social Relations in line with American priorities (e.g. anti- communism) European Fordism • Keynesian plumbing. Demand Management • Collective Bargaining • Welfare State • Redistributive Tax System • Unemployment and Pensions – guarantee capacity to consume The Crisis of Fordism • the slowdown in the growth of productivity and the efficiency of capital • the internationalization of production; • financial globalization; • increase in individualism and the associated erosion of solidarity; • and the erosion of the autonomy of nation-states After the ‘trente glorieuses’ Post Fordism or Global Fordism?