Mass Production and Mass Consumption

					 Fordism and Mass
Consumption Society
      IPE II Lecture 2
The French Regulation School
The Response to 9/11?
Lecture Outline

Theoretical Antecedents

• Neo-classical - ahistorical universalism of rational
  utility maximisers
• Marxism - capitalism contradictory and crisis
  prone. But insensitivity to change and variety?
• Institutionalism – there is no such thing as a self
  regulating market (Polanyi 1944). Markets need
  social and institutional foundations and
  mediations. Markets are historically and spatially
Guiding Problematic

• Capitalism lacks ‘the capacity to convert
  the clash of individual interests into a
  coherent global system’ and, ‘is a force for
  change with no inherent regulatory
  principle’. (Aglietta 1998: 49, 62)
• Why do societies founded on competition
  and conflict no lead to chaos?
Conceptual Lens
• Regime of accumulation - compatibility between
  accumulation and social progress (cohesion?)
 due to the implementation of evolving
  institutional architectures
• Mode of Regulation - systems of mediation to
  temporarily ameliorate the conflicts, tensions,
  imbalances and contradictions capital
  accumulation unleashes and to translate
  accumulation into social and economic progress
Taylorisation of the Labour process

  Frederick Taylor - Principles of Scientific Management (1911)

• "This work [pig-iron handling] is
so crude and elementary in its nature that
  the writer firmly believes that it would
be possible to train an intelligent gorilla so
  as to become a more efficient pig-iron
handler than any man could be.“
(Taylor 1911: 40)
The Rise of Fordism

The Model T Ford
The Fordist Factory

• Socialisation of actual work - Conveyor
  Belt 1913
• Socialisation of wage-nexus - $5 day
• Socialisation of labour representation –
  Outlaw Trade Unions, Company feudalism
• Socialisation of reproduction - Moral
  Fortification of Labour
The Wage-Labour Nexus

• Competitive, when workers' consumption is not
  inserted in capitalist production.
• Taylorian, when the organisation of work
  enables mass production, without this
  profoundly modifying the life style of employees.
• Fordist, which combines the development of
  consumption norms and production norms
Institutionalisation of Reproduction

'The collective is deposited in each individual in the form of
   enduring dispositions such as mental structures'
   (Bourdieu, 1980: 29).

- Sobriety
- The New Priests? Company Social Worker

‘the new type of man demanded by the rationalisation of
   production and work cannot be developed until the
   sexual instinct has been suitably regulated and until it
   too has been rationalised’ (Gramsci 1971: 297)
National Fordism and the New Deal
• Generalised mass production economy,
 marginalisation of workshop production
• Keynesian demand management.
• Productivity-led collective bargaining,
 marginalisation of radical workers
 (function of anti-communism, Red scares)
• Advertising culture, Prohibition (US 1920-
 33, USSR 1914-25, Norway 1916-27)
              US Fordism

• Public Works Administration
• National Housing Act
• National Labour Relations Act
• Agricultural Adjustment Act
• National Youth Administration
• Social Security Act
• National Recovery Act
International Fordism

• 1948 Marshall Plan or ‘Marshall Offensive’
    (van der Pijl 1984)
-   Reconstruction of Europe
-   Keynesian Reflation
-   Re-making of European Social Relations in
    line with American priorities (e.g. anti-
European Fordism

• Keynesian plumbing. Demand
• Collective Bargaining
• Welfare State
• Redistributive Tax System
• Unemployment and Pensions – guarantee
  capacity to consume
The Crisis of Fordism
• the slowdown in the growth of
  productivity and the efficiency of capital
• the internationalization of production;
• financial globalization;
• increase in individualism and the
  associated erosion of solidarity;
• and the erosion of the autonomy of
After the ‘trente glorieuses’

Post Fordism or
Global Fordism?