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Globalization and the “New Social Order” Revolution and the promotion of “Democracy” Guatemala 1944 1954 • Stopped by a U S lead coup • Population coerced into living under

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Globalization and the “New Social Order” Revolution and the promotion of “Democracy” Guatemala 1944 1954 • Stopped by a U S lead coup • Population coerced into living under Powered By Docstoc
					Globalization and the “New
      Social Order”
 Revolution and the promotion of
          “Democracy”
  Guatemala 1944-1954
• Stopped by a U.S. lead coup

• Population coerced into living under
  a wave of despotic regimes
      Nicaragua: 1979--
• Internal forces; mistakes, arrogance,
  inexperience, etc
• External forces: low-intensity war;
  surrogate army, destroying symbols
  of the revolution
U.S. foreign policy: authoritarian
   regimes and “democratic”
             regimes
 Globalization, the world system, and
„democracy promotion” in U.S. foreign
      policy” (Robinson, 1996)

 – within a process of transnationalism in the age of
   the global economy.
 – “coercive domination to consensual model of social
   control”
 – Massive expansion of international capital under
   U.S leadership
 – achieving order and security for U.S global
   interests”
                  Why?
• Under new conditions of global capitalism a
  new type of social order develops
• Authoritarian regimes are obstacles
  economic and information flows
• Generates new pressures and new actors for
  political change
“Social interaction and economic integration on
a world scale are obstructed by authoritarian or
dictatorial political arrangements” (635).
   institutional constrains on
effective opposition to the social
              order
  From authoritarianism to the
active promotion of „democracy”
• 1980s and 90‟s creation of new apparatus
  for implementing “democracy”
• Polyarchy:“refers to a system in which a
  small group actually rules and mass
  participation in decision-making is
  confined to leadership choice in elections
  carefully managed by competing elites”.
“The purpose of promoting polyarchy is to remove
dictatorship and to pre-empt more fundamental
change” (626).
       Gramscian Hegemony
• Coercive domination and consensual
  domination
• “Hegemony as a social relation binds
  together a “block” of diverse classes and
  groups under circumstances of
  consensual domination” (628).
    “Hegemony is not simply
 something that happens as a
mere superstuctural derivative
  of economic structures. ...it
happens through a multiplicity
 of “superstructural” agencies
        and instances”
„post-modern global culture
  and global consumption
pattern” Culture-ideology of
       consumerism
  “In short, by redefining the
economic terms of North-South
  relations, globalization also
redefined the political terms of
     these relations” (622)
How is the Sandinista regime (its
accomplishments and legacy) an
 obstacle to global capitalism?
http://marcus.whitman.edu/~bl
           oomqcm/
“This is another way of restoring
   the values of the past with
vengeance. (Ramirez Mercado in
  Adios Muchachos 1999: 44)
     Latin America is a slave
economy masquerading as post-
modern: it pays African wages, it
charges European prices, and the
 merchandise it produces most
    efficiently is injustice and
  violence (Galeano 1998: 29).
Creating the conditions for major
             changes
• Elimination of revolutionary gains as
  obstacles for industrial development
• Paving the way for profound changes
• This changes had a lot to do with global
  politics of neoliberalism: structural
  adjustment
        Structural adjustment
• Structural Adjustment Policies are
  economic policies which countries must
  follow in order to qualify for new World
  Bank and International Monetary Fund
  (IMF) loans and help them make debt
  repayments on the older debts owed to
  commercial banks, governments and the
  World Bank.
    SAPs generally require
   countries to devalue their
 currencies against the dollar;
     lift import and export
   restrictions; balance their
 budgets and not overspend;
and remove price controls and
         state subsidies.
          SAPs are aimed at:
• To restore economic stability through
  privatization,
• Restructuring of the banking system: credit
  restriction
• Restructuring of government institutions
  What does it mean for people?
• Higher prices for basic necessities:
  electricity and water
• Relaxation of labour codes: less control,
  less reinforcement
• Deterioration of families, human rights, etc
     Latin America is a slave
economy masquerading as post-
modern: it pays African wages, it
charges European prices, and the
 merchandise it produces most
    efficiently is injustice and
  violence (Galeano 1998: 29).
          Revolutionary gains
• Agrarian reform:
--land distribution
--accessibility to credit
--education
           Worker‟s rights

• Bargaining power strengthen
• Labor laws
• More workers organized
              Women‟s rights
•   Legal framework
•   Practical terms: maternity leave
•   Education
•   Creation of organizations
   Establishment of democratic
            institutions

• Creation of CSE
• Creation of national assembly
• First elections: 1984
                Healthcare

•   Universal medicare
•   Health brigades,
•   Health education
•   Rural access
                Healthcare

•   Universal medicare
•   Health brigades,
•   Health education
•   Rural access
                 Education

•   Public education
•   Literacy campaign
•   Continuing education
•   6% for universities
              National identity

•   Sense of independence
•   Sense of possibilities
•   Control of destiny
•   Flexibility in diplomatic relations
Impact of reversal of Sandinista‟s
              gains

 • Government control lifted:
 • Abundance of food but no one can afford it
 • From collective solidarity to ruthless
   individualism
     Reasons behind structural
           adjustments
• . USA interest in eliminating government
  obstacles to trade
• 2. -Promote reforms to political and military
  institutions to their liking
• 3. Encourage Central American economic
  and political integration under North
  American Dominance
      Economic consequences
• Agrarian reform dismantled
• Education; major changes
• Health care: privatize
• Women‟s rights: under threat
• National identity: becomes under the
  influence of USA policies
• Labor issues: situation as bad as in
  Somoza‟s time
                    ***
• Why put so much effort into erasing traces
  of the revolution and on transforming the
  urban landscape? Why spend so much
  money in erecting gleaming monuments
  after so many deaths?
                  Reasons
• The images, and symbols of the revolution
  contrary to the ideals of rampant capitalism
• Sandinistas still a threat to the “new social
  order”
• A new physical and ideological landscape
  needed to be constructed.
                     PPP

•   Plan Puebla Panama
•   64 million people
•   Eight countries
•   Infrastructure, development and jobs
•   Maquila assembly factories

				
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