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Creating Graphs by: Michelle Brezek ESSENTIAL QUESTION: What graph do I use to show different kinds of information? DESCRIPTION: Students perform different experiments, take data, and graph results. Then they print their graphs and write questions about the graphs they created. GRADE RANGE: 4th through 8th CONTENT AREAS: Math, Writing, Reading, and Technology OBJECTIVES Students will demonstrate application of reading strategies by using them to interpret graphs and charts. Students will demonstrate knowledge of different types of graphs by identifying them. Students will demonstrate comprehension and analysis of different graphs by choosing a graph to use to show different sets of data. Students will demonstrate application of Microsoft Excel Chart Wizard by using it to create graphs to represent data that they have collected. Students will demonstrate application of converting fractions, decimals, and percents by completing a graphic organizer to find the percent of each color of skittles in their bag. Students will demonstrate application of the writing process by using it to write, revise, and edit questions they write about the graphs they create. PREREQUSITES Depending on the graphs that are created, students need little or no knowledge. However, if they want to do the skittles graph, listed under procedures for days 3-5, students will have to have some knowledge of changing fractions to decimals to percents. Students will also need to be comfortable with long division with decimals. TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION Microsoft Excel Microsoft Word Microsoft Power Point gaggle.net Digital lockers ASSET Recipes and Snacks Websites: o http://math.rice.edu/~lanius/Algebra/hottub.html - A website where students view a line graph and answer questions, available in English and Spanish o http://www.tv411.org/lessons/cfm/reading.cfm?str=reading&num=10&act=1 - An interactive website on reading charts and graphs. This website asks students to interpret the charts and answer multiple-choice questions. The best part is that it gives students immediate feedback! o http://www.twingroves.district96.k12.il.us/ScienceInternet/ChartsGraphs.html This website gives information about the three main types of graphs. o http://nces.ed.gov/nces kids/graphing/ - A site students can use create a graph. All fields are left blank, students fill them in and then the site creates a graph for students to print. o www.weather.com - Use this site if you decide to create a line graph. Students can get temperatures for any city they choose. PROCEDURES Days 1-2: Introduction to Graphing Teacher introduces graphing. Teacher can use attached power point to review the different types of graphs that will be discussed. Students take notes on the parts of the graph in their math journals. Teacher can also have students independently use the tv411.org website to do a short pretest on graphing. Students should record their answers on a piece of paper so that after the unit is over, they can take the test again to see growth. Days 3-5: Creation of graph one – Pie Graph The first graph that the students will create is a pie graph. Teacher will need to supply students with snack size bags of skittles or M & M’s. Students use the attached worksheet(s) to create a pie graph based on the number of skittles or M & M’s that they have in their bag. Students will use the graphic organizer to record the number of skittles they have and go from fraction to decimal to percent. Once they have the percentages for each of the color of M & M, they will draw the pie graph on their worksheet. Finally, teacher will walk students through the steps of how to create the graph using Microsoft Excel. See teacher directions for using the Chart Wizard. (You can also find more information on how to create a chart in ASSET’s recipes and snacks.) Students should save their work in their digital lockers for later use. Days 4-5: Creation of graph two – Line Graph Next, students will create a line graph. Options for the information to represent on the line graph are as follows: 1. Heart rate as activity increases. Students would take their resting heart rate, then after a light warm up (easy jog), then after intense workout (sprint), at a cool down period (light jog) and after they stopped working out. You would need a heart rate monitor. You could check with the PE coach to see if they have one. 2. Temperature in various cities – This would be the easiest to get information on. Students would record a ten day forecast in their journal and then use that information to create a line graph. 3. Student enrollment – Teacher would need to ask administration about enrollment in the various months throughout the year. Whatever type of information you decide to graph, talk about how this information would not be represented well on a pie graph. Discuss the differences between the two graphs, that a line graph shows increase or decrease between two points that are connected on the line. A pie graph show the portion out of the whole. Just as before, students take the data down in their notebook and then use Excel and the chart wizard to create the line graph. You will need to review X and Y axis’s and decide on a proper label for them. Also a good title needs to be given to the graph. Students create it in Excel and then save it to gaggle net for later. Days 6-7: Creation of graph three – Bar Graph Finally, students will be creating a bar graph. Options for data that could be portrayed in this graph are as follows: 1. Student preferences on food, pets, school subjects, or games. This could also be made into a double bar graph by polling two different grade levels, and representing them with two different bars. 2. Scores on AR tests in a specific quarter. Students can get their data from their AR reports. 3. Population in 2000 for cities in the Phoenix Metro Area. Data listed at: http://www.public.asu.edu/~aarios/resourcebank/metro/page5.html Again, students use data from one of these sources, or any other idea you have. They take the data down in their journals and then use it with the chart wizard in Microsoft Excel to show the information graphically. Again, students will need to properly name the graph and X and Y-axis’s. By this point, students should be able to complete most of the activity on their own. Students should save their work in their digital lockers in gaggle.net. Days 8-14: Discussion of graphs and creation of worksheets Before students go on to the second part of the activity, teacher and students talk about the three kinds of graphs. Teacher reviews the graphs again using the power point and student notes if needed. The purpose of this part is for the teacher to give students a sample set of data and have students choose the type of graph that should be used, and justify their reason. Use the document “Which Graph?” with students. They should work in groups to fill it out, and the discuss afterwards. Answers are listed below. Data for Graph 1: Number of Runs for Chicago White Sox, 2005 Game Number Number of Runs 1 6 2 2 3 0 4 1 5 4 Which type of graph would best represent this information? Why? This information should be graphed on a bar graph because the number of runs happened exclusively in on game and is unrelated to the number of runs scored in other games. Data for Graph 2: Reaching my AR Goal with each new quiz Quiz Number % of AR Goal after each quiz 1 17 2 32 3 51 4 68 5 73 6 89 7 103 Which type of graph would best represent this information? Why? This information would be best represented with a line graph, showing how the percentage increases a certain amount based on each quiz that is taken. The points on the graph are connected because they rise depending on the score of the subsequent quiz. Data for Graph 3: Hometown of students enrolled in Mrs. Smith’s third hour class. Hometown Number of Students Phoenix 13 Mexico City 7 Chicago 3 Los Angeles 5 Tucson 4 Which type of graph would best represent this information? Why? This information should be portrayed on a pie graph because it is showing the number of certain subgroups (different hometowns) of a whole group (Mrs. Smith’s class). After the discussion of each type of graph, the students will be going into their digital lockers and finding the skittles pie graph. They should open it up and then copy and paste the chart into a Microsoft Word document. Then, teacher shows them how to make it into a worksheet where they put the name and date with lines at the top and write 3-5 questions about the graph. Students use the numbering button to number the questions. When I did this, I gave them brief directions about how to write questions. I wanted them to struggle with it for a while, plus another part of this lesson is revising and editing. I had students type their three questions, then print them out. After they had all printed their graph, I made them answer the questions. Many students found that they could not answer the questions based on the data that is given in their graph, so then they had to rewrite their questions. Students then had to go back to their worksheets and revise their questions. They printed again, and this time did a peer-edit, looking for proper conventions for each question. You will repeat this process for each of the graphs they have saved in their gaggle.net accounts: line graph and bar graph. In the end, students will have created worksheets for three graphs with questions for each. The best ones can be copied and students can use them for practice. MATERIALS Mobile Mini Lab with Internet connection Projector Teacher Laptop Skittles or M & M’s Student Journals Pencils Colored Pencils or Crayons Document Reader (optional) Documents (Included with Lesson) Skittles Graphic Organizer M & M’s Graphic Organizer Graphing Power Point Teacher Instructions – Chart Wizard Parts of a Graph Quiz Microsoft Excel Assessment Which Graph? ASSESSMENT: Day 15 To assess the understanding of the parts of the graph, teacher will use the attached “Parts of a Graph” quiz. To assess student understanding of the technology, teacher will give students sample data and they will have to use Microsoft Excel and Word to create a graph and paste it into a word document. They will print it and submit it for a grade. To assess the understanding of interpreting graphs, students can take the quiz at the tv411.org website, but they will need to record their results on a piece of paper. If they had pretested with this, they can compare scores to see if there was growth. DIFFERENTIATION-ABLILITY Students with lower ability levels could skip the conversion chart with the fractions, decimals and percents, or use a calculator to check their work. They could use graphing paper to do the division to help line up place values. Lower leveled students could work with a buddy for more support. Lower leveled students could write a minimal amount of questions, and work in a small group with the teacher. High students could create their own data to graph, rather than giving them ideas. High students could also be asked to only write higher order thinking questions. DIFFERENTIATION-LANGUAGE Students who are monolingual Spanish could create a graph and write their questions in Spanish. Teacher could pull a small group of monolingual students and give procedures in Spanish. Teacher could go through slower with monolingual students demonstrating again on the projector. STANDARDS S2.C1.PO3. Interpret graphical representations and data displays bar graphs, circle graphs, frequency tables…etc. S2.C1.PO1. Formulate questions to collect data in contextual situations. S2.C1.PO2. Construct a histogram, line graph, scatter plot, or stem and leaf plot with appropriate labels and taitle from organized data. S2.C1.PO3. Interpret simple displays of data including double bar graphs, tally charts, frequency tables, circle graphs, and line graphs. S2.C1.PO4. Answer questions based on simple displays of data including double bar graphs, tall charts, frequency tables, circle graphs, and line graphs. 3T-E2.PO2. Create and use a spreadsheet to analyze data. 3T-E1.PO2. Design a word processing document with graphical elements. S1.C3.PO3. Add details to the draft to more effectively accomplish the purpose. S1.C4.PO1. Identify punctuation, spelling, grammar, and usage errors in the draft.
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