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Simple Graphs


									                                 Creating Graphs
                                    by: Michelle Brezek

ESSENTIAL QUESTION: What graph do I use to show different kinds of information?

DESCRIPTION: Students perform different experiments, take data, and graph results. Then
they print their graphs and write questions about the graphs they created.

GRADE RANGE: 4th through 8th

CONTENT AREAS: Math, Writing, Reading, and Technology

   Students will demonstrate application of reading strategies by using them to interpret
    graphs and charts.
   Students will demonstrate knowledge of different types of graphs by identifying them.
   Students will demonstrate comprehension and analysis of different graphs by choosing
    a graph to use to show different sets of data.
   Students will demonstrate application of Microsoft Excel Chart Wizard by using it to
    create graphs to represent data that they have collected.
   Students will demonstrate application of converting fractions, decimals, and percents
    by completing a graphic organizer to find the percent of each color of skittles in their
   Students will demonstrate application of the writing process by using it to write,
    revise, and edit questions they write about the graphs they create.

Depending on the graphs that are created, students need little or no knowledge. However, if
they want to do the skittles graph, listed under procedures for days 3-5, students will have
to have some knowledge of changing fractions to decimals to percents. Students will also
need to be comfortable with long division with decimals.
   Microsoft Excel
   Microsoft Word
   Microsoft Power Point
   Digital lockers
   ASSET Recipes and Snacks
   Websites:
       o - A website where students
          view a line graph and answer questions, available in English and Spanish
       o - An
          interactive website on reading charts and graphs. This website asks students to
          interpret the charts and answer multiple-choice questions. The best part is that
          it gives students immediate feedback!
          This website gives information about the three main types of graphs.
       o kids/graphing/ - A site students can use create a graph.
          All fields are left blank, students fill them in and then the site creates a graph
          for students to print.
       o - Use this site if you decide to create a line graph. Students
          can get temperatures for any city they choose.

Days 1-2: Introduction to Graphing
      Teacher introduces graphing. Teacher can use attached power point to review the
different types of graphs that will be discussed. Students take notes on the parts of the
graph in their math journals. Teacher can also have students independently use the
website to do a short pretest on graphing. Students should record their answers on a piece
of paper so that after the unit is over, they can take the test again to see growth.

Days 3-5: Creation of graph one – Pie Graph
       The first graph that the students will create is a pie graph. Teacher will need to supply
students with snack size bags of skittles or M & M’s. Students use the attached
worksheet(s) to create a pie graph based on the number of skittles or M & M’s that they
have in their bag. Students will use the graphic organizer to record the number of skittles
they have and go from fraction to decimal to percent. Once they have the percentages for
each of the color of M & M, they will draw the pie graph on their worksheet. Finally, teacher
will walk students through the steps of how to create the graph using Microsoft Excel. See
teacher directions for using the Chart Wizard. (You can also find more information on how to
create a chart in ASSET’s recipes and snacks.) Students should save their work in their
digital lockers for later use.
Days 4-5: Creation of graph two – Line Graph
       Next, students will create a line graph. Options for the information to represent on
the line graph are as follows:
    1. Heart rate as activity increases. Students would take their resting heart rate, then
       after a light warm up (easy jog), then after intense workout (sprint), at a cool down
       period (light jog) and after they stopped working out. You would need a heart rate
       monitor. You could check with the PE coach to see if they have one.
    2. Temperature in various cities – This would be the easiest to get information on.
       Students would record a ten day forecast in their journal and then use that
       information to create a line graph.
    3. Student enrollment – Teacher would need to ask administration about enrollment in the
       various months throughout the year.
Whatever type of information you decide to graph, talk about how this information would not
be represented well on a pie graph. Discuss the differences between the two graphs, that a
line graph shows increase or decrease between two points that are connected on the line. A
pie graph show the portion out of the whole.
       Just as before, students take the data down in their notebook and then use Excel and
the chart wizard to create the line graph. You will need to review X and Y axis’s and decide on
a proper label for them. Also a good title needs to be given to the graph. Students create it
in Excel and then save it to gaggle net for later.

Days 6-7: Creation of graph three – Bar Graph
       Finally, students will be creating a bar graph. Options for data that could be portrayed
in this graph are as follows:
    1. Student preferences on food, pets, school subjects, or games. This could also be made
       into a double bar graph by polling two different grade levels, and representing them
       with two different bars.
    2. Scores on AR tests in a specific quarter. Students can get their data from their AR
    3. Population in 2000 for cities in the Phoenix Metro Area. Data listed at:
Again, students use data from one of these sources, or any other idea you have. They take
the data down in their journals and then use it with the chart wizard in Microsoft Excel to
show the information graphically. Again, students will need to properly name the graph and X
and Y-axis’s. By this point, students should be able to complete most of the activity on their
own. Students should save their work in their digital lockers in
Days 8-14: Discussion of graphs and creation of worksheets
       Before students go on to the second part of the activity, teacher and students talk
about the three kinds of graphs. Teacher reviews the graphs again using the power point and
student notes if needed. The purpose of this part is for the teacher to give students a
sample set of data and have students choose the type of graph that should be used, and
justify their reason. Use the document “Which Graph?” with students. They should work in
groups to fill it out, and the discuss afterwards. Answers are listed below.

Data for Graph 1:
Number of Runs for Chicago White Sox, 2005
   Game Number          Number of Runs
          1                     6
         2                      2
         3                      0
         4                      1
         5                      4
Which type of graph would best represent this information? Why?
This information should be graphed on a bar graph because the number of runs happened
exclusively in on game and is unrelated to the number of runs scored in other games.

Data for Graph 2:
Reaching my AR Goal with each new quiz
   Quiz Number        % of AR Goal after each quiz
         1                          17
         2                          32
         3                          51
         4                          68
         5                          73
         6                          89
         7                         103
Which type of graph would best represent this information? Why?
This information would be best represented with a line graph, showing how the percentage
increases a certain amount based on each quiz that is taken. The points on the graph are
connected because they rise depending on the score of the subsequent quiz.
Data for Graph 3:
Hometown of students enrolled in Mrs. Smith’s third hour class.
          Hometown               Number of Students
           Phoenix                         13
         Mexico City                        7
           Chicago                          3
         Los Angeles                        5
           Tucson                           4
Which type of graph would best represent this information? Why?
This information should be portrayed on a pie graph because it is showing the number of
certain subgroups (different hometowns) of a whole group (Mrs. Smith’s class).

       After the discussion of each type of graph, the students will be going into their digital
lockers and finding the skittles pie graph. They should open it up and then copy and paste the
chart into a Microsoft Word document. Then, teacher shows them how to make it into a
worksheet where they put the name and date with lines at the top and write 3-5 questions
about the graph. Students use the numbering button to number the questions.
       When I did this, I gave them brief directions about how to write questions. I wanted
them to struggle with it for a while, plus another part of this lesson is revising and editing. I
had students type their three questions, then print them out. After they had all printed
their graph, I made them answer the questions. Many students found that they could not
answer the questions based on the data that is given in their graph, so then they had to
rewrite their questions. Students then had to go back to their worksheets and revise their
questions. They printed again, and this time did a peer-edit, looking for proper conventions
for each question.
       You will repeat this process for each of the graphs they have saved in their
accounts: line graph and bar graph. In the end, students will have created worksheets for
three graphs with questions for each. The best ones can be copied and students can use them
for practice.
   Mobile Mini Lab with Internet connection
   Projector
   Teacher Laptop
   Skittles or M & M’s
   Student Journals
   Pencils
   Colored Pencils or Crayons
   Document Reader (optional)

Documents (Included with Lesson)
   Skittles Graphic Organizer
   M & M’s Graphic Organizer
   Graphing Power Point
   Teacher Instructions – Chart Wizard
   Parts of a Graph Quiz
   Microsoft Excel Assessment
   Which Graph?

             To assess the understanding of the parts of the graph, teacher will use the
attached “Parts of a Graph” quiz.
       To assess student understanding of the technology, teacher will give students sample
data and they will have to use Microsoft Excel and Word to create a graph and paste it into a
word document. They will print it and submit it for a grade.
       To assess the understanding of interpreting graphs, students can take the quiz at the website, but they will need to record their results on a piece of paper. If they had
pretested with this, they can compare scores to see if there was growth.

   Students with lower ability levels could skip the conversion chart with the fractions,
     decimals and percents, or use a calculator to check their work. They could use graphing
     paper to do the division to help line up place values.
   Lower leveled students could work with a buddy for more support.
   Lower leveled students could write a minimal amount of questions, and work in a small
     group with the teacher.
   High students could create their own data to graph, rather than giving them ideas.
   High students could also be asked to only write higher order thinking questions.
   Students who are monolingual Spanish could create a graph and write their questions in
   Teacher could pull a small group of monolingual students and give procedures in
   Teacher could go through slower with monolingual students demonstrating again on the

S2.C1.PO3. Interpret graphical representations and data displays bar graphs, circle graphs,
         frequency tables…etc.
S2.C1.PO1. Formulate questions to collect data in contextual situations.
S2.C1.PO2. Construct a histogram, line graph, scatter plot, or stem and leaf plot with
            appropriate labels and taitle from organized data.
S2.C1.PO3. Interpret simple displays of data including double bar graphs, tally charts,
            frequency tables, circle graphs, and line graphs.
S2.C1.PO4. Answer questions based on simple displays of data including double bar graphs,
            tall charts, frequency tables, circle graphs, and line graphs.
3T-E2.PO2. Create and use a spreadsheet to analyze data.
3T-E1.PO2. Design a word processing document with graphical elements.
S1.C3.PO3. Add details to the draft to more effectively accomplish the purpose.
S1.C4.PO1. Identify punctuation, spelling, grammar, and usage errors in the draft.

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