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					Porifera- sponges               Echinoderms- spiny
                                skinned, star fish

 Cnidarians- stinging celled

                                Invertebrate
Worms- flat, round, segmented   chordates- lancelets



mollusks

 Arthropods- insects,
 spiders, crustaceans,
 trilobites
Fishes- bony,
cartilage, jawless


amphibians

 reptiles


 birds


 mammals
Chelicerata-                          Uniramia-
spiders
                                      insects

               Phylum
               Arthropoda
               4 subphyla:
               Classified by the
  Trilobita-   number of body
               segments they have       Crustaceans
  extinct
               and the structure of
               their appendages
               Features common to all

Largest Phyla of animals
Most diverse
Segmented & fused
Jointed appendages
Exoskeleton of chitin
Nervous system: nerve cord, brain
Open circulatory system
Respiratory system: gills or tracheal tubes
Many have compound eyes
Trilobita
            Simplest
            Extinct
            60mya
            Many
            segments
            Several
            different
            species
            Found in
            many
            places
            including
            USA
                        Compound eye
                                      Subphyla Uniramia
3 body segments
Highly specialized
mouthparts
Malphigian tubes
Tympanic membrane
Spiracles for breathing                  Open circulatory
3 pair modified legs                     system

Protective adaptations:   Complex behaviors
chemical defense,         Communication with
mimicry, camouflage       pheromones
2 pair wings              Social insects form colonies with
Metamorphosis             divisions of labor (ants, bees,wasp,
                          termites
                                  Are these lips or a
                                  leaf?




                                                        Moth on tree trunk


Eyed-Hawk moth; looks like the
eyes of a hawk so other animals will   Camouflage; animals adapt to their
not want to eat him.                   environments or they get eaten.
More Camouflage
                                              For a moth & a
                                              butterfly, their
                                              larvae will
                                              metamorphosis
                     2 types of               into a cocoon.
                     metamorphosis


                            Complete: eggs, larva
                            (caterpillar, grub, maggot),
                            pupa, adult, ex. Butterflies,
                            moths, bees, flies

  Moth larva or
caterpillar, South          Incomplete: egg, nymph,
     Africa.                adult, ex. Cicadas &
                            grasshoppers
   Tiger Swallowtail
   Butterfly larva or
  caterpillar, showing
eyespots and somewhat
 humanlike face, USA.
Millipede from Blind Cave
Virginia                          Millipedes
  Have 2 legs / segment
  Eat plant material
  Have poison cyanide they squirt if threatened   Tropical millipede from
  Move slow                                       Ecuador, S America
  Live in the dirt
      Peru                           Texas


Centipedes               USA   Eat worms & insects
Have a more flattened          Have poisonous claws
body
                               Strong mandibles
Not harmful to people
                               15 – 175 legs
1 pair legs / segment
                               Move very quickly
Can be up to 12in long
Subphylum Crustacean   Lobster, crab, crayfish, shrimp,
                       barnacles, pill bug

 Most have closed      Most have 2 body regions:
 circulatory system    cephalthorax & abdomen
 except barnacles      Appendages: 2 pr antennae, 1 pr
                       mandible, 1 pr maxillae, 3 pr
                       maxillapeds, 4 pr walking legs,
                       telson
                       Compound eye on some
                       Digestive system complex, teeth
                       of chitin
                       Excretory system- green gland,
American Blue          on antennae, secretes salt,
Lobster                balances blood
Barnacles on intertidal         Bristly Cave Crayfish
rocks, North America          caves in the Missouri, USA
                                   Ozarks region.


                          Pill bug




          Rock crab
Subphylum Chelicerata   Spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites,
                        horseshoe crabs
                        No antennae
                        Simple eyes
                        Chelicerae- fangs
                        Malphigian tubes for waste
                        Book lungs- efficient
                        Arachnids- spiders
                        All have silk, not all build webs
                        Only a few scorpions are harmful to
                        people
                        Mites feed on dead skin cells of
                        humans
                               Sea urchin, sea star,
                               sand dollar, sea
Echinodermata- spiny skinned   cucumber
                               Endoskeleton
                               Radial symmetry
                               Water vascular
                               system- 1 opening,
                               moves by pumping
                               water in tube feet
                               (hollow arms)
  Sea cucumber, Hawaii         Reproduce sexually
Sea star tube feet




                     This is a real fossil of a
Starfish             sea star from 380mya in
regenerating 3 of    Germany
its tube feet
Sea urchin
                          1. Dorsal hollow nerve cord- forms brain in
                          most animals
All :
                          2. Notochord- firm flexible rod down back
4 properties all appear
                          3. Gill slits- most have been modified to
at some point in a        other forms like lungs
chordate’s life
                          4. Post anal tail
Invertebrate Chordates:   Lancelets & tunicates
                          AKA Sea squirts
Vertebrate chordates: fish, amphibians, reptiles,
birds, mammals
Fish:
1. Agnatha- jawless; lamprey & hagfish
2. Chondricthyes- cartilage; shark, skates,
   rays
3. Osteicthyes- bony; catfish, salmon, etc




                                             Leafy Sea dragon,
                                             Australia
Fish:
(Most)Overlapping scales
Aerodynamic shape
(Most) swim bladder
Gills to breath
Reproduction- sexual (sharks
are internal) (salmon & many
others are external)
Single loop circulatory system
Kidneys
Exothermic- “cold blooded”
  Class Agnatha: Jawless; Lamprey & Hagfish




                                          Hagfish
Lamprey
Class Chondrythes: cartilage fish; sharks, rays, skates


Skeleton
almost 100%
cartilage
Teeth are a
hard calcified
cartilage
Amphibians: frogs, toads,
salamanders, newts,
caecilians

                Salamander
                external gills




                   Tree frog,
                   Oregon, leg
newt
                   problems
Amphibians:
3 orders: 1. Anura = frog
          2. Urodela = salamanders
          3. Apoda = caecilians
Most have aquatic larvae
Well adapted to land
Nervous system = brain, spinal cord,
nerves
Good eyesight (land & water) =
nictitating to protect eye
                                       Tomato
Digestive system = like ours except    frog
with cloacae (common chamber)
near anus
Tympanic membrane =
outside body for hearing
Respiration = through
skin; gills on most larvae;
most adults have lungs
Double-looped
circulatory system & 3
chambered heart
Kidneys
                   Life stages:
                   1. Male fertilizes eggs as
 1                 they’re laid
                   2. Hatch ~ 6 days, turns
 2                 into tadpole (eats algae)
                   3. Internal gills form, legs
                   emerge, tail absorbed
                   4. Adulthood- frog can
                   leave water, breath air,
                   fed by predation

2. Early embryo,
tail bud
          Early tadpole        6.




     3.                             7.




 4.

                          8.


5.
Birds


Anything with feathers
Similar features to
reptiles: claws,
amniotic egg, scales
fertilization internally
Preening: keep oil on
feathers & in good
condition
Molting: shed old
feathers & replace         Male Great
                           Frigatebird
Sternum= breast bone,
allows for muscles to
attach for strong thrusts
Adaptations to flight:
1. Females have 1 ovary       Roadrunner
2. Hollow bones
3. Wings
4. Air sacs
5. Hollow feathers
6. Water proof
2 types: ratite (flghtless)
Carinate (flying)
                Scarlet Ibis   Flight takes lots of
                                  energy:
                               1. Endothermic
                               2. Eat lots of food
                               3. 4 chambered heart
                               4. Pant to increase
Saddlebilled Stork                respiratory heat
                               5. Can live in all
                                  environments




                                         Vulture
Mammals


 Origin of mammals:
 Appeared 220mya while
 dinosaurs were here
 Early mammals ate
 insects, had large eye
 sockets, active at night
 Changed little for 50
 million years (during
 dinosaurs)
Characteristics of mammals:
*****Hair
*****Mammary glands
4 chambered heart
endothermic
           3 types:
           1. Monotremes- egg laying
Squirrel
monkey     2. Marsupials- pouched
           3. Placental- placenta




           Snowshoe
           Hare
Monotremes: egg laying
2 examples (possibly on 7 total)
1. Echidna = spiny anteater
2. Platypus
Have reptilian characteristics:
      shelled amniotic egg
      pelvis similar to early reptiles
      single opening for reproduction, feces,
      urine
fur
Mammary glands
Drink milk from mother’s fur
Monotremes continued………
Platypus= good swimmers, eats insects
Echidnas = strong claws, eat insects
Marsupials:
Pouched
Examples: kangaroo, opossum, koala,
tasmanian devil, horned marsupial tree frog
Fertilized egg surrounded by shell membrane
Nourished by yolk
Right before birth, membrane goes away &
placenta forms
Born very early in development
Crawls to pouch, continues to develop &
drink milk
Evolved 100 million years before placental
mammals
Most live in New Guinea & Australia
Placental mammals:
Placenta nourishes embryo
entire development
Most mammals are placental
Very diverse
All continents
Live in sea, air, land
More than 4000 species



     Cow giving
     birth….look at
     the placenta!
Baboon




         Adaptations:
         Hair                              Civet
         Hooves, claws, horns, antlers
         Feeding characteristics
         Flying




                                         Aardvark
Keratin in claws, hooves,
antlers
Antlers shed annually
Horns not shed like antlers,
a part of the skull, but they
can fall off or be knocked
off
Mammals with horns: sheep,
goats, cattle, antelope
Purpose: attract females &
protection
Feeding:
1. Herbivores- eat plants, flat
   teeth
2. Carnivores- eat meat, sharp
   teeth
3. Omnivores- eat all, combo
Can tell the diet by their teeth
Cannot digest cellulose
(plant protein) so………
Mutualistic relationship
with bacteria & protists to
break down the protein
Some have 4 chambered
stomach to serve as            Buffalo
fermentation vats (cow,
goat, deer, buffalo)
                               Plant material not as
1stholds bacteria &            nutritious as meat, so
protists, partially digested   they must eat a lot more
food, food gets                of it then carnivours
regurgetated and chewed        have to eat of meat
again several times until
digestible                     Ex. Elephants eat 300-
                               400 lbs/day
That is “cud”
Bats = only flying mammals
Most active at dusk
Eat amphibians, insects, fish,
nectar, fruits, flowers
                                 Fruit bats
Vampire bats- come out at
night, eat insects
Navigation = emit extremely
high pitched sounds
Sound waves bounce off
objects around them
This allows them to collect
food
                                 Vampire bats
The End.

				
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