Sorani vocabulary by abstraks

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									                             Sorani Kurdish Vocabulary

Circumflexed vowels follow uncircumflexed vowels in alphabetization. The furtive i
is indicated by italicization, e.g. bâwik ‘father’ but bâwkî ‘his father.’
   Abbreviations: adj. = adjective; cond. = conditional; demon. = demonstrative;
imprs. = impersonal (verb is always in the 3rd person singular); impt. = imperative;
pl. = plural; pron. = pronoun; sing. = singular; subj. = subjunctive; pres. = present;
v.i. = verb intransitive; v.p. = verb passive; v.t. = verb transitive (transitive implies
that the past tense is formed on the ergative model, not that the verb necessarily
takes a direct object either in Kurdish or in English).
   Generally, compound verbs are listed under the nonverbal element of the com-
pound; compounds with frequently-occurring elements like dâ-, hał-, and pe- are
listed under the verb.
                                                 *
a- ‫ ﺋــــــﻪ‬habitual verbal prefix (Sulaymani          the city; ~ i engaged in, practicing:
   dialect); see da-                                  ahl i îmân religious, ahl i kher chari-
-à ‫ ـﻪ‬directional suffix on verbs: chûmà               table, ahl i kayf hedonistic; ~ la…dâ
   shâr I went to town                                worthy of: fiłân la rafâqat’dâ zor ahl
adab ‫ ﺋــــﻪدﻩب‬literature, culture; ~î ‫ﺋــــﻪدﻩﰉ‬      a So-and-So is quite worthy of friend-
   literary; ~iyât ‫ ﺋـﻪدﻩ ــﺎت‬literature; ~par-
                          ‫ﺑﻴ‬                          ship
   war ‫ ﺋـﻪدﻩ ــﻪروﻩر‬patron of literature; be~ Aḥmad ‫ ﺋــــــﻪﲪــــــﻪد‬Ahmad, masc. proper
                 ‫ﺑﭙ‬
   ‫ /ﺋــــﻪدﻩب‬impolite; be~î ‫ /ﺋــــﻪدﻩﰉ‬impo-         name
   liteness                                        aḥrâr ‫ ﺋﻪﺣﺮار‬liberals
adîb ‫ ﺋـــــﻪدﯾـــــﺐ‬litérateur, literary person, ajzâkhâna ‫ﺎﻧﻪ‬L‫ ﺋﻪﺟﺰا‬pharmacy
   man of letters                                  -aká ‫ ـﻪﮐـــــﻪ‬sing. definite suffix: pyâwaká
afandî ‫ ﺋــﻪﻓــﻪﻧــﺪی‬gentleman, anyone who            the man
   wears western clothes                           -akân ‫ ـﻪﰷن‬pl. definite suffix: pyâwakân
                    ‫ــ‬
Afrâsiyâb ‫ ﺋـﻪﻓـﺮاﺳ8ﻴـﺎب‬Afrasiab, legendary           the men
   king of Turan                                   akhlâq ‫ ـﻼق‬L‫ ﺋ ـﻪ‬morals, ethics; ~î ‫ ـﻼﰵ‬L‫ﺋ ـﻪ‬
Afrîqâ ‫ ,ﺋﻪﻓﺮﯾﻘﺎ‬Afrîqyâ ‫ ﺋﻪﻓﺮﯾﻘ;ﺎ‬Africa               moral, ethical
afsar ‫ ﺋﻪﻓﺴﻪر‬officer                                Ałamânî ‫ﻪﻣﺎﱏ‬T‫ ﺋﻪ‬German
afsâna ‫ ﺋـﻪﻓـﺴـﺎﻧـﻪ‬tale, legend; ~î ‫ ﺋـﻪﻓـﺴـﺎﻧـﻪﰃ‬al’ân ‫ ﺋﻪﻵن‬now
   legendary                                       alîktronî ‫ ﺋﻪﻟﻴﮑﱰۆﱏ‬electronic
afsos ‫ ﺋﻪﻓﺴﯚس‬alas, alack                           am …á ‫ ﺋﻪم...ـﻪ‬this (demon. adj.)
afsûn-kirdin ‫ـﺮدن‬B ‫ ﺋـﻪﻓـﺴـﻮون‬v.t. to charm: ama ‫ ﺋﻪﻣﻪ‬this (demon. pron.)
   mâr afsûn dakât he charms snakes                amag ‫ ﺋـﻪﻣـﻪگ‬goodness; ba~ ‫ ﺑـﻪﺋـﻪﻣـﻪگ‬faith-
agar ‫ ﺋـﻪﮔـﻪر‬if; ~chî ‫ ﺋـﻪﮔـﻪرﭼـﯽ‬even though,         ful; ba~î ‫ ﺑـﻪﺋـﻪﻣـﻪﮔـﯽ‬fidelity; be~ ‫/ﺋـﻪﻣـﻪگ‬
   even if                                            unfaithful, faithless
agînâ ‫ ﺋﻪﮔﻴﻨﺎ‬if not, otherwise                     amak ‫ = ﺋﻪﻣﻪک‬amag
ahâlî ‫ ﺋــﻪﻫــﺎﱃ‬inhabitants, civilian popula- amal ‫( ﺋـــﻪﻣـــﻪل‬also ‫ )`ـــﻪﻣـــﻪل‬operation; ~-
   tion                                               kirdin v.t. to have an operation
ahl ‫ ﺋـﻪﻫـﻞ‬inhabitant, resident: kâwrâ ahl i amarîk|â ‫ ـﲀ‬a‫ ﺋ ـﻪﻣ ـﻪر‬America; ~î ‫ ـﮑ ـﯽ‬a‫ﺋ ـﻪﻣ ـﻪر‬
   shâr a the gentleman is a resident of              American
                                              163
                                            SORANI KURDISH
amatâ c‫ ﺋﻪﻣﻪ‬here is, voici                                       only: arzim kird I said); to petition:
amâna ‫ ﺋﻪﻣﺎﻧﻪ‬these (demon. pron.)                                arzî ba pâshâ kird la shitèk he
amârat ‫ ﺋـﻪﻣـﺎرﻩت‬emirate, principality; ~ a                      petitioned the king for something
  darabagakân feudal principalities                           arz2 ‫ ﺋﻪرز‬earth, land
amjâ ‫ ﺋﻪﳎﺎ‬now, at this time                                   Arzařom ‫ ﺋﻪرزﻩڕۆم‬Erzerum
amn ‫ ﺋـﻪﻣـﻦ‬security; ~î ‫ ﺋـﻪﻣـﲎ‬pertaining to                  arzîng ‫ ﺋﻪرزﯾﻨﮓ‬chin, dimple in the chin
  security                                                    ashîrat ‫ ﺋﻪﺷﲑﻩت‬tribe
amřo ‫ۆ‬g‫ ﺋﻪﻣ‬today                                              ashkanja ‫ ﺋـﻪﺷـﮑـﻪﳒـﻪ‬torture; ~-dân v.t. to
amshaw ‫ ﺋﻪﻣﺸﻪو‬tonight                                            torture; ~-dirân v.p. to be tortured
amust ‫ ﺋـﻪﻣـﻮﺳـﺖ‬finger; ~aweła ‫ﺋـﻪﻣـﻮ ـــﻪو ــﻪ‬ kl ‫ﺳ8ﺘ‬         ashkawt ‫ = ﺋﻪﺷﮑﻪوت‬shikaft
  ring; ~basta ‫ـــﻪﺳـــ8ـــﺘـــﻪ‬m‫ـــ‬n‫ ﺋـــﻪﻣـــﻮﺳـــ‬fooled,   ashq ‫ ﺋﻪﺷﻖ‬love
  tricked                                                     ashrâf ‫ ﺋـــــﻪﴍاف‬dignitaries, eminent per-
andâm ‫ ﺋـﻪﻧـﺪام‬member; ~î ‫ ﺋـﻪﻧـﺪاﻣـﯽ‬member-                     sons
  ship                                                        asht ‫ ﺋﻪﺷﺖ‬wage
andâza ‫ ﺋـﻪﻧـﺪازﻩ‬measurement; be~ ‫/ﺋـﻪﻧـﺪازﻩ‬                  asîr ‫ ﺋﻪﺳﲑ‬prisoner
  untold, limitless                                           aslaḥa ‫„ ـﻪ‬ƒ‫ ﺋ ـﻪﺳ ـ‬weapons, arms: ba asla-
andâzyâr ‫ر‬p‫ ﺋﻪﻧﺪاز‬engineer                                       ḥawa armed
anfâl ‫ ﺋـــﻪﻧـــﻔـــﺎل‬the Iraqi campaign against              asp ‫ ﺋﻪﺳﭗ‬horse
  the Kurds in 1988                                           aspanâgh ‫ ﺋﻪﺳ8ﭙﻪ‡غ‬spinach
ango ‫ﮕﯚ‬s‫ ﺋﻪ‬you                                                aspârdin ‫ = ﺋﻪﺳ8ﭙﺎردن‬spârdin
angus(t)‫ﮕﻮس‬s‫ﮕﻮﺳﺖ، ﺋﻪ‬s‫ = ﺋﻪ‬amust                               aspâyî ‫ ﺋﻪﺳ8ﭙﺎﱙ‬stealth; ba ~ stealthily
angûs ‫ﮕﻮوس‬s‫ = ﺋﻪ‬amust                                         aspe ‰Š‫ ﺋﻪﺳ8ﭙ‬louse, mite
anjâm ‫ ﺋ ـﻪﳒ ـﺎم‬end, result; ~-dân ‫ﺋ ـﻪﳒ ـﺎم دان‬              asrîn ‫ﻦ‬a‫ ﺋﻪﴎ‬tear
  v.t. to accomplish, to do; la ~’dâ v                        Astamûl ‫ ﺋﻪﺳ8ﺘﻪﻣﻮول‬Istanbul
  ‫ ﺋـــﻪﳒـــﺎﻣـــﺪا‬in the end; la ~ i … awa as a              aster ‫ﺮ‬Œ‫ ﺋﻪﺳ8ﺘ‬pool
  result of; be~ ‫ /ﺋــــﻪﳒــــﺎم‬ineffective, in-              astera ‫ﺮﻩ‬Œ‫ ﺋﻪﺳ8ﺘ‬star
  consequential                                               asterok ‫ﺮۆک‬Œ‫ ﺋﻪﺳ8ﺘ‬firefly
anjuman ‫ ﺋﻪﳒﻮﻣﻪن‬council, board                                asto ‫ ﺋ ـﻪﺳ ـ8 ـﺘ ـﯚ‬neck, thick part of the neck;
‘antar ‫ ` ـﻪﻧ ـﺘ ـﻪر‬monkey; wak ‘antar i Lotî                    girtinà ~ v.t. to assume the burden of
  Sâlih like Loti Salih’s monkey, “like                       astûr ‫ ﺋﻪﺳ8ﺘﻮور‬thick
  an organ grinder’s monkey,” an ob-                          atom ‫ ﺋـــــﻪﺗـــــﯚم‬atom: hez i ~ power of the
  ject of pity and ridicule                                      atom; ~î atomic
‘aql ‫ `ﻪﻗﻞ‬mind, intelligence                                  atrash ‫ــــــﺮﻩش‬Ž‫ ﺋــــــﻪ‬gall: atrashyân chûbû
‘ard ‫ = `ﻪرد‬arz2                                                 they had lost their gall
are ‫ ﺋﻪرێ‬yes                                                  avîndâr ‫ ﺋﻪﭬ;ﻨﺪار‬lover
ark (1) ‫ ﺋــــــﻪرک‬duty, responsibility: ark i                aw ‫ ﺋـــــﻪو‬he, she, it (3rd-person sing. pro-
  sar shânima khizmat bikam it’s my                              noun); that (sing. demon. pron.); ~
  duty to serve; (2) trouble, labor: hen-                        …á that, those (demon. adj.): aw
  dim ark dâwa nabetawa I’ve caused                              shitá that thing, aw shitâná those
  unprecedented trouble                                          things
‘arsh ‫ `ﻪرش‬throne                                             awá ‫ ﺋــــــــﻪوﻩ‬that (demon. pron.); bo ~î in
arshîv ‫ ﺋـﻪرﺷـــﭫ‬archive; ~î ‫ ﺋـﻪرﺷــــﯽ‬archiv-
              ‫8ﻴ‬                         ‫8ﻴﭭ‬                     order that; ~ khwâya God willing
  al                                                          awa ‫( ﺋــــــــــﻪوﻩ‬with present verb indicates
arz1 ‫ ﺋـــــــــﻪرز‬petition; ~-kirdin v.t. to say                progressive): min awa la birsâ da-
  (self-deprecating, of the 1st person                           mirim I’m dying of hunger
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                         SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
-awa ‫( ـﻪوﻩ‬postposition, with preposition                ~chûn ‫ووﭼﻮون‬g–‫ ﺋﺎ‬indignity
   la; contracts to -wa after vowels)                 âbuhawâ ‫ ﺋﺎﺑﻮﻫﻪوا‬climate
   from                                               âbunmân ‫ ﺋﺎﺑﻮﳕﺎن‬subscription
awal ‫ ﺋﻪوﻩل‬first                                       âborî ‫ ﺋﺎﺑﯚری‬economy, economic
awanda ‫ ﺋـــﻪوﻩﻧـــﺪﻩ‬so much, thus; ~ i tir so        âdamî ‫ ﺋــــﺎدﻩﻣــــﯽ‬human being; ~zâ(d) hu-
   much the more; dû ~ twice as much:                    man being
   min dû awanda’t dadamè I’ll give                   âday ‫ ﺋﺎدﻩی‬now then
   you twice as much                                  âfarîn ‫ـــﻦ‬a‫ ﺋـــﺎﻓـــﻪر‬bravo; ~-kirdin la v.t. to
awatâ c‫ ﺋﻪوﻩ‬there is, voilà                              applaud
awâ ‫ ﺋـﻪوا‬then; ~ hât u ‫ ﺋـﻪوا ﻫـﺎت و‬suppose:         âfâq ‫ ﺋﺎﻓﺎق‬horizons
   awâ hât u kurdèk habû suppose there                âfrat ‫ ﺋﺎﻓﺮﻩت‬woman
   was a Kurd who …                                   âgâ ‫ ﺋــــ˜ﮔــــﺎ‬aware: ~t l’ aw kârá haya? are
awân ‫ ﺋﻪوان‬they; ~a ‫ ﺋﻪواﻧﻪ‬those                         you aware of that?; (2) awake: khaw-
‘awdâl ‫ `ﻪودال‬wandering                                  tûa yân ~ya? is he asleep or awake?;
awe ‫ ﺋــــــــﻪوێ‬there; l’ ~ ‫وێ‬v there, in that          ~-bûn la v.i. to be aware of; ~-kirdin
   place; l’ ~wa ‫ــــــﻮﻩ‬l‫و‬v from there, from            v.t. to inform; ~dâr ‫ ﺋـ˜ﮔـﺎدار‬la aware of,
   that place                                            careful of; ~dârî ‫ ﺋـــ˜ﮔـــﺎداری‬awareness,
awîn ‫ــﻦ‬a‫ ﺋــﻪو‬love; ~dâr ‫ ﺋــﻪوﯾــﻨــﺪار‬lover, in       care, attention, information
   love                                               âgir ‫ ﺋ˜ﮔﺮ‬fire; ~dân ‫ ﺋ˜ﮔﺮدان‬fireplace
awjâ ‫ ﺋﻪو•ﺎ‬then, subsequently                         âghâ ‫ ﺋﺎ™ﺎ‬agha, title of feudal lord
Awrupâ ‫ ﺋـﻪوروﭘـﺎ‬Europe; ~î ‫ ﺋـﻪوروﭘـﺎﱙ‬Euro-          âhang ‫ـــﮓ‬s‫ ﺋـــﺎﻫـــﻪ‬entertainment, party; ~-
   pean                                                  geřân to hold a party, give an enter-
awsâ ‫ ﺋﻪوﺳﺎ‬then, at that time                            tainment
awto ‫ ﺋﻪوﺗﯚ‬so much, such a                            âîn ‫ ﺋﺎﺋﲔ‬religion; ~î ‫ ﺋﺎﺋ›ﲎ‬religious
ay ‫ ﺋـﻪی‬O (vocative particle); oh; now: ay            âkâm ‫ ﺋــــــــ˜ﰷم‬end, result: la ~’(d)â in the
   kay det? who’s coming now?                            end, finally
ayâr ‫ر‬p‫ ﺋﻪ‬May                                         âkâr ‫ ﺋ˜ﰷر‬conduct, morals
‘aybat ‫ `ﻪﯾﺒﻪت‬fear, terror                            âkh ‫ ﺋـــــــــــﺎخ‬earth, grave; exclamation of
aylûl ‫ ﺋﻪﯾﻠﻮول‬September                                  pleasure
‘aynak ‫ `ﻪﯾﻨﻪک‬eyeglasses                              âkhâwtin ‫ــﻦ‬Ž‫ــﺎو‬L‫ ﺋــﺎ‬conversational, collo-
azhdîhâ ‫ ﺋﻪژدﳞﺎ‬dragon, serpent                           quial
azhîhâ ‫ = ﺋﻪژﳞﺎ‬azhdîha                                âkhir ‫ ﺋـﺎﺧـﺮ‬end; (exclamation) well now!,
            ‫ﻧ‬                            ‫ﻧ‬
azhno ‫ ﺋـﻪژـﯚ‬knee; dastaw-~ ‫دﻩﺳــﺘـﻪو ﺋـﻪژـﯚ‬   8         after all!; ~ u okhir ‫ ﺋـــﺎﺧـــﺮوﺋـــﻮﺧـــﺮ‬latter
   grieving, mourning                                    part, near the end: la ~ i pâyiz dâ
azîz ‫ــﺰ‬a‫ `ــﻪز‬dear; ~-kirdin v.t. to pamper;            toward the end of autumn; ~amîn
   ~-kiran v.p. to be spoiled; ~kirâw                    ‫ ﺋـﺎﺧـﺮﻩﻣـﲔ‬last: awa ~ jâr be pet biłem let
   ‫ﺮاو‬B‫ﺰ‬a‫ `ﻪز‬pampered, spoiled                           this be the last time I tell you; ~î
-â ‫( ا‬contracted form of the postposition                ‫ ﺋﺎﺧﺮی‬final, last
   ’dâ, q.v.)                                         âkhnîn ‫ ـﲔ‬ž‫ ﺋ ـﺎﺧ ـ‬v.t. to stuff; hał-~ to stuff
âb ‫ ﺋﺎب‬August                                            full, cram full
âbłoqa ‫ﯚﻗﻪ‬k‫ ﺋﺎﺑ‬siege; ~-dân v.t. to besiege           âkho ‫ ﺋﺎﺧﯚ‬ah, exclamation of pleasure
âbřû ‫وو‬g‫ ﺋــــﺎ–ــــ‬honor, modesty, shame; ~-         âl ‫ ﺋﺎل‬red, flushed
   birdin v.t. to dishonor, shame; ~-                 âłâ Ÿ‫ ﺋﺎ‬pen; flag, banner
   tikândin v.t. to dishonor; ~bar                    âłân ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ ﺋـــــﺎ‬âłe- ‰‫ـــــ‬T‫ ﺋـــــﺎ‬v.i. to be twisted,
   ‫ووﺑـــــﻪر‬g‫ ﺋـــــﺎ–ـــــ‬shameful, dishonorable;      wrapped
                                                  165
                                         SORANI KURDISH
âłândin ‫ﻧـــﺪن‬Ÿ‫ ﺋـــﺎ‬âłên- ‫ـــﻦ‬Œ‫ـــ‬T‫ ﺋـــﺎ‬v.t. to twist   ârân ‫ ﺋﺎران‬winter quarters
   (trs.)                                                 ârâsta ‫ ﺋـﺎراﺳـ8ـﺘـﻪ‬direction; ~-kirdin v.t. to
âlât ‫ ﺋﺎﻻت‬tools, implements                                  direct: bînarân datwânin pirsyâra-
âlik ‫ ,ﺋﺎ¢ﮏ‬âlîk ‫ ﺋﺎﻟﻴﮏ‬forage, fodder                         kânyân ârâsta i mewân i barnâmaká
Âlmân ‫ ﺋﺎﳌﺎن‬Germany                                          bikan viewers can direct their ques-
âłosh ‫ﯚش‬T‫ ﺋﺎ‬itch                                             tions at the guest of the program;
        ‫ﻘ‬T                                    ‫ﻘ‬T
âłqa ‫ ﺋـﺎ ــﻪ‬ring, knocker; ~rez ‫ ﺋـﺎ ــﻪر¤ـﺰ‬ditto;          ~kar ‫ ﺋﺎراﺳ8ﺘﻪﮐﻪر‬steering, guiding
   ~rez i dargâ kutân v.t. to knock at a                  ârd ‫ ﺋﺎرد‬flour; ~amshâr ‫ ﺋﺎردﻩﻣﺸﺎر‬sawdust
   door                                                   ârkolozhiyâ p‫ ﺋﺎرﮐﯚﻟﯚژ‬archaeology
âłtûn ‫ﺘﻮون‬T‫ ﺋﺎ‬gold                                        ârû ‫ ﺋﺎروو‬cucumber
âługoř ‫ـــﻮﮔـــﯚڕ‬T‫ ﺋـــﺎ‬change; ~-kirdin v.t. to          âs ‫ ﺋﺎس‬ace (cards)
   change, to alter                                       âsawâr ‫ ﺋﺎﺳﻪوار‬remains
âłû ‫ﻮو‬T‫ ﺋﺎ‬tonsils                                         âsâ ‫( ﺋـﺎﺳـﺎ‬postposition) like: min’îsh khot
âmâda ‫ ﺋـﺎﻣـﺎدﻩ‬ready; ~-kirdin v.t. to make                  âsâ am kârá’m kird I, like you, did
   ready, prepare                                            this; ~î normal, usual
âmânat ‫ ﺋــﺎﻣــﺎﻧــﻪت‬trust, safekeeping; ba ~             âsân ‫ ﺋــﺎﺳــﺎن‬easy; ~-kirdin v.t. to simpli-
   dânà dast i … v.t. to give into the                       fy; ~î ease: ba âsânî with ease, easily
   safekeeping of; ba ~ spârdin ba …                      âsâyish ‫ ﺋﺎﺳﺎ§ﺶ‬peace, security
   v.t. to entrust to                                     âsh ‫ ﺋـﺎش‬mill; ~awân ‫ ﺋـﺎﺷـﻪوان‬miller; ~geř
âmânj ‫ ﺋﺎﻣﺎﱋ‬target, goal                                     gŒ‫ ﺋﺎﺷﮕ‬water that turns a mill
âmo ‫ ﺋﺎﻣﯚ‬paternal uncle; ~zâ ‫ ﺋﺎﻣﯚزا‬cousin                âshbattâł ‫ ﺋﺎﺷ8ﺒﻪﺗﺘﺎڵ‬cease-fire
âmozhgârî-kirdin ‫ــﺮدن‬B ‫ ﺋــﺎﻣــﯚژﮔــﺎری‬v.t. to           âshkirâ ‫ ﺋـﺎﺷـﮑـﺮا‬clear, obvious; public; ~-
   advise                                                    bûn v.i. to be clear, obvious; to be-
âmřâz ‫از‬g‫ ﺋﺎﻣ‬instrument, implement, tool                     come public; ~-kirdin v.t. to make
âmyân ‫ ﺋﺎﻣ;ﺎن‬yoghurt starter, leaven                         clear, clarify
ânîshk ‫ ﺋﺎﻧ›ﺸﮏ‬elbow                                                 ‫ــ‬
                                                          âshnâ ‫ ـﺋ ﺎﺷ8ﻨـﺎ‬acquainted, friendly; expert;
ânqast (la ~) ‫ ﺋـﺎﻧـﻘـﻪﺳـﺖ‬on purpose, delib-                 ~yatî ‫ ﺋﺎﺷ8ﻨﺎﯾﻪﰏ‬acquaintance
   erately                                                âsht ‫ ـﺋ ﺎﺷـﺖ‬on good terms; ~-bûnawa v.i.
âpo ‫ ﺋﺎﭘﯚ‬paternal uncle                                      to be reconciled; ~î ‫ ﺋـــﺎﺷـــ8ـــﱴ‬peace, re-
âpor ‫ ﺋﺎﭘﯚر‬calamity                                          conciliation; ~îkhwâz ‫ـ;ـﺨـﻮاز‬n‫ ﺋـﺎﺷـ‬seek-
âpora ‫ ﺋــﺎﭘــﯚرﻩ‬crowd; ~-dân v.t. to crowd:                 ing reconciliation
   khałkèk i zor la dawr i mizgawt ~yân                   âsik ‫ ﺋﺎﺳﮏ‬gazelle, deer
   dâwa many people have crowded                          âsin ‫ ﺋــــــﺎﺳــــــﻦ‬iron; ~ i sârd kutân to do
   around the mosque                                                                                 8
                                                             something useless; ~gar ‫ﺋـــﺎﺳــــــﻨـــﮕـــﻪر‬
âraq(a) ‫ ﺋـﺎرﻩﻗـﻪ، ﺋـﺎرﻩق‬sweat; ~-kirdinawa                  blacksmith
   v.t. to sweat; ~-rishtin v.t. to sweat                 Âsiyâ ‫ ﺋﺎﺳ8ﻴﺎ‬Asia
ârazû ‫ ﺋـﺎرﻩزوو‬wish, hope; ~kar ‫ﺋـﺎرﻩزووﮐـﻪر‬              âsmân ‫ ﺋــــﺎﺳــــﲈن‬sky; ~ i dûr la zawîawa
   desirous, wishful; ~mand ‫ﺋـــﺎرﻩزووﻣـــﻪﻧـــﺪ‬             outer space; ~î of the sky, heavenly,
   hopeful; ~-kirdin v.t. to wish, desire                    blue
ârâm ‫ ﺋـــــﺎرام‬calm; ~-girtin v.t. to be still,          âso ‫ ﺋﺎﺳﯚ‬horizon
   patient, calm down; ~ biřrân la(bar)                   âst ‫ :ﺋﺎﺳﺖ‬la ~e kho in spite of oneself
   v.p. to lose patience: wazîr ârâm’î le                 âstam ‫ ﺋـﺎﺳـ8ـﺘـﻪم‬slight: namirdibû u ba âs-
   hałdagîre the vizier loses his pa-                        tam gyân’î te’dâ mâbû he wasn’t
   tience; be~ ‫ /ﺋــــــــﺎرام‬impatient; be~î /              dead, for there was a slight trace of
   ‫ ﺋﺎراﻣﯽ‬impatience                                         life still in him; ba ~(èk) slightly:
                                                      166
                            SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  dastim ba ~èk rûshâwa my hand is                           warp
  slightly scratched; (2) difficult to                      âwsâna ‫ ﺋـﺎوﺳـﺎﻧـﻪ‬fable, legend; ~î ‫ﺋـﺎوﺳـﺎﻧـﻪﱙ‬
  cross: Taragha kewèk i ~a Taragha is                       fabulous, legendary
  a difficult mountain to get across                        âwus ‫ = ﺋﺎووس‬âwis
âsûda ‫ ﺋـــﺎﺳـــﻮودﻩ‬in comfort, comfortable;               ây ‫ ﺋﺎی‬O (vocative particle)
  ~-kirdin v.t. to make comfortable; ~î                    âyâ p‫ ﺋﺎ‬interrogative particle
  ‫ ﺋـﺎﺳـﻮودﻩﱙ‬comfort, prosperity; kawtinà                  âyin ‫ﻦ‬a‫ ﺋﺎ‬religion; ~î traditional; religious
  ~îawa to become prosperous                               âyina ‫ ﺋﺎﯾﻨﻪ‬mirror
âtar ‫ ﺋﺎﺗﻪر‬fire                                             âyinda ‫ ﺋــــﺎﯾــــﻨــــﺪﻩ‬future, coming, next: do
âtashbâzî ‫ ﺋﺎﺗﻪﺷ8ﺒﺎزی‬fireworks                                rozh i âyinda two days later
âw ‫ ﺋـــﺎو‬water; ~î ‫ ﺋـــﺎوی‬watery; light blue;            âzâ ‫ ﺋـﺎزا‬brave; ~î ‫ ﺋـﺎزاﰃ‬bravery; ~yatî ‫ﺋـﺎزاﯾـﻪ‬
  ~řishen ‫ـــﻦ‬Œ‫ ﺋـــﺎوڕﺷـــ‬sprinkling, spraying              ‫ ﰏ‬act of bravery, feat
  with water                                               âzâd ‫ ﺋــــــﺎزاد‬free; ~-kirdin v.t. to set free;
âwadân ‫ ﺋﺎوﻩدان‬flourishing                                    ~î ‫ ﺋﺎزادى‬freedom
âwał ‫ ﺋﺎوﻩڵ‬friend, companion                               âzâna ‫ ﺋﺎزاﻧﻪ‬bravely, courageously
âwâ ‫ ﺋــــــــــﺎوا‬thus; flourishing, prosperous            âzâr1 ‫ ﺋـــﺎزار‬bother, annoyance; pain, mal-
  (land); ~-bûn to disappear; to be                          ady; ~-kirdin v.t. to bother, annoy
  gone, over: rozh âwâ be, demà mâł-                       âzâr2 ‫ ﺋﺎزار‬March
  tân when day is done I’ll come to                        âzâyâna ‫ﻧﻪ‬p‫ = ﺋﺎزا‬âzâna
  you; ~-kirdin v.t. to develop; ~dân                      âzhal ‫ ﺋﺎژﻩل‬flocks, herds
  ‫ ﺋــــــــــــــﺎوادان‬flourishing, prosperous; ~î         âzhâwa ‫ ﺋﺎژاوﻩ‬commotion, uproar
  ‫ ﺋـﺎواداﱏ‬village, settlement; ~kirdinawa                 âzûqa ‫ ﺋﺎزووﻗﻪ‬provisions, stores
  development
âwâł ‫ ﺋـــــــــــــﺎواڵ‬companion, mate; ~kirâs            b- pres. stem of bûn
  ‫ﮑﺮاس‬T‫ ﺋﺎوا‬women’s trousers                               ba ‫( ﺑـــــــــــﻪ‬with enclitic pronouns pre- or
âwâra ‫ ﺋﺎوارﻩ‬wanderer, vagabond                               postposed, pe ‰Š‫ )ﭘ ـ‬to; by, with (instru-
âwât ‫ ﺋـــــﺎوات‬desire: ~ i dił the heart’s de-               mental); by (with passives): hîchit pe
  sire; ~-khwâstin bo to wish for,                            nâkire nothing can be done by you
  desire; ~akhwâz ‫ ﺋـــﺎواﺗـــﻪﺧـــﻮاز‬desirous,            ba-1 ‫ ﺑــــﻪ‬for compound adjectives formed
  hopeful                                                     from ba-, such as barez, bakhabar,
âwâz ‫ ﺋ ـﺎواز‬tune, melody; ~a ‫ ﺋ ـﺎوازﻩ‬reputa-                banâwbâng, see next element
  tion; ~akhwân ‫ ﺋــــﺎوازﻩﺧــــﻮان‬singer; ~a-             ba-2 ‫ ﺑﻪ‬pres. stem of birdin
  khwen ‫ ﺋﺎوازﻩﺧﻮ¤ﻦ‬singer                                  badbakht ‫ﺑ ـﻪدﺑ ـﻪﺧ ـﺖ‬unfortunate; ~î ‫ﺑ ـﻪدﺑ ـﻪ‬
âwena ‫ﻨﻪ‬l‫ ﺋﺎو‬mirror                                           ‫ ﺧﱴ‬misfortune; bo ~î unfortunately
âwezha ‫ ﺋﺎو¤ﮋﻩ‬swamp                                        bafr ‫ﺑـــﻪﻓـــﺮ‬snow; ~-girtin v.t. for snow to
âwhâ ‫ ﺋﺎوﻫﺎ‬thus, of this sort                                 cover s.th.: bafr girtûyatî it is covered
âwir ‫ ﺋﺎور‬fire; pregnant                                       with snow; ~ânbâr ‫ ﺑـﻪﻓـﺮاﻧـﺒـﺎر‬the month
âwiř ‫ ﺋـﺎوڕ‬backward glance; ~-dânawa la                       of Capricorn (December 22–January
  v.t. to look over the shoulder at, to                       20)
  look back at                                             bag ‫ ﺑﻪگ‬lord, master
âwis ‫ ﺋﺎوس‬pregnant                                         Baghdâ ‫ ﺑﻪ™ﺪا‬Baghdad
âwrîshim ‫ ﺋـــﺎور§ـــﺸـــﻢ‬silk; ~în ‫ﺋـــﺎور§ـــﺸـــﻤـــﲔ‬                   ‫ـ‬
                                                           baghîl ‫ ﺑـﻪﻏﻴـﻞ‬stingy; jealous; ~î jealousy;
  silken, made of silk                                        ~î hâtin la v.i. to be jealous: baghî-
âwru ‫ ﺋﺎورو‬honor                                              lî’yân le dahât they were jealous
âwsân ‫ ﺋـﺎوﺳـﺎن‬âwse- ‰‫ ﺋـﺎوﺳـ‬v.i. to swell; to                                           ‫ــ ـ‬
                                                           bahałategayshtin ‫ـﻪﺗ²ﮕـﻪ§ﺸـﱳ‬T‫ ﺑـﻪﻫـﻪ‬misun-
                                                       167
                                     SORANI KURDISH
  derstanding                                          sake of, because of; la ~ …’dâ in
bahâr ‫ ﺑﻪﻫﺎر‬spring                                     front of; la ~ …awa to, with, in the
bahra ‫ ﺑــﻪﻫــﺮﻩ‬benefit, lot; ~-birdin la v.t.          presence of: la bar khoyawa gutî he
  to derive benefit from                                said to himself; ~la ~ awaî because;
baḥrî ‫ ﺑـﻪﺣـﺮی‬merhorse, a fabulous magi-               la ~ kirdin v.t. to put on, wear; la
  cal horse common in Iranian fairy                    ~ân i throughout the length and
  tales                                                breadth of; la ~dam i in front of; la ~
bakesh-kirdin ‫ـــﺮدن‬B ‫ـــﺶ‬Œ‫ ﺑـــﻪﮐـــ‬v.t. to drag,     dast i …’dâ in the presence of, in
  haul: ba zor bakesh’î kirdim bo lâ i                 front of, with; lamaw~ previously,
  qâzî he hauled me before the judge by                before; (2) fruit, produce
  force                                              bař ‫ ﺑﻪڕ‬rug, flat-woven carpet
bakhew-kirdin ‫ـــﺮدن‬B ‫ ﺑـــﻪﺧـــ´ـــﻮ‬v.t. to take    bar- ‫ ﺑﻪر‬impt. stem of birdin
  care of, to raise (a child)                        bara1 ‫ ﺑﻪرﻩ‬tribe, tribal division
bakht ‫ ﺑـﻪﺧـﺖ‬luck; ~-kirdin v.t. to risk, to         bara2 ‫ ﺑــــﻪرﻩ‬bit; bara-bara little by little,
  sacrifice; ~ kirânawa v.p. to have a                  gradually
  stroke of luck: bakhtî kirâwatawa he               bara3 i ‫ ﺑﻪرﻩی‬toward
  has had a stroke of luck; ~awar                    bařa ‫ = ﺑﻪڕﻩ‬bař
  lucky; ~iyâr prosperous; ~iyârî pros-              barabayân ‫ن‬p‫ ﺑﻪرﻩﺑﻪ‬at dawn
  perity                                             barałâ Ÿ‫ ﺑ ـﻪرﻩ‬free, unhampered; ~-kirdin
Bakhtak ‫ــــﻪک‬µ‫ ﺑــــﻪﺧــــ‬Bakhtak, Anoshar-           to set free, turn loose: min barałâ i
  wan’s vizier                                         kołânân dakrem I’ll be turned out into
balangâz ‫ﮕﺎز‬sv‫ ﺑﻪ‬poor, destitute                       the streets
bałâm ‫م‬Ÿ‫ ﺑﻪ‬but (conj.)                               barangâr-bûnawa ‫ـﮕـﺎر ﺑـﻮوﻧـﻪوﻩ‬s‫ ﺑـﻪرﻩ‬v.i. to
báłe ‰T‫ ﺑﻪ‬yes                                          fight with, oppose, resist: dayawe
bałen ‫ــــﻦ‬Œ‫ــــ‬T‫ ﺑــــﻪ‬promise; ~-dân ba v.t. to      dastdrezhî’y bikâtà sar bałâm kichá
  make a promise to                                    barangâr’î dabetawa he wants to
bałga ‫ﮕﻪ‬T‫ ﺑﻪ‬document; proof                            violate her, but the girl resists him
báłka ‫ﮑﻪ‬T‫ ﺑﻪ‬but, rather                              barawa ‫( ﺑـــــــﻪرﻩوﻩ‬impt. sing. of bûnawa)
báłku ‫ﮑﻮ‬T‫ ,ﺑﻪ‬báłkû ‫ﮑﻮو‬T‫ ﺑﻪ‬maybe, perhaps               be … again
banakhun ‫ ﺑﻪﻧﻪﺧﻮن‬drawstring (trousers)               baraw|zher ‫ ﺑــــــــﻪرﻩوژ¤ــــــــﺮ‬headed down;
banâ ‡‫ ﺑﻪ‬builder                                       ~zhûr ‫ ﺑﻪرﻩوژوور‬headed up
banâwbâng ‫ـــــــﮓ‬s¶‫ ﺑـــــــﻪ‡و‬famous, well-        barâmbar ‫ ﺑـﻪرا ــﻪر‬in the face of, against;
                                                                      m‫ﻣ‬
  known                                                ~ ba facing
band ‫ ﺑــﻪﻧــﺪ‬prison, dungeon; joint; magic          barâward-kirdin ‫ــــــﺮدن‬B ‫ ﺑــــــﻪراوﻩرد‬v.t. to
  spell; dam; ~ hał-witin ba to say a                  make a comparison
  spell over; ~î ‫ ﺑـﻪﻧـﺪی‬prisoner; ~îkhâna           barâz ‫ ﺑﻪراز‬boar
  ‫ ﺑﻪﻧﺪﳜﺎﻧﻪ‬prison                                    barbîn ‫ ﺑ ـﻪرﺑ ـﲔ‬base of the throat; ~-girtin
bandan ‫ ﺑﻪﻧﺪﻩن‬mountain                                 to grab by the throat
bar ‫ ﺑـــــــﻪر‬chest, breast; fore; ~ la before,     barchâw ‫ ﺑﻪر¸ﺎو‬see châw
  pre-; ~-bûn v.i. to get free; ~-bûnawa             bard ‫ ﺑــﻪرد‬stone: dawr i ~ the Stone Age;
  v.i. to fall; ~-dân v.t. to set free; ~-             wirda~ ‫ وردﻩﺑـــــــﻪرد‬pebble, small stone;
  girtin v.t. to cover, obscure: hawrèk i              ~ałânî ‫ﱏ‬Ÿ‫ ﺑﻪردﻩ‬rocky
  rash bar i âsmânî girt a black cloud               bardast ‫ ﺑﻪردﻩﺳﺖ‬errand boy; available
  obscured the sky; ~-kirdin v.t. to put             bardawâm ‫ ﺑـﻪردﻩوام‬constant(ly), continu-
  on, wear; ~dam front; la ~ for the                   al(ly); ~-bûn v.i. to be persistent,
                                                 168
                       SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  steady; ~bûn continuation, continu-               tion
  ance                                            bashka ‫ , ﺑ ـﻪﺷ ـﮑ ـﻪ‬bashkim ‫ ﺑ ـﻪﺷ ـﲂ‬maybe,
bařewabar ‫ــﻮﻩﺑــﻪر‬l‫ ﺑــﻪڕ‬director, manager;        perhaps
  ~âyatî ‫ـﻮﻩﺑـﻪراﯾـﻪﰏ‬l‫ ﺑـﻪڕ‬administration, di-    bashûdân ‫ ﺑﻪﺷﻮودان‬see under shû
  rectorate                                       basizmân ‫ ﺑﻪ¼ﻣﺎن‬poor, unfortunate
bařez ‫ ﺑﻪڕ¤ﺰ‬see rez                               ba‘sî ‫ ﺑــــﻪﻋــــﴗ‬Baathist, member of Sad-
barg ‫ ﺑــــــــﻪرگ‬clothes; cover; da ~ girtin       dam Hussein’s ruling party in Iraq
  v.t. to wrap in a cover; ~dirû ‫ﺑــﻪرﮔــﺪروو‬     bastazmân ‫ ﺑﻪﺳ8ﺘﻪزﻣﺎن‬poor, wretched
  tailor                                          bast|in ‫ ﺑـــﻪﺳـــﱳ‬bast- ‫ ﺑـــﻪﺳـــﺖ‬v.t. to tie, to
barga ‫ ﺑـــﻪرﮔـــﻪ‬power, ability; ~-girtin v.t.     freeze; ~rân ‫ ﺑـــﻪﺳـــﱰان‬bastre- ‫ﺑـــﻪﺳـــﱰێ‬
  to resist                                         v.p. to be tied, frozen: la tirsân zibânî
barhałist ‫ﺴﺖ‬T‫ ﺑﻪرﻫﻪ‬obstacle                         bastrâ his tongue was frozen from
barham ‫ ﺑـــﻪرﻫـــﻪم‬fruit, produce; ~-henân         fear; ~rânawa ‫ ﺑـﻪﺳـﱰاﻧـﻪوﻩ‬v.p. to be tied
  v.t. to bear fruit, be productive; ~he-           up: la hamû lâyèkawa asp bastrâwa-
  nar ‫ ﺑﻪرﻫﻪ¹²ﻨﻪر‬productive                         tawa horses were tied up on every
barîk ‫ﮏ‬a‫ ﺑﻪر‬pocket                                  side
Barîtânyâ ‫ ﺑﻪرﯾﺘﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬Britain                       batâł ‫ڵ‬c‫ ﺑـﻪ‬over, finished; empty; invalid,
barkh ‫ ﺑﻪرخ‬lamb                                     unemployed: brâyèkim batâła one of
barkosh ‫ ﺑﻪرﮐﯚش‬apron, smock                         my brothers is out of work; ~-bûn v.i.
barnâma ‫ ﺑﻪر‡ﻣﻪ‬program                              to be over, come to an end; ~-kirdin
barok ‫ ﺑــــــــﻪرۆک‬collar; ~-bar-dân v.t. to       v.t. to stop, cease: har nîwařo batâł-
  leave alone, stop pestering; ~-girtin             mân kird we stopped just at noon; ~î
  v.t. to pester                                    ‫ﻰ‬Tc‫ ﺑﻪ‬idleness
barpirs ‫ـﺮس‬º‫ ﺑـﻪر‬responsible, in authority;       batâqî-kirdinawa ‫ ـﺮدﻧ ـﻪوﻩ‬B ‫ﰵ‬c‫ ﺑ ـﻪ‬v.t. to in-
  ~yâr ‫ﺮﺳ8ﻴﺎر‬º‫ ﺑﻪر‬responsible                       vestigate
barqâsâ ‫ ﺑــﻪرﻗــﺎﺳــﺎ‬with the speed of light-    bayânî ‫ﱏ‬p‫ ﺑﻪ‬morning
  ning                                            baybûn ‫ ﺑﻪﯾﺒﻮون‬camomile
barz ‫ ﺑــــﻪرز‬high, tall, loud: ba dang i ~ in    bayn ‫ــــﻦ‬a‫ ﺑــــﻪ‬midst; la ~ i …dâ between,
  a loud voice; ~ape ‰Š‫ ﺑــــﻪرزﻩﭘــــ‬standing,     among: l’ aw ~á’dâ at that time, un-
  upright; ~âî ‫ ﺑــــﻪرزاﰃ‬highness, tallness;       der those circumstances; pâsh ~èk
  high place                                        ‫ـ´ـﮏ‬À‫ ﭘـﺎش ﺑـﻪﯾـ‬after a while; ~annahren
barzhawandî ‫ ﺑﻪرژﻩوﻩﻧﺪی‬interests                    (‫ﻦ‬a‫ ﺑﻪﯾﻨﻪﻧﻨﻪﻫﺮ¤ﻦ )ﺑﲔ ا¢ﳯﺮ‬Mesopotamia
barzwulâkh ‫ ﺑﻪرزووﻻخ‬horse                         bazaî ‫ ﺑــــﻪزﻩﰃ‬compassion: bazaî’m pe’dâ
bas ‫ ﺑﻪس‬enough                                      hât I felt sorry for him
basarhât ‫ ﺑﻪﺳﻪرﻫﺎت‬adventure                       bazh ‫ ﺑﻪژ‬dry land (opp. to sea)
basâłâchû ‫ﭼﻮو‬Ÿ‫ ﺑﻪﺳﺎ‬aged                           bazîn v.i. ‫ـــﻦ‬a‫ ﺑـــﻪز‬to go/come down; dâ-~
basâm ‫ ﺑﻪﺳﺎم‬frightening, terrible                   to get off, down
bash ‫ ﺑــــــــﻪش‬section, share; omen; ~ i …      bâ1 ¶ hortatory particle (+ subj): bâ
  kirdin v.t. to suffice for …; ~akher               biroyn c’mon, let’s go
  ‫ ﺑـﻪﺷـﻪ ــﺮ‬handout, charity; ~-kirdin v.t.
    ŒL                                            bâ2 ¶ wind; ~-dân for the wind to blow;
  to be enough: aw toza bashim nâkâ                 ~gař ‫ ¶ﮔــــــــﻪڕ‬whirlwind; ~hoz ‫¶ﻫــــــــﯚز‬
  that little bit is not enough for me;             whirlwind
  ~dâr ‫ ﺑـــﻪﺷـــﺪار‬participant; ~dârbûn ‫ﺑـــﻪ‬    bâb ‫ ¶ب‬father
  ‫ ﺷـــﺪارﺑـــﻮون‬participation; ~dârî-kirdin      Bâb i ‘Âlî ‫ ¶ﰉ ` ـﺎﱃ‬the Sublime Porte, of-
  v.t. to participate; ~ko ‫ ﺑـﻪﺷـﮑـﯚ‬corpora-        fice of the grand vizier of the Otto-
                                              169
                                    SORANI KURDISH
  man Empire                                        bâr2 ‫ ¶ر‬load, burden; manner: pewîst-a
bâbat ‫ :¶ﺑـــﻪت‬la ~…awa about, concern-               aw bârá rûn bikretawa ka khwenakáy
  ing: la ~ minawa adwân they were                    tedâ rizhâwa it is necessary for the
  talking about me; (2) worthy: ama ~ i               manner in which his blood was shed
  to niya this is not worthy of you                   to be made clear; ~ dâ-girtin v.t. to
bâfîn ‫ ¶ﻓﲔ‬v.t. to weave                               pack one’s bags; to unload; ~henân
bâho ‫ ¶ﻫ ـﯚ‬shoulders; ~dâr ‫ ¶ﻫ ـﯚدار‬strong,           upbringing; la ~ i for, for the sake of;
  powerful                                            ~-kirdin v.t. to load; to decamp,
bâkh ‫ ¶خ‬garden, orchard; ~ i gishtî                   leave; ~nâma ‫ ¶ر‡ﻣــــــﻪ‬bill of lading; ~
  park; ~cha ‫ﻪ‬Â‫ ¶ﺧ‬garden                              râst-kirdinawa to set straight a
bâkhał ‫ــﻪڵ‬L¶ breast, armpit, embrace; ~î             crooked load, (meta.) to help some-
  ‫ـــــﯽ‬T‫ـــــﻪ‬L¶ breast, pocket (adj.): daftar i     one out, come to someone’s aid: zor
  bâkhałî pocket notebook                             le-qawmâw bûm, kâkim bârî râst
bâł ‫ ¶ڵ‬arm, wing; ~dâr ‫ﺪار‬T¶ bird                     kirdimawa I was in bad straits, but
bâłâ Ÿ¶ height, stature; ~-kirdin v.t. to             my brother helped me out; ~ u dokh
  get tall; ~barz ‫ﺑــــــــــﻪرز‬Ÿ¶ tall, elegant;     ‫ ¶رودۆخ‬burden; situation
  ~nwen ‫ﻧـــﻮ¤ـــﻦ‬Ÿ¶ something that shows           bâr- ‫ ¶ر‬pres. stem of bârîn
  the figure: âwena i bâłânwen full-                 bâra ‫ ¶رﻩ‬time: dû ~ hâtawa he came
  length mirror                                       back twice; (2) power: am kâr a
bâlândîda ‫ :¶ﻻﻧـﺪﯾـﺪﻩ‬gurg i ~ experienced,            girâná la ~ i minâ niya this heavy
  worldly                                             labor is not within my power; dar~ i
bâłdâr ‫ﺪار‬T¶ bird                                     about, concerning; la ~ i …(awa)
bâłinda ‫ﻨﺪﻩ‬T¶ bird                                    about, concerning
bâłisht ‫ﺸﺖ‬T¶ pillow                                 bâragâ ‫ = ¶رﻩﮔﺎ‬bârgâ
bâłîn ‫ﲔ‬T¶ pillow                                    bârân ‫ ¶ران‬rain; ~din bâren- v.t. to rain,
bâlora ‫ ¶ﻟﯚرﻩ‬a Kurdish verse form                     shower; dâ-~ to rain down
bâłwez ‫ﻮ¤ﺰ‬T¶ ambassador                             bârga ‫ ¶رﮔ ـﻪ‬baggage, paraphernalia; ~chî
bâm la …awa be / ‫ ...ـﻪوﻩ‬v ‫ ¶م‬aside                   ‫ ¶رﮔﻪﭼﯽ‬caravan leader
  from, not to mention                              bârgâ ‫ ¶رﮔﺎ‬king’s court; headquarters
bân ‫ ¶ن‬roof; steppe; ~èka u dû hawâ                 bârist ‫~ ,¶رﺳﺖ‬âî ‫ ¶رﺳ8ﺘﺎﰃ‬size, volume
  there’s a double standard                         bârîn ‫ــــــــﻦ‬a‫ ¶ر‬bâr- ‫ ¶ر‬v.i. to rain; dâ-~ to
bânamař ‫ ¶ﻧـــــﻪﻣـــــﻪڕ‬the month of Taurus          rain down
  (April 21– May 21)                                bâřût ‫ ¶ڕووت‬gunpowder
bâng ‫ـــــــــﮓ‬s¶ cry, shout; ~-kirdin v.t. to      bâs ‫ ¶س‬discussion; ~-kirdin v.t. to dis-
  call, summon, invite; ~heshtin invita-              cuss
  tion; ~-heshtin-kirdin bo v.t. to in-             bâsh ‫ ¶ش‬good: rozh ~ good day; da ~a
  vite: dabe bângheshtinèk’it bo bikam                that’s enough!
  bo mâława I must invite you to my                 bâsik ‫ ¶ﺳﮏ‬upper arm
  home; ~awâz ‫ــــﮕــــﻪواز‬s¶ a cry for help,       bâtînî ‫ ¶ﺗــــ›ــــﲎ‬occult; châw i ~ inner eye,
  request for assistance; ~awâz-kirdin                sixth sense, the ability to see hidden
  v.t. to ask for assistance                          things
bânîzha ‫ﻩ‬Ã‫ ¶ﻧ‬small roof                             bâw-bûn ‫ ¶و ﺑـــﻮون‬v.i. to become current,
bâp ‫ = ¶پ‬bâb                                          customary
bâpîr ‫ ¶ﭘﲑ‬grandfather                               bâwař ‫ ¶وﻩڕ‬belief; ~-kirdin v.t. to be-
bâr1 ‫ ¶ر‬time, instance (= jâr)                        lieve
                                                170
                      SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
bâwash ‫ ¶وﻩش‬bosom, embrace: hałim-                Farhad legendarily carved the moun-
  girt ba ~imawa I grabbed him in my              tain for Shirin
  arms; ~-kirdin ba …’dâ v.t. to em-           betâqat ‫ــﺎﻗــﻪت‬µ‫ــ‬Œ‫ ﺑــ‬anxious, unable to en-
  brace: bâwash’y pe’dâ kird she em-              dure; ~-kirdin v.t. to make anxious:
  braced him                                      yâd i bâwkî zor betâqatî kird the
bâwazhin ‫ ¶وﻩژن‬stepmother                         memory of his father made him very
bâwâ ‫ ¶وا‬grandfather                              anxious
bâwik ‫ ¶وک‬father                               betâwân ‫ـﺎوان‬µŒ‫ ﺑ‬innocent; ~î ‫ـﺎواﱏ‬µŒ‫ ﺑ‬inno-
                                                                   ‫ــ‬                    ‫ــ‬
bâwishk-dân ‫ ¶وﺷﮏ دان‬v.t. to yawn                 cence
bây ‫ ¶ی‬price, worth                            bewa ‫ ﺑ²ﻮﻩ‬widow; ~zhin ‫ ﺑ²ﻮﻩژن‬widow
bâyakh ‫ ¶ﯾــــﻪخ‬worth, value; ~-dân ba to      bez ‫ﺰ‬Œ‫ ﺑ‬condescension
  attach value to, to pay attention to:        bezh- ‫ﮋ‬Œ‫ = ﺑ‬biwezh-
  hîch bâyakhe ba qsakám nâdâ he               bezha ‫ﮋﻩ‬Œ‫ ﺑ‬literature
  doesn’t pay any attention to what I          bezhân ‫ﮋان‬Œ‫ ﺑ‬bezhe- ‫ﮋێ‬Œ‫ ﺑ‬v.t. to sift
  say                                          bibiřây ‫ای‬É‫ ﺑــــــــــــ‬never: ~ ~ nâchimawa
bâyqûsh ‫ ¶ﯾﻘﻮوش‬owl                                gund I’ll never ever go back to the
bâz ‫ ¶ز‬hawk, falcon; ~gardân ‫¶زﮔــــــﻪردان‬       village
  hawking, making a hawk fly (method            bibû ‫( ﺑـــــﺒـــــﻮو‬past perf. of bûn) s/he had
  of choosing a new king in folktales)            been: dawlat a khâwanqudratakân i
bâz-dân la v ‫ ¶ز دان‬v.t. to flee in haste          dîka ka la shař’dâ peroz bibûn the
  from, to run away in fear from                  other powerful states that had been
bâzher ‫ ¶ژ¤ﺮ‬city, market                          victorious in the war
bâzig ‫ ¶زگ‬arm; dappled (horse)                 bichkoł ‫ﮑﯚڵ‬Ê little, small
bâzîband ‫ ¶زﯾﺒﻪﻧﺪ‬bracelet                      bichûk ‫ﻮوک‬Ê small, little
be / without (for most compounds in            biłâw ‫و‬Ë‫ ﺑــــــ‬widespread; ~-kirdin v.t. to
  be-, see following element; note that           spread, publish, publicize; ~ kirdin-
  there are a few be- compounds that do           awa v.t. to broadcast, publish; ~a-
  not occur without the prefix: they are           kirdin ‫ـــــﺮدن‬B ‫وﻩ‬Ë‫ ﺑـــــ‬v.t. to disperse, go
  listed alphabetically); ba ~ awaî (+            away: khałk biłâwayân kird the peo-
  subj.) without: ba be awaî biybînim             ple dispersed
  without my seeing it                         biłbił Ç‫ﺒ‬k‫ ﺑ‬nightingale
be- = biye-, subj. of hâtin                    biłesa ‫ﺴﻪ‬Œk‫ ﺑ‬fiery
bechû ‫ ﺑ²ﭽﻮو‬baby                               bilind ‫ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ‬high, exalted
bedaratân ‫ن‬c‫ ﺑ²ﺪﻩرﻩ‬poor, unfortunate                               ‫ــ‬
                                               biłîmat ‫; ـﻤـﻪت‬k‫ ﺑ‬genius, clever; ~î ‫; ـﻤـﻪﰏ‬k‫ﺑ‬   ‫ــ‬
begâna ‫ ﺑ²ﮕﺎﻧﻪ‬stranger, foreigner                 cleverness
begâr ‫ ﺑ²ﮕﺎر‬waste of time                      bilwer ‫ ﺑ ـﻠ ـﻮ¤ ـﺮ‬reed flute; ~ le-dân to play
bejiga la v ‫ ﺑ²ﺠﮕﻪ‬except for                      the flute
bekanâr ‫ ﺑ²ﮑﻪ‡ر‬limitless, shoreless            bin ‫ –ــﻦ‬bottom; ~amâł(a) ‫ ﺑــﻨــﻪﻣــﺎڵ‬family;
beł- Ç‫ ﺑﻴ‬subj. of heshtin, for bíheł-             ~jor ‫ ﺑــﻨــﺠــﯚر‬curious, inquisitive; ~jorî
ben- ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ ﺑ‬subj. of henân, for bíhen-               ‫ ﺑﻨﺠـﯚری‬curiosity; ~mil ‫ ـــﻤـﻞ‬nape of the
                                                        ‫ــ‬                          ž‫ﺑ‬
benzhîn ‫ﻦ‬aȲ‫ ﺑ‬v.i. to sneeze                      neck
besar-u-shwen ‫ــﺴــﻪروﺷــﻮ¤ــﻦ‬Œ‫ ﺑــ‬homeless,   bina ‫ ﺑﻨﻪ‬baggage, belongings
  destitute                                    binâgha ‫ ــﺎ™ـﻪ‬foundation; ~ dâ-rishtin to
                                                               ‫ﺑﻨ‬
beshik ‫ﺸﮏ‬Œ‫ ﺑ‬thicket                               lay a foundation
Besitûn ‫ ــﺴـــﻮون‬Behistun, the site where
             ‫ 8ﺘ‬Œ‫ﺑ‬                             binâr ‫ ﺑﻨﺎر‬mountain skirt, foothill
                                           171
                                      SORANI KURDISH
binesht ‫ﺸﺖ‬Œ‫ ﺑﻨ‬chewing gum                             birîq|adâr ‫ –ـــﺮﯾـــﻘـــﻪدار‬shiny; ~ân ‫–ـــﺮﯾـــﻘـــﺎن‬
binj ‫ ﺑﻨﺞ‬root                                            birîqe- ‰‫ –ﺮﯾﻘ‬v.i. to shine, to sparkle
binyâdam ‫;ﺎدﻩم‬À‫ ﺑ‬human                                birîtî ‫ = –ﺮﯾﱴ‬biretî
binyât ‫ ـــﺎت‬foundation; ~-nân v.t. to lay
              ;À‫ﺑ‬                                     biro ‫ –ﺮۆ‬eyebrow
  a foundation, to construct                          birrân1 ‫ –ـــــــﺮران‬birre- ‫ –ـــــــﺮرێ‬passive of
biř g‫ –ـــــ‬bit: biřèk âw’im da give me a bit            birdin in all senses; la nâw ~ to be
  of water; (2) piece (of wood): dû biř                  done away with
  dâr bena bring two sticks of wood;                  biřrân2 ‫ران‬g‫ –ــــــ‬biřre- ‫رێ‬g‫( –ــــــ‬passive of
  (3) group: tûsh i biř a pyâwe bûm I                    biřîn) (1) to be cut: ba tawir dâraká
  met a group of men; (4) power,                         biřrâ the tree was cut with an ax; (2)
  strength; ~-dân v.t. to flow: am rûbâ-                  to be finished, to be no more: nânmân
  ra biř nâdâ this river doesn’t flow; ~-                 la mâł biřrâ there is no more food in
  kirdin v.t. to have strength: biř nâ-                  our house; ~awa to cease: tâwe bârân
  kam l’ am kefá sar kawim I can’t                       nábiř-râyawa the rain didn’t cease for
  make it to the top of this mountain; to                a time; dâ-~ to cut off; hał-~ la to
  be effective: tâ châw ~-kât as far as                  part from, get separated from: la dos-
  the eye can see; ~ le-dân v.t. to shuf-                takáy hałbiřrâ he parted from his
  fle (cards); tař u ~ g‫ــــ‬º‫ ﺗــــﻪڕو‬drenched:           friend
  kirâsakám tař u biř a my shirt’s                                                             ‫ــ‬
                                                      birs|ân ‫ –ـﺮﺳـﺎن‬hunger; ~iyatî ‫ –ـﺮﺳ8ﻴـﻪﰏ‬hun-
  drenched; la ~ altogether: bar i am                    ger; ~î ‫ – ـﺮﳻ‬hungry: birsîma I’m hun-
  gwezá la biř chand a? how much                         gry
  does this walnut tree produce alto-                 birwâ ‫ –ــــﺮوا‬belief; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to be-
  gether?                                                lieve in; (2) permission; ~-dân v.t. to
biraw ‫ –ــــــﺮﻩو‬popularity; ~ paydâ-kirdin              allow, let: diłim biřwâ nâdât châwim
  v.t. to be popular                                     ba minâłî bikawe I don’t have the
birâ ‫ –ﺮا‬brother; ~yâna ‫ﻧﻪ‬p‫ –ﺮا‬brotherly                 heart to look at his child; ~nâma
biřân ‫ان‬g–. See biřrân.                                  ‫ –ﺮوا‡ﻣﻪ‬diploma
birdin ‫ –ـــــﺮدن‬ba- ‫( ﺑـــــﻪ‬v.t., 3rd sing. pres.   biryâ p‫ –ـــــﺮ‬would that (+ past condition-
  dabâ(t); impt. sing. (bi)bara) to take,                al): ~ aw kâráy nakirdibâya would
  carry; ~à sar ‫ –ـﺮدﻧـﻪ ﺳـﻪر‬to spend (time):            that he hadn’t done that
  am shawá l’era bibaynà sar let’s                    biřyâr ‫ر‬pg‫ –ـــــــ‬decision; ~-dân v.t. to de-
  spend tonight here; dar-~ to endure                    cide; ~-nân v.t. to decide; la ~
biretî la v ‫ﱴ‬l‫ –ﺮ‬consisting of                           henânà khwârawa to make one
birinj ‫ –ﺮﱋ‬uncooked rice                                 change one’s mind: hîch shitèk la
birinja ‫ –ﺮﳒﻪ‬copper                                      biřyâr i khoy nayhenâyà khwârawa
biřisht ‫ﺷـﺖ‬g‫ –ـ‬fertile ground; power, abil-              nothing could make him change his
  ity                                                    mind
biřist ‫ﺳﺖ‬g– power                                     birzhân ‫ –ـــــــﺮژان‬birzhe- ‫ –ـــــــﺮژێ‬v.i. to be
                                     ‫ـ‬
birîn ‫ـﻦ‬a‫ –ـﺮ‬wound; ~dâr ‫ –ـﺮﯾﻨـﺪار‬wounded;              roasted
  ~pech ‫´ﭻ‬Î‫ –ﺮﯾﻨ‬nurse                                 birzhândin ‫ –ـﺮژاﻧـﺪن‬birzhen- ‫ –ـﺮژ¤ـﻦ‬v.t. to
biřîn ‫ـﻦ‬ag‫ –ـ‬biř- g‫ –ـ‬v.t. to cut; dar-~ to dis-         roast
  close, reveal; châw-~ la to be hopeful              birzhâng ‫ﮓ‬s‫ –ﺮژا‬eyelash
  of; qsa pe-~ to interrupt: ba tundî                 bitâqa ‫ ﺑﺘﺎﻗﻪ‬ticket
  qsakám pe biřî u gutim I quickly                    biv ‫ ﺑﭫ‬buzz
  interrupted him and said                            biwe ‫( ﺑـﻮێ‬pres. subj. of wîstin, with pro-
                                                  172
                          SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  nominal affix, e.g., -im biwe)                        bîs- ‫ ﺑ›ﺲ‬pres. stem of bîstin
biyânû ‫ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻮو‬pretext                                  bîst ‫ ﺑ›ﺴﺖ‬twenty
biza ‫ –ﺰﻩ‬laugh, laughter                               bîstin ‫ ﺑ›ﺴﱳ‬bîs- ‫ ﺑ›ﺲ‬v.t. to hear
bizâwtin ‫ﻦ‬Ž‫ –ﺰاو‬bizâw- ‫ –ﺰاو‬v.t. to shake              bîstrân ‫ ﺑـ›ـﺴـﱰان‬bîstre- ‫ ﺑـ›ـﺴـﱰێ‬v.p. to be
bizhâr-kirdin ‫ـــﺮدن‬B ‫ –ـــﮋار‬v.t. to weed out,           heard
  eradicate                                            bo ‫ ﺑــــــــــــﯚ‬to, for; why?, what for?; ~ chi
bizhârdin ‫ –ـﮋاردن‬bizher- ‫ –ـﮋ¤ـﺮ‬v.t. to weed             why?, what for?; ~ awaî (+ subj.) in
  out, eradicate; hał-~ to select, choose                 order that
bizhîw ‫ –ﮋﯾﻮ‬substance                                  bo-chûn ‫ ﺑــﯚﭼــﻮون‬v.i. to think, to have an
bizin ‫ –ﺰن‬goat                                            opinion; bochûn opinion
bizirk|ân ‫ –ـﺰرﰷن‬bizirke- ‰‫ –ـﺰرﮐـ‬v.t. to lose;        boga ‫ ﺑـﯚﮔـﻪ‬malodorous plants that animals
  rang hał-~ân to lose color, grow                        will not eat
  pale; rang-hał~âw ‫ــﱫرﰷو‬T‫ــﮕــﻬــﻪ‬s‫ رﻩ‬pale,          bokho ‫ ﺑﯚﺧﯚ‬selfish; ~î selfishness
  “white as a sheet” (with fright)                     bołaboł ‫ﻪﺑﯚڵ‬T‫ ﺑﯚ‬roaring, rumbling
bizmâr ‫ –ـﺰﻣـﺎر‬nail; ~-kirdin v.t. to nail; ~-         bon ‫ ﺑــــﯚن‬smell; ~-kirdin v.t. to smell, to
  krân v.p. to be nailed                                  smell bad, to stink
bizûtin ‫ــــﻦ‬Ž‫ –ــــﺰوو‬bizû- ‫ –ــــﺰوو‬v.i. to move,    bona ‫ ﺑـﯚﻧـﻪ‬cause, pretext; ba ~ i …awa on
  budge, stir                                             the occasion of
bizw|ân ‫ –ــــﺰوان‬bizwe- ‫ –ــــﺰوێ‬v.i. to shake        bor ‫ ﺑﯚر‬gray
  (int.), quiver; ~ândin ‫ –ــﺰواﻧــﺪن‬bizwen-           boř1 ‫ ﺑﯚڕ‬wave; ~-khwârdin v.t. to swell
  ‫ –ـﺰو¤ـﻦ‬v.t. to shake (trs.); ~enar ‫ـﻨـﻪر‬l‫–ـﺰو‬       boř2 ‫ ﺑـــــــﯚڕ‬loss (at a game); ~-khwârdin
  quivering, tremulous                                    v.t. to lose (game): bořit khwârd you
bizwen ‫ –ﺰو¤ﻦ‬vowel                                        lost; ~-dân v.t. to beat (at a game):
bîbila ƒ‫ , ـــ‬bîbîla ƒ‫ ــــ‬pupil (of the eye):
           m›‫ﺑ‬            ;Ò‫ﺑﻴ‬                            bořim dây(t) I beat you
  la bîbila i châwî pitir khosh dawîst he              bora ‫ ﺑــــــــــــــﯚرﻩ‬ignoble; fallow, infertile;
  was the apple of his eye                                ~pyâg ‫ ﺑـﯚرﻩ ــﺎگ‬common peron, person
                                                                           ‫ﭘﻴ‬
bîn ‫ ﺑــــﲔ‬breath; ~-keshân v.t. to hold the              of no name or consequence
  breath; ~akeshî ‫ـﺸـﯽ‬Œ‫ـﻪﮐـ‬ž‫ ﺑـ›ـ‬holding the           borân ‫ ﺑﯚران‬storm
  breath                                               bořân ‫ ﺑــﯚڕان‬mooing of cows; bleating of
bînar ‫ﻪر‬ž›‫ ﺑ‬viewer                                        sheep
bîndrân ‫ـﺪران‬ž›‫ ﺑ‬bîndre- ‫ـﺪرێ‬ž›‫ ﺑ‬v.p. to be
                    ‫ــ‬                  ‫ــ‬             bosh ‫ ﺑﯚش‬empty
  seen                                                 bota ‫ = ﺑﯚﺗﻪ‬bûwata. See bûn.
bînîn ‫ـــﲔ‬À‫ ﺑـــﻴـــ‬bîn- ‫ ﺑـــﲔ‬v.t. to see (see also   bóya ‫ ﺑﯚﯾﻪ‬for that reason
  dîn)                                                 boyâkh ‫خ‬p‫ ﺑﯚ‬shoe polish
bîr1 ‫ ﺑـﲑ‬memory, mind; ~-kirdin(awa) la                boynbâgh ‫ﺎغ‬mÀ‫ ﺑﯚﯾ‬necktie
  to think of; ba ~’dâ hâtin to remem-                 brâ ‫ = –ﺮا‬birâ
  ber: wâm ba bîr’dâ hât ka… I remem-                  Brîtânyâ ‫ –ـــﺮﯾـــﺘـــﺎﻧـــﻴـــﺎ‬Britain; ~ yi Kabîr
  bered that…; ba ~ henânawa to re-                       ‫ –ﺮﯾﺘﺎﻧﻴﺎی ﮐﻪﺑﲑ‬Great Britain
  mind; la ~ bûn to remember: awânim                   bukhcha ‫ﻪ‬Â‫ ﺑﻮﺧ‬bundle
  la bîrin I remember them; la ~ chûn                                      ‫ـ‬
                                                       bukhtân ‫ـﺎن‬µ‫ ﺑـﻮﺧ‬slander; ~-kirdin ba v.t.
  to forget; la ~ mân to remain in the                    to slander; ~-rek-khistin bo v.t. to
  memory; ~henânawa ‫ ﺑــﲑﻫــ²ــﻨــﺎﻧــﻪوﻩ‬re-              make up slander about: ~èk i gawra’y
  minder; ~urâ ‫ ﺑـــﲑوڕا‬thinking (darbâra                 bo kichaká rek-khist he made up great
  i about)                                                slander about the girl
bîr2 ‫ ﺑﲑ‬water well                                     bulbul ‫ ﺑﻮﻟﺒﻮل‬nightingale
                                                   173
                                     SORANI KURDISH
buwârdin ‫ = ﺑﻮواردن‬bwârdin                           chanachan-kirdin ‫ــﺮدن‬B ‫ ¸ــﻪﻧــﻪ¸ــﻪن‬v.t. to
bûchik ‫ ﺑﻮو¸ﮏ‬little, small                             talk at length, chatter
bûk ‫ ﺑﻮوک‬bride; doll, puppet                         chanâga ‫ ¸ﻪ‡ﮔﻪ‬chin
bûł ‫ ﺑﻮوڵ‬ashes                                       chand ‫ ¸ــــــﻪﻧــــــﺪ‬how much?, how many?
bûmalarza ‫رزﻩ‬v‫ ﺑﻮوﻣﻪ‬earthquake                         (usually followed by indef. sing.): ~
bûn ‫ ﺑـــــﻮون‬b- (v.i., past perf. bibû) to be,        rozhèk how many days?; few, several:
  to become, to happen: agar bet u (+                  aw chand rozhá those few days
  subj) if it should happen that…; ~awa              chap ‫ ¸ﻪپ‬left: dast i ~ left hand
  to be repeated, happen again: …èk                  chapał ‫ ¸ﻪﭘﻪڵ‬filthy; ~î filth
  nabetawa a unique …; ~awa la to be                            k‫ﭘ‬
                                                     chapła ‫ ¸ـﻪ ــﻪ‬applause; ~-ledân bo v.t. to
  done with, be finished with; ~ ba to                  applaud for: khałk chapła’yân bo ledâ
  become: aw bû ba pâshâ he became                     the people applauded for him; ~rezân
  king; ~ u na~ to be almost, not to                   applause
  quite be: bayânî rozh bûwa u nabûwa                chapok ‫ ¸ـــﻪﭘـــﯚک‬slap; ~-keshân ba sar i
  in the morning when it was not quite                 … v.t. to slap on the head
  daylight; (d)ábe(t) (+ subj.) must:                chaqân ‫ ¸ـﻪﻗـﺎن‬chaqe- Õ‫ ¸ـﻪ‬v.i. to sink to/
  dabe royshtibe he must have gone                     into the ground: rîshakân chaqân the
bûř ‫ = ﺑﻮوڕ‬bûł                                         roots sank into the earth; ~din ‫¸ـﻪﻗـﺎﻧـﺪن‬
bûrdin ‫ ﺑــــﻮوردن‬bûr- ‫ ﺑــــﻮور‬v.t. to forgive:       chaqen- ‫ــــﻦ‬Œ‫ ¸ــــﻪﻗــــ‬v.t. to stick into the
  bímbûra excuse me                                    ground: nezay da zawî chaqând he
bûzhân ‫ ﺑــﻮوژان‬bûzhe- ‫ﺑــﻮوژێ‬v.t. to grow,            stuck his lance into the ground; hał-
  sprout; ~awa to flourish, enjoy life                  ~din da to scratch: diřkekî te hałcha-
bwâra ‫ ﺑﻮارﻩ‬front (military)                           qândim a thorn scratched me
bwârdin ‫ ﺑــــﻮاردن‬bwer- ‫ ﺑــــﻮ¤ــــﺮ‬v.t. to pass   chaqîn ‫ = ¸ﻪﻗﲔ‬chaqân
  (time); râ-~ to spend (time): khosh-               chaqo ‫ ¸ﻪﻗﯚ‬knife
  mân râbwârd we had a good time;                    chařchařa ‫ ¸ﻪڕ¸ﻪڕﻩ‬crank
  khosh’î râbwârdûa he enjoyed life;                 charkh ‫ ¸ـــــــــﻪرخ‬wheel; cigarette lighter;
  mâwayèk râbwârd a period of time                     century; ~-u-khul ‫ ¸ــــﻪرخ و ﺧــــﻮل‬twist
  passed                                               and turn
byânî ‫ ﺑﻴﺎﱏ‬foreign                                   charmasare ‫ ¸ـﻪرﻣـﻪﺳـﻪرێ‬suffering, hard-
                                                       ship
chak ‫ ¸ـــــــــــــــﻪک‬weapon, arms; ~badast        chashma ‫ ¸ﻪﴰﻪ‬sleight-of-hand trick
  armed; ba ~awa ‫ ﺑ ـﻪ¸ ـﻪﮐ ـﻪوﻩ‬armed; be~           chashn ‫ ¸ــﻪﺷــﻦ‬sort, type; manner: b’ am
  unarmed                                              chashná in this way; hama~a of
chakhmâkh ‫ ¸ﻪﺧﲈخ‬flint, lighter                          every sort, miscellaneous
chakma ‫ ¸ﻪﳈﻪ‬boot                                     chata ‫ ¸ﻪﺗﻪ‬highway robber
chakush ‫ﻮش‬B‫ ¸ﻪ‬hammer                                 chatâł ‫ڵ‬c‫ ¸ــــــــــﻪ‬fork; a wooden or metal
chal ‫ ¸ﻪل‬time; galèk ~ân many times                    fork on which a gun is set for stability
chałama ‫ـﻪﻣـﻪ‬T‫ ¸ـﻪ‬quandry, dilemma: tang             chaw1 ‫ ¸ﻪو‬gravel, sand
  u ~ i awa’m kawtà bar I was caught                 chaw2 ‫ = ¸ﻪو‬châw
  in a real dilemma                                  chawr ‫ ¸ـــــــــــــﻪور‬grease; ~-kirdin v.t. to
cham ‫ ¸ﻪم‬river, stream                                 grease, slick down
                                       ‫ـ‬
cham|ândin ‫ ¸ـﻪﻣـﺎﻧـﺪن‬chamen- ‫ـﻦ‬Œ‫ ¸ـﻪﻣ‬v.t.           chaws|ân ‫ ¸ـﻪوﺳـﺎن‬chawse- ‰‫ ¸ـﻪوﺳـ‬v.i. to
                                   ‫ــ‬
  to bend, curve; ~înawa ‫ ¸ـﻪﻣ;ﻨـﻪوﻩ‬v.i. to            suffer; ~ândin ‫ ¸ــــﻪوﺳــــﺎﻧــــﺪن‬chawsen-
  bend over, bow                                       ‫ـــﻦ‬Œ‫ ¸ـــﻪوﺳـــ‬v.t. to torment; ~ândinawa
                                                 174
                       SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  ‫ ¸ﻪوﺳﺎﻧﺪﻧﻪوﻩ‬torture, torment, tyranny            wit pe hałdene she is envious of you;
châ ‫ ¸ﺎ‬well                                        ~-hał-takândin v.t. to motion with
châdir ‫ ¸ﺎدر‬tent                                   the eye and eyebrow; ~-lek-nân v.t.
châk ‫ ¸ـــــﺎک‬good; ~-bûnawa to recover;           to close the eyes; ~-qûchândin v.t. to
  ~-kirdin to make good, fix, restore;              close the eyes; ~-spî-kirdin v.t. to
  ~a good deed; la ~a darchûn to re-               make someone weep (over a death):
  pay a kindness: tâ mâwim la châkat               châwit spî da-kam “you’ll be sorry
  darnâchim as long as I live I’ll never           when I’m dead”; bar~ kawtin to be
  be able to repay your kindness; ~kir-            seen, spotted: pařèk i jwân’î barchâw
  dinawa ‫ﺮدﻧﻪوﻩ‬B‫ ¸ﺎک‬improvement                    kawt he spotted a beautiful feather; la
châkata ‫ ¸˜ﮐﻪﺗﻪ‬jacket                              bar ~ bûn to be clear, obvious
châł ‫ ¸ـــــــﺎڵ‬pit: har kas ~e bo khałkî hał-   châwa ‫ ¸ﺎوﻩ‬spring
  kane, bo khoy te dakawe he who digs            châwaře ‫ ¸ــــــﺎوﻩڕێ‬expectant, waiting; ~-
  a pit for another falls into it (“hoisted        kirdin ‫ــﺮدن‬B ‫ ¸ــﺎوﻩڕێ‬v.t. to wait for: ba
  on his own pitard”); ~âw ‫و‬Ÿ‫ ¸ﺎ‬well               je’m hesht ba be awaî châwaře i bâqî
châlâk ‫ ¸ــــــــــــﺎﻻک‬nimble, quick; useful;     i pârakám bikam I left him without
  right; ~î ‫ ¸ﺎﻻﰽ‬effort, effectiveness             waiting for my change
châłma ‫ﻤﻪ‬T‫ ¸ﺎ‬tobacco pouch; alarm clock          châwařwân-kirdin ‫ـــﺮدن‬B ‫ ¸ـــﺎوﻩڕوان‬v.t. to
chândin ‫ ¸ﺎﻧﺪن‬chen- ‫ﻦ‬Œ¸ v.t. to plant              wait for
                                    ‫ـ‬
châp ‫ ¸ـﺎپ‬printing; ~khâna ‫ـﺎﻧـﻪ‬Ø‫ ¸ـﺎﭘ‬print-     châwařwânî ‫ ¸ﺎوﻩڕواﱏ‬expectation
  ing house, publishing house; la ~              châwbałak ‫ــﻪک‬T‫ ¸ــﺎوﺑــﻪ‬person with black
  drân v.p. to be printed                          eyes and white skin
châr ‫ = ¸ﺎر‬châra                                 châwbast ‫ ¸ﺎوﺑﻪﺳﺖ‬blindfold, deception
châra ‫ ¸ـﺎرﻩ‬help, remedy; be~ ‫ـﺎرﻩ‬²‫ ﺑ‬help-
                                      ‫ــ‬         châwchinok ‫ﯚک‬ž‫ ¸ﺎوﭼ‬miserly, stingy
  less; ~-kirdin v.t. to remedy; ~sar            châwenî ‫ﲎ‬l‫ ¸ﺎو‬evil eye
  ‫ ¸ــــﺎرﻩﺳــــﻪر‬remedy; ~sar-kirdin v.t. to    châwga ‫ ¸ﺎوﮔﻪ‬view, scenery
  remedy                                         châwîlka ‫ ¸ﺎوﯾﻠﮑﻪ‬eyeglasses
chârak ‫ ¸ـﺎرﻩک‬quarter: ~ saâtèk a quarter        châwlabar ‫ﺑﻪر‬v‫ ¸ﺎو‬expectant
  of an hour                                     châwladwâ ‫دوا‬v‫ ¸ﺎو‬hopeful
châraka ‫ = ¸ﺎرﻩﮐﻪ‬chârok                          châwpekawtin ‫ﻦ‬Ž‫ ¸ﺎوﭘ²ﮑﻪو‬interview
châranûs ‫ ¸ﺎرﻩﻧﻮوس‬fate                           châwqâyim ‫ ¸ﺎوﻗﺎﱘ‬impudent, bold
chârok ‫ ¸ﺎرۆک‬woman’s shawl                       châwrûnî ‫ ¸ـﺎورووﱏ‬good news, congratu-
châw ‫ ¸ـــﺎو‬eye; expectation; ~ garm kir-          lations
  din v.t. to take a nap; ~ kawtin ba v.i.       châwtârîk ‫ﮏ‬a‫ر‬c‫ ¸ﺎو‬pessimist
  to see: châwim pey dakawt I used to            châwtirsen ‫ـﺮ ــﻦ‬Ž‫ ¸ـﺎو‬a lesson learned; ~-
                                                                Œ‫ﺳ‬
  see him; ~ sûr-kirdinawa la v.t. to              kirdin v.t. to teach a lesson
  glare at: kârakar châw’î le sûr kirdi-         châwyâr ‫ر‬p‫ ¸ﺎو‬watchman
  mawa the servant glared at me; ~-              chây ‫ ¸ﺎی‬tea; ~khâna ‫ ¸ﺎﳜﺎﻧﻪ‬teahouse
  biřîn la v.t. to be hopeful of; ~-             che-kirdin ‫ــــــﺮدن‬B ‰‫ ﭼــــــ‬v.t. to fix, make,
  gařândin v.t. to look around; ~-geřân            build
  = châw-gařândin; ~-hał-hâtin la v.i.           chek, har ‫( ﻫـﻪر ــﮏ‬for har chièk) every
                                                               ´‫ﭼ‬
  to approve of: châwim hałnâye la kâr             thing
  i wâ nâhaq I don’t approve of such a           chen- ‫ﻦ‬Œ¸ pres. stem of chândin
  dishonest thing; ~-hał-henân ba v.t.           chesht ‫ﺸﺖ‬Œ¸ lunch
  to envy, afflict with the evil eye: châ-        chezh- ‫ﮋ‬Œ¸ pres. stem of chishtin
                                             175
                                    SORANI KURDISH
chi (1) ‫ چ‬what? (interrogative pronoun);            chirpândin ‫ ﭼـﺮﭘـﺎﻧـﺪن‬chirpen- ‫ ﭼـﺮ ــﻦ‬v.t. to
                                                                                         Œ‫ﭘ‬
  (2) that which (relative pronoun); (3)              whisper
  thing: chiyân nâbe they have noth-                                                             ‫ﺗ‬
                                                    chirt ‫ ﭼـــﺮت‬noise, sound; ~a~ ‫ﭼـــﺮـــﻪﭼـــﺮت‬
  ing; bo awaî ~ (+ subj.) in order that;             commotion, uproar
  chi…chi whether…or: chi râst u chi                chiryâ p‫~ :ﭼـــــــــــــﺮ‬eke October; ~didwâ
  diro whether right or wrong                         November
chikân ‫ ﭼـــــﲀن‬v.i. to drip; to dry up (of a       chishtin ‫ ﭼــﺸــﱳ‬chezh- ‫ــﮋ‬Œ‫ ¸ــ‬v.t. to taste,
  well or spring); ~awa ‫ ﭼــــﲀﻧــــﻪوﻩ‬v.t. to        experience
  thicken (of liquids)                              chit ‫ ﭼﺖ‬thing (= shit)
chil ‫ ¸ﻞ‬forty                                       chito ‫ﯚ‬µ‫ ﭼ‬how?
chił Ǹ branch, stalk                               chî ‫ = ﭼﯽ‬chi
                  k¸                k¸
chiłakân ‫ ــﻪﰷن‬chiłake- ‰‫ ــﻪﮐـ‬v.i.: dâ-~           chîn ‫ ¸ــــﲔ‬generation; wrinkle; China; ~î
  to be shocked; dâ-~din chiłaken- v.t.               ‫ ﭼ;ﲎ‬Chinese
  to shock; râ-~ v.i. to be shocked                 chîř-bûnawa ‫ ﺑﻮوﻧﻪوﻩ‬ݸ v.i. to snarl
chiłkin ‫ﮑﻦ‬k¸ dirty, unclean; dark (cloud)           chîřok ‫ۆک‬Ý‫ ¸ــــــ‬story; ~vân ‫ــــــﻮان‬B‫ۆ‬Ý‫¸ــــــ‬
chilon ‫ ¸ ـﻠ ـﯚن‬how: estâ dazânî rûdâwaká             storyteller
  chilon bûwa now you know how the                            ;‫ﭼ‬
                                                    chîtir ‫ =( ــﱰ‬hîch i tir): … nabe ~ niya
  event was                                           is nothing but …
chimcha ‫ﻪ‬ÂÛ spoon                                   chok ‫ ﭼـــــﯚک‬knee; ~ dâ-dân v.t. to kneel
chinândin ‫ــﺎﻧــﺪن‬ž‫ ﭼــ‬chinen- ‫ــﻦ‬Œ‫ــ‬ž‫ ﭼــ‬v.t. to     down
  mend, patch                                       choł ‫ ﭼــــــــﯚڵ‬desert, wilderness; ~-kirdin
ching ‫ﮓ‬ž‫ ﭼ‬claw, talon                                 v.t. to desert, vacate a place; ~awân(î)
chingâł ‫ﮕﺎڵ‬ž‫ ﭼ‬fork                                    ‫ـﻪواﱏ‬T‫ ﭼـﯚ‬wilderness; ~parist ‫ﭙـﻪرﺳـﺖ‬T‫ﭼـﯚ‬  ‫ـ‬
chinîn ‫ــــــﲔ‬ž‫ ﭼــــــ‬v.t. to weave; to reap; to     nomad, desert dweller
  pick (fruit); to pile up; hał-~ v.t. to           chołaka ‫ﻪﮐﻪ‬T‫ ﭼﯚ‬sparrow
  pile up; tang ~ ba to hold tight; to              chom ‫ ﭼﯚم‬river
  squeeze tightly; to squeeze the life of           chon ‫ ﭼــــــــﯚن‬how?: chonî how are you?;
  out s.th.                                           what sort of: wara bitbînim chon pyâ-
chipa u sirta ‫ﻪ و ﴎﺗﻪ‬Ü‫ ﭼ‬whispering                    wèkî come let me see what kind of
chipândin ‫ﺎﻧﺪن‬Ü‫ = ﭼ‬chirpândin                         man you are; ~èk ‫ ﭼـــﯚﻧـــ²ـــﮏ‬somehow:
chiř (1) g‫ ﭼـ‬dense (forest): dâristânèk i ~           har chonèk be somehow or other; ~etî
  a dense forest; (2) firm, unyielding: ~              ‫ـﱴ‬Œ‫~ = ﭼـﯚـﻧ‬iyatî; ~iyatî ‫ ﭼـﯚـﻧﻴـﻪﰏ‬manner,
  darpeya he’s standing firm; (3) steep:               (+ inf.) how to: shaw u rozh la marâq
  shâkhèk i ~ a steep mountain; (4)                   i chonetî i daskawtin i am kich i shâ i
  song: ~e bichira sing a song; ~-dân                 parîâná’dâ bû day and night he was
  to tie tight: ~î da bâ nakire-tawa tie it           wondering how to get hold of this
  tight so it won’t come loose; ~ u                   daughter of the king of the peris; ~ka
  châw face: ~ u châwit bisho wash                    ‫ﮑﻪ‬s‫ ﭼﯚ‬because, since
  your face                                         chonar ‫ ﭼﯚﻧﻪر‬beet
chirâ ‫ ﭼﺮا‬lamp                                      choqân ‫ ﭼـﯚﻗـﺎن‬choqe- Õ‫ ﭼـﯚ‬v.i. to sizzle;
chiřândin ‫اﻧـﺪن‬g‫ ﭼـ‬chiřen- ‫¤ـﻦ‬g‫ ﭼـ‬v.t. to rip,        to tremble; ~din ‫ ﭼـﯚﻗـﺎﻧـﺪن‬choqen- ‫ﭼـﯚ ــﻦ‬Œ‫ﻗ‬
  tear; to call out to someone                        v.t. to heat oil to the sizzling point; to
chirch ‫ ﭼـــــﺮچ‬wrinkle: ~ hałhâtûa it’s all          tremble
  wrinkled                                          choř ‫ ﭼــــﯚڕ‬drop, drip; ~ânawa ‫ﭼــــﯚڕاﻧــــﻪوﻩ‬
chiřîn ‫ﻦ‬ag‫ ﭼ‬v.t. to sing                              choře- ‫ ﭼـــــــــــﯚڕێ‬v.i. to drip, to fall in
                                                176
                         SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  drops; ~âwga ‫ ﭼﯚڕاوﮔﻪ‬trickle of blood                 wirch ‫ﻪ ورچ‬T‫ دﻩ‬she-bear
chortka ‫ﮑﻪ‬Ž‫ ﭼﯚر‬abacus                                 dalasa ‫ﺳﻪ‬v‫ دﻩ‬exaggeration
chotà ‫ = ﭼﯚﺗﻪ‬chûwatà. See chûn.                       dalâqa ‫ دﻩﻻﻗﻪ‬shelf, trap door
chukłaqulâp ‫ﻪﻗﻮﻻپ‬k‫ ﭼﻮﮐ‬fishing rod                      dalîl ‫ دﻩﻟﻴﻞ‬reason, reasoning
chúnka ‫ﮑﻪ‬s‫ = ﭼﻮ‬chónka                                 dam1 ‫ دﻩم‬moment; ba ~ …awa while,
churt ‫ ﭼﻮرت‬nap; ~-dân v.t. to take a nap                during: ba ~ pekanînawa while laugh-
chûk ‫ ﭼـــــــــــﻮوک‬pinnacle of a mountain;            ing; ~e at once; ~èk-a/bû for a while,
  foreskin; small, small amount: ~a                     zor damèk a/bû for a long time
  tawizhmèk a little pressure; boundary               dam2 ‫ دﻩم‬mouth; ~-kirdin v.t. to speak;
chûn ‫ ﭼــــــــﻮون‬ch- v.i. to go; ~ ba to pass          ~ kut-kirdin v.t. to silence, cut s.o.
  (of time): baynèk’î pe chû some time                  off; ba ~awa girtin v.t. to mention,
  passed (for him/her); min darom—                      speak of; la ~awa dâ-nân v.t. to give
  chand rozhèk’im pe dache I’m go-                      birth to; la ~ dân v.t. to embarrass;
  ing—I’ll be gone for a few days; ~ la                 ~aqâłe ‰‫ـ‬T‫ دﻩﻣـﻪﻗـﺎ‬verbal quarrel; ~ataqe
  to look like: har la kuř a pâshâ’yân                  Õ‫ دﻩﻣـــــــــﻪﺗـــــــــﻪ‬dialogue, conversation;
  dache he looks just like a prince to                  ~pârâw ‫ دﻩ ــﺎراو‬eloquent, well-spoken;
                                                                             Ü‫ﻣ‬
  them; dar-~ to turn out, come out; to                 ~qiře ‫ێ‬g‫ دﻩﻣـــﻘـــ‬verbal quarrel; ~tang ‫دﻩ‬
  run off/away; te hał-~ to get started;                ‫ـــﮓ‬s‫ـــﻪ‬µ‫ ﻣـــ‬narrow-necked; ba sar ~’dâ
  ~à darawa to go out(side)                             face down; la bar~ i …(’dâ) in front
chûnka ‫ﮑﻪ‬s‫ = ﭼﻮو‬chonka                                  of, before
chûz ‫ ﭼـــــــــــــﻮوز‬straight line; circle; line,   dam3 ‫ دﻩم‬power; ~-u-dazgâ i dawłatî ‫دﻩم‬
  queue                                                 ‫ـﻪﰏ‬T‫ و دﻩزﮔـﺎى دﻩو‬state apparatus, govern-
chûza ‫ ﭼﻮوزﻩ‬stinger (insect)                            ment administration; ~-u-dû ‫دﻩم و دوو‬
chûzân ‫ ﭼـــــــﻮوزان‬chûze- ‫ ﭼـــــــﻮوزێ‬v.i. to        power of expression; cleverness
  burn, sting (as sun-burned skin)                    damałqopân ‫ــﻘــﯚﭘــﺎن‬T‫ دﻩﻣــﻪ‬baggy Kurdish
chwâr ‫ ﭼــــــﻮار‬four; ~am ‫ ﭼــــــﻮارﻩم‬fourth;         trousers
                     ‫ـ‬
  ~mashqî ‫ ﭼـﻮارﻣـﻪﺷﻘـﯽ‬crosslegged; ~pal              damâr ‫ دﻩﻣـــــــﺎر‬vein, root: am bardá, da-
  ‫ ﭼـﻮارﭘـﻪل‬quadruped; ~shamma ‫ﭼـﻮارﺷـﻪﳑـﻪ‬              mârî la khâk’dâ ya this rock is firmly
  Wednesday; ~shâna ‫ ﭼـــﻮارﺷـــﺎﻧـــﻪ‬broad-            rooted in the ground
  shouldered                                          danâ ‡‫ دﻩ‬otherwise, if not
chyâ ‫ ﭼ;ﺎ‬mountain                                     dang ‫ـﮓ‬s‫ دﻩ‬sound, voice; vote; ~-dân v.t.
                                                        to vote; ~-dânawa v.t. to reverberate,
da1 ‫ دﻩ‬particle occurring with imperative                                           ‫ـ‬
                                                        echo; ~a~ ‫ـﮓ‬s‫ﮕـﻪدﻩ‬s‫ دﻩ‬noise, outcry; be~
da2 ‫( دﻩ‬prep., with pre- or postposed                   ‫ﮓ‬s‫ ﺑ²ﺪﻩ‬silent; be~î ‫ﮕﯽ‬s‫ ﺑ²ﺪﻩ‬silence
  pronominal encl., te) in, into, on                  danûk ‫ دﻩﻧﻮوک‬bird’s beak
da3 ‫ دﻩ‬ten; ~ham ‫ دﻩﻫﻪم‬tenth                          daqîqa ‫ دﻩﻗ;ﻘﻪ‬minute
da- ‫ دﻩ‬habitual and progressive verbal                dar ‫ دﻩر‬out; ba ~awa out, outside; ~è
  prefix                                                 ‫ دﻩرێ‬outside; hâtinà ~e v.i. to come
dabân ‫ دﻩ¶ن‬steel                                        out, turn out
dafr ‫ دﻩﻓﺮ‬pot                                         dar- ‫ دﻩر‬cmpd. vb. agent, see dar-birîn,
dak ‫ دﻩک‬expletive of amazement                          dar-chûn, dar-henân, dar-kawtin; ~-
dakhîl ‫ دﻩ ــﻞ‬one taken under protection;
          ;‫ﺧ‬                                            kirdin v.t. to put out
  ~itim ‫ دﻩﺧ;ﻠﱲ‬please, I beg you                      dara ‫ دﻩرﻩ‬valley; ~bag ‫ دﻩرﻩﺑـــــــــﻪگ‬feudal
dał ‫ دﻩڵ‬the female of many animals,                     lord; ~bagî ‫ دﻩرﻩﺑ ـﻪﮔ ـﯽ‬feudal, feudal pe-
  she-; ~adew ‫ــــﻮ‬l‫ــــﻪد‬T‫ دﻩ‬she-demon; ~a-            riod
                                                  177
                                     SORANI KURDISH
daraja ‫ دﻩرﻩ•ﻪ‬rank, degree                           dasbaje ‰‫ = دﻩﺳ8ﺒﻪﺟ‬dastbaje
darakî ‫ دﻩرﻩﰽ‬estranged, foreigner, stran-            dasht ‫ دﻩﺷ ـﺖ‬desert, plain; ~akî ‫دﻩﺷ ـ8 ـﺘ ـﻪﰽ‬
  ger; bûn ba ~ to be “out in the cold”                villager
darâmat ‫ دﻩراﻣﻪت‬income                               dast ‫ دﻩﺳـــــــــﺖ‬hand, arm (verbal expres-
darbadar ‫ دﻩرﺑــــــﻪدﻩر‬homeless; ~î homel-            sions involving dast are given below;
  essness                                              for all other compounds, see alphabet-
darbâra i ‫ دﻩر¶رﻩی‬about, concerning                    ically); ba ~ henân v.t. to get, ac-
darbâz ‫ ﺑﻪر¶ز‬delivered, saved                          quire; ba ~ gayshtin v.i. to come to
darbiřîn ‫ـﻦ‬ag‫ ﺑـﻪر–ـ‬confession, plain speak-           hand, to be received; ~ ba âw gayân-
  ing                                                  din v.t. to go to the bath-room; ~ bar-
dar-chûn la qsa i … ‫ ﻗ ـﺴ ـﻪی‬v ‫ دﻩرﭼ ـﻮون‬to            dân la to cease: dastî la kâr bardâ he
  disobey                                              stopped working; ~ biłind-kirdin v.t.
dard ‫ دﻩرد‬pain, trouble; ~-dân ba to give              to resist; ~-birdin bo v.t. to fiddle
  trouble to: dardèkî pe dâyn it gave us               with, to stretch out the hand for; ~-
  some trouble; dard i sar ‫دﻩردی ﺳـــــــــﻪر‬          bizâw-tin v.t. to poke, push; ~ bo
  headache, trouble                                    dam meager existence, hand-to-
darenân ‫ﻨﺎن‬l‫ = دﻩر‬dar-henân                            mouth; ~-dânà …awa v.t. to under-
darfat ‫ دﻩرﻓﻪت‬opportunity                              take, carry out: dastim dâyà payjoîèk i
dargâ ‫ دﻩرﮔـــــﺎ‬door; la ~ drân for a knock           zortir-awa I carried out more re-
  to come at a door: la dargâ dadre                    search; ~drezhî kirdinà sar v.t. to
  there comes a knock at the door                      rape, violate; ~ hał-girtin la v.t. to
darhaq ‫ دﻩرﻫﻪق‬with regard to                           quit, leave alone: dastim le hałgrin
dark ‫ دﻩرک‬door                                         leave me alone; ~-kawtin v.i. to get,
darkhwârd i ‫ دﻩرﺧﻮاردی‬worthy of                        acquire; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to reach for;
darmân ‫ دﻩرﻣـــــﺎن‬medicine, remedy; gun-              to start (+ inf): dastî kird ba pekanîn
  powder; ~khâna ‫ دﻩرﻣـﺎﳔـﺎﻧـﻪ‬pharmacy; ~              he started laughing; ~-kirdinà … to
  i behoshî ‫ دﻩرﻣــــﺎﱏ ﺑــــ²ــــﻬــــﯚﳽ‬knock-out     put one’s hand/arm on/around: dastî
  drops, sleeping potion                               kirdà mil i bâwikî he put his arm
dar-pařândin ‫ .دﻩرﭘﻪڕاﻧﺪن‬See pařândin.                 around his father’s neck; ~ la pisht
dar-pařendrân ‫ـﻨـﺪران‬l‫ .دﻩرﭘـﻪڕ‬See pařen-              dân v.t. to pat on the back, to en-
  drân.                                                courage; ~ pân-kirdinawa v.t. to beg;
darpe ‰Š‫ ,دﻩرﭘـــــ‬darpî ‫ﯽ‬Š‫ دﻩرﭘـــــ‬underwear,        ~ pe-kirdin (+ inf.) to begin, start
  drawers                                              (do-ing): khwendin i khoy dast pe-kird
dars ‫ دﻩرس‬lesson; ~-dân v.t. to teach; ~-              he began studying; ~ pewa girtin v.t.
  khwendin v.t. to study                               to save, be frugal; ~-nân ba rû…awa
daru ‫ دﻩرو‬narrow valley; ~yek-girtin la                to turn someone away; ~-parzhân v.i.
  v.t. to put someone in a tight spot                  to have an opportunity: dastit dapar-
darûn ‫ دﻩروون‬interior, inside                          zhe kâre-kim bo bikay? do you have
darwesh ‫ــــــــﺶ‬â‫ دﻩرو‬dervish; ~î of or per-          the time to do something for me?
  taining to dervishes: jil u barg i dar-              dastim nâparzhe I don’t have the
  weshî dervish costume                                time, I can’t get to it; ~-qutân to
darz1 ‫ دﻩرز‬crack                                       grope; ~-qûchândin v.t. to be stingy;
darz2 ‫ = دﻩرز‬dars                                      ~ tekał-kirdin lagał to have carnal
das- ‫ دﻩس‬for all words beginning with                  relations with; ~ u dił yekî-girtin v.t.
  das-, see under dast                                 to be at ease, have peace of mind:
                                                 178
                         SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  khałk îtir dast u dił’yân yekî nadagirt             dastnakhurda ‫ﻪﺧﻮردﻩ‬žn‫ دﻩﺳ‬untouched
  the people no longer had any peace of               dastnûs ‫ﻮوس‬žn‫ دﻩﺳ‬manuscript
  mind; ~-washândin v.t. to wave; la                  dastnwezh ‫ ـﻮ¤ ـﮋ‬ž‫ ـ‬n‫ دﻩﺳ ـ‬ablutions; ~-girtin
  bar ~ i …dâ in front of, in the pres-                 v.t. to make ablutions (for prayer)
  ence of, with                                       dastpař ‫ﻪڕ‬Ün‫ دﻩﺳ‬masturbation
dast- ‫ دﻩﺳﺖ‬for dawast- (see wastân)                   dastpiř gÎ‫ دﻩﺳ8ﺘ‬rich
dasta ‫ دﻩﺳـــــ8ـــــﺘـــــﻪ‬bunch, group, set; ~-u-   dasttang ‫ﮓ‬s‫ﻪ‬µn‫ دﻩﺳ‬poor
  dâyara ‫ دﻩﺳ8ﺘﻪ و داﯾﻪرﻩ‬retinue                      dast-u-dû ‫ دﻩﺳ8ﺘﻮدوو‬physical prowess
dastabar ‫ دﻩﺳ8ﺘﻪﺑﻪر‬guarantor                          dastûr ‫ دﻩﺳ8ﺘﻮور‬constitution
dastałât ‫ت‬Ÿ‫ دﻩﺳـــ8ـــﺘـــﻪ‬authority; ~dâr au-        dastwâłâ Ÿ‫ دﻩﺳ8ﺘﻮا‬empty-handed
  thority, one in authority; be~î lack of             dawan ‫ دﻩوﻩن‬bush
  authority                                           dawâ ‫ دﻩوا‬medicine; ~ u darmân medi-
dastamo ‫ دﻩﺳ8ﺘﻪﻣﯚ‬tame                                   cation and remedy
dastasiř g‫ دﻩﺳ8ﺘﻪﺳ‬handkerchief                        dawâm-kirdin ‫ـــــﺮدن‬B ‫ دﻩوام‬v.t. to last, en-
                            ‫ﻧ‬
dastaw-azhno ‫ دﻩﺳـ8ـﺘـﻪوﺋـﻪژـﯚ‬grieving, be-             dure
  reaved                                              dawâr ‫ دﻩوار‬nomadic tent; tent material
dastawâna ‫ دﻩﺳ8ﺘﻪواﻧﻪ‬glove                            dawl ‫ دﻩول‬drum
dastândast ‫ دﻩﺳـ8ـﺘـﺎﻧـﺪﻩﺳـﺖ‬nearby, next to           dawłamand ‫ﻪﻣﻪﻧﺪ‬T‫ دﻩو‬rich
  one another: gund i ema u gund i ewa                dawłat ‫ـــــﻪت‬T‫ دﻩو‬wealth; state; ~î ‫ـــــﻪﰏ‬T‫دﻩو‬
  ~in your village and ours are next to                 state (adj.), governmental
  each other                                          dawr ‫ دﻩور‬era, time; ~bar gařân to go
dastâw ‫ دﻩﺳ8ﺘﺎو‬bathroom, toilet                         around, about; ~-geřân v.t. to turn
                                8
dastâwdast ‫ دﻩﺳــــﺘــﺎودﻩﺳــﺖ‬from hand to              circles; ~ u pisht i around (prep.); ba
  hand, from one person to another                      ~ …dâ around (prep.)
dastâwez ‫ دﻩﺳ8ﺘﺎو¤ﺰ‬pretext; gift                      dawra ‫ دﻩورﻩ‬circle; ~-dân v.t. to sur-
dastbaje ‰‫ﻪﺟ‬mn‫ دﻩﺳ‬immediately, at once                  round: dawra’yân dâbû they had him
dastbarsar ‫ـــﻪرﺳـــﻪر‬m‫ـــ‬n‫ دﻩﺳـــ‬under surveil-        surrounded
  lance; under guard                                  dawrân ‫ دﻩوران‬era, epoch; a long period
                    ‫ـ ـ ــ‬
dastbasta ‫ـﻪﺳ8ﺘـﻪ‬mn‫ دﻩﺳ‬hands tied, incapa-              of time; circuit, circle; ~-kirdin ba
  ble, unable, total surrender                          v.t. to take a turn on (a horse)
dastbatâł ‫ڵ‬c‫ﻪ‬mn‫ دﻩﺳ‬idle                               dawrî ‫ دﻩوری‬plate
dastbiłâw ‫و‬Ëmn‫ دﻩﺳ‬spendthrift                         day ‫ دﻩی‬hey, c’mon, look here
dastbiř É‫ دﻩﺳ ـ8 ـﺘ ـ‬one who fools or plays a         daz ‫ = دﻩز‬dast: ~baje immediately, at
  trick                                                 once; ~gâ ‫ دﻩزﮔـــــــــــــﺎ‬apparatus; ~gîrân
                          ‫ــ‬
dastdrezh ‫ دﻩﺳ8ﺘـﺪر¤ـﮋ‬aggressive, usurper,              ‫ دﻩزﮔﲑان‬fiancé
  influential                                          dazu ‫ دﻩزو‬thread
                                  8
dastgir-bûn ‫ دﻩﺳــــﺘــﮕــﺮ ﺑــﻮون‬v.i. to be ac-      dâ- ‫ دا‬compound verbal prefix, for dâ-
  quired: hîchyân das(t)gîr nâbe they                   kirdin only see alphabetically below;
  acquire nothing, they wind up with                    for other compound verbs see under
  nothing                                               the verbal element: dâ-bazîn, dâ-dân,
dasthaq ‫ دﻩﺳ8ﳤﻪق‬wage                                    dâ-diřîn, dâ-gîrân, dâ-hâtin, dâ-
dastik ‫ دﻩﺳ8ﺘﮏ‬handle, grip; bunch                       kanin, dâ-khistin, dâ-nawândin, dâ-
dastkârî-kiran ‫ ـﺮان‬B ‫ دﻩﺳ ـ8 ـﺘ ـﲀری‬v.p. to be         nân, dâ-nîshtin, dâ-mazrândin, dâ-
  tampered with                                         rinân, dâ-rizân, dâ-rizhândin
dastkhat ‫ﻪت‬Ø‫ دﻩﺳ8ﺘ‬handwriting                         ’dâ ‫( دا‬postposition with the preposition
                                                  179
                                    SORANI KURDISH
  la) in, at: l’ewa’dâ there, in that place;          to rest, prop (s.th.) on …: ânîshk i
  l’ aw sa‘âtá’dâ at that time; (’dâ con-             râstî dâdâyà sar mezaká he propped
  tracts to ’á, particularly after nasals)            his right elbow on the table; hał-~ (1)
  la dił i khom’â witim I said to myself              to cast up, hurl up; (2) to blossom:
dâbash ‫ دادﻩش‬portion, division; ~-                    shînâwar-dakát hałî dâwa your gar-
  kirdin v.t. to divide; ~-krânà sar v.p.             den has blossomed; hał-~ la sar to
  to be divided into; ~udâbir-kirdin ‫داﺑـﻪ‬            intervene on behalf of; hał-~ la to
  ‫ﺮدن‬B g–‫ شودا‬v.t. to divide and slice up             start (to speak): la jwâbâ hałî dâ he
dâbîn-kirdin ‫ـــﺮدن‬B ‫ داﺑـــﲔ‬v.t. to assemble,        started to answer; hał-~awa to raise:
  arrange                                             panjaraká hałdawa raise the sash; le-
dâd ‫ داد‬justice; ~-dân v.t. to give justice;          ~ to hit, strike; to throb: diłim ledadâ
  to be just; to work out for: aw dâdî                my heart is throbbing; to play (instru-
  nadâyn it didn’t work out for us                    ment): zuřnâ-kay zor khosh ledadâ he
dâdga ‫ دادﮔ ـﻪ‬court: ~ i harabarz supreme             played the flute very well; see also
  court                                               alphabetically under le-dân
dâgh ‫ داغ‬searing hot, scar; grief; ~-               dân2 ‫ دان‬grain, seed: ganimakám ~’î na-
  kirdin v.t. to sear, brand, scar                    girtûa my wheat has not set seed; ~
dâgir i ‫ﮔﺮی‬ä‫ د‬inclusive of, comprising                ba kho …’dâ girtin v.t. to have pa-
dâgîr-kirdin ‫ـــــﺮدن‬B ‫ﮔـــــﲑ‬ä‫ د‬v.t. to occupy,      tience, endure; ~-nahenân ba v.t. to
  usurp, take by force, oppress; ~kar                 place no value in: kâwrâ dân ba minâ
  ‫ﮔﲑﮐﻪر‬ä‫ د‬oppressor, oppressive                       nâhene the man places no value in me
dâkh ‫ داخ‬grief; la ~ân ‫ﺎن‬L‫ دا‬v in grief             dân3 ‫ دان‬tooth (= didân)
dâkhwâzînâma ‫ داﺧﻮازﯾﻨﺎﻣﻪ‬application                dânîshtû ‫ داﻧ›ﺸ8ﺘﻮو‬inhabitant
dâ-kirdin ‫ـــﺮدن‬B ‫ دا‬v.t. (1) to start raining:     dâpîr ‫ داﭘﲑ‬grandmother
  bârân dây kird it started raining; (2)            dâr ‫ دار‬tree, wood; staff, rod, stick;
  to put animals in a stable: ḥaywânakâ-              ~kârî-kirdin v.t. to beat with a stick;
  nim dâ kird I stabled the animals; (3)              khistinà zher ~ u falâqawa v.t. to put
  to pour grain in a bin: ganimaká’m                  to the bastinado; ~atarm ‫ دارﻩﺗــــﻪرم‬bier;
  dâkird I poured the grain (into the                 ~awâr ‫ دارﻩوار‬structure; ~das ‫داردﻩس‬
  bin)                                                walking stick, staff; ~istân ‫ دارﺳـــﺎن‬for-
                                                                                       ‫8ﺘ‬
dâł ‫ داڵ‬an opened seed pod                            est; ~în ‫ــــﻦ‬a‫ دار‬made of wood, wooden;
dâm ‫ ~ :دام‬u dazgâ ‫ دام و دﻩزﮔـــﺎ‬apparatus,          ~tâsh ‫ش‬c‫ دار‬carpenter
  power, authority                                  dârezhar ‫ دار¤ﮋﻩر‬molder, formulator
dâmâwî ‫ داﻣﺎوی‬tribulation                           dâshtin: hał-~ ‫ـﺪاﺷـﱳ‬T‫ ﻫـﻪ‬v.t. to hurl (from
dâmen ‫ ـﻦ‬Œ‫ داﻣ ـ‬skirt; ~-girtin v.t. to beset:        a height)
  am bałâya dâmenî girtûm I am beset                dâw ‫ داو‬trap; ~ dâ-khistin v.t. to set a
                                          8
  by this disaster; dastim ~it ‫دﻩﺳــــــــــــــﱲ‬     trap
  ‫ داﻣ´ﻨﺖ‬I beg you                                  dâwar ‫ داوﻩر‬judge; ~î judging
dân1 ‫ دان‬da- ‫( دﻩ‬v.t., impt. sing. bídara,          dâwâ ‫ داوا‬demand; ~-kirdin la v.t. to ask
  in compounds, da ‫ ;دﻩ‬pass. dirân ‫)دران‬              of, demand of
  to give, pay; ba …awa ~ to bite,                  dâwen ‫ = داو¤ـﻦ‬dâmen; ~pâkî ‫ـ˜ﰽ‬ÜÀl‫ داو‬in-
                                                                                          ‫ــ‬
  sting: mâr gutî petawa dadam “I’ll                  nocence, purity
  bite you,” the snake said; mâr pewa’y             dâwkhwâz ‫ داوﺧﻮاز‬volunteer
  dâwin they’ve been bitten by a snake;             dâya ‫ داﯾـــﻪ‬mother; nurse; ~pîra ‫داﯾـــﻪﭘـــﲑﻩ‬
  dâ-~ to sharpen (pencil); dâ-~à sar …               grandmother
                                                180
                           SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
dâyara ‫ داﯾﻪرﻩ‬office                                      dirân ‫ دران‬dre- ‫ درێ‬v.p. passive of dân;
dâyik ‫ــــــﮏ‬a‫ دا‬mother; la ~ bûn v.i. to be               la dargâ ~ for a knock to come at a
  born                                                     door
de ‫ دێ‬village                                            diřân ‫ دڕان‬see diřrân
de- ‫ دێ‬pres. indicative stem of hâtin                    dirâw ‫ دراو‬dirhem
deł- Çl‫ = د‬daheł-. See heshtin.                          diregh(î) ‫ــــﻎ‬l‫ــــﻐــــﯽ، در‬l‫ در‬shortcoming; ~-
den- ‫ = د¤ﻦ‬dahen-. See henân.                              kirdin v.t. to be inadequate
deř g¤‫ د‬line                                             dirinj ‫ درﱋ‬demon
derîn ‫ــــــﻦ‬a‫ د¤ــــــﺮ‬ancient, old: aw nâwcha          diřîn ‫ـــــﻦ‬a‫ دڕ‬diř- ‫ دڕ‬v.t. to rip; dâ-~ to rip
  shwenawârî a derînâná i Kurdistân                        (cloth)
  the ancient monumental regions of                      diřik ‫ دڕک‬thorn
  Kurdistan                                              diřinda ‫ دڕﻧﺪﻩ‬savage, bestial
dew ‫ﻮ‬l‫ د‬demon                                            dirkândin ‫ درﰷﻧـــﺪن‬dirken- ‫ـــﻦ‬Œ‫ درﮐـــ‬v.t. to
didân ‫ ددان‬tooth                                           confess; to pronounce; disclose, re-
dił ‫ دڵ‬heart, interior: la dił i khom’â                    veal (secret, &c.)
  witim I said to myself; ~-râgirtin to                  diro ‫ = درۆ‬dro
  make happy; ~-shikândin v.t. to                        diřrân ‫ دڕان‬v.p. to be ripped
  break the heart: diłmân mashikena                      dirust ‫ دروﺳـﺖ‬right, correct; ~-kirdin v.t.
  don’t break our hearts; ba ~ i kho to                    to make, build, construct
  one’s heart’s desire; ~band i ‫ـــﺒـــﻪﻧـــﺪی‬T‫د‬         dirûn ‫ دروون‬dirû- ‫ دروو‬v.t. to stitch, sew;
  interested in; ~dâr ‫ـــــــﺪار‬T‫ د‬sweetheart;             hał-~ to seam together
  ~girân ‫ـــــﮕـــــﺮان‬T‫ د‬disheartened, heavy-           dirwân ‫ دروان‬v.i.: hał-~ to be stitched
                              ‫ـ‬
  hearted; ~narm ‫ﻨـﻪرم‬T‫ د‬contented; ~nyâ                   together
  ‫ـــﻨـــﻴـــﺎ‬T‫ د‬la convinced of; ~pir ‫ـــﺮ‬Î‫ـــ‬T‫ د‬sad;   dirwena ‫ﻨﻪ‬l‫ درو‬reaping with sickle
  angry; ~raq ‫ـﺮﻩق‬T‫ د‬cold-hearted; ~sâda                 dirz ‫ درز‬crack; ~ i darwâza opening
  ‫ـﺴـﺎدﻩ‬T‫ د‬naïve; ~shikâw ‫ـﺸـﲀو‬T‫ د‬broken-                  between two double doors
  hearted; ~soz ‫ـــــــﺴـــــــﯚز‬T‫ د‬sympathetic;         diz ‫ دز‬thief; ~î thievery, stealth; ba ~a
  ~tang ‫ـــــﮓ‬s‫ـــــﺘـــــﻪ‬T‫ د‬sad, lonely; ~tangî          stealthily; ba ~ i unbeknownst to
  ‫ـﮕـﯽ‬s‫ـﺘـﻪ‬T‫ د‬sadness, loneliness; ~tař ‫ـﺘـﻪڕ‬T‫د‬          dizh i ‫ , دژی‬dizh ba ‫ دژ ﺑــــﻪ‬against, vis-à-
  glad, happy; ~tazen ‫ـــﺘـــﻪز¤ـــﻦ‬T‫ د‬tragedy,            vis: gawra-pyâwân i gund dizh i am
  calamity                                                 qsâná râdawastân the old men of the
diłop ‫ ـﯚپ‬T‫ د‬drop; ~ a khwenèk a drop of                   village took a stance against this talk;
  blood                                                    farmân’î ba kuřakáy dâ dizh i duzh-
dimârakoł ‫ دﻣﺎرﻩﮐﯚڵ‬scorpion                                min shař bikâ he ordered his son to
dinân ‫ د‡ن‬tooth                                            fight against the enemy
dinyâ ‫ دﻧـــﻴـــﺎ‬world, weather: dinyâ zistân            dî1 ‫ دی‬sight; ba ~ henân v.t. to bring
                                        ‫ـ‬
  bû it was winter; ~dîtin ‫ دﻧﻴـﺎدﯾـﱳ‬world-                about, produce; ba ~ kirdin v.t. to
  ly experience                                            notice, to discern; to see, to spy: hîch i
dir- ‫( در‬for words beginning with dir-,                    wâ’m tyâ ba dî nakird I didn’t notice
  see also dr-)                                            anything like that wrong with him;
diř- ‫ دڕ‬pres. stem of dirîn; see also dr-                  hâtinà ~ to come about, to happen
dirakht ‫ درﻩﺧﺖ‬tree                                       dî2 ‫ دی‬other; again: bo chandân jâr i dî
dirang ‫ﮓ‬s‫ درﻩ‬late; ~-bûn v.i. to be late                   several other times
dirawshân(awa) ‫ درﻩوﺷﺎن‬v.i. to shine                     dîdâr ‫ دﯾﺪار‬interview, meeting
dirâsa ‫ دراﺳﻪ‬lesson, study                               dîka ‫ـــﮑـــﻪ‬a‫( د‬adj.) other; (adv.) any more,
                                                     181
                                   SORANI KURDISH
  further                                           ‫ﺮ‬ŒL ‫ دو`ﺎی‬prayer for well-being
dîl ‫ دﯾـــــﻞ‬prisoner; ba ~ girtin v.t. to take   dugma ‫ دوﮔـــــﻤـــــﻪ‬button; ~ dâ-khistin to
  prisoner                                          button: ~ i châkatay dâ-khist he but-
dîlmânj ‫ دﯾﻠﲈﱋ‬interpretor                           toned his jacket
dîman ‫ دﳝﻪن‬aspect, mien                           dukân ‫ ,دوﰷن‬dukkân ‫ دوﮐـــﲀن‬shop; ~dâr
dîmugrâfyâ ‫ دﳝﻮﮔﺮاﻓ;ﺎ‬demography                     ‫ دوﰷﻧﺪار‬shopkeeper
dîmukrât ‫ﺮات‬B‫ دﳝﻮ‬democratic                       dund ‫ دوﻧﺪ‬summit, top of mountain
dîn ‫ﻦ‬a‫ د‬bîn- ‫ ﺑﲔ‬v.t. to see                       dunyâ ‫ = دوﻧﻴﺎ‬dinyâ
dîřok ‫ۆک‬ga‫ د‬legend                                duř ‫ دوڕ‬middle; large pearl
dîsân ‫ د§ﺴﺎن‬again, once more                      duwân ‫ = دوان‬dwân
dîtin ‫ دﯾـﱳ‬bîn- ‫ ﺑـﲔ‬v.t. to see; ~awa ‫د ـــﻪوﻩ‬
                                            žn‫ﯾ‬   duzhmin ‫ دوژﻣ ـﻦ‬enemy; ~âyat ‫ ـﺎﯾ ـﻪت‬ž‫دوژﻣ ـ‬
  to find                                            enmity
dîw ‫ دﯾﻮ‬side                                      dû ‫ دوو‬two; ~am ‫ دووﻩم‬second; ~barakî
dîwakhâna ‫ﺎﻧﻪ‬L‫ دﯾﻮﻩ‬living room                      ‫ دووﺑــــــﻪرﻩﰽ‬enmity; ~bâra ‫ دوو¶رﻩ‬again,
dîwân ‫ دﯾﻮان‬assembly hall, court                    once more; ~dił ‫ دوودڵ‬hesitant,
dîwâr ‫ دﯾﻮار‬wall                                    hesitating; ~dił la v ‫ دوودڵ‬distrustful
do ‫ دۆ‬yoghurt and water beverage                    of, suspicious of; ~ham ‫ دووﻫــــــــﻪم‬sec-
do‘â ‫ = دۆ`ﺎ‬du‘â                                    ond; ~shamma ‫ دووﺷﻪﳑﻪ‬Monday
doł ‫ دۆڵ‬valley                                    dûkał ‫دوﮐﻪڵ‬smoke
dořândin ‫ دۆڕاﻧﺪن‬dořen- ‫ﻦ‬a‫ دۆڕ‬v.t. to lose        dûkyân ‫ــﻴــﺎن‬B‫ دوو‬the two of them, both of
dosh dâ-mân ‫ دۆش داﻣـــــــــﺎن‬v.i. to be at a      them
  loss for words                                  dûpât ‫ دووﭘـــــــﺎت‬statement; ~-kirdinawa
doshâw ‫ دۆﺷﺎو‬grape molasses                         v.t. to make a statement
dost ‫ دۆﺳـﺖ‬friend; ~âna ‫ دۆ ـــﺎﻧـﻪ‬friendly;
                                 ‫ﺳ8ﺘ‬              dûpishk ‫ﺸﮏ‬é‫ دوو‬scorpion
  ~âyatî ‫ دۆﺳ8ﺘﺎﯾﻪﰏ‬friendship                     dûr ‫ دوور‬far; la ~awa from afar; ~bîn
dozîn ‫ ـﻦ‬a‫ دۆز‬doz- ‫ دۆز‬v.t. to search for; to       ‫ دوورﺑﲔ‬telescope, camera
  find; ~awa ‫ دۆزﯾـــــﻨـــــﻪوﻩ‬to find, recover,   dûrân ‫ دووران‬dûr- ‫ = دوور‬dirwân
  discover                                        dûrînawa ‫ دوورﯾﻨﻪوﻩ‬v.t. to gather, harvest
dr- ‫( در‬for words beginning with dr-,             dûrrân ‫ دوورران‬dûrre- ‫ دووررێ‬v.p. to be
  see also dir-)                                    sewn, stitched up
drakht ‫ درﻩﺧﺖ‬tree                                 dûzhmin ‫ = دووژﻣﻦ‬duzhmin
drân ‫ = دران‬dirân                                 dwâ ‫ دوا‬last (precedes word it modifies):
drâwse ‰‫ دراوﺳ‬neighbor                              ~ sâł last year, ~ shaw last night; ~ i
drezh ‫ در¤ـــــــــﮋ‬long; ~-bûn v.i. to stretch     after (prep); ~ i awaî (ka) after (conj);
  out; ~âî ‫ در¤ـﮋاﰃ‬length; ~a-dân ‫در¤ـﮋﻩ دان‬        ~î ‫ دواﰃ‬last, final; ~rozh ‫ دوارۆژ‬future;
  v.t. to continue                                  ba ~ i …dâ nârdin to send for (s.o.);
drisht ‫ درﺷﺖ‬large                                   la ~î’dâ ka after (conj); l’ am
dro ‫ درۆ‬lie; ~-kirdin v.t. to lie                   ~îâná’dâ recently
droshm ‫ درۆﴌ‬sign, distinguishing mark             dwân ‫ دوان‬dwe- ‫ دوێ‬la v.i. to speak of,
drushm ‫ دروﴌ‬design; brightness, bril-               talk about
  liance                                          dwândin ‫ دواﻧ ـﺪن‬dwen- ‫ دو¤ ـﻦ‬v.t. to speak
drust ‫ = دروﺳﺖ‬dirust                                to, address: mamdwena! don’t speak
duam ‫ = دوﻩم‬dûham                                   to me!; daydwândim he was speaking
du‘â ‫ دو`ــــﺎ‬prayer, supplication; ~-kirdin        to me
  bo v.t. to pray for someone; ~ i kher           dwe(ka) ‫ دو¤ﮑﻪ، دوێ‬yesterday, last night
                                              182
                         SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
dwene ê‫ دﯾـــــﯚ‬yesterday; ~ sháwe ‫ـــــﻮێ‬l‫د‬          ezing ‫ﮓ‬s‫ﺰ‬Œ‫ ﺋ‬kindling
  ‫ ﺷﻪوێ‬last night
dyâr ‫ر‬p‫ د‬clear, obvious; ~-kirdin v.t. to             fakhr ‫ ﻓﻪﺧﺮ‬pride
  clarify; ba ~awa bûn v.i. to be visi-               falâ ‫ ﻓﻪﻻ‬peasant, farmer
  ble, in view; ba ~î clearly, obviously;             falâkat ‫ ﻓـــﻪﻻﮐـــﻪت‬misery, difficulty, mis-
  ~îkirâw ‫ﮑﺮاو‬a‫ر‬p‫ د‬obvious                               fortune
dyârî ‫ری‬p‫ د‬present, gift                              falâqa ‫ ﻓﻪﻻﻗﻪ‬bastinado
                                                      faqe Õ‫ ﻓﻪ‬student
-è1 variant of the indefinite suffix -èk                faqîr ‫ ﻓﻪﻗﲑ‬poor; ~î poverty
-è2 directional suffix occurring on cer-               farangî ‫ﮕﯽ‬s‫ ﻓﻪرﻩ‬European
   tain nouns like zhûrè ‫ ژوورێ‬upwards,               farâham-kirdin ‫ـﺮدن‬B ‫ ﻓـﻪراﻫـﻪم‬v.t. to make
   darè ‫ دﻩرێ‬outwards, mâłè ‰‫ــ‬T‫ ﻣــﺎ‬home-               available
   wards, and as a variant of the direc-              Farânsa ‫ﺴﻪ‬ë‫ ﻓﻪرا‬France
   tional enclitic à on verbs when the                farâwân ‫ ﻓﻪراوان‬abundant, large-scale
   complement of the directional is an                farhang ‫ـﮓ‬s‫ ﻓـﻪرﻫـﻪ‬culture; ~dost ‫ـﮓ‬s‫ﻓـﻪرﻫـﻪ‬
   enclitic pronoun: náygamè I won’t                     ‫ دۆﺳـــــــﺖ‬cultured, culture-loving; ~ok
   reach it, shitèk’î dadâtè he’ll give him              ‫ﮕﯚک‬s‫ ﻓﻪرﻫﻪ‬glossary
   something                                          Farhâd ‫ ﻓــــــﻪرﻫــــــﺎد‬Farhad, a character in
            ‫ــ ـ‬
ejgâr ‫ ﺋ²ﺠﮕـﺎر‬very, very much; ~î ‫ﺋ²ﺠﮕـﺎری‬     ‫ــ ـ‬      Nizami’s poem who falls in love with
   at all, ever: ~ nâydwenim I don’t ever                Shirin
   speak to him; all at once: ~ bârim                 farmân ‫ ﻓــﻪرﻣــﺎن‬order, command; ~ ba je
   kird I got up and left                                henân v.t. to obey an order, to carry
-èk ‫ ¤ﮏ‬indefinite suffix: pyâwèk a man                     out an order; ~ i khwâ ba je henân to
el ‫ ﺋ²ﻞ‬nation, tribe, people                             obey God’s command, to die; ~-dân
ema ‫ ﺋ²ﻤﻪ‬we, us                                          ba v.t. to command; ~bar ‫ ﻓـﻪرﻣـﺎ ــﻪر‬offi-
                                                                                              ‫ﻧﺒ‬
era ‫ـﺮﻩ‬Œ‫ ﺋـ‬here; l’~(dâ) (‫ـﺮﻩ)دا‬Œ‫ ﻟـ‬here, in this        cial
   place; l’~wa ‫ﺮﻩوﻩ‬Œ‫ ﻟ‬from here, hence               farmâyish ‫ ﻓــــﻪرﻣــــﺎ§ــــﺶ‬order, command;
Erân ‫ﺮان‬Œ‫ ﺋ‬Iran; ~î ‫ﺮاﱏ‬Œ‫ ﺋ‬Iranian                              ‫ـ‬
                                                         ‫~ ﻓـﻪرﻣـﺎ§ﺸـﺖ‬t speech; ~t a mift ‫ﻓـﻪرﻣـﺎ§ـﺸـــﻪ‬
                                                                                                 ‫8ﺘ‬
‘Eřâq ‫اق‬gŒ` Iraq; ~î ‫اﰵ‬gŒ` Iraqi                         ‫ ﻣﻔﺖ‬empty compliment
erayî ‫ــﺮﻩﱙ‬Œ‫ ﺋــ‬jealousy; ~-birdin ba v.t. to         farmûn ‫ ﻓـــﻪرﻣـــﻮون‬farmû- ‫ ﻓـــﻪرﻣـــﻮو‬v.t. to
   be jealous of: erayî’yân pe dabird                    command, to say (polite); (impt.)
   they were jealous of him                              please: farmû dânîsha please sit down
          ‫ـ‬
esh ‫ـﺶ‬Œ‫ ﺋ‬pain, ache; sar~a ‫ـﺸـﻪ‬â‫ ﺳـﻪر‬head-            fatârat ‫رﻩت‬c‫ ﻓـﻪ‬calamity; sar i … dân ba
   ache                                                  ~’dâ to bring calamity down on …
eshik-girtin ‫ـــﻦ‬Ž‫ـــﺸـــﮏ ﮔـــﺮ‬Œ‫ ﺋـــ‬v.t. to keep    fawt ‫ ﻓ ـﻪوت‬loss, death; ~ân ‫ن‬c‫ ﻓ ـﻪو‬fawte-
   watch                                                 ì‫ ﻓــــــﻪو‬v.i. to cease to exist; to be lost;
esk ‫ﺴﮏ‬Œ‫ = ﺋ‬esqân                                         to be all in, exhausted; ~ândin ‫ﻧـﺪن‬c‫ﻓـﻪو‬
esqân ‫ﺴﻘﺎن‬Œ‫ ﺋ‬bone                                        fawten- ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ ﻓﻪوﺗ‬v.t. to give up, to lose
estâ ‫ﺴ8ﺘـﺎ‬Œ ‫ ﺋ‬now; l’~wa ‫ﺴ8ﺘـﺎوﻩ‬Œ ‫ ﻟ‬as of now,
        ‫ــ ــ‬                 ‫ــ ــ‬                   fâks ‫ﺲ‬B˜‫ ﻓ‬fax
   from now on                                        fâmîn ‫ ﻓﺎﻣﲔ‬fâm- ‫ ﻓﺎم‬v.t. to understand
estga ‫ﺴ8ﺘﮕﻪ‬Œ‫ ﺋ‬station                                 feł Ç‫ ﻓـــــ´ـــــ‬trick; ~-kirdin la v.t. to play a
estir ‫ﺴﱰ‬Œ‫ ﺋ‬mule                                                                     ‫ــ‬
                                                         trick on; ~abâz ‫ـﻪ¶ز‬k´‫ ﻓ‬wily; ~bâzî ‫ـﻪ‬k´‫ﻓ‬     ‫ــ‬
ewa ‫ ﺋ²ﻮﻩ‬you (pl)                                        ‫ ¶زی‬trickery
ewâra ‫ ﺋــ²ــﻮارﻩ‬evening: ~t bâsh good eve-           fenik ‫ﺮک‬Œ‫ ﻓ‬cool
   ning                                                      ‫ـ‬
                                                      fer ‫ـﺮ‬Œ‫ ﻓ‬acquainted; ~-bûn v.i. to learn: la
                                                  183
                                      SORANI KURDISH
   kwe fer i kurdî bûy? where did you                   a lot of, much, many: ~ gařân they
   learn Kurdish?; ~-kirdin v.t. to teach               searched a lot; ~nâs ‫ ﮔﻪﻟﻨﺎس‬sociologist
feřo ‫ۆ‬g‫ــــ‬Œ‫ ﻓــــ‬free, gratis; ba ~ for free, for    gał ‫ ﮔﻪڵ‬space between the legs
   nothing, for no reason; ba ~ dân v.t.              gałâ Ÿ‫ ﮔ ـﻪ‬leaf: wakû gałâ i dâr as numer-
   to squander, waste: bakhtî ba feřo                   ous as leaves on a tree
   dâwa he’s wasted his chance                        gałârezân ‫ر¤ـﺰان‬Ÿ‫ ﮔـﻪ‬autumn; the month of
fiłân ‫ ﻓﻼن‬so-and-so, dummy name                          Scorpio (October 23–November 21)
         ‫ــ‬                              ‫ـــ‬
fiłeq ‫²ـﻖ‬k‫ ﻓ‬flat, squashed; ~ân ‫²ﻘـﺎن‬k‫ ﻓ‬fiłe-            gałâwej ‫ـــﺞ‬l‫و‬Ÿ‫ ﮔـــﻪ‬the month of Leo (July
                 ‫ـ‬
   qe- ‰‫ـ²ـﻘـ‬k‫ ﻓ‬v.i. to be mashed, squashed;            23–August 22)
                        ‫ـ‬                 ‫ـ‬
   ~ândin ‫ـ²ـﻘـﺎﻧـﺪن‬k‫ ﻓ‬fiłeqen- ‫ـﻦ‬Œ‫ـ²ـﻘـ‬k‫ ﻓ‬v.t. to     gałoz ‫ـــﯚز‬T‫ ﮔـــﻪ‬space between a dog’s legs:
   mash, squash                                         kilkî da gałozî girt (the dog) stuck its
finjân ‫ﺎن‬íž‫ ﻓ‬cup                                         tail between its legs
fiř g‫ ﻓ‬light, delicate; false                          gałû ‫ﻮو‬T‫ ﮔﻪ‬throat
fira ‫ ﻓﺮﻩ‬very, much                                    gan ‫ ﮔﻪن‬putrid, evil-smelling
fiře-dân ‫ێ دان‬g‫ ﻓـ‬v.t. to throw away, toss,            gandał ‫ ﮔﻪﻧﺪﻩڵ‬rotten tree
   hurl                                               ganim ‫ ﮔﻪﱎ‬wheat
fiř|ândin ‫اﻧـــــﺪن‬g‫ ﻓـــــ‬v.t. to make fly, to fly      ganî ‫ ﮔـﻪﱏ‬bad odor, rotten smell; ~n ‫ﮔـﻪﻧـﲔ‬
   away with; ~în ‫ﻦ‬ag‫ ﻓ‬fiř- g‫ ﻓ‬v.i. to fly                v.i. to stink
firmesk ‫ ـﺴ ـﮏ‬Œ‫ ﻓ ـﺮﻣ ـ‬tear; ~ hał-rishtin v.t.        ganj1 ‫ ﮔﻪﱋ‬treasure
   to shed tears                                      ganj2 ‫ ﮔﻪﱋ‬young
fiřoka ‫ۆﮐـﻪ‬g‫ ﻓـ‬airplane; ~khâna ‫ـﺎﻧـﻪ‬L‫ۆﮐـﻪ‬g‫ﻓـ‬          garak ‫ ﮔﻪرﻩک‬it is necessary (+ subj.)
   airport                                            gařak ‫ ﮔـــــــﻪڕﻩک‬quarter (of town), neigh-
fiřufeł Ç´‫وﻓ‬g‫ ﻓ‬deception, trick                          borhood
firyâ-kawtin ‫ـﻦ‬Ž‫ ﮐـﻪو‬p‫ ﻓـﺮ‬v.i. to arrive at an         gařân ‫ ﮔـﻪڕان‬gaře- ‫ ﮔـﻪڕێ‬v.i. to turn, wan-
   opportune moment; to come to some-                   der, search; ~ ba dwâ i to search for,
   one’s assistance                                     look for; ~awa to return, come back;
fish ‫ ﻓﺶ‬flabby, soft                                      hał-~ to be changed, transformed,
fitwâ ‫ﻮا‬µ‫ ﻓ‬legal opinion, permission                     (with colors) to be …ish: sûrhałga-
fînga ‫ ﻓ;ﻨﮕﻪ‬snivveling                                  řâw reddish; ~ la to quit, leave alone:
fîs ‫ ﻓ›ﺲ‬wet                                             lem gařen leave me alone; ~ la to
fîsâr ‫ ﻓ›ﺴﺎر‬so-and-so, such-and-such                    look for: shitèkim gum kirdawa, ley
fîshak ‫ ﻓ›ﺸـﻪک‬cartridge; ~ligh ‫ ﻓ›ﺸـﻪﳇـﻎ‬car-
                   ‫ــ‬                       ‫ــ‬          dagařem I’m looking for something I
   tridge belt                                          lost; da sar ~ to get (s.th.) out of
fîshkândin ‫ ﻓ›ﺸﲀﻧﺪن‬v.t. to whinny, neigh                one’s head
fîz ‫ ﻓﲒ‬pride                                          gard ‫ ﮔﻪرد‬dust
fre ‫ = ﻓﺮێ‬fire                                         gardâw ‫ ﮔﻪرداو‬whirlpool
froshtin ‫ ﻓﺮۆﺷﱳ‬frosh- ‫ ﻓﺮۆش‬v.t. to sell               gardin ‫ ﮔـﻪردن‬neck (of an animal, bottle);
fû-dân ‫ ﻓــــــــﻮو دان‬v.t. to puff up, blow up         ~âzâî-kirdin la ‫ـــــﺮدن‬B ‫ ﮔـــــﻪرد‡زاﰃ‬v.t. to
   (balloon, e.g.)                                      bid farewell to
                                                      gařîda ‫ ﮔﻪڕﯾﺪﻩ‬wanderer
ga ‫ ﮔـــــــــــــــــــﻪ‬joint: pâm la ~ chûwa I’ve   garm ‫ ﮔـــﻪرم‬warm, hot; ~â ‫ ﮔـــﻪرﻣـــﺎ‬heat: ~ i
  sprained my ankle                                     nîwařo midday heat; ~en ‫ ﮔـﻪر ــﻦ‬warm
                                                                                        Œ‫ﻣ‬
gach ‫ ﮔﻪچ‬plaster                                        region; ~î ‫ ﮔﻪرﻣﯽ‬warmth
gał ‫ = ﮔﻪڵ‬lagał                                       garû ‫ ﮔــــﻪروو‬neck, throat: wâ hast dakam
gal ‫ ﮔـﻪل‬flock, herd, people; ~è ‰‫ ﮔـﻪﻟـ‬a lot,           garûmî le piř bûwa I feel as though
                                                  184
                         SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  my throat is full of it; ba ~ i …’dâ                gâsha ‫~ ,ﮔـﺎﺷـﻪ‬bard ‫ ﮔـﺎﺷـﻪﺑـﻪرد‬large stone,
  kirdin v.t. to put down s.o.’s throat,                 boulder
  to feed to                                          gâsin ‫ ﮔﺎﺳﻦ‬ploughshare
garzik ‫ ﮔﻪرزک‬ring                                     gâz ‫ ﮔﺎز‬bite; gas; ~-girtin la v.t. to bite
gash ‫ ﮔﻪش‬fiery red; lush                               gâzarâ ‫ ﮔﺎزﻩرا‬middle of the back, spine
gasha-kirdin ‫ـﺮدن‬B ‫ ﮔـﻪﺷـﻪ‬v.t. to sprout up,          gâzinda ‫ ﮔﺎزﻧﺪﻩ‬objection, criticism
  grow up                                             gâzir ‫ ﮔـــــﺎزر‬washerman, bleacher; ~-bûn
gasht ‫ ﮔﻪﺷﺖ‬trip, tour                                    to be bleached
gastin ‫ ﮔﻪﺷﱳ‬gaz- ‫ ﮔﻪز‬v.t. to bite                     gechał ‫ﻪڵ‬²‫ ﮔ‬quarrel, dispute
gavzân ‫ ﮔﻪﭬﺰان‬v.i. to roll over                       geřân ‫ان‬g‫ـ‬Œ‫ ﮔـ‬geře ‫ێ‬g‫ـ‬Œ‫ ﮔـ‬v.t. to turn; ~awa
gawař ‫ ﮔﻪوﻩڕ‬stable                                       ‫اﻧــــﻪوﻩ‬g‫ــــ‬Œ‫ ﮔــــ‬to relate, tell; war-~ to turn
gawâł ‫ ﮔـﻪواڵ‬wisp of cloud; gawâł-gawâł                  into, to translate; war-~à sar … to
  wispy                                                  translate into: am ktebáy wargeřâyà
gawj ‫ ﮔﻪوج‬stupid                                         sar fârsî he translated this book into
gawra ‫ ﮔـــﻪورﻩ‬large, big, great; ~î ‫ﮔـــﻪورﻩﰃ‬           Persian
  greatness; ~pyâw ‫ ﮔـﻪورﻩﭘـﻴـﺎو‬elder, dig-           gezh ‫ ـﮋ‬Œ‫ ﮔ ـ‬dizzy, spinning; ~-bûn to spin:
  nitary                                                 sarî gezh dabe his head will spin;
gawzân ‫ = ﮔﻪوزان‬gavzân                                                             ‫ـ‬
                                                         ~ałûka ‫ـﻮوﮐـﻪ‬T‫ـﮋﻩ‬Œ‫ ﮔ‬whirlwind; ~âw ‫ـﮋاو‬Œ‫ﮔ‬         ‫ـ‬
gayândin ‫ﻧـــﺪن‬p‫ ﮔـــﻪ‬gayen- ‫ـــﻦ‬Œ‫ ﮔـــﻪﯾـــ‬v.t. to      whirlpool
  make reach; kho-~à … to get oneself                 gh- (for most words beginning with gh-,
  to: khoy agayenetà nâw shâr he’ll get                  the Persianate spelling, see normal
  himself into town; lâwakân khoyân                      Kurdish spelling under kh-)
  gayândè the young men got thems-                    ghadir-kirdin la v ‫ﺮدن‬B ‫ ™ﻪدر‬v.t. to cheat
  elves there; râ-~ to make known,                    ghałat ‫ﻪت‬T‫ ™ﻪ‬error, mistake
  publicize                                           ghałpaghałip ‫ﭗ‬T‫ﭙﻪ™ﻪ‬T‫ ™ﻪ‬commotion
gayîn ‫ ﮔﻪﯾﲔ‬ga- ‫ ﮔﻪ‬v.i. to arrive                      gharîb ‫ ™ــــﻪرﯾــــﺐ‬stranger; ~î exile, being
gayshtin ‫ ﮔــﻪﺷــﱳ‬ga- ‫ ﮔــﻪ‬ba v.i. to arrive;            away from home
  te-~ to understand; pe-~ to ripen, ma-              ghaybzân ‫ ™ــــﻪﯾــــﱫان‬someone who knows
  ture, come of age                                      hidden things, seer, mindreader
gaz1 ‫ ﮔﻪز‬yard (linear measure)                        ghazal ‫ ™ـــﻪزﻩل‬ghazal, a Persianate poetic
gaz-2 ‫ ﮔﻪز‬pres. stem of gastin                           form
gâ ‫ ﮔﺎ‬cow                                             ghazna ‫ = ™ﻪزﻧﻪ‬khazna
gâł-dan ‫ ﮔﺎڵ دان‬v.t. to stir up                       ghâr-dân ‫ ™ﺎر دان‬v.t. to run
gâła ‫ ـﻪ‬T‫ ﮔ ـﺎ‬energetic labor; ~-kirdin ba to         gichik ‫ﮏ‬Â‫ ﮔ‬small, little
  work furiously at: chon dirwenayèk                              ‫ـ‬
                                                      gift ‫ ﮔﻔـﺖ‬word; promise; ~-dân ba v.t. to
  har gâłay pe dakâ he’s working on it                   promise; ~ugo ‫ ﮔﻔﺖوﮔﯚ‬conversation
  fast and furiously                                  gił Ç‫ ﮔـ‬dirt, mud; birdinà bin ~ to take to
gâłok ‫ﯚک‬T‫ ﮔﺎ‬club                                         the grave
          ‫ـ‬
gâłta ‫ﺘـﻪ‬T‫ ﮔـﺎ‬joke; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to make          gila ƒ‫ ﮔــــــــــ‬complaint; ~-kirdin la v.t. to
  fun of: gâłtayân pe dakrâ they were                    complain of
  being made fun of, a joke was being                 gilân ‫ ﮔـﻼن‬v.i. to be thrown: la asp gilâm
  played on them; ba ~wa ‫ـﺘـﻪوﻩ‬T‫ ﺑـﻪﮔـﺎ‬jok-              I was thrown from my horse; to stum-
  ingly                                                  ble: aspakám gilâ my horse stumbled;
gâmûsh ‫ ﮔﺎﻣﻮوش‬ox, buffalo                                to move, shake, toss and turn; ~din
gân ‫ ﮔﺎن‬ge- ‰‫ ﮔ‬v.t. to fuck                              ‫ ﮔ ـﻼﻧ ـﺪن‬gilen- ‫ ـﻦ‬Œ‫ ﮔ ـﻠ ـ‬v.t. to throw, toss,
                                                  185
                                    SORANI KURDISH
   shake                                               this up from the floor; take off: sar i
gilena ‫ ﮔﻠ²ﻨﻪ‬pupil of the eye                          am sindûqá hałgira take the top off
gimez ‫ﺰ‬Œ‫ ﮔﻤ‬urine; ~-kirdin v.t. to urinate             this box; pick out, select: l’ aw kaw-
giř g‫ ﮔ‬flame; ~-girtin v.i. to be enflamed               shâná jûtèkî hałgira pick out a pair of
giraw ‫ = ﮔﺮﻩو‬giro                                      those shoes; dastim le hałgrin leave
girân ‫ ﮔﺮان‬heavy                                       me alone; (2) to hold, keep: am pâra-
gird ‫ ﮔــﺮد‬hill, knoll; ~ołka ‫ــﮑــﻪ‬T‫ ﮔــﺮدۆ‬pile,      yám bo hałgira keep this money for
   stack of unthreshed grain                           me; (3) to allow: khwâ hałnâgire God
giriftâr ‫ـــﺎر‬µ‫ ﮔـــﺮﻓـــ‬captive, prisoner; ~-bûn      will not allow it; (4) to go out of con-
   v.i. to be captured, taken prisoner; ~î             trol: asp hałî girtim the horse ran
   occupation, anguish                                 away with me; (5) to hold something
giring ‫ﮓ‬s‫ ﮔﺮ‬important                                  up: gâyaká pâshûy hałgirtûa the cow
girî ‫ ﮔــﺮی‬assumption; ~-kirdin v.t. to as-            has its leg lifted; râ-~ to protect,
   sume                                                maintain; kho râ-~ to control oneself;
girm ‫ ﮔـــــــﺮم‬boom, plop, sound of a large           war-~ to take, take up
   body falling; ~ u hor ‫ ﮔﺮموﻫﯚر‬ditto              giryân ‫ن‬p‫ ﮔﺮ‬grî- ‫ ﮔﺮی‬v.i. to weep, cry
girmola v‫ ﮔـﺮﻣـﯚ‬twisted, taut; ~-kirdin v.t.        girzh ‫ ﮔـﺮژ‬frowning; dejected; rû~ ‫رووﮔـﺮژ‬
   to twist and turn, contort                          with a frowning expression
giřnî ‫ﱏ‬g‫ ﮔ‬rough, coarse                             gisht ‫ ﮔﺸﺖ‬all; ~î public
giro ‫ ﮔــــﺮۆ‬bet; ~-birdinawa la v.t. to win        gisk ‫ ﮔﺴﮏ‬broom; ~-dân v.t. to sweep
   (a bet or game) from, come out on top            gizh1 ‫ ﮔــــــﮋ‬mussed, tangled (hair); ~-bûn
   of                                                  v.i. for the hair to stand on end; ba ~
girtin ‫ ـﻦ‬Ž‫ ﮔ ـﺮ‬gir- ‫ ﮔ ـﺮ‬v.t. to take; to pinch:      … hâtin to get entangled with; ba ~
   kawshakám pâm agire my shoes                        …dâ chûn to have to deal with; ~yân
   pinch my feet; to hold, contain: am                 ‫ن‬p‫ ﮔــﮋ‬v.i. to be upset, to be mussed (of
   jawâła shash pût nâgire this sack                   the hair)
   won’t hold six pûts; ~ la to find fault           gizh2 ‫ ﮔـﮋ‬tree trunk; plant; ~-u-giyâ ‫ﮔـﮋو ــﺎ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﮔﻴ‬
   with, pick on: lem magira don’t pick                vegetation
   on me; ~à bar to adopt; ~awa la to               gizh3 ‫ ﮔﮋ‬anger
   forbid: l’ aw kârânám girtotawa I                gizh4 ‫ ﮔﮋ‬hard, solid
   have forbidden those things; ~awa la             gizing ‫ﮓ‬s‫ ﮔﺰ‬first rays of dawn
   to reduce, make less: kharjit zora—              gîrâ-kirdin ‫ــــــﺮدن‬B ‫ ﮔــــــﲑا‬v.t. to answer (a
   ley bigirawa you spend too much—                    prayer)
   make it less; to catch (disease) from;           gîrân ‫ ﮔـــــﲑان‬gîre- ‫ ﮔـــــﲑێ‬v.p. to be taken
   ~awa to heal (broken bone): dast a                  (passive of girtin); kho’y pe (râ)~ to
   shikâwakát girtûyatawa your broken                  restrain oneself, control oneself:
   arm has healed; ba …awa girtin to                   kho’y pe nâgîre he can’t restrain him-
   cover oneself with, pull s.th. over                 self; dâ-gîrân v.p. to be occupied:
   o.s.: lefay pewa girt he covered him-               wilât a dâgîrâwakân the occupied ter-
   self with a quilt; dâ-~ (1) to bring                ritories; te-gîrân v.i. to tangle
   down; (2) to drive crazy by talking:             gîrfân ‫ ﮔﲑﻓﺎن‬pocket
   wây dâgirtim ba qsa hoshim namâ he               gîroda ‫ ﮔﲑۆدﻩ‬infatuated
   drove me so crazy with his talking I             gîrsân ‫ ﮔـــﲑﺳـــﺎن‬gîrse- ‰‫ ﮔـــﲑﺳـــ‬v.i. to stop,
   couldn’t think straight; hał-~ (1) to               cease; ~awa to stop, halt; dâ-~ to be
   lift, pick up: ama la zawî hałgira pick             lit, ignited
                                                186
                         SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
gîrsândin ‫ ﮔـﲑﺳـﺎﻧـﺪن‬gîrsen- ‫ ﮔـﲑ ــﻦ‬v.t.: dâ-
                                    Œ‫ﺳ‬                 place; hał-~ to lift, raise, draw up
   ~ to light, ignite                                gr- ‫ ﮔﺮ‬see gir-
go ‫ ﮔﯚ‬ball                                           gre ‫ ﮔـــﺮێ‬knot; ~ le-dân v.t. to tie a knot;
goband ‫ ﮔﯚﺑﻪﻧﺪ‬celebration                              ~ shil-kirdin v.t. to untie a knot;
gogird ‫ ﮔﯚﮔﺮد‬sulphur; match                            ~kwer ‫ ﮔﺮ¤ﮑﻮ¤ﺮ‬tangled knot
goh ‫ ﮔـــــــــﯚﻩ‬ear, hearing; ~dâr capable of       grewaghâr ‫ﻮﻩ™ﺎر‬l‫ ﮔﺮ‬foot race
   hearing: gwechka i gohdâr well-                   gul ‫ ﮔﻮل‬leper; ~-bûn to get leprosy
   attuned ear                                       guł ‫ ﮔــﻮڵ‬flower; ~ a sûr ‫ــﻪ ﺳــﻮور‬T‫ ﮔــﻮ‬rose;
goł (1) gre u ~ ‫ ﮔـــﺮێ و ﮔـــﯚڵ‬knotted; gurj          ~abarozha ‫ـﻪﺑـﻪرۆژﻩ‬T‫ ﮔـﻮ‬sunflower; ~âła
   u ~ ‫ ﮔـــــــﻮرج و ﮔـــــــﯚڵ‬nimble, quick; (2)     ‫ﻪ‬TŸ‫ ﮔﻮ‬red tulip; ~âw ‫و‬Ÿ‫ ﮔﻮ‬rosewater
   male: ~asag ‫ـﻪﺳـﻪگ‬T‫ ﮔـﯚ‬male dog, ~akar            gulla ò‫ ﮔﻮ‬bullet
   ‫ـﻪﮐـﻪر‬T‫ ﮔـﯚ‬male donkey; (3) goal (soccer);        gułof ‫ـــــــﯚف‬T‫ ﮔـــــــﻮ‬pressure, crumple; ~în
   ~-kirdin la v.t. to score a goal against            ‫ــﯚﻓــﲔ‬T‫ ﮔــﻮ‬v.t. to crumple; ~tin ‫ــﯚﻓــﱳ‬T‫ﮔــﻮ‬
gol ‫ ﮔﯚل‬calf; pool, pond; stupid                       gułof- ‫ ـﯚف‬T‫ ﮔ ـﻮ‬v.t. to squeeze, crumple;
gołâła ‫ﻪ‬TŸ‫ ﮔﯚ‬anemone                                   kho hał-~tin v.t. to hug oneself
gom ‫ ﮔـﯚم‬deep, stagnant water; indistinct;           gum ‫ ﮔـﻮم‬lost; ~-bûn to get lost; ~řâ ‫ا‬g‫ﮔـﻮﻣـ‬
   lake, pond; ~âw deep pool                           lost, deviant
gomân ‫ ﮔـــﯚﻣـــﺎن‬suspicion; ~-kirdin la v.t.        gumân ‫ ﮔـﻮﻣـﺎن‬doubt, hesitation; ~-birdin
   to suspect                                          v.t. to doubt; to have, possess: hîch
gon ‫ ﮔـﯚن‬cheek; ~asûra ‫ ﮔـﯚﻧـﻪﺳـﻮورﻩ‬tomato;            shitè gumân nâbam I do not possess
   ~â ‡‫ ﮔ ـﯚ‬cheek; ~âgon ‫ ﮔ ـﯚ‡ﮔ ـﯚن‬various,           anything; be~ ‫ ﺑــ²ــﮕــﻮﻣــﺎن‬doubtless(ly),
   of all sorts                                        convinced
gopâł ‫ ﮔﯚﭘﺎڵ‬bat, club                                gumbad ‫ﻪد‬m‫ ﮔﻮﻣ‬dome
gor ‫ ﮔﯚر‬like, manner                                 gun ‫ ﮔﻮن‬testes
goř (1) ‫ ﮔــﯚڕ‬level, plain (ground); hâtinà          gunâ ‡‫ ﮔــــﻮ‬sin, pity; ~bâr ‫ ﮔــــﻮ‡¶ر‬sinner,
   ~è to come to the fore, be under dis-               transgressor
                                           8
   cussion; (2) grave; ~istân ‫ﮔـــﯚڕﺳــــــﺘـــﺎن‬    gund ‫ ﮔـﻮﻧـﺪ‬village; ~nishîn ‫ـﺸـﲔ‬ë‫ ﮔـﻮﻧـﺪ‬vil-
   cemetery                                            lager, village-dwelling
gorân ‫ ﮔـــــــــﯚران‬the Goran division of the       gunjân ‫ ﮔ ـﻮﳒ ـﺎن‬gunje- ‰‫ ﮔ ـﻮﳒ ـ‬v.i. to fit, be
   Kurds; ~î Gorani; song                              fitting; dagunje biłeyn we may say, it
gořîn ‫ـﻦ‬a‫ ﮔـﯚڕ‬goř- ‫ ﮔـﯚڕ‬v.t. to change; ~awa           is appropriate for us to say
   ba to exchange for; kho ~ to disguise             gur ‫ ﮔﻮر‬wolf; meeting
   oneself; ~ar ‫ ﮔﯚڕﯾﻨﻪر‬change-producing             guř ‫ ﮔـــﻮڕ‬power; flame; threat; ~~ hâtinà
gořrân ‫ ﮔ ـﯚڕان‬gořre- ‫ ﮔ ـﯚڕێ‬v.p. to change            khwâre to pour down; ba~ powerful,
   (int.), be changed                                  strong
gosh-kirdin ‫ـــــﺮدن‬B ‫ ﮔـــــﯚش‬v.t. to suckle a      gur|ân ‫ ﮔــــــﻮران‬gure- ‫ ﮔــــــﻮرێ‬v.i. to have
   newborn                                             one’s head cut off; ~ândin ‫ ﮔ ـﻮراﻧ ـﺪن‬v.t.
gosha ‫ ﮔﯚﺷﻪ‬corner, angle                               to cut s.o.’s head off
gosht ‫ ﮔﯚﺷﺖ‬meat                                      guř|ân ‫ ﮔــــــﻮڕان‬guře- ‫ ﮔــــــﻮڕێ‬v.i. to roar;
gotin ‫ﻦ‬Ž‫ ﮔﯚ‬łe- ‰T v.t. to say                          ~ândin ‫ ﮔـﻮڕاﻧـﺪن‬v.t. to roar; ~în ‫ـﻦ‬a‫ ﮔـﻮڕ‬to
govâr ‫ ﮔﯚﭬﺎر‬magazine, journal                          roar
goz ‫( ﮔﯚز‬see nâz-u-goz)                              gurg ‫ ﮔﻮرگ‬wolf
goza ‫ ﮔﯚزﻩ‬pot                                        gurîs ‫ ﮔﻮر§ﺲ‬rope
gozân ‫ ﮔـــــــﯚزان‬goze- ‫ ﮔـــــــﯚزێ‬v.t. to keep;   gurj ‫ ﮔــــﻮرج‬quick, soon; ba ~î ó‫ﺑــــﻪ ﮔــــﻮر‬
   ~awa ‫ ﮔــــﯚزاﻧــــﻪوﻩ‬to move from place to         quickly, soon; ~ u goł ‫ ﮔـﻮرج و ﮔـﯚڵ‬nim-
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                                       SORANI KURDISH
  ble; ba ~ u gołî ‫ﯽ‬T‫ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮرج و ﮔﯚ‬nimbly               gwez- ‫ ﮔﻮ¤ﺰ‬pres. stem of gwâstin
gutin ‫ــﻦ‬Ž‫ ﮔــﻮ‬łe- ‰‫ــ‬T v.t. to say (see witin):       gyâ ‫ ﮔﻴﺎ‬plant
  har b’ aw mabastaî ka gutmân just as                 gyân ‫ ﮔـــﻴـــﺎن‬soul; (following name) dear;
  we said                                                wa ~ kawtin to escape alive; ~-
guzar ‫ ﮔــــــﻮزﻩر‬lane, passage; area; ~-kir-            keshân v.t. to work hard; ~-(a)spâr-
  din ba …(dâ) v.t. to pass by; ~ândin                   din v.t. to give up the ghost, to die;
  ‫ ﮔــــﻮزﻩراﻧــــﺪن‬guzaren- ‫ ﮔــــﻮزﻩر¤ــــﻦ‬v.t. to     ~dâr ‫ ﮔـــﻴـــﺎﻧـــﺪار‬animal, living creature;
  spend, pass: hamû zhyân’î lagał                                            ‫ـ ـ ـ‬
                                                         ~kanisht ‫ﺸـﺖ‬ë‫ﮑـﻪ‬s‫ ﮔﻴـﺎ‬moment of death;
  mařdârî guzarândûa he has spent his                    ~labar ‫ﺑﻪر‬ƒ‫ ﮔﻴﺎﻧ‬alive, living
  entire life being a shepherd; zhyân-u-
  ~ân ‫نوﮔﻮزﻩران‬p‫ ژ‬life                                 habûn ‫ ﻫـﻪﺑـﻮون‬for there to be; haya there
gû ‫ ﮔﻮو‬excrement, shit                                   is; habû there was; habe u nabe
gûr ‫ ﮔﻮور‬calf                                            “come hell or high water”
gwâstin(awa) ‫ ﮔــﻮاﺳــﱳ‬gwez-(awa) ‫ﮔــﻮ¤ــﺰ‬             hafta ‫ﻪ‬µ‫ ﻫﻪﻓ‬week
  v.t. to move, to relocate; to take a                 haftâ ‫ﺎ‬µ‫ ﻫﻪﻓ‬seventy
  bride to the husband’s house                         haftâna ‫ﺎﻧﻪ‬µ‫ ﻫﻪﻓ‬weekly
gwâya ‫ ﮔﻮاﯾﻪ‬as if, as though, you’d say                hagba ‫ ﻫﻪﮔﺒﻪ‬saddle pack
gwâztin(awa) ‫ـــــــﻦ‬Ž‫ ﮔـــــــﻮاز‬v.t. to move; =      ḥakâyat ‫ „ـــــﻪﰷﯾـــــﻪت‬story, tale; ~khwân
  gwâstin                                                ‫ „ﻪﰷﯾﻪﲣﻮان‬teller of tales, storyteller
gwe ‫ ﮔـــــﻮێ‬ear; ~-âkhnîn la to ignore; ~-            ḥakîm ‫ﲓ‬B‫ „ﻪ‬physician
  bûn la v.i. to hear; ~-dânà … to                     hal (1) ‫ ﻫـــــﻪل‬time, turn: la ~ u darfate in
  listen to; ~-(râ)girtin la v.t. to listen              time, at the right time; la hîch ~ u
  to                                                     marjèk’dâ at no time and under no
gwebîs ‫ ﮔـﻮ ـــﺲ‬obedient; aware: wâ gwe-
             ›‫ﺒ‬l                                         circumstances; (2) opportunity: bo
  bîs bûm ka bârân bârîwa I was aware                    halèk i wâ dagařân they were looking
  that it had rained                                     for just such an opportunity
gwecham ‫ﻪم‬Âl‫ ﮔﻮ‬riverbank                               hał- ‫ ﻫ ـﻪڵ‬compound-verbal prefix; for all
                ‫ــ‬
gwechka ‫ﭽﮑـﻪ‬l‫ ﮔـﻮ‬ear; ~-dân v.t. to listen;              verbs compounded with hał-, see un-
  ~-girtin v.t. to hear; ~-takândin v.t.                 der the verbal element
  to listen                                            hała ‫ـــﻪ‬T‫ ﻫـــﻪ‬error, mistake; ba ~(dâ) erro-
gweder ‫ﺪ¤ﺮ‬l‫ ﮔﻮ‬listener                                   neously
gwedrezh ‫ﺪر¤ﮋ‬l‫ ﮔﻮ‬mule                                  haładâwân ‫ـﻪداوان‬T‫ ﻫـﻪ‬haste; ba ~ hurried-
gwegir ‫ ﮔﻮ¤ﮕﺮ‬listener                                    ly, hastily, in a hurry
gwegirân ‫ ﮔﻮ¤ﮕﺮان‬hard of hearing                       hałat ‫ﻪت‬T‫ ﻫﻪ‬precipice
gwel ‫ﻞ‬l‫ ﮔﻮ‬handful                                      hałâtin ‫ﻦ‬ŽŸ‫ = ﻫﻪ‬hał-hâtin
gwepichiř-gwepichiř g‫ﭙﭽـ‬l‫ ﮔـﻮ‬g‫ﭙﭽـ‬l‫ ﮔـﻮ‬with
                                ‫ــ‬       ‫ــ‬            hałbast ‫ ﻫـﻪ ــﻪﺳـﺖ‬poet; ~a ‫ ﻫـﻪ ــﻪﺳـــﻪ‬poem,
                                                                         ‫ﺒ‬T            ‫ﺒ 8ﺘ‬T
  great difficulty: girtibûyânim, gwe-                    poetry
  pichiř-gwepichiř rizgârîm hât they                   hałbizhârdin ‫اردن‬ö‫ـــ‬T‫ ﻫـــﻪ‬election (see bi-
  had captured me, and I was rescued                     zhârdin)
  with great difficulty; with alacrity                  hałdast- ‫ــﺪﻩﺳــﺖ‬T‫ ﻫــﻪ‬see hał-wastân (s.v.
gwequłâkh ‫خ‬Ÿ‫ﻘﻮ‬l‫ ﮔﻮ‬attentive                              wastân)
gwerâyał ‫ ﮔـﻮ¤ـﺮاﯾـﻪڵ‬obedient, submissive;             hałè ‰‫ـــ‬T‫ ﻫـــﻪ‬the prefix hał- with the direc-
  ~î obedience, submissiveness                           tional suffix -è; see under hał-hâtin
gweraka ‫ ﮔﻮ¤ﺮﻩﮐﻪ‬calf                                   hałenjân ‫ﺎن‬í‫²ﻨ‬T‫ ﻫﻪ‬v.t. to draw water
gwez ‫ ﮔﻮ¤ﺰ‬walnut; ~hînd ‫ ﮔﻮ¤ﺰﻫﻴﻨﺪ‬coconut               hałiz ‫ ـﺰ‬T‫ ﻫ ـﻪ‬type of plant with needle-like
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                         SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  leaves                                              ḥapasân ‫ „ـﻪﭘـﻪﺳـﺎن‬ḥapase- ‰‫ „ـﻪﭘـﻪﺳـ‬v.i. to
                    ‫ـ‬
hałkawt ‫ﮑـﻪوت‬T‫ ﻫـﻪ‬chance, accident; ba ~                be astounded, stunned
  ‫ﮑـﻪوت‬T‫ ﺑـﻪ ﻫـﻪ ـ‬by chance, incidentally; ~û         haq ‫ „ـﻪق، ﻫـﻪق‬right; ~ ba ~ ‫ ﻫـﻪق ﺑـﻪ ﻫـﻪق‬tit
  ‫ﮑﻪوﺗﻮو‬T‫ ﻫﻪ‬nice-looking                                for tat; ~ bûn ba to be right: haq ba
                 ‫ـ‬
hałmat ‫ﻤـﻪت‬T‫ ﻫـﻪ‬attack; ~-birdin/-dân v.t.              to a you’re right; ba~ ‫ ﺑــــــﻪﻫــــــﻪق‬in the
  to attack                                             right; be~ ‫ ﺑ²ﻬﻪق‬in the wrong
hało ‫ﯚ‬T‫ ﻫﻪ‬eagle                                       haqdast ‫ ﻫﻪﻗﺪﻩﺳﺖ‬wage
hałpa ‫ﭙﻪ‬T‫ ﻫﻪ‬haste                                     ḥaqîqat ‫ „ﻪﻗ;ﻘﻪت‬truth, reality
hałpařke ‰‫ﭙﻪڕﮐ‬T‫ ﻫﻪ‬type of Kurdish dance               har ‫ ﻫـــﻪر‬just; ~ awanda ‫ ﻫـــﻪرﺋـــﻪوﻩﻧـــﺪﻩ‬just
hałs ‫ـﺲ‬T‫ ﻫـﻪ‬rising; ~ukawt ‫ﺴـﻮﮐـﻪوت‬T‫ ﻫـﻪ‬be- ‫ـ‬           that much; ~ chonè bû somehow or
  havior, conduct                                       other; ~chand ‫ ﻫـﻪر¸ـﻪﻧـﺪ‬however much,
hałssân ‫ـﺴـﺎن‬T‫ ﻫـﻪ‬hałss- ‫ـﺲ‬T‫ ﻫـﻪ‬contraction             no matter how much; ~chanda ‫ﻫــﻪر¸ــﻪ‬
  of hał-wastân, q.v.                                   ‫ ـﻧ ﺪﻩ‬although; ~chî ‫ ﻫـﻪرﭼـﯽ‬whatever, no
hałwest (1) ‫ ـﺴ ـﺖ‬â‫ ـﻮ‬T‫ ﻫ ـﻪ‬a short rest, stop;         matter what; ~chîchikânawa ‫ﻫــــﻪرﭼــــﯽ‬
  (2) point of view, standpoint, stance                 ‫ ﭼـــﲀﻧـــﻪوﻩ‬no matter what they did; ~ka
ham1 ‫ ﻫـﻪم‬concern, grief; ~u tam ‫ﻫـﻪموﺗـﻪم‬              ‫ ﻫــــﻪرﮐــــﻪ‬as soon as: har ka châwî pem
  sorrow and grief                                      kawt as soon as his eyes fell upon me;
ham2…ham ‫ ﻫﻪم ... ﻫﻪم‬both…and                           ~wahâ ‫~ ,ﻫـــﻪروﻩﻫـــﺎ‬wâ ‫ ﻫـــﻪروا‬likewise;
hamân ‫ ﻫــــﻪﻣــــﺎن‬that very, the aforemen-            ~watir ‫ﺮ‬Ž‫ ﻫﻪروﻩ‬even more so
  tioned                                              hař u gîf (gîv) ‫ ﻫﻪڕ و ﮔﻴﻒ‬threat
hamaranga ‫ ـﮕ ـﻪ‬s‫ ﻫ ـﻪﻣ ـﻪرﻩ‬multicolored, of          hara- ‫( ﻫـــــــــــــــﻪرﻩ‬prefix with superlative
  all sorts, varied                                     sense); ~barz ‫ ﻫــــﻪرﻩﺑــــﻪرز‬exalted, very
hamdîs ‫ ﻫــــﻪﻣــــﺪ§ــــﺲ‬once again, all over          high, supreme: dâdga i harabarz
  again                                                 supreme court; ~girân ‫ ﻫـــﻪرﻩﮔـــﺮان‬very
hamîsân ‫ ﻫﻪﻣ›ﺴﺎن‬again                                   heavy
hamîsha ‫ ﻫـــﻪﻣـــ›ـــﺸـــﻪ‬always; ~î constant:       haras ‫ ﻫـــﻪرﻩس‬landslide, avalanche (con-
  khwâst i hamîshaî a wish one has                      strued with birdin and henân)
  always had                                          hařasha ‫ ﻫـــﻪڕﻩﺷـــﻪ‬threat; ~-kirdin la v.t.
ḥaml ‫ „ــــﻪﻣــــﻞ‬pregnancy: zhinakáy bâr i             to threaten
  hamlî dabe his wife is pregnant                     hařâ-kirdin ‫ﺮدن‬B ‫ ﻫﻪڕا‬v.t. to run
hamû ‫ ﻫـــﻪﻣـــﻮو‬all, every (+ indefinite): ~          harâsân ‫ ﻫــــﻪراﺳــــﺎن‬out-of-sorts, in a bad
  rozhèk every day                                      mood
hana ‫ ﻫــــﻪﻧــــﻪ‬second wife (relationship to        harem ‫ﻢ‬l‫ ﻫﻪر‬region
  the first wife); ~zâ ‫ ﻫـــــــﻪﻧـــــــﻪزا‬child of   hargiz ‫ +( ﻫـﻪرﮔـﺰ‬neg) never; ~âw~ ‫ﻫـﻪرﮔـﺰاو‬
  another wife, step-child                              ‫ ﻫﻪرﮔﺰ‬never ever
hanâr ‫ ﻫﻪ‡ر‬pomegranate                                harzakâr ‫ ﻫﻪرزﻩﰷر‬adolescent
hanâsa ‫ ﻫــــــــﻪ‡ﺳــــــــﻪ‬breath, sigh; ~ hał-     harzał-harzał ‫ ﻫــــﻪرزﻩڵ ﻫــــﻪرزﻩڵ‬in tatters
  keshân v.t. to breathe a sigh; ~sardî                 and shreds, useless
  ‫ ﻫﻪ‡ﺳﻪﺳﻪردی‬grief                                    ḥasân|awa ‫ „ـﻪﺳـﺎﻧـﻪوﻩ‬ḥase- -awa ‫„ـﻪﺳـ‰...ه‬
hand ‫~ :ﻫـﻪﻧـﺪ‬è ‫~ ,ﻫـﻪﻧـﺪێ‬èk ‫ ﻫـﻪﻧـﺪ¤ـﮏ‬a little,        ‫ وﻩ‬v.i. to rest, relax, be in repose;
  a bit, somewhat, rather                               ~dinawa ‫ „ـﻪﺳـﺎﻧـﺪﻧـﻪوﻩ‬v.t. to let rest, let
handar ‫ ﻫﻪﻧﺪﻩر‬outside; ~î foreign                       relax
hangâw ‫ـﮕـﺎو‬s‫ ﻫـﻪ‬step, pace; ~-nân bo v.t.            ḥashîmat ‫ „ﻪﺷ;ـﻤﻪت‬people, crowd
  to step into                                        hast ‫ ﻫـــﻪﺳـــﺖ‬feeling; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to
hangwen ‫ﮕﻮ¤ﻦ‬s‫ ﻫﻪ‬honey                                   feel: hast’î ba birsetî kird he felt hun-
                                                  189
                                      SORANI KURDISH
  ger; ~yâr (neol.) poet                                might they not be confusing me with
hatâ c‫ ﻫـــﻪ‬until, even; ~ hatâî ‫ﰃ‬c‫ﻫـــﻪ‬c‫ﻫـــﻪ‬          somebody else?
  forever                                             hâłî ‫ﯽ‬T‫ ﻫﺎ‬empty
hatâw ‫و‬c‫ ﻫﻪ‬the sun; ~î ‫وى‬c‫ ﻫﻪ‬solar                    hâło ‫ﯚ‬T‫ ﻫﺎ‬earthenware pot
hatî ‫ ﻫــــــــﻪﰏ‬threatening term of address:         hâlû ‫ ﻫﺎﻟﻮ‬maternal uncle
  hatî! datkuzhim! I’m going to kill                  hâmez ‫ﺰ‬Œ‫ ﻫﺎﻣ‬bosom, embrace
  you, you devil!                                     hâna ‫ ﻫـــــﺎﻧـــــﻪ‬motivation, provocation; ~-
hatîm ‫ ﻫﻪﺗﲓ‬orphan                                       dân v.t. to motivate
hatîw ‫ = ﻫﻪﺗﻴﻮ‬hatîm                                   hâne ê‫ ﻫﺎ‬there, take it
hawał ‫ ﻫﻪوﻩڵ‬first; ~în ‫ﲔ‬T‫ ﻫﻪوﻩ‬first                     hâra ‫ ﻫـــــــــــﺎرﻩ‬shout; ~ i pekanîn peal of
hawâ ‫ ﻫﻪوا‬air, weather                                  laughter
hawâł ‫ ﻫﻪواڵ‬news                                      hâřâ|n ‫ ﻫـــﺎڕان‬v.i. to be pulverized; ~ndin
hawâr ‫ ﻫـــــــﻪوار‬summer pasture; ~nishîn              ‫ ﻫــــﺎڕاﻧــــﺪن‬v.t. to pulverize; ~wa ‫ﻫــــﺎڕاوﻩ‬
  ‫ـــﺸـــﲔ‬ë‫ ﻫـــﻪوار‬encamped for the summer             dust, powder, grist
  (of a nomadic tribe)                                ḥâshâ ‫ „ـﺎﺷـﺎ‬denial; ~-kirdin v.t. to deny;
hawen ‫ ﻫﻪو¤ﻦ‬leaven, ferment                             ~hałnagir ‫ﻨﻪﮔﺮ‬T‫ „ﺎﺷﺎﻫﻪ‬undeniable
hawł ‫ ﻫــــــــــــــﻪوڵ‬toil, effort; ~-dân v.t. to   ḥâshiya ‫ „ﺎﺷ8ﻴﻪ‬marginalia
  strive, to work hard, to attempt                    hât ‫ ﻫــــــــﺎت‬luck: hâtim niya I don’t have
Hawler ‫ﺮ‬Œ‫ ﻫﻪوﻟ‬Arbil, Arbela                             any luck; ~uchû-kirdin ‫ﻫـــــﺎت و ﭼـــــﻮو‬
hawr ‫ ﻫﻪور‬cloud                                         ‫ﺮدن‬B v.t. to come and go, to frequent
hawsha ‫ ﻫﻪوﺷﻪ‬courtyard                                hâtin ‫ ـﻦ‬Ž‫ ﻫ ـﺎ‬ye-/de- ‫( دێ/ﯾ ـﻪ‬pres. subj. be-
ḥawt ‫ „ﻪوت‬seven; ~â c‫ „ﻪو‬seventy                        /; impt. sing. wára ‫ )وﻩرﻩ‬v.i. to come;
ḥawz ‫ „ﻪوز‬pool                                          (with kas and following subjunctive)
haya ‫ ﻫـــﻪﯾـــﻪ‬there is, there are; (preceded          no one would: kas nâye kârèk i wâ
  by a possessive pronoun) to have:                     bikât no one would do such a thing;
  pirsyârekim haya I have a question                    dâ-~ to be accustomed; hał-~ to run
hayhât ‫ ﻫﻪﳞﺎت‬impossible                                 away: hât hałè he started to run away;
haz ‫ ﻫـــــــﻪز‬desire; ~-kirdin v.t. to desire:         râ-~ lagał …dâ to learn from, be
  haz dakam bitbînim I’d like to see                    taught by, get used to; ~à (+ infini-
  you                                                   tive) to get …: hâtinà kushtin they
hazhâr ‫ ﻫـﻪژار‬poor, unfortunate; ~î ‫ﻫـﻪژاری‬             got killed, hâtà girtin he got caught; ~
  poverty, misfortune                                   la to be capable of being: la hałgirtin
ḥazîrân ‫ــــﺮان‬a‫ „ــــﻪز‬June (see also huzay-           nadahât it couldn’t be picked up
  rân)                                                hâtucho-kirdin ‫ـــﺮدن‬B ‫ ﻫـــﺎﺗـــﻮﭼـــﯚ‬v.t. to fre-
hâkâ ‫ ﻫ˜ﰷ‬thus                                           quent (a place)
ḥâkim ‫ „˜ﰼ‬ruler                                       hâw- ‫( ﻫـــــﺎو‬prefix) same- (see individual
ḥâł ‫ „ــــﺎڵ‬state, condition; ~ u masala te-            words alphabetically)
  gayândin v.t. to explain a situation                hâwâr ‫ ﻫ ـﺎوار‬cry for help; ~-kirdin v.t. to
  to: ~ u masala’y te gayândim he ex-                   cry for help
  plained the situation to me                         hâwbash ‫ ﻫ ـﺎوﺑ ـﻪش‬participant; ~ i … bûn
hâle ‰‫ ﻫـــﺎﻟـــ‬informed; ~-bûn ba to be in-            to participate, share in; ~î ‫ ﻫـﺎوﺑـﻪﳽ‬par-
  formed of; ~-bûn ba … la … to be                      ticipation; ~î-kirdin la …’dâ v.t. to
  thinking of one thing (ba) instead of                 participate in
  another (la), to mistake X (ba) for Y               hâwezh ‫ ﻫﺎو¤ﮋ‬grasp
  (la): ba kasèk i dîka’m le hâle nabin?              hâwezh- ‫ ﻫﺎو¤ﮋ‬pres. stem of hâwîshtin
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                        SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
hâwirdin ‫ ﻫﺎوردن‬hâwir- ‫ ﻫﺎور‬v.t. to bring          henda ‫ ـــﺪﻩ‬so, so much, this much; ~ …
                                                                ‫ﻫ²ﻨ‬
hâwîn ‫ﻦ‬a‫ ﻫﺎو‬summer                                    tâ so much (so) that: bulbul henda’y
hâwîshtin ‫ ﻫـﺎو§ـﺸـﱳ‬hâwezh- ‫ ﻫـﺎو¤ـﮋ‬v.t. to           khwend tâ kham’î la hamû diłân
  throw, toss, shoot; dar-~ to toss out,              târand the nightingale sang so much
  throw away                                          that it drove the sorrow from all
hâwkâr ‫ ﻫـﺎوﰷر‬colleague; ~î-kirdin lagał              hearts
  v.t. to cooperate with                           hendè(k) ‫ ﻫــ²ــﻨــﺪ¤ــﮏ، ﻫــ²ــﻨــﺪێ‬a bit; for a
hâwmânâ ‡‫ ﻫــــﺎوﻣــــﺎ‬synonymous, having             while
  the same meaning                                 henrân ‫ ﻫـــ²ـــﲊان‬henre- ‫ ﻫـــ²ـــﲊێ‬v.p. to be
hâwnâw ‫ ﻫﺎو‡و‬namesake; synonym                        brought
hâwře ‫ ﻫﺎوڕێ‬comrade, companion                     herish ‫ــــﺮش‬Œ‫ ﻫــــ‬attack; ~-henân ba to at-
hâwsafar ‫ ﻫﺎوﺳﻪﻓﻪر‬traveling companion                 tack; ~-birdinà sar … to attack
hâwsâ ‫ ﻫﺎوﺳﺎ‬neighbor                                  (s.o.); ~henar ‫ـﺮﺷـﻬـ²ـﻨـﻪر‬Œ‫ ﻫـ‬attacker, ag-
hâwshewa ‫ ﻫﺎوﺷ8²ﻮﻩ‬similar                             gressor
hâwshîra ‫ ﻫﺎوﺷﲑﻩ‬sister                             hero ‫ﺮۆ‬Œ‫ ﻫ‬marshmallow (bot.)
hâwtaman ‫ ﻫـﺎوﺗـﻪﻣـﻪن‬contemporary, of the          heshtâ ‫ـــﺸـــ8ـــﺘـــﺎ‬Œ‫ ﻫـــ‬still, yet; ~ (+ neg. past
  same age                                            perf.) ka ‫ﺸ8ﺘـﺎ ... ﮐـﻪ‬Œ ‫ ﻫ‬no sooner…than,
                                                                                 ‫ــ ــ‬
hâwtâ c‫ ﻫﺎو‬equal; be~ c‫ ﺑ²ﻬﺎو‬unequalled               scarcely…when: heshtâ nanustibû ka
hâybakht ‫ ﻫﺎﯾﺒﻪﺧﺖ‬lottery                              dangèk’î ba gwe gaysht no sooner
hâzir ‫ ﻫﺎزر‬ready                                      had he fallen asleep than he heard a
hejgâr ‫ ﻫ²ﺠﮕﺎر‬extremely                               noise
heł- Dz‫ ﻫ‬pres. stem of heshtin                     heshtin ‫ـﺸـﱳ‬Œ‫ ﻫـ‬heł- Ç‫( ﻫـ²ـ‬v.t.; subj. often
hełân ‫ن‬Ë‫ ﻫـ²ـ‬hełe- ‰‫ـ‬k²‫ ﻫـ‬v.t. to let go; dâ-
                        ‫ـ‬                             beł- for biheł-) to leave, let, allow (+
  ~à khwârawa to let down, lower:                     subj): nayânheshtim bem they didn’t
  pat’yân henâ u dâyânhełâ khwârawa                   let me come; to turn loose, let go;
  they brought a rope and lowered him                 (neg.) not to leave (anyone alive); ba
  down                                                je ~ to leave alone, leave behind, let
helka ‫ ﻫ²ﻠﮑﻪ‬egg                                       be, abandon: ba je’y heshtim he left
hemin ‫ ﻫ ـ² ـﻤ ـﻦ‬slow; ~-kirdin v.t. to slow,         me alone; dâ-~ to let down, lower:
  slow down: hangâwî hemin kird he                    patèk’im bo benin u dâmbełinà
  slowed his pace; ~î slowness: ba                    khwârawa bring me a rope and lower
  heminî rû’m da hâwřeakám kird u                     me down
  gutim I slowly turned my face to my              hez ‫ـــــﺰ‬Œ‫ ﻫـــــ‬strength, power: ~ i atom the
  companion and said                                  power of the atom; ba~ ‫ﺰ‬Œ‫ ﺑﻪﻫ‬powerful
henân ‫ ﻫــ²ــﻨــﺎن‬hen- ‫ــﻦ‬Œ‫( ﻫــ‬v.t.; pres. stem   hezhâ ‫ﮋا‬Œ‫ ﻫ‬valued, valuable, dear
  often yen-, as in nâyenim for nâhenim            ḥikâyat ‫ = ﺣﲀﯾﻪت‬hakâyat
  I won’t bring it) to bring; ~awa sar             ḥikûmat ‫ ﺣﮑﻮوﻣﻪت‬government
  kho- to bring back to oneself; ba je ~           ḥizb ‫ ﺣﺰب‬political party
  to execute, carry out (an order); dar-~          hî ‫ ﻫــــــﯽ‬really: hî awa niya bâs bikre it’s
  (darenân) to put out, pull out, take                not really anything that can be talked
  off, extract: châwîlkaká’m la châw                  about
  darenâbû I had taken off my glasses;             hîch ‫ +( ــﭻ‬neg.) nothing: ~ i tir nothing
                                                             ‫ﻫﻴ‬
  dâ-~ to comb the hair down; râ-~ to                 else; ~ kasèk ‫ ﻫﻴﭻ ﮐﻪﺳ8²ﮏ‬nobody
  teach, to get into shape; to tame                hîlâk ‫ ﻫـــﻴـــﻼک‬tired; ~î tiredness, exhaus-
Hend ‫ ﻫ²ﻨﺪ‬India                                       tion
                                               191
                                         SORANI KURDISH
ḥîlk|a ‫ ﺣـــ;ـــﻠـــﮑـــﻪ‬peal of laughter; ~ândin         idâra ‫ ادارﻩ‬office
   ‫ ﺣ;ﻠﲀﻧﺪن‬v.t. to laugh                                  îdî ‫ ﺋﻴﺪی‬anymore
hîn-bûn ‫ ﻫﲔ ﺑﻮون‬v.i. to learn                             îjâbî ‫ﺎﰉ‬í‫ ﺋﻴ‬positive
hîshk ‫ ﻫ›ﺸﮏ‬dry                                            ikhtiyâr ‫ ـﻴ ـﺎر‬µ‫ اﺧ ـ‬old, aged: rîshim spî bû,
hîwâ ‫ ﻫـــﻴـــﻮا‬hope: hîwâ i zhyân’î le nada-                tawâw ~ bûwim my beard is white: I
   kirâ there was no hope of his surviv-                     have become old
   ing; ~biřrâw ‫او‬g‫ ﻫـﻴـﻮا–ـ‬without hope, in              iklîl ‫ﳇﻴﻞ‬ä = kilîl
   despair; ~biřrâwî ‫اوی‬g‫ ﻫـــﻴـــﻮا–ـــ‬despair;          îmayl ‫ ﺋ;ـﻤﻪﯾﻞ‬e-mail
   ~dâr ‫ ﻫﻴﻮادار‬hopeful                                   împirâtorî ‫ـﺮاﺗـﯚری‬Î‫ ﺋـﻴـ‬empire: ~ i ‘usmânî
hîz ‫ ﻫــﲒ‬skein, leather bag for oil, cheese,                 the Ottoman Empire
   &c.                                                    împiryâlîst ‫ﻟ›ﺴـﺖ‬p‫ ـــ ــﺮ‬imperialist: nata-
                                                                                  ‫ ــ‬Î‫ﺋ; ﻤ‬
ho ‫ ﻫﯚ‬reason                                                 wa gawra ~akân the great imperialist
hoba ‫ ﻫﯚﺑﻪ‬campsite                                           nations
hoda ‫ ﻫﯚدﻩ‬room                                            imřo ‫ۆ‬g‫ اﻣ‬today
hon|în ‫ ﻫــــﯚﻧــــﲔ‬v.t. to spin (thread), com-           imshaw ‫ اﻣﺸﻪو‬tonight
   pose (poetry); ~din ‫ ﻫـﯚﻧـﺪن‬v.t. to string,            înglîs ‫ــﮕــﻠــ›ــﺲ‬ž‫ ﺋــ›ــ‬the English, the British
   to weave together; ~drâw ‫ ﻫ ـﯚﻧ ـﺪراو‬wo-                  (coll.); ~î English (person, language)
   ven together, threaded together; ~râw                  injâ ‫ﺎ‬íž›‫ ﺋ‬then, next
   ‫ﺮاو‬s‫ = ﻫﯚ‬hondrâw                                       insân ‫ﺴﺎن‬ë‫ ا‬human being
hor ‫ ﻫﯚر‬boom, big noise                                   ‘Irâq ‫ ﻋﺮاق‬Iraq; ~î ‫ ﻋﺮاﰵ‬Iraqi
hoř ‫ ﻫﯚڕ‬sack                                                                    8
                                                          isti‘mâr ‫ اﺳــــﺘــﻌــﲈر‬colonialism, imperial-
hortik ‫ﮏ‬Ž‫ ﻫﻮر‬ugly baby                                       ism; ~î ‫ اﺳ8ﺘﻌﲈری‬imperialist
hosh ‫ ﻫـــــــﯚش‬consciousness; hâtinawa ~                 îsh ‫ ﺋــ›ــﺶ‬work, labor, deed; ~-kirdin v.t.
   kho- to regain consciousness; la ~ (i                     to work; ~kar ‫ ﺋ›ﺸﮑـﻪر‬hardworking; ~-
                                                                                        ‫ــ ـ‬
   kho) chûn to lose consciousness; be~                      u-kâr ‫ ﺋ›ﺶ و ﰷر‬business
   ‫ ﺑـــ²ـــﻬـــﯚش‬unconscious; be~-bûn v.i. to            -îsh ‫( §ـــــــﺶ‬enclitic, after vowels ’sh and
   faint, pass out, lose consciousness                       ’ysh) too, also, either
hoz ‫ ﻫﯚز‬tribe, people, population                         îshârat ‫ ﺋ›ﺸﺎرﻩت‬motion; sign
htâ ‫ = ﻫﺘﺎ‬hatâ                                            îslâm ‫ ﺋ›ﺴﻼم‬Islam; ~î Islamic
humed ‫ ﻫ ـﻮﻣ ـ´ ـﺪ‬hope; ~biřrâw ‫او‬g‫ﻫ ـﻮﻣ ـ´ ـﺪ– ـ‬         îstaram-kirdin la v ‫ـﺮدن‬B ‫ ﺋـ›ـﺴــﺘـﻪرﻩم‬v.t. to
                                                                                                  8
   hopeless, in despair                                      beg, plead with
hunar ‫ ﻫـــــــﻮﻧـــــــﻪر‬art, craft, skill; ~mand        îtir ‫ ﺋﻴﱰ‬again, another time
   ‫ ﻫــﻮﻧــﻪرﻣــﻪﻧــﺪ‬artist, artisan; ba~ ‫ﺑــﻪﻫــﻮﻧــﻪر‬   îzn ‫ ﺋــــــــــــﲒن‬permission; ba ~ i khwâ by
   skilled                                                   God’s leave
ḥushtir ‫ = ﺣﻮﺷﱰ‬wishtir
ḥuzayrân ‫ﺮان‬a‫ ﺣﻮزﻩ‬June                                    jala-kirdin ‫ــﺮدن‬B v‫ •ــﻪ‬v.t. to tie (animals)
hûn-bûn ‫ = ﻫﻮون ﺑﻮون‬hîn-bûn                                  together in a herd
hûsha u fîsha ‫ ﻫﻮوﺷﻪ و ﻓ›ﺸﻪ‬hissing                        jallâd ‫ •ﻠﻼد‬executioner
                                                          jambûra ‫ـﻮورﻩ‬m‫ •ـﻪﻣـ‬generality, crowd; ~ i
(initial i and î are intermingled in alpha-                  khałk ü‫ﻪ‬L ‫ﻮورﻩى‬m‫ •ﻪﻣ‬ordinary people
   betization; the distinction between                    janâb ‫ •ــــﻪ‡ب‬excellency: khałk i gunda-
   initial i and î is not always main-                       kámân châwařwân i janâbitin the
   tained; initial î is spelled ‫ ﺋ ـ; ــ‬and ‫ اﯾ ــ‬in-        people of our village are waiting for
   discriminately)                                           your excellency; janâb i pâshâ his
ibtidâî ‫ اﺑﺘﺪاﰃ‬elementary                                    majesty, your majesty
                                                      192
                        SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
janâza ‫ •ﻪ‡زﻩ‬funeral                                    child to death; ~gosha ‫ ﺟﮕـﻪرﮔـﯚﺷـﻪ‬child;‫ـ‬
jang ‫ﮓ‬s‫ •ﻪ‬war, battle                                   ~soz ‫ ﺟﮕﻪرﺳﯚز‬consoler
jarda ‫ •ﻪردﻩ‬highway robber                          jigara ‫ ﺟـــــــﮕـــــــﻪرﻩ‬cigarette; ~-keshân to
jarg ‫ •ﻪرگ‬liver, heart (metaphorical)                   smoke cigarettes
jarrâḥ ‫ •ﻪڕاح‬surgeon                                jighâr ‫ ﺟﻐﺎر‬grief, sorrow
jawanda ‫ •ﻪوﻩﻧﺪﻩ‬leather water bag                   jil ‫ •ـــــــــــﻞ‬clothes, togs; ~-nân to put on
jawâł ‫ •ـــــــــــﻪواڵ‬large sack or saddlebag,         clothes
   usually one of a pair on either side of          jila ĥ octopus
   a donkey or horse                                jiław ‫ﻪو‬k• reins
jawâhîr ‫ •ﻪواﻫﲑ‬jewels                               jimîn ‫ ﲨﲔ‬jim- ‫ ﰖ‬v.i. to move
jazhn ‫ •ﻪژن‬festival, celebration                    jinew ‫²ﻮ‬ž‫ ﺟ‬insult; ~-dân ba to curse at
jâ ‫ •ﺎ‬then, therefore                               jinoka ‫ﯚﮐﻪ‬ž‫ ﺟ‬genii
jâda ‫ •ﺎدﻩ‬road, street                              jinûb ‫ﻮوب‬ž‫ ﺟ‬south
jâdû ‫ •ـﺎدوو‬magic, sorcery; ~gar ‫•ـﺎدووﮔـﻪر‬         jiř g‫ ﺟــــ‬rip; ~-dân v.t. to rip; ~-hâtin v.i.
   magician, sorcerer                                   to have difficulty, be sad
jâłjâłûka ‫ﻮوﮐﻪ‬T‫ﺎ‬íT‫ •ﺎ‬spider                         jirîwa ‫ ﺟﺮﯾﻮﻩ‬cooing (of doves)
jâm ‫ •ﺎم‬mirror, glass, pane; bowl                   jisin ‫ ﺟﺴﻦ‬noble, race
jânawar ‫ •ﺎﻧﻪوﻩر‬animal                              jiwân ‫ ﺟـــﻮان‬young; ~amarg ‫ﺟـــﻮاﻧـــﻪﻣـــﻪرگ‬
jândârm ‫ •ﺎﻧﺪارم‬police                                  died young; ~ka ‫ﮑﻪ‬s‫ ﺟﻮا‬adolescent
jântâ ‫ •ﺎﻧﺘﺎ‬satchel                                 jizma ‫ ﺟﺰﻣﻪ‬boot
jâr ‫ •ـﺎر‬time, instance: dû hafta ~èk once          jîhân ‫ ﺟ ـﳱ ـﺎن‬world; ~bîn ‫ ﺟ ـﳱ ـﺎﻧ ـﺒ ـﲔ‬world-
   every two weeks; ~ân ‫ •ـــــــــــﺎران‬olden          seeing, all-seeing
   times, past times; ~èk ‫ •ــــﺎر¤ــــﮏ‬once;       jînosâyd ‫ ﺟ;ﻨﯚﺳﺎﯾﺪ‬genocide
   ~èkyân ‫ •ـﺎر ـ ــﺎن‬once, one time; ba ~e
                   ;‫¤ﮑ‬                              jîra ‫ • ـﲑﻩ‬salary, stipend; ~khor ‫• ـﲑﻩﺧ ـﯚر‬
   ‫ ﺑـﻪ•ـﺎرێ‬all at once; ~ u bâr ‫ •ـﺎرو¶ر‬oc-            salaried
   casionally, from time to time                    joga ‫ ﺟﯚﮔﻪ‬stream
jâř ‫ •ـــــــــﺎڕ‬proclamation; ~-dân la v.t. to     jołâ Ÿ‫ ﺟﯚ‬weaver
   proclaim, to broadcast; ~-keshân v.t.            jor ‫ ﺟـﯚر‬sort, kind; manner: b’ aw jorá in
   to proclaim, make a proclamation;                    that manner; ~âw~ ‫~ ,ﺟــــــﯚراﺟــــــﯚر‬ba~
   ~chî ‫ •ﺎڕﭼﯽ‬herald                                    ‫ ﺟﯚرﺑﻪﺟﯚر‬of all sorts, various
jâwîn ‫ﻦ‬a‫ •ﺎو‬v.t. to chew                            jorâw ‫ ﺟﯚراو‬sock
je ‰‫ ﺟــــــــــ‬place; la ~gâ i instead of; ba ~    jořik ‫ ﺟﯚڕک‬bag, saddlebag
   mân v.i. to be left behind; ba ~                 jozardân ‫ ﺟﯚزﻩردان‬the month of Gemini
   heshtin v.t. to leave, leave behind,             jum‘a ‫ ﺟﻮﻣﻌﻪ‬Friday
   abandon; ~-mân v.i. to be left behind;           jûł|a-kirdin ‫ــــــﺮدن‬B ‫ــــــﻪ‬T‫ ﺟــــــﻮو‬to move, to
   ~ga ‫ ﺟـ´ـﮕـﻪ‬place, bed; ~gâ ‫ ﺟـ´ـﮕـﺎ‬place,           budge; ~ân ‫ ﺟــﻮوﻻن‬jûłe- ‰‫ ﺟــﻮوﻟــ‬v.i. to
   position; ~nishîn ‫ ـﺸ ـﲔ‬À‫ ﺟ ـ´ ـ‬heir-appar-          move
   ent, successor                                   jût ‫ ﺟﻮوت‬pair; ~yâr ‫ ﺟﻮوﺗﻴﺎر‬farmer
jebaje-kirdin ‫ ـﺮدن‬B ‰‫ ﺟ ـ´ ـﺒ ـﻪﺟ ـ‬v.t. to finish   jwâb ‫ ﺟـــــﻮاب‬answer, reply; ~-dân v.t. to
   off, to polish off                                   reply
jiga la v ‫ ﺟــــــﮕــــــﻪ‬aside from, except for;   jwân ‫ ﺟـــــــﻮان‬pretty, beautiful; ~î ‫ﺟـــــــﻮاﱏ‬
   without; jiga l’ awaî ‫وﻩى‬v ‫ ﺟـــﮕـــﻪ‬aside           beauty
   from the fact that, in addition to the           jyâ ‫ ــﺎ‬separate, apart; ~wâz ‫ ــﺎواز‬sepa-
                                                          ;‫ﺟ‬                                     ;‫ﺟ‬
   fact that                                            rate; ~wâzî ‫ ــﺎوازی‬distinguishing fea-
                                                                                ;‫ﺟ‬
               ‫ـ‬
jigar ‫ ﺟﮕـﻪر‬liver, child; ~-sûtân to lose a             ture
                                                193
                                       SORANI KURDISH
jyât i ‫ ﺟ;ﺎﰏ‬instead of                                    hał-~ to pull up, uproot, dig
                                                        kanîn ‫- ﮐـﻪﻧـﲔ‬kan- ‫ ﮐـﻪن‬v.i. to laugh; pe-~
ka1 ‫ ﮐــــــــــــﻪ‬other, else: hîch i ~’m nâwe I         to laugh
  don’t want anything else                              kanîshk ‫ ﮐﻪﻧ›ﺸﮏ‬girl, daughter
ka2 ‫ ﮐـــــﻪ‬when (conj); that (subordinating            kar ‫ ﮐﻪر‬donkey, ass
  conj.)                                                karasa ‫ = ﮐﻪرﻩﺳﻪ‬karista
ka- ‫ ﮐﻪ‬pres. stem of kirdin                             kařat ‫ .ﮐﻪڕﻩت‬See karrat.
kachał ‫ ﮐﻪ¸ﻪڵ‬bald, mangy                                           ‫ــ‬
                                                        karista ‫ ﮐـﻪرﺳ8ﺘـﻪ‬raw material; instrument,
kachî ‫ ﮐﻪﭼﯽ‬but, on the other hand                         tool, means; feature
kaftin ‫ ﮐﻪﻓﱳ‬kaf- ‫ = ﮐﻪف‬kawtin                           Karkûk ‫ﻮوک‬B‫ ﮐﻪر‬Kirkuk
kal ‫ ﮐـــــــــــــــﻪل‬mountain pass; broken (of        karrat ‫ ﮐــــــﻪڕﻩت‬time, instance: aw ~á’sh
  teeth); ~-u-pal ‫ ﮐﻪلوﭘﻪل‬odds and ends                   that time too; la mezhû i kurd’dâ bo
kalabâb ‫¶ب‬v‫ ﮐﻪ‬rooster                                     hawałîn ~ for the first time in the
kałak ‫ﻪک‬T‫ ﮐﻪ‬pile; ~ a bard pile of rocks                  history of the Kurds
kałakewî ‫ﻪﮐ²ﻮی‬T‫ ﮐﻪ‬mountain ram                          karsak ‫ ﮐﻪرﺳﻪک‬large clod
kalapoř ‫ﭘﯚڕ‬v‫ ﮐﻪ‬paraphernalia, baggage                   karweshik ‫ = ﮐﻪرو§ﺸﮏ‬kawreshik
kalapûr ‫ﭘﻮور‬v‫ ﮐﻪ‬tradition; ~î traditional               kas ‫ ﮐـﻪس‬person; ~è ‰‫ ﮐـﻪﺳـ‬anybody; ~-u-
kałasher ‫ﺮ‬Œ‫ﻪﺷ‬T‫ ﮐﻪ‬rooster                                  kâr ‫ ﮐـﻪس و ﰷر‬people, relatives; ~âyatî
kalâwa ‫ ﮐﻪﻻوﻩ‬ruin, a ruined building                      ‫ ﮐﻪﺳﺎﯾﻪﰏ‬relationship
kałk ‫ـﮏ‬T‫ ﮐـﻪ‬use, benefit: kałkî nabû it was              kasâbat ‫ ﮐـﻪﺳـﺎﺑـﻪت‬livelihood: bâwkim kâr
  useless; ~ war-girtin la to derive                      u ~î chi bû? What did my father do
  benefit from; ~bakhsh ‫ ﮐـﻪ ـ ــﻪﺧـﺶ‬ben-m‫ﮑ‬T               for a living?; ~-kirdin v.t. to make a
  eficial; ba~ ‫ـﮏ‬T‫ ﺑـﻪﮐـﻪ‬useful, beneficial;                living
  be~ ‫ﮏ‬T‫ ﺑ²ﮑﻪ‬useless, worthless                         kasâs ‫ ﮐﻪﺳﺎس‬distressed; ~î distress
kałkała i ‫ﻪی‬T‫ﮑﻪ‬T‫ ﮐﻪ‬wish, desire for                     kash ‫ ﮐﻪش‬stormcloud
kalla ƒ‫ ﮐﻪﻟـ‬head                                        kashtî ‫ ﮐﻪﺷ8ﱴ‬boat, ship
kaltur ‫ ﮐﻪﻟﺘﻮر‬culture                                   kasukâr ‫ ﮐﻪﺳﻮﰷر‬see kas
kalupal ‫ = ﮐﻪﻟﻮﭘﻪل‬kalapoř                               katin ‫ــﻦ‬Ž‫ ﮐــﻪ‬insult; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to in-
kam ‫ ﮐــﻪم‬little, little bit; ~bînâ ‫ــﻴــﻨــﺎ‬m‫ﮐــﻪﻣــ‬     sult: katinèk i gawra’y pe kirdûm he
  weak-sighted, unable to see well;                       has insulted me greatly
  ~hawen ‫ ﮐـﻪ¹ـﻪو¤ـﻦ‬unproductive; ~tir ‫ﮐـﻪ‬              kaw ‫ ﮐﻪو‬sieve with large holes
  ‫ ﻣـﱰ‬less; ~ u zor more or less; ~tâkur-               kaw- ‫ ﮐﻪو‬pres. stem of kawtin
  tè(k) more or less                                    kawâł ‫ ﮐـــﻪواڵ‬herds and flocks; ~~ spread
kamarchîn ‫ ﮐﻪﻣﻪر¸ﲔ‬cliff                                   out
kan- ‫ ﮐﻪن‬pres. stem of kanîn and kanin                  kawâta ‫ ﮐﻪواﺗﻪ‬then, therefore, in that case
kanâł ‫ ﮐﻪ‡ڵ‬channel (television)                         kawâw ‫ ﮐﻪواو‬roasted meat
kandałân ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ ﮐﻪﻧﺪﻩ‬edge of ravine                         kawchik ‫ ﮐﻪو¸ﮏ‬spoon
kandâł ‫ ﮐﻪﻧﺪاڵ‬hill                                      kawł ‫ ﮐـــﻪوڵ‬skin (of an animal); ~-kirdin
kandin ‫ ﮐﻪﻧﺪن‬see kanin                                    to skin (an animal)
kandrân ‫ ﮐـــﻪﻧـــﺪران‬v.p. to be pulled up, to          kawn ‫ ﮐﻪون‬old; ~ârâ ‫ ﮐﻪو‡را‬old, ancient
  be dug up; hał-~ to be pulled out, to                 kawreshik ‫ﺸﮏ‬â‫ ﮐﻪور‬rabbit, hare
  be wrenched out                                       kawsh ‫ ﮐﻪوش‬shoe
kange ‰‫ﮕ‬s‫ ﮐﻪ‬when?, what time?                           kawtin ‫ـﻦ‬Ž‫ ﮐـﻪو‬kaw- ‫ ﮐـﻪو‬v.i. to fall, befall;
kanin ‫ ـﻦ‬s‫( ﮐ ـﻪ‬kandin ‫ )ﮐ ـﻪﻧ ـﺪن‬kan- ‫ ﮐ ـﻪن‬to           dar-~ to go outside, to appear; dâ-~
  pull up, off, dig up; dâ-~ to pull off;                 to fall away; dûr ~awa to get far
                                                    194
                     SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  away; ~à … (+ inf.) to start to, fall to:   kârîgar ‫ــﮕــﻪر‬a‫ ﰷر‬effective; mortal: birîn i
  kawtînà qsa kirdin we started talking;        ~ mortal wound
  hał-~ la to be situated in                  kârkhâna ‫ﺎﻧﻪ‬L‫ ﰷر‬factory
kay ‫ ﮐﻪی‬when?                                 kâr-u-bâr ‫ ﰷرو¶ر‬affairs, busines
kaybânû ‫ ﮐﻪﯾﺒﺎﻧﻮو‬lady                         kârwân ‫ ﰷروان‬caravan; ~chî ‫ ﰷروا#ـﯽ‬cara-
kayf ‫ ﮐـــﻪﯾـــﻒ‬enjoyment; ~ u safâ kirdin      van leader; ~sarâ ‫ـﺴـﻪرا‬ë‫ ﰷروا‬caravanse-
  lagał v.t. to enjoy oneself (sexually)        rai
  with                                        kâs ‫ ﰷس‬dizzy; faint
Kaykâwis ‫ــــﲀوس‬a‫ ﮐــــﻪ‬Kay-Kaus, shah of     kâset ‫ﺖ‬Œ‫ ﰷﺳ‬cassette
  Iran                                        kâsib ‫ ﰷﺳـــﺐ‬merchant, trader, shopkeep-
kazh ‫ ﮐﻪژ‬mountain                               er; ~î ‫ ﰷﺳ8ﱮ‬trade, commerce
kazhâl ‫ = ﮐﻪژال‬khazâł                         kât1 ‫ ﰷت‬time: l’ aw ~á’dâ at that time;
kâ ‫ ﰷ‬straw                                      ~è(k) ì‫ ﰷﺗ ـ² ـﮏ، ﰷ‬when (temporal con-
kâbrâ ‫ ﰷ–ﺮا‬man, gentleman                       junction); la ~èk’dâ while, during, at
kâch ‫ ﰷچ‬pool                                    a time when
kâghaz ‫ ﰷ™ﻪز‬paper                             kât2 ‫ ﰷت‬back of the neck
kâhû ‫ ﰷﻫﻮو‬lettuce                             kâwezh ‫ ﰷو¤ــــﮋ‬cud; ~-kirdin v.t. to chew
kâk ‫ ﰷک‬elder brother; ~a ‫ "ﮐﻪ‬sir                the cud
kâkłamûshân ‫ﻪﻣﻮوﺷﺎن‬k‫ "ﮐ‬spider                 kâwrâ ‫ = ﰷورا‬kâbrâ
kâł ‫ ﰷڵ‬raw; unripe, immature; light           kâya ‫ ﰷﯾﻪ‬game; ~gâ ‫ ﰷﯾﻪﮔﺎ‬playing field
  (color); faded                              ke ‰‫ ﮐ‬who?
kâłâ Ÿ‫ ﰷ‬cloth, commercial goods               kebarke ‰‫ ﮐ²ﺒﻪرﮐ‬race, competition
kâlân ‫ ﰷﻻن‬scabbord                            kef ‫ ﮐ²ﻒ‬mountain; cave
kâm ‫ ﰷم‬which?, which one?                     kel ‫ ﮐ²ﻞ‬tombstone
kân ‫ ﰷن‬mine; ~zâ ‫ﺰا‬s‫ ﰷ‬mineral                 kełân ‫ن‬˲‫ ﮐ‬keł- Dz‫ ﮐ‬v.t. to plow
kânî ‫ ﰷﱏ‬spring; ~âw ‫ ﰷﻧﻴﺎو‬waterspring         ken ‫ـــﻦ‬Œ‫ ﮐـــ‬the black fabric of which tents
kânûn ‫ ~ : ﰷﻧـــﻮون‬i yekam December; ~ i        are made
  dûham January                               ker ‫ﺮ‬Œ‫ ﮐ‬penis
kâr ‫ ﰷر‬work, thing (intangible): nâtwâ-       kerd ‫ﺮد‬Œ‫ ﮐ‬knife
  nîn am ~á bikayn we can’t do this           kesha ‫ـــﺸـــﻪ‬Œ‫ ﮐـــ‬dispute; ~ i … chârasar-
  thing; ~-kirdin v.t. to work, to do           kirdin v.t. to deal with
  something; ba ~ henrân v.p. to be           keshân ‫ـــﺸـــﺎن‬Œ‫ ﮐـــ‬kesh- ‫ـــﺶ‬Œ‫ ﮐـــ‬v.t. to pull,
  used, be put to use; ~ ba sarawa bûn          draw; râ-~ to draw, pull, select; see
  v.i. to have a responsibility, have           also râ-kishân
  something to do: îdî kâr’it ba sarawa       kew ‫ ﮐ²ﻮ‬mountain
  nabe you have nothing else to do,           kha ‫ﻪ‬L pres. stem of khistin
  there is nothing further you have to        khabar ‫ــﻪﺑــﻪر‬L news; awareness; ~bazen
                 ‫ـ‬
  do; be~ ‫ ﺑ²ـﲀر‬unemployed; be~î ‫ﺑ²ـﲀری‬   ‫ـ‬     ‫ـﻪﺑـﻪرﺑـﻪز¤ـﻦ‬L spy; ~dâr ‫ـﻪﺑـﻪردار‬L, ba~ ‫ـﻪﺑـﻪ‬L‫ﺑـﻪ‬
  unemployment                                  ‫ ر‬awake, aware, informed; ~-bûnawa
kârabâ ¶‫ ﰷرﻩ‬electricity                         v.i. to wake up; ~-dân v.t. to report,
kârakar ‫ ﰷرﻩﮐﻪر‬worker, servant                  give news
kârasât ‫ ﰷرﻩﺳﺎت‬catastrophe                    khabâr ‫ﻪ¶ر‬L danger
kârbadast ‫ ﰷرﺑﻪدﻩﺳﺖ‬official                    khabât ‫ـــــﻪ¶ت‬L struggle; ~-kirdin v.t. to
kârez ‫ ﰷر¤ــــﺰ‬underground water channel;       struggle; ~kar ‫ﮑﻪر‬Ž¶‫ﻪ‬L struggler
  ~kan ‫ ﰷر¤ﺰﮐﻪن‬kârez digger                   khafa ‫ـــــــﻪﻓـــــــﻪ‬L undistinguished family;
                                          195
                                    SORANI KURDISH
  weak flame; ~-kirdin v.t. to choke,                  bûn to be busy: ~ i dars-khwendinîn
  strangle; to lower (flame)                           we’re busy studying
                                         ‫ـ‬
khafat ‫ـﻪﻓـﻪت‬L sorrow; ~bâr ‫ـﻪﻓـﻪﺗﺒـﺎر‬L sor-        kharîta ‫ﻪرﯾﺘﻪ‬L map
  rowful; ~-khwârdin v.t. to grieve                 kharj ‫ــــــﻪرج‬L outlay, expenditure; ~-kir-
khałat ‫ﻪت‬T‫ﻪ‬L curse; mistake; deception                din v.t. to spend (money)
khałatân ‫ن‬c‫ـﻪ‬T‫ـﻪ‬L khałate- ì‫ـﻪ‬T‫ـﻪ‬L v.i. to be       kharmân ‫ــــــﻪرﻣــــــﺎن‬L haystack, threshing
  deceived, tricked                                   floor; ~a ‫ـﻪرﻣـﺎﻧـﻪ‬L halo around the moon;
khałatândin ‫ﻧــــﺪن‬c‫ــــﻪ‬T‫ــــﻪ‬L v.t. to deceive,     ~ân ‫ــــــــﻪرﻣــــــــﺎ‡ن‬L the month of Virgo
  trick                                               (August 23–September 22)
khałât ‫ت‬Ÿ‫ـﻪ‬L reward; ~-kirdin v.t. to re-           khars ‫ــــــــــﻪرس‬L estimate, guess; ~ândin
  ward                                                ‫ـﻪرﺳـﺎﻧـﺪن‬L v.t. to estimate; ~-kirdin v.t.
khałef ‫²ﻒ‬T‫ﻪ‬L beehive                                  to estimate
khałk ‫ﮏ‬T‫ﻪ‬L people                                   kharsak ‫ﻪرﺳﻪک‬L thick woolen carpet
khałq ‫ﻖ‬T‫ﻪ‬L = khałk                                  khartala v‫ﻪرﺗﻪ‬L mustard
khałtân ‫ـﻪ ــﺎن‬L wallowing, floundering; ~
             ‫ﺘ‬T                                     khasândin ‫ـﻪﺳـﺎﻧـﺪن‬L khasen- ‫ـﻪ ــﻦ‬L v.t. to
                                                                                             Œ‫ﺳ‬
  i khwen ‫ـــﺘـــﺎﱏ ﺧـــﻮ¤ـــﻦ‬T‫ـــﻪ‬L weltering in     emasculate; to prune
  blood                                             khasârat ‫ﻪﺳﺎرﻩت‬L loss
kham ‫ـــﻪم‬L worry, sorrow; ~bâr ‫ـــﺎر‬m‫ـــﻪﻣـــ‬L     Khasraw Parwez ‫ـــــــﻪﴎﻩو ﭘـــــــﻪرو¤ـــــــﺰ‬L
                                     ‫ـ ﺗ‬
  sorrow-raining; ~girtû ‫ـﻪﻣﮕـﺮـﻮو‬L griev-            Chosroës Parvez, Sassanian shah of
  ing, sad; ~gîn ‫ ـﻪﻣ ـﮕ ـﲔ‬L sorrowful, sad;          Iran
  ~khor ‫ـــﻪﳐـــﯚر‬L sympathetic, consoler;          khasû ‫ــــــــﻪﺳــــــــﻮو‬L mother-in-law, son’s
  ~nâk ‫ﺎک‬ž‫ﻪﻣ‬L sad                                     wife’s mother
                                    k‫ﻣ‬
khamłân ‫ن‬Ë‫ـﻪﻣـ‬L khamłe- ‰‫ـﻪ ــ‬L v.i. to be          khat ‫ﻪت‬L line
  decorated, embellished                            khatana ‫ــــﻪﺗــــﻪﻧــــﻪ‬L circumcision; ~sûrân
khamřa ‫ﻩ‬g‫ﻪﻣ‬L large vat                                ‫ﻪﺗﻪﻧﻪﺳﻮوران‬L circumcision celebration
khamza ‫ﻪﻣﺰﻩ‬L wink                                   khatar ‫ﻪﺗﻪر‬L grave, serious
khana ‫ﻪﻧﻪ‬L henna                                    khaw ‫ـــــــــﻪو‬L sleep, dream; ~yân le kawt
khandak ‫ﻪﻧﺪﻩک‬L ditch                                  they fell asleep; pres. stem of khaw-
khanjar ‫ـــﻪﳒـــﻪر‬L dagger; dânà bar ~ v.t.           tin; ~~î ‫ــــــــــﻪوی‬L‫ــــــــــﻪو‬L sleepy-head;
  to stab, cut with a knife                           ~anûchka ‫ﻪوﻩﻧﻮوﭼﮑﻪ‬L drowsiness
khar- ‫ـــــﻪر‬L (imperative stem of khistin):        khawin ‫ــــــــــــــﻪون‬L dream; ~-dîtin v.t. to
  bíkhara (impt. sing) throw!                         dream
kharand ‫ﻪرﻩﻧﺪ‬L ditch, cesspool                      khawtin ‫ـــــﻦ‬Ž‫ـــــﻪو‬L khaw- ‫ـــــﻪو‬L v.i. to lie
kharâb ‫ﻪراب‬L bad, out of order, broken                down; to sleep: khawtûa he’s asleep
kharâmân ‫ــــــﻪراﻣــــــﺎن‬L graceful, walking      khayâł ‫ڵ‬p‫ ـﻪ‬L idea, thought; imagination;
  stately                                             ba ~ i …dâ hâtin to occur to the
kharâp ‫ﻪراپ‬L = khirâp                                 mind of
kharâw ‫ـﻪراو‬L = kharâb; ~akar ‫ـﻪراوﻩﮐـﻪ‬L            khayâr ‫ر‬p‫ﻪ‬L cucumber
  ‫~ ,ر‬akâr ‫ــــﻪراوﻩﰷر‬L robber; ~-witin v.t.        khazałwar ‫ـــﻮﻩر‬T‫ـــﻪزﻩ‬L the month of Scor-
  to curse                                            pio (October 23–November 21)
kharbâr ‫ـﻪر¶ر‬L large measure of weight,             khazâł ‫ﻪزاڵ‬L gazelle
  300 kilos                                         khazâm ‫ﻪزام‬L = khazân
kharek ‫ﻪر¤ﮏ‬L = kharîk                               khazân ‫ﻪزان‬L autumn
kharîb ‫ﻪرﯾﺐ‬L stranger                               khazena ‫ﻨﻪ‬l‫ﻪز‬L treasury
kharîk ‫ـــﮏ‬a‫ـــﻪر‬L busy, occupied; kharîk-                       ‫ﻧ‬
                                                    khazna ‫ـــــﻪزـــــﻪ‬L treasury; pool in public
                                                196
                        SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  bath; ~dâr ‫ﻪزﻧﻪدار‬L treasurer                      ‫ دوور‬the Far East
khazr ‫ﻪزر‬L anger                                   khâwen ‫ﺎو¤ﻦ‬L clean, tidy
khazûr(a) ‫ــــــــﻪزوور‬L father-in-law, son’s      khâya ‫ـــﺎﯾـــﻪ‬L egg; testicle; ~ron ‫ـــﺎﯾـــﻪرۆن‬L
  wife’s father                                      fried egg
khâch ‫ﺎچ‬L cross                                    khe ‰‫ ﺧ‬habit, custom
khâk ‫ﺎک‬L earth, dust; ~âwî dusty, dirty            kher ‫ـــــﺮ‬Œ‫ـــــ‬L good; ba ~ well: ba ~ bît be
khâkalewa ‫ــ˜ﮐــﻪﻟــ²ــﻮﻩ‬L Aries (March 21–          well; qsa i ~ kirdin bo to put in a
  April 20)                                          good word for: qsayèk i kherî bo
khâł1 ‫ــﺎڵ‬L maternal uncle; ~o ‫ــﯚ‬T‫ــﺎ‬L uncle        bikirdîtâya she could have put in a
  (maternal)                                         good word for you
khâł2 ‫ـــﺎڵ‬L spot, mole (on skin); tattoo; ~       kherâ ‫ــــﺮا‬Œ‫ــــ‬L quick, soon, fast; ba ~î ‫ﺑــــﻪ‬
  u mîl ‫ــــﺎڵ و ﻣــــ;ــــﻞ‬L colors on neck and     ‫ﺮاﱙ‬ŒL quickly, rapidly
  breast of partridge, (meta.) beauty of           kherâtin-kirdin ‫ ـﺮدن‬B ‫ ـﻦ‬Ž‫ ـﺮا‬Œ‫ ـ‬L v.t. to wel-
  the beloved; ~-kutân v.t. to tattoo                come
khâm ‫ﺎم‬L raw                                       khesa-kirdin la v ‫ ـﺮدن‬B ‫ ـﺴ ـﻪ‬Œ‫ ـ‬L v.t. to turn
khâma ‫ﺎﻣﻪ‬L pencil, pen                               away from
khâmosh ‫ــﺎﻣــﯚش‬L quiet, peaceful; silent;         khew ‫ ﺧ´ﻮ‬owner, lord
  ~-kirdin v.t. to extinguish; ~î quiet-           khewand ‫ = ﺧ´ﻮﻩﻧﺪ‬khew
  ness                                             khewat ‫ ﺧـــــ´ـــــﻮﻩت‬tent; ~ hał-dân v.t. to
khân1 ‫ﺎن‬L khan, chief; ~im ‫ﺎﱎ‬L lady                  pitch a tent
khân2 ‫ﺎن‬L inn; ~chî ‫ﺎ#ﯽ‬L innkeeper                 khezân ‫ـــﺰان‬Œ‫ـــ‬L members of a family, de-
khâna ‫ـﺎﻧـﻪ‬L house; ~khirâp ‫ـﺎﻧـﻪﺧـﺮاپ‬L un-          pendents; ~dâr ‫ـــــﺰاﻧـــــﺪار‬Œ‫ـــــ‬L man with
  lucky; ~khwe ‫ـﺎﻧـﻪﺧـﻮێ‬L host; ~qâ ‫ـﺎﻧـﻪﻗـﺎ‬L        many mouths to feed
  khanaqah, dervish hostel; ~wâda                  khida ‫ﺪﻩ‬L custom, manner
  ‫ﺎﻧﻪوادﻩ‬L family, wealthy family                  khil ‫ـــﻞ‬L rolling; ~-kirdinawa v.t. to roll
khânulân ‫ــــــﺎﻧــــــﻮﻻن‬L family, home; be~        down: bardèkim khil kirdawa I rolled
  ‫ ـﺎﻧ ـﻮﻻن‬Ø‫ ﺑ ـ² ـ‬homeless; be~-kirdin v.t. to      a stone down; ~a~ ‫ـــــــﻞ‬Lƒ‫ـــــــ‬L rolling,
  render homeless; be~î ‫ـﺎﻧـﻮﻻﱏ‬ز‫ ﺑ‬home-‫ــ‬           bouncing
  lessness                                         khiłâfândin ‫ﻓﺎﻧﺪن‬ËL v.t. to trick, deceive
khânû ‫ﺎﻧﻮو‬L house                                  khilena ‫ﻠ²ﻨﻪ‬L molar (tooth)
khâpûr-kirdin ‫ـــﺮدن‬B ‫ـــﺎﭘـــﻮور‬L v.t. to ruin,   khilîsk ‫ــــﻠــــ›ــــﺴــــﮏ‬L slippery, slimy; ~a
  destroy                                               ‫ـــ ـ‬
                                                     ‫ﻠ›ﺴﮑـﻪ‬L slippery place; ~âne ê‫ﻠ›ﺴـﲀ‬L        ‫ـــ‬
khâs ‫ﺎس‬L good                                        ice-skating; ~ân ‫ﻠ›ﺴـﲀن‬L /~în ‫ﻠ›ﺴﮑـﲔ‬L
                                                                                    ‫ـــ‬        ‫ـــ ـ‬
khâsatan ‫ﺎﺳﻪﺗﻪن‬L especially                          v.i. to slip (on ice)
khâshkhâsh ‫ﺎش‬Ø‫ﺎﺷ‬L poppy                            khinkân ‫ـــﲀن‬ž‫ ﺧـــ‬khinke- ‰‫ـــﮑـــ‬ž‫ ﺧـــ‬v.i. to
khâtir ‫ـﺮ‬Ž‫ـﺎ‬L mind; ~ i ‫ـﺮی‬Ž‫ـﺎ‬L for the sake         choke; to drown
  of; ~jam ‫ـــﺮ•ـــﻪم‬Ž‫ـــﺎ‬L with mind at ease,     khiř1 g‫ ﺧــــــــــــ‬round: top i zawî khiřa the
  reassured; ~khwâ ‫ﺮﺧﻮا‬Ž‫ﺎ‬L in love                   earth is round; ~-bûnawa v.i. to
khâw ‫ـــﺎو‬L = khâm; = khaw; ~-bûnawa                 gather: la chî khiř bûnawa what did
  v.i. to lose patience; ~ u khezân                  they gather for?; ~ dâ-khistin v.t. to
  ‫ﺰان‬ŒL‫ﺎوو‬L all the members of a family              shut tight, slam; ~ u khâłî ‫ـــﯽ‬T‫ـــﺎ‬L ‫ و‬g‫ﺧـــ‬
khâwa ‫ﺎوﻩ‬L toll                                      empty; ~ u khoł ‫ و ﺧﯚڵ‬g‫ ﺧ‬pretty
khâwan ‫ ـﺎوﻩن‬L owner, possessor; ~shiko            khiř2 g‫ ﺧ‬too big, too large
  ‫ﺸﮑﯚ‬ë‫ﺎوﻩ‬L lord, master                            khirâ ‫ ﺧـــــﺮا‬displeasing; ~î-kirdin ba v.t.
khâwar ‫ـﺎوﻩر‬L east, orient; ~ i dûr ‫ـﺎوﻩرى‬L          to be angry with, displeased by: agar
                                               197
                                    SORANI KURDISH
  aw kârá nakan, khirâî’tân pe dakam                  nim dâkhist I pulled down the tree
  if you don’t do it, I’ll be angry with              branches, la khajâłatî sarî dâkhist he
  you                                                 lowered his head in shame; (4) to
khirân ‫ ﺧـــﺮان‬khire- ‫ ﺧـــﺮێ‬v.p. passive of          store, put up (food): âzûqam dâkhist I
  khistin; râ-~ to grow, sprout                       put up provisions
khirâp ‫ ﺧــــــــﺮاپ‬bad, awful, wrong: ~ te-        khitûka ‫ـــــﻮوﮐـــــﻪ‬µ‫ ﺧـــــ‬tickle; ~-dân v.t. to
  gayshtûy you’ve misunderstood; ~                    tickle
  geřânawa la bâra i …dâ v.i. to                    khizân ‫ ﺧـــــــﺰان‬khize- ‫ ﺧـــــــﺰێ‬v.i. to slip,
  speak ill of; ~a ‫ ﺧ ـﺮاﭘ ـﻪ‬bad deed; ~akâr          crawl; ~ la to draw near to; râ-~ to
  ‫ ﺧـــﺮاﭘـــﻪﰷر‬evil-doer, maleficent; ~akârî         sprout
  ‫ ﺧﺮاﭘﻪﰷری‬evil, maleficence                         khizm ‫ ﺧـﺰم‬family; ~âyatî ‫ ﺧـﺰﻣـﺎﯾـﻪﰏ‬family
khiřka ‫ﮐﻪ‬g‫ ﺧ‬pebble; ~bard ‫ﮐﻪﺑﻪرد‬g‫ ﺧ‬ditto              relationship
khiroshân ‫ ﺧـﺮۆﺷـﺎن‬khiroshe- ‰‫ ﺧـﺮۆﺷـ‬v.i.           khizmat ‫ ﺧ ـﺰﻣ ـﻪت‬service; ~kâr ‫ ـﲀر‬Ž‫ﺧ ـﺰﻣ ـﻪ‬
  to be in turmoil, commotion                         servant; ~-kirdin v.t. to serve;
khirt ‫ ﺧـﺮت‬cylindrical; ~ u pirt ‫ـﺮت‬º‫ﺧـﺮتو‬            gayshtin ba ~ i to meet, see
                                           ‫ﺗ‬
  junk, worthless things; ~ak ‫ﺧــــــﺮــــــﻪک‬        (honorific)
  roller (for a chair, bed, &c.)                    khîm ‫ ﺧﲓ‬foundation; race, origin
khish|ân ‫ ﺧــــﺸــــﺎن‬khishe- ‰‫ ﺧــــﺸــــ‬v.i. to   khîrat ‫ﲑﻩت‬L bravery, manly honor
                             ‫ـ‬
  crawl; ~ândin ‫ ﺧﺸـﺎﻧـﺪن‬khishen- ‫ـ ــﻦ‬      Œ‫ﺧﺸ‬    khîzałân ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ﲒﻩ‬L sand, sandy patch
  v.t. to drag on the ground; ~în ‫ﺧـــﺸـــﲔ‬         kho ‫ ﺧـــــﯚ‬self (normally kho refers to the
  v.i. to creep, crawl                                subject of the verb of the clause in
khishił Ç‫ ﺧﺸ‬ornament                                  which it occurs: kho’y kusht he killed
                           ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ‬
khishka u pishka ‫ﺸﮑـﻪ‬é‫ ﺧﺸﮑـﻪو‬creeping                 himself; with a pron. encl. it also
  and crawling                                        functions as a stressed pronoun: kâb-
khisht ‫ ﺧـــــــﺸـــــــﺖ‬skewer; brick, slab of       râ kuřaká’y kusht u amjâr hařasha i
  baked clay                                          awa’y le kird ka kho’ysh’î bikuzhe the
khishta ‫ ﺧــﺸــــﺘــﻪ‬level; la ~ birdin v.t. to
                8                                     man killed her son and then he threat-
  level, ruin, destroy, (meta.) to have               ened to kill her too); la ~awa by one-
  illicit relations with, to corrupt                  self; la ~’râ by oneself; ~-dâ-girtin
khistin ‫ ﺧـــﺴـــﱳ‬kha- ‫ـــﻪ‬L (v.t., impt. sing.       v.t. to lurk in ambush; ~-dâ-kutân v.t.
  bikhara; pass. khirân) to throw, put;               to take root; ~-dâ-nân v.t. to sacrifice
  ~à … to throw into: pâdshâ awânî                    oneself, lay down one’s life; ~-girtin
  khistà bandîkhâna the king threw                    v.t. to have patience, be stable; to be
  them into prison; ~awa to build,                    success-ful; ~-keshânawa v.t. to
  make; ~à …awa to pour s.th. into …:                 withdraw, secede; ~-khurândin v.t.
  daykhamà kupałayèk i damtangawa                     to scratch oneself; to participate in
  I’ll pour it into a jar with a narrow               charitable affairs; ~-khwârdinawa
  neck; ~à sar to fulfill a wish, to help              v.t. to suffer in silence; ~m ‫ ﺧــــــﯚم‬my-
  someone accomplish a goal; dar-~ to                 self; ~-pârâstin v.t. to defend oneself;
  express; dâ-~ (1) to shut, close: dar-              ~t yourself; ~y him/herself
  gây dâkhist he shut the door; dalâ-               khobâî ‫ ﺧﯚ¶ﰃ‬pride, self-satisfaction
  qaká’y la sar dâkhistinawa he shut                khokhor ‫ ﺧـــــﯚﺧـــــﯚر‬xenophile, enemy to
  the trap door over them; (2) to spread:             one’s one people: kurd’îsh chi kurd
  bařakam dâkhist I spread out the rug;               a? mîłat i khokhora pekawa / bo gyân
  (3) to pull down, lower: likadârakâ-                u mâł i yektirî simkoł dakan la khoł
                                                198
                       SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  (Malâ Mârif) And what are the                    the British didn’t like him; na~ ‫ﻧـﻪﺧـﯚش‬
  Kurds? A self-destructive nation alto-           ill, sick
  gether stomping their hooves in the            khosha ‫ ﺧــﯚﺷــﻪ‬ear of grain; ~chîn ‫ﺧــﯚﺷــﻪ‬
  dust to get at each other’s lives and            ‫ ¸ﲔ‬gleaner
  property                                       khoshajân ‫ ﺧﯚﺷﻪ•ﺎن‬cheers, bon appetit
khokird ‫ﺮد‬B‫ ﺧﯚ‬natural, not artificial                                   ‫ـ‬
                                                 khoshawîst ‫ ﺧـﯚﺷـﻪو§ﺴـﺖ‬beloved, dear; ~î
khoł ‫ ﺧـــــــــــﯚڵ‬dust; ~ i mirdû ba sar’dâ      love
  kirân to be in mourning: khałkakáy             khoshâw ‫ ﺧـــــﯚﺷـــــﺎو‬dried fruit soaked in
  dałey khoł i mirdû’yân ba sar’dâ                 water
  kirâwa you’d think the people were in          khoshbîn ‫ ﺧﯚﺷ8ﺒﲔ‬optimistic
  mourning; ~akawa ashes; ~amesh                                         ‫ــ‬
                                                 khoshchezha ‫ـﮋﻩ‬ŒÂ‫ ﺧـﯚﺷ‬good-tasting, de-
  ‫ﺶ‬Œ‫ﻪﻣ‬T‫ ﺧﯚ‬ashes; ~ameshî ‫ﺸﯽ‬Œ‫ﻪﻣ‬T‫ ﺧﻮ‬gray             licious
khomâłî ‫ـﯽ‬T‫ ﺧـﯚﻣـﺎ‬domestic, personal, own:       khoshdamâkh ‫ ﺧــــﯚﺷــــﺪﻩﻣــــﺎخ‬happy, in a
  zimân i ~ mother tongue                          good mood
khoparist ‫ ﺧﯚﭘﻪرﺳﺖ‬selfish                         khoshḥâl ‫ ﺧﯚﴮﺎل‬happy, pleased
khopasind ‫ ﺧـﯚﭘـﻪﺳـــﺪ‬self-satisfied, egotis-
                  ‫8ﻨ‬                             khoshî ‫ ﺧـــﯚﳽ‬pleasure, fun; la ~ân’dâ v
  tical                                            ‫ ﺧﯚﺷ8ﻴﺎﻧﺪا‬in joy and happiness
khopârezî ‫ ﺧﯚﭘﺎر¤ﺰی‬self-defense                  khoshken ‫ـﻦ‬Œ‫ ﺧـﯚﺷـﮑـ‬humble; ~î ‫ﺧـﯚﺷـﮑـ´ـﲎ‬
khor ‫ ﺧـــﯚر‬sun; ~ałât ‫ت‬Ÿ‫ ﺧـــﯚرﻩ‬east, sun-        humility
  rise; ~atâw ‫و‬c‫ ﺧــــﯚرﻩ‬sun; ~âwâ ‫ﺧــــﯚراوا‬    khoshkhâna ‫ﺎﻧﻪ‬Ø‫ ﺧﯚﺷ‬tannery
  west, sunset; ~hałât ‫ت‬Ÿ‫ ﺧـــــﯚرﻫـــــﻪ‬east;   khoshkok ‫ ﺧﯚﺷﮑﯚک‬pretty
  ~nishîn ‫ـــﺸـــﲔ‬ë‫ ﺧـــﯚر‬west(ern); ~wazân                          ‫ـــ‬
                                                 khoshlîbâs ‫ ﺧـﯚﺷﻠﻴﺒـﺎس‬well-dressed, dan-
  ‫ ﺧﯚروﻩزان‬east                                    dy
-khor ‫ ﺧـــــــﯚر‬suffix meaning eating, con-      khoshmaza ‫ ﺧﯚﴰﻪزﻩ‬delicious
  suming                                         khoshnâw ‫ ﺧﯚﺷ8ﻨﺎو‬renowned
khoř ‫ ﺧﯚڕ‬blood; fast flowing of water                                      8
                                                 khoshnûs ‫ ﺧـــﯚﺷــــــﻨـــﻮوس‬calligrapher; ~î
khorâî ‫ ﺧﯚراﰃ‬free, gratis                          ‫ ﺧﯚﺷ8ﻨﻮوﳻ‬calligraphy
khořâî ‫ ﺧﯚڕاﰃ‬dictator                            khoshposh ‫ ﺧﯚﺷ8ﭙﯚش‬well-dressed
khorâk ‫ ﺧﯚراک‬food                                khotâsh ‫ش‬c‫ ﺧﯚ‬electric razor
khořang ‫ﮓ‬s‫ ﺧﯚڕﻩ‬natural color, colorfast          khoy ‫ ﺧﯚی‬sweat, dew
khořâ ‫ ﺧﯚڕا‬stubborn, intractable                 khozga ‫ ﺧـــــــﯚزﮔـــــــﻪ‬would that (+ irrealis
khorist ‫ ﺧﯚرﺳﺖ‬wild, uncultivated                   mood): khozga ahâtî would that you
khort ‫ ﺧﯚرت‬young, youth                            had come; ~-birdin v.t. to wish; ~-
khosh ‫ ,ﺧــﯚش‬khwash ‫ ﺧــﻮﻩش‬good, well;             khwârdin v.t. to wish
  ~ râ-bwârdin v.t. to have a good               khudâ ‫ ﺧﻮدا‬God; ~î divine, God-given
  time, enjoy: l’ awe khoshmân râ-               khul ‫ ﺧــــﻮل‬turn, revolution; ~-dân v.t. to
  bwârd we had a good time there; ~-               revolve; ~-khwardin v.t. to revolve,
  bûn ba to be happy with, pleased by:             spin (int.); ~ân ‫ ﺧ ـﻮﻻن‬khule- ‰‫ ﺧ ـﻮﻟ ـ‬v.i.
  pem khosh bû hâtî I’m glad you                   to spin, turn
  came; ~-kirdin v.t. to be nice: hawâ           khulyâ ‫ ﺧﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬wish, desire, daydream
  khoshî kird the weather turned nice;           khuncha ‫ ﺧﻮ#ﻪ‬bud
  to fan a flame; to make ready, to im-           khuř ‫ ﺧـﻮڕ‬sudden rush of water, in flood;
  prove; ~-kirdinawa v.t. to make up,              khwen u ~ ‫ ﺧﻮ¤ﻦوﺧﻮڕ‬hemorrhage
  make peace; ~-wîstin v.t. to love, to          khurân1 ‫ ﺧــﻮران‬khure- ‫ ﺧــﻮرێ‬v.i. to itch;
  like: înglîsîakân khoshyân nawîstûa              ~din ‫ ﺧـــﻮراﻧـــﺪن‬khuren- ‫ ﺧـــﻮر¤ـــﻦ‬v.t. to
                                             199
                                    SORANI KURDISH
  scratch                                             ‫ ﺧـــــــــــــــﻮاروو‬south; hâtinà ~e to come
khurân2 ‫ ﺧـﯚران‬khure- ‫ ﺧـﻮرێ‬v.p. passive              down, get down; khistinà ~awa v.t.
  of khwârdin                                         to throw down
khurd ‫ ﺧــــﻮرد‬food; small, tiny; ~a ‫ﺧــــﻮردﻩ‬     khwârdin ‫ ﺧـــــﻮاردن‬kho- ‫( ﺧـــــﯚ‬v.t., pass.
  small change; ~agîr ‫ ﺧـــﻮردﻩﮔـــﲑ‬carper,           khurân) to eat; ~awa to drink
  caviler                                          khwâs ‫ ﺧﻮاس‬bare (foot, head)
khurî ‫ ﺧﻮری‬wool                                    khwâst ‫ ﺧــﻮاﺳــﺖ‬request; ~-kirdin v.t. to
khuřîn ‫ــــﻦ‬a‫ ﺧــــﻮڕ‬v.t. to yell, shout, neigh,      request
  whinny; te-~ to yell at, shout at                khwâstin ‫ ﺧــــﻮاﺳــــﱳ‬khwâz- ‫ ﺧــــﻮاز‬v.t. to
khurj ‫ ﺧﻮرج‬saddlebag                                  want, desire
khurmâ ‫ ﺧﻮرﻣﺎ‬date                                  khwâzbenî ‫ ﺧـﻮازــﲎ‬proposal of marriage,
                                                                       Œ‫ﺑ‬
khurosh ‫ ﺧـــــــــــــــﻮرۆش‬scream, yell; ~ân        engagement ceremony; ~ i X kirdin
  ‫ ﺧـــﻮرۆﺷـــﺎن‬khuroshe- ‰‫ ﺧـــﻮرۆﺷـــ‬v.i. to        la Y v.t. to ask Y for X’s hand in mar-
  scream, to yell                                     riage: khwâzbenî i kichá la âshawân
khurt ‫ ﺧﻮرت‬powerful, strong                           dakâ he asks the miller for the girl’s
khurûka ‫ ﺧﻮرووﮐﻪ‬pox, pockmark                         hand in marriage; ~kar ‫;ﮑـﻪر‬À²‫ ﺧـﻮازﺑ‬suit-
                                                                                               ‫ــــ‬
khusa ‫ ﺧﻮﺳﻪ‬sorrow                                     or
khut-u-khořâî ‫ ﺧـــﻮﺗـــﻮﺧـــﯚڕاﰃ‬for no good       khwâztin ‫ﻦ‬Ž‫ = ﺧﻮاز‬khwâstin
  reason, for no reason at all                     khwe1 ‫ ﺧـــﻮێ‬owner: khâna~ ‫ـــﺎﻧـــﻪﺧـــﻮێ‬L
khuyâ-kirdin ‫ــــــﺮدن‬B p‫ ﺧــــــﻮ‬v.t. to show,       householder, home-owner, host;
  make obvious                                                               ‫ـ‬
                                                      khwena~ ‫ﻨـﻪﺧـﻮێ‬l‫ ﺧـﻮا‬avenger, seeking
khû ‫ ﺧ ـﻮو‬custom; ~-girtin v.t. to become             retaliation
  accustomed                                       khwe2 ‫ ﺧﻮێ‬salt
khûg ‫ ﺧﻮوگ‬pig                                      khwen ‫ ﺧ ـﻮ¤ ـﻦ‬blood; ~akhwe ‫ ـﻨ ـﻪﺧ ـﻮێ‬l‫ﺧ ـﻮ‬
khûsân ‫ ﺧـــﻮوﺳـــﺎن‬v.i. to get soft in water;        avenger; ~bast ‫ـــﻪﺳـــﺖ‬m‫ـــ‬À‫ـــ‬l‫~ ,ﺧـــﻮ‬dâku-
                                    ‫ـ‬
  ~din ‫ ﺧـﻮوﺳـﺎﻧـﺪن‬khûsen- ‫ـﻦ‬Œ‫ ﺧـﻮوﺳ‬v.t. to           zhândin ‫ــــﻮژاﻧــــﺪن‬Bä‫ــــﻨــــﺪ‬l‫ ﺧــــﻮ‬cease-fire;
  soften in water                                     ~garm ‫ـــﻨـــﮕـــﻪرم‬l‫ ﺧـــﻮ‬hot-blooded; ~gir
khûzh ‫ ﺧﻮوژ‬hunchbacked                                ‫ـﻨـﮕـﺮ‬l‫ ﺧـﻮ‬immediate member of a mur-
khwar ‫ ﺧﻮﻩر‬sun                                        dered man’s family; ~jimmân
khwash ‫ = ﺧﻮﻩش‬khosh                                   ‫ﻨﺠﻤـﲈن‬l‫ ﺧـﻮ‬blood pressure; ~kar ‫ﻨﮑـﻪر‬l‫ﺧـﻮ‬
                                                          ‫ــ ـ‬                                        ‫ــ‬
khwayshk ‫ ﺧﻮﻩ§ﺸﮏ‬sister                                murderer; ~khwâ ‫ﻨﺨـﻮا‬l‫ ﺧـﻮ‬bloodthirsty;
                                                                                   ‫ــ‬
khwâ1 ‫ ﺧـــــــﻮا‬God: khwâ yek a u nâbe ba            ~khwâr ‫ﻨﺨـﻮار‬l‫ ﺧـﻮ‬mortal enemy; ~rizh
                                                                          ‫ــ‬
  dû God is one and is not two (an oath,              ‫ــــﲊژ‬l‫ ﺧــــﻮ‬bloodshedder, murderer; ~tâł
  “by God almighty”); ~bakhshîw the                   ‫ﺎڵ‬µÀl‫ ﺧﻮ‬dull, sluggish
  late (for a deceased person); ~ḥâfîz             khwen|din ‫ ـﻨ ـﺪن‬l‫ ﺧ ـﻮ‬khwen- ‫ ﺧ ـﻮ¤ ـﻦ‬v.t. to
  ‫ ﺧــﻮا„ــﺎﻓــﲒ‬good-bye; ~ḥâfîzî kirdin la           call; to read; ~dawâr ‫ ﺧـﻮ ــﺪﻩوار‬literate;
                                                                                              ‫ﻨ‬l
  v.t. to say good-bye to; ~leykhoshbû                na~dawâr ‫ــﻨــﺪﻩوار‬l‫ ﻧــﻪﺧــﻮ‬illiterate; ~ar
       ‫ــ‬        ‫ـ‬
  ‫ﯽ ﺧـﯚﺷ8ﺒـﻮو‬Š‫ ﺧـﻮا ﻟ²ـ‬the late; ~parist ‫ﺧـﻮاﭘـﻪ‬      ‫ﻨﻪر‬l‫ ﺧﻮ‬reader
  ‫ رﺳﺖ‬God-fearing                                  khweřâî ‫اﰃ‬g¤‫ ﺧﻮ‬free, at no cost
khwâ2 ‫ ﺧـﻮا‬whether: ~ bitawe yân natawe            khwishk ‫ ﺧـــﻮﺷـــﮏ‬sister; ~azâ ‫ﺧـــﻮﺷـــﮑـــﻪزا‬
  whether you want to or not                          nephew, niece; ~âyatî ‫ ﺧــﻮﺷــﲀﯾــﻪﰏ‬sis-
khwâkhwâ ‫ ﺧـــﻮاﺧـــﻮا‬eager, impatient; ~ i           terhood
  impatient for                                    kich ‫ ﮐﭻ‬girl, daughter
khwân ‫ ﺧﻮان‬dining table                                      ‫ـ‬
                                                   kifn ‫ ﮐﻔـﻦ‬winding sheet, shroud; ~ u difn
khwâr ‫ ﺧــــﻮار‬down; ~è ‫ ﺧــــﻮارێ‬down; ~û            kirdin ‫ـﺮدن‬B ‫ ﮐـﻔـﻦودﻓـﻦ‬v.t. to shroud and
                                               200
                        SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
   bury                                                ridden
kiłâw ‫و‬Ë‫ ﮐـ‬hat: ~yân chû sare “they were                            ‫ـ‬                 ‫ـ‬
                                                    kish|ân ‫ 'ﺸـﺎن‬kishe- ‰‫ 'ﺸـ‬v.i. to crawl up;
                             ‫ﻧ‬
   fooled”; ~řozhina ‫وڕۆژـــﻪ‬Ë‫ ﮐـــ‬window,             to pass quickly; ~ân-awa ‫ 'ـــﺸـــﺎﻧـــﻪوﻩ‬to
   skylight                                            draw back, go backwards, stretch:
kiłesha ‫ــﺸــ ﻪ‬Œ‫ــ‬k‫ ﮐــ‬corpse; bin ~ i … chûn          wak lâstîk la bar yek dakishetawa it
   v.i. to deceive, dupe                               stretches like rubber; râ-~ân to
kilîl ‫ ,ﳇﻴﻞ‬kiłeł Dzk‫ ﮐ‬key                              stretch out, crawl; ~ândin ‫'ــــﺸــــﺎﻧــــﺪن‬
kilk ‫ ﳇﮏ‬finger; tail; pen                               kishen- ‫ــــــﻦ‬Œ‫ 'ــــــﺸــــــ‬v.t. to drag on the
kiło ‫ ـ ﯚ‬k‫ ﮐ ـ‬lump, clod, clump; ~ qand ‫ ـ ﯚ‬k‫ﮐ ـ‬       ground; to stretch; to weigh; ~ândin-
   ‫ ﻗ ـﻪﻧ ـﺪ‬lump of sugar, ~ gił Ç‫ ـﯚ ﮔ ـ‬k‫ ﮐ ـ‬mud      awa ‫ 'ﺸﺎﻧﺪﻧﻪوﻩ‬to pull back; to reweigh
   clod                                             kishtukâł ‫ 'ﺸ8ﺘﻮﰷڵ‬agriculture
kiloj ‫ ﳇــــــﯚج‬manner, way: ba hîch ~èk in         kiz ‫ ﮐــــــﺰ‬limp, thin, light; despondent; ~î
   no way whatsoever                                   despondency
kiłoł ‫ﯚڵ‬k‫ ﮐ‬wretched                                 kizabâ ¶‫ ﮐﺰﻩ‬cold dry wind
kilor ‫ ﳇﯚر‬hollow                                    kizoła-kirdin ‫ﺮدن‬B ‫ﻪ‬T‫ ﮐﺰۆ‬v.t. to cringe
kimîsar ‫ ﳈ›ﺴﻪر‬commissioner                          kîlo ‫ﻴﻠﯚ‬B kilogram
kin ‫ﻦ‬B side, by the side of                         kîzhoła ‫ﻪ‬T‫ۆ‬Ã‫ ﮐ‬young girl
kip ‫ ﮐــــﭗ‬deaf; silent; ~ u kař ‫ﮐــــﭗوﮐــــﻪڕ‬     ko ‫ ﮐـﯚ‬collection, assembly; ~-bûnawa la
   deaf: gwem kip u kara my ear’s deaf;                v.i. to assemble, gather around s.o.;
   ~-kirdin v.t. to silence, shut up: kip-             ~(wa)-kirdin v.t. to gather, collect;
   mân kirdin we shut them up                          ~bûnawa (n.) meeting, assembly
kirân ‫ـــﺮان‬B kire- ‫ـــﺮێ‬B v.p. passive of kir-     koch ‫ ﮐـــــــــﯚچ‬decampment, migration; ~-
   din; ~awa to be opened: bakhtî kirâ-                kirdin v.t. to leave, depart, decamp; ~
   watawa he has had a stroke of luck                  i dwâî kirdin v.t. to pass away, die;
kirâs ‫ﺮاس‬B shirt                                       ~ar ‫ ﮐـﯚ¸ـﻪر‬migrant, migratory; ~î ‫ﮐـﯚﭼـﻰ‬
kirch ‫ﺮچ‬B upripe, immature                             (year) of the Hegira
kirda ‫ﺮدﻩ‬B act                                      kod ‫ ﮐﯚد‬wooden milk bowl; concave
kirdawa ‫ﺮدﻩوﻩ‬B behavior, act, deed                  koł ‫ ﮐـــــﯚڵ‬back of the neck, middle of the
kirdin ‫ـﺮدن‬B ka- ‫( ﮐـﻪ‬v.t., passive kirân) to          shoulders; burden, load; ~-dânawa
   do (for -kirdin compounds, see first                 v.t. to lay down a burden, to give up;
   element); ~à …awa to put s.th. in/on:               ba ~’dâ dân v.t. to sling something
   daykamà dawrîyèk i pânawa I’ll put it               over one’s shoulder: kalupalakáy ko
   on a flat plate; ~awa to open; ~ ba                  kirdawa u ba kolî’dâ dâ u wa re kawt
   …dâ to pick up, take away; ~ da to                  he gathered his things, slung them
   set on, put to: râwchî tânjî’yân te kird            over his shoulder, and went on his
   u kushtyân the hunters set their dogs               way; la ~ kawtin v.i. to disappear; la
   on it, and they killed it; hał-~ to pass            ~ kirdin v.t. to throw over the shoul-
   one’s life; to roll up (sleeves, pant               der; ~kesh ‫ـــﺶ‬Œ‫ـــﮑـــ‬T‫ ﮐـــﯚ‬porter; ~wâna
   legs); to light (fire); hał-~awa to at-              ‫ﻮاﻧﻪ‬T‫ ﮐﯚ‬sack, back-pack
   tack                                             kołaka ‫ﻪﮐﻪ‬T‫ ﮐﯚ‬column
kire ‫ﺮێ‬B wage                                       kołân ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ ﮐﯚ‬lane
kiřewa ‫ﻮﻩ‬lg‫ ﮐ‬blizzard                               kołîn ‫ــــﲔ‬T‫ ﮐــــﯚ‬koł- ‫ ﮐــــﯚڵ‬v.i. to boil; ~awa
kirekâr ‫ﺮ¤ﲀر‬B laborer, worker                          ‫ ﮐـﯚـــﻪوﻩ‬v.t. to investigate, research; le-
                                                            ‫ﻴﻨ‬T
kiřîn ‫ﻦ‬ag‫ = ﮐ‬křîn                                      ~awa ‫ ﻟـ²ـﮑـﯚﻟـﻴـﻨـﻪوﻩ‬to assemble; le~awa
kirm ‫ـﺮم‬B worm; ~oł ‫ـﺮﻣـﯚڵ‬B wormy, worm-               ‫ﻴﻨﻪوﻩ‬T‫ ﻟ²ﮑﯚ‬assembly, council
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                                    SORANI KURDISH
           ‫ـ‬
kołka ‫ﮑـﻪ‬T‫ ﮐـﯚ‬imperfect, pseudo- (precedes         kufr ‫ﻮﻓﺮ‬B ingratitude; curse
  word it modifies): ~malâ pseudo-                  kul ‫ﻮل‬B eye, sight
  mulla, ~shekh pseudo-sheykh, ~pyâw               kuł1 ‫ـــــــــــــﻮڵ‬B boiling, raging grief, over-
  half-baked guy                                     whelming sorrow; hâtinà ~ to come
komał ‫ ﮐـــــــﯚﻣـــــــﻪڵ‬society, organization;     to a boil; ~ u ko raging, boiling:
  ~âyatî ‫ﯾــﻪﰏ‬Ÿ‫ ﮐــﯚﻣــﻪ‬societal, social; ~ga        kułuko dâmird it went up in flames;
  ‫ﮕﻪ‬T‫~ ,ﮐﯚﻣﻪ‬gâ ‫ﮕﺎ‬T‫ ﮐﯚﻣﻪ‬society                       ~ân ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ـﻮ‬B kułe- ‰‫ـ‬T‫ـﻮ‬B v.i. to boil; ~ândin
komâr ‫ ﮐﯚﻣﺎر‬tribe, nation, republic                  ‫ﻧﺪن‬Ÿ‫ﻮ‬B kułen- ‫ﻦ‬ŒT‫ﻮ‬B v.t. to boil
kon1 ‫ ﮐـﯚن‬old; ~asâł ‫ ﮐـﯚﻧـﻪﺳـﺎڵ‬aged, old in       kuł2 ‫ ﮐﯚڵ‬short
  years                                            kun ‫ـــــــــــــﻮن‬B hole, lair, nest; ~-kirdin to
kon2 ‫ ﮐﯚن‬tent                                        make a hole, to pierce; ~â ‡‫ــــــــﻮ‬B hole;
kor ‫ ﮐ ـﯚر‬blind; ~awar ‫ ﮐ ـﯚرﻩوﻩر‬miserable;          ~âmurî ‫ﻮ‡ﻣﻮری‬B anthill
  ~î ‫ ﮐﯚری‬misery                                   kundabu ‫ﻮﻧﺪﻩﺑﻮ‬B owl
koř ‫ ﮐــــﯚڕ‬gathering place, meeting place;        kunna ‫ﻮﻧﻨﻪ‬B water sack
  society; group, delegation: ~èk i am-            kupała ‫ﻪ‬T‫ﻮﭘﻪ‬B jar, jug
  rîkâî châwpekawtinèkyân lagał aw                 kuř ‫ﻮڕ‬B boy, son
  ḥâkimá bûwa an American delegation               kurd ‫ــــــﻮرد‬B Kurd; ~awârî ‫ــــــﻮردﻩواری‬B the
  has had an interview with that ruler;              Kurds; ~âyatî ‫ــــﻮرداﯾــــﻪﰏ‬B Kurdishness;
  ~-bastin v.t. to meet, hold a meeting                                  8
                                                     ~istân ‫ــﻮردﺳــــﺘــﺎن‬B Kurdistan; ~î ‫ــﻮردی‬B
korpa ‫ ﮐﯚرﭘﻪ‬newborn                                  Kurdish; ~sât ‫ـــــﻮردﺳـــــﺎت‬B Kurdsat, the
kosh ‫ ﮐﯚش‬lap; bar~ ‫ ﺑﻪرﮐﯚش‬apron                      Kurdish satellite broadcast network
koshish ‫ ﮐﯚﺷﺶ‬attempt, endeavor                     kurkakurke ‰‫ﻮرﮐ‬B‫ﻮرﮐﻪ‬B palpitating
koshîn ‫ ﮐـﯚﺷـﲔ‬kosh- ‫ ﮐـﯚش‬v.i. to strive; te-       kurt ‫ـــﻮرت‬B short; ba ~î ‫ـــﻮرﰏ‬B ‫ ﺑـــﻪ‬in short;
  ~ to attempt, strive                                                                       ‫ﺗ‬
                                                     pâsh ~a wichânèk ‫ــﻮرــﻪ و¸ــﺎﻧــ²ــﻚ‬B ‫ﭘــﺎش‬
koshk ‫ ﮐﯚﺷﮏ‬kiosk, pavilion; palace                   after a short pause
kosp ‫ ﮐـــــﯚﺳـــــﭗ‬hill, difficulty: ba be ~ u     kurûshka-kirdin ‫ـــﺮدن‬B ‫ـــﻮرووﺷـــﮑـــﻪ‬B v.t. to
  kand leaving no stone unturned                     curl up
kot u zinjîr ‫ ﮐــــــﯚت و زﳒــــــﲑ‬shackles and    kushtin ‫ﻮﺷﱳ‬B kuzh- ‫ﻮژ‬B v.t. to kill
  fetters                                          kut ‫ـــﻮت‬B piece; ~-kirdin v.t. to chop into
kotara ‫ ﮐــﯚﺗــﻪرﻩ‬tree trunk; ~dâr ‫ﮐــﯚﺗــﻪرﻩدار‬     pieces; ~ u mit chûn la ‫ـﻮتوﻣـﺖ ﭼـﻮون‬B
  tree trunk                                         v v.i. to look exactly like; ~ u piř ‫ـــﻮت‬B
kotâî ‫ﰃ‬c‫ ﮐـــﯚ‬end; ~-henân ba v.t. to con-           gº‫ و‬sudden(ly)
  clude, put an end to                             kutak ‫ــــﻮﺗــــﻪک‬B strike, blow; ~ pyâ mâłîn
kotik ‫ﮏ‬Ž‫ ﮐﯚ‬a wooden bowl                             v.t. to strike: kutakèk’î pyâ mâłî he
kotir ‫ﺮ‬Ž‫ ﮐﯚ‬dove                                      struck him
kowa-kirdin ‫ﺮدن‬B ‫ = ﮐﯚوﻩ‬ko-kirdin                  kutân ‫ن‬c‫ ـﻮ‬B kute- ì‫ ـﻮ‬B v.t. to beat, strike;
krân ‫ﺮان‬B kre- ‫ﺮێ‬B = kirân                           dâ-~ to drive into the ground: aw
krândin ‫ـﺮاﻧـﺪن‬B kren- ‫ـﺮ¤ـﻦ‬B v.t. to scratch;       singá’m dâkutâ I drove that stake into
  hał-~ to scratch                                   the ground; hał-~à sar to attack; te-~
křîn ‫ﻦ‬ag‫ ﮐ‬kř- g‫ ﮐ‬v.t. to buy                         to hit, strike, poke
kroshtin ‫ـﺮۆﺷـﱳ‬B krozh- ‫ـﺮۆژ‬B v.t.; dâ-~ to        kutik ‫ﮏ‬Ž‫ﻮ‬B = kutak
  crunch with the teeth                            kuzh- ‫ﻮژ‬B see kishtin, kuzhân
ktâw ‫ ــﺎو‬book; ~î ‫ ــﺎوی‬student; ~khâna
         ‫ﮐﺘ‬                  ‫ﮐﺘ‬                    kuzhân ‫ــﻮژان‬B kuzhe- ‫ــﻮژێ‬B v.i. to go out,
  ‫ﺎﻧﻪ‬L‫ ﮐﺘﺎو‬library                                   be extinguished; ~awa ‫ــــﻮژاﻧــــﻪوﻩ‬B to be
ktew ‫ = ﮐﺘ²ﻮ‬ktâw                                     extinguished, be silenced
                                               202
                        SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
kuzhândin ‫ ـﻮژاﻧ ـﺪن‬B kuzhen- ‫ ـﻮژ¤ ـﻦ‬B v.t. to       vicious, spiteful
  extinguish; dâ-~ to extinguish, put              lanja ‫ﳒـــــــﻪ‬v stately walk, grace; ~-u-lâr
  out                                                 stately, graceful walk
kûcha ‫ﻮو¸ﻪ‬B lane                                   laq ‫ق‬v loose; ~-kirdin v.t. to loosen,
kûp ‫ﻮوپ‬B vat; ~ala v‫ﻮوﭘﻪ‬B jar                         shake loose; shwen ~-kirdin ba to
kûř ‫ﻮوڕ‬B deep, steep                                  dislodge, displace: b’ aw hîwâyáî
kûtâł ‫ڵ‬c‫ﻮو‬B goods, wares                              shwen’yân pe laq nakâ in hopes that
kûzh- ‫ﻮوژ‬B = kuzh-                                    he wouldn’t displace them
kwâ ‫ﻮا‬B where is…?                                 laqab ‫ﻗﻪب‬v title, nickname
kwe ‫ﻮێ‬B where?: la ~ya? where is it?               laqam ‫ﻗﻪم‬v = laqab
kwen (1) ‫ﻮ¤ﻦ‬B = ken, (2) = kwe                     laqândin ‫ﻗـﺎﻧـﺪن‬v laqen- ‫ ــﻦ‬v v.t. to shake;
                                                                                  Œ‫ﻗ‬
kwer ‫ـــﻮ¤ـــﺮ‬B blind; ~awar ‫ـــﻮ¤ـــﺮﻩوﻩر‬B mis-      sar-~ to shake the head
  erable; ~awarî ‫ـــــــﻮ¤ـــــــﺮﻩوﻩری‬B misery;   laqlaq ‫ق‬ƒ‫ﻗ‬v stork
  ~asawâd ‫ـﻮ¤ـﺮﻩﺳـﻪواد‬B semi-literacy; ~âî         lař ‫ڕ‬v puny
  ‫ﻮ¤ﺮاﰃ‬B blindness                                 larîn ‫ــﻦ‬a‫ر‬v lar- ‫ر‬v v.i. to shake; ~-awa to
kwestân ‫ﺴ8ﺘﺎن‬â‫ﻮ‬B mountainous region                   tremble, quiver
                                                   larz|în v.i. ‫ـــــﻦ‬a‫رز‬v to shake, tremble; ~ok
la  v (with encl. pronouns, le) in, at,               ‫رزۆک‬v trembling: ba dangèk i ~ pey
   from; la …-awa from; la …-dâ in, at                wit he said to him in a trembling
labar ‫ﺑـــﻪر‬v for the sake of, because of; ~          voice; zawî la zher pey’dâ dalarzî the
   awaî because, since, inasmuch as; ~                ground shook under his foot
   dast i …dâ in front of, in the pres-            lash ‫ش‬v body
   ence of, with                                   lashkir ‫ﺷـــــﮑـــــﺮ‬v army; ~-keshân v.t. to
labât i ‫¶ﰏ‬v instead of                                mobilize an army
lagał ‫ﮔـــــــﻪڵ‬v with; ~ awaî ka (conj.) de-      lat ‫ت‬v piece, bit; ~-kirdin v.t. to cut
   spite the fact that, in addition to the            into pieces; ~-u-pat bûn to be
   fact that                                          shattered into bits; ~-u-pat kirdin to
lagham ‫™ﻪم‬v tunnel                                    tear to pieces
laḥîmkrâw ‫ﺣ;ـﻤﮑﺮاو‬v soldered                       lawařgâ ‫وﻩڕﮔﺎ‬v pasture
laka ‫ﮐـــﻪ‬v spot, stain, blemish; ~dâr ‫ﮐـــﻪ‬v      lawař|ândin ‫وﻩڕاﻧــــــــــــﺪن‬v v.t. to pasture,
   ‫ دار‬stained, spotted; ~-kirdin v.t. to             graze; ~în ‫ﻦ‬a‫وﻩڕ‬v to pasture
   stain                                           lâ ‫ ﻻ‬side; ~ i ‫ ﻻی‬for, in the opinion of,
lakhorâzî ‫ﺧﯚرازێ‬v self-satisfied                       next to, near: lâ i ewâra bû it was
lamař ‫ﻣﻪڕ‬v = labar                                    near evening; to: am râzá’y lâ dir-
lamaw ‫ﻣـــﻪو‬v: ~bar ‫ﻣـــﻪوﺑـــﻪر‬v previously;         kând he disclosed this secret to him; ~
   ~pâsh ‫ﻣﻪوﭘﺎش‬v henceforth, hereafter                i kam ‫ ﻻی ﮐــــــﻪم‬at least; ~-chûn v.i. to
lamezhîna ‫ﮋﯾﻨﻪ‬Œ‫ﻣ‬v see mezh                            get away, go aside: lâ cho! get out of
lampar ‫ﻪر‬Ü‫ﻣ‬v obstacle                                 here!; ~-dân v.t. to shove, push aside;
Landan ‫ﻧﺪﻩن‬v London                                   to remove; to take up residence: la
langar ‫ـــﮕـــﻪر‬sv anchor; balance; ~-girtin          pař i shârawa lâ’yân dâ khânèk they
   v.t. to balance oneself: chona l’ am               took up residence in a house on the
   sar dîwâr a bârîká langarî girtûa?                 edge of the city; to be a guest; to de-
   how has he kept his balance atop this              viate; ~-dirân v.p. to be removed; ba
   narrow wall?                                       ~ i …awa ‫ ﺑــﻪ ﻻی ...هوﻩ‬between; ~t wâ
lanj ‫ﱋ‬v viciousness, spite; ~bâz ‫ﺑـــﻪﳒـــﺒـــﺎز‬      nabe /‫ ﻻت وا ﻧﻪ‬don’t think that…
                                               203
                                       SORANI KURDISH
lâf ‫ ﻻف‬boast; ~-dân v.t. to boast                          together; ~-dânawa v.t. to interpret:
lâfâw ‫ ﻻﻓﺎو‬flood                                            ba shûm bo khoyân lek dâyawa they
lâga ‫ ﻻﮔﻪ‬village; ~î villager                              interpreted it as an ill omen; ~-hâtin
lâłân-awa ‫ﻧـــــﻪوﻩ‬Ÿ‫ ﻻ‬lâłe- ‰‫ ﻻﻟـــــ‬v.i. to beg,          v.i. to go well together: makhmar u
   beseech                                                 konadawâr lek nadahât velvet and
lâmarkazî ‫ ﻻﻣﻪرﮐﻪزی‬decentralization                        old tent material would not go well
lân ‫ ﻻن‬extent; ~ i kam ‫ ﻻﱏ ﮐﻪم‬at least                     together; ~-nân to close, put together
lânawâz ‫ ﻻﻧﻪواز‬poor, helpless, lost                        the two parts of something: châwa-
lânik ‫ﮏ‬s‫ ﻻ‬cradle                                           kânim lek-nâ I closed my eyes, kteba-
lâpařa ‫ ﻻﭘﻪڕﻩ‬page                                          ká’m lek nâ I shut the book; ~birrâw
lâq ‫ ﻻق‬leg                                                 ‫او‬É‫ ﻟ²ﮑ‬separated
lâr ‫ ﻻر‬crooked; ~ u pâl kawtin ‫ﻻر و ﭘـــــﺎل‬            lekolar ‫ر‬v‫ ﻟ²ﮑﯚ‬assembler, collector
   ‫ﻦ‬Ž‫ ﻛﻪو‬to fall in a heap                              lekolînawa ‫ ﻟـ²ـﮑـﯚﻟـﻴـﻨـﻪوﻩ‬assembly, collec-
lâsâr ‫ ﻻﺳـﺎر‬disobedient; ~î ‫ ﻻﺳـﺎرى‬disobe-                 tion; investigation
   dience                                               leł-kirdin ‫ﺮدن‬B Dz‫ ﻟ‬v.t. to sully, muddy
lâsha ‫ ﻻﺷﻪ‬corpse                                        lepirsînawa ‫ـﻪوﻩ‬ž‫ـﺮﺳـ›ـ‬Î‫ ﻟـ²ـ‬interrogation, in-
lât ‫ ﻻت‬poor, wretched; punk; ~-u-lût                       vestigation; khistinà bar ~ v.t. to
   ‫ ﻻتوﻟﻮوت‬ruffian, hooligan                                interrogate
lâtîr ‫ ﻻﺗ ـﲑ‬out of the corner of one’s eyes:            leqawmâw ‫ ﻟـــ²ـــﻘـــﻪوﻣـــﺎو‬grief-stricken (see
   ~ twâshây kirdim he looked at me out                    qawmân)
   of the corner of his eyes                            leř gŒ‫ ﻟ‬forest
lâw ‫ ﻻو‬youth, young man                                 leshâw ‫ﺸﺎو‬Œ‫ ﻟ‬downpour
lâwakî ‫ ﻻوﻩﰽ‬foreign                                     lew ‫ ﻟ²ﻮ‬lip
lâwâz ‫ ﻻواز‬skinny                                       lik ‫ ¢ـــﮏ‬branch, limb; ~adâr ‫ ¢ـــﮑـــﻪدار‬tree
lâwech ‫ﭻ‬l‫ ﻻو‬handful                                        branch
lâyangir ‫ﮕﺮ‬s‫ ﻻﯾﻪ‬partisan                                liq ‫ = ﻟﻖ‬lik
lâyaq ‫ ﻻﯾﻪق‬appropriate                                  lirf(a) ‫ ﻟﺮﻓﻪ، ﻟﺮف‬roar (of a flood, oven)
lâzim ‫ ﻻزم‬necessary                                     lînj ‫ ﻟﻴﻨﺞ‬cloying
le ‰‫ ﻟ‬see la                                            lîra ‫ ﻟﲑﻩ‬lira, pound
le: ~-dân ‫ ﻟــــــ²ــــــﺪان‬v.t. to hit, strike, play   lîta ‫ ﻟﻴﺘﻪ‬mud, mire
   (musical instrument); to up and…:                    lîwân ‫ ﻟﻴﻮان‬drinking glass
   mâlâwâîy kird u leydâ u roysht he                    lîzga ‫ ﻟﲒﮔﻪ‬beads strung on a string
   said goodbye and upped and left; ~-                  lîzhna ‫ﻧﻪ‬Ã‫ ﻟ‬committee
   kirdin to separate, take away; ~-                    loghat ‫ ﻟﯚ™ﻪت‬rumor
   kirdinawa to separate; pick (fruit); ~-              loghân ‫ ﻟﯚ™ﺎن‬celebration, rejoicing
   nân bo v.t. to fix (food) for: shorbâm                loka ‫ ﻟﯚﮐﻪ‬cotton
   bo le-nâwa I’ve fixed soup for him                    lolo ‫ ﻟـــــﯚﻟـــــﯚ‬beginning of certain Kurdish
łe- ‰T pres. stem of witin                                 songs
lefa ‫ ﻟ²ﻔﻪ‬quilt                                         lotî ‫ ﻟــــﯚﰏ‬a professional singer and enter-
lehâtû ‫ ﻟ²ﻬﺎﺗﻮو‬worthy, considerable                        tainer
lek ‫ ﻟــ²ــﮏ‬apart, from one another; ~-bir-             lulu ‫ ﻟﻮﻟﻮ‬pearl
   rân v.p. to be separated; ~-bûn v.i. to              lûra ‫ ﻟـﻮورﻩ‬growl; ~lûr ‫ ﻟـﻮورﻩﻟـﻮور‬continual
   resemble each other; to be separated;                   growling
   ~-bûn-awa v.i. to break into pieces;                 lûsh-kirdin ‫ــــﺮدن‬B ‫ ﻟــــﻮوش‬v.t. to swallow,
   to end (hostilities); ~-dân v.t. to mix                 gulp down
                                                    204
                       SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
lût ‫ ﻟـــــﻮوت‬nose; ~ ba bar kho hâtinawa          without cause
   to regret; ~ ba kho dâ hâtinawa to             małâs ‫س‬Ÿ‫ = ﻣﻪ‬miłâz
   be humiliated; ~-chûzânawa v.i. to             małband ‫ﺒﻪد‬T‫ ﻣﻪ‬area, region
   be disappointed; ~-girtin v.t. to hold                                              ‫ـ‬
                                                  malotik ‫ـﮏ‬Ž‫ , ﻣـﻪﻟـﯚ‬malotka ‫ﮑـﻪ‬Ž‫ ﻣـﻪﻟـﯚ‬babe in
   the nose; ~-hał-kirdin v.t. to get              swaddling clothes
   angry; ~-shikân v.i. to be disap-              mamik ‫ ﻣﻪﻣﮏ‬breast
   pointed, ashamed; ~-shikândin v.t. to          mamlakat ‫ﮐﻪت‬ƒ‫ ﻣﻪﻣ‬country, realm
   disappoint, to chastize; ~barz haugh-          manjał ‫ ﻣﻪﳒﻪڵ‬pot
   ty, nose in the air; dast ba ~awa              manzil ‫ﺰل‬s‫ ﻣﻪ‬stopping place, destination
   girtin to hold one’s nose                      maqâm ‫ ﻣﻪﻗﺎم‬station
                                                  mař ‫ ﻣﻪڕ‬sheep
má- ‫ ﻣـــــــــــﻪ‬neg. imperative prefix: máro     marad ‫ ﻣﻪرﻩد‬state, condition
 don’t go                                         marâq ‫ ﻣــــﻪراق‬wishing, wondering; la ~ i
mába ‫( ﻣـﻪﺑـﻪ‬neg. impt. sing. of bûn) don’t        …dâ bûn v.i. to wonder about
 be                                               march ‫ ﻣــــﻪرچ‬mashed, squashed; ~în ‫ﻣــــﻪ‬
mabas ‫ ﻣﻪﺑﻪس‬aim, goal                              ‫ ر¸ـــــــــــــﲔ‬v.i. to be mashed, squashed;
mabast ‫ = ﻣﻪﺑﻪﺳﺖ‬mabas                              ~ândin ‫ ﻣﻪر¸ﺎﻧﺪن‬v.t. to mash, squash
mabda’ ‫ﻣﻪﺑﺪﻩء‬principle                            marez ‫ ﻣ ـﻪر¤ ـﺰ‬sick, ill; ~khâna ‫ ـﺎﻧ ـﻪ‬L‫ﻣ ـﻪر¤ ـﺰ‬
machak ‫ ﻣﻪ¸ﻪک‬arm                                   infirmary
magar (1) ‫ ﻣـــﻪﮔـــﻪر‬introduces an affirma-       marg ‫ ﻣﻪرگ‬death
 tive question to which a negative an-            marḥûm ‫ ﻣﻪرﺣﻮوم‬the late
 swer is expected: magar dazânî? you              marj ‫ ﻣـﻪرج‬promise, condition; b’ aw ~áî
 don’t know, do you?; (2) introduces a             ‫ +( ﺑـﻪو ﻣـﻪر•ـﻪی‬subj.) on condition that,
 negative question to which an affir-               provided that
 mative answer is expected: magar                 markaz ‫ ﻣﻪرﮐﻪز‬center
 namgut? didn’t I say so?, (3) unless:            mařtaba ‫ ﻣﻪڕﺗﻪﺑﻪ‬time, instance; degree
 magar bimirim, danâ daykam unless I              masala v‫ ﻣﻪﺳﻪ‬affair, question, object
 die—otherwise I’ll do it                         masâf ‫ ﻣﻪﺳﺎف‬battle
magaz ‫ ﻣﻪﮔﻪز‬fly                                    mashq ‫ ﻣ ـﻪﺷ ـﻖ‬exercise, drill; sar~ ‫ﺳ ـﻪرﻣ ـﻪ‬
magîn ‫ = ﻣﻪﮔﲔ‬magar                                 ‫ ﺷﻖ‬lesson
Maḥmûd ‫ ﻣـﻪﲪـﻮود‬Mahmud, masc. proper              mashrût|a ‫ ﻣــــــﻪﴍووﺗــــــﻪ‬constitution; ~a-
 name                                              khwâz ‫ ﻣـــﴩووﺗـــﻪﺧـــﻮاز‬constitutionalist;
mak ‫ :ﻣـﻪک‬shit-u-~ ‫ ﺷـﺖوﻣـﻪک‬tools, stuff,          ~iyat ‫ ﻣـــﻪﴍووﺗـــﻴـــﻪت‬the Constitutional
 paraphernalia                                     Movement in Iran
makân ‫ ﻣﻪﰷن‬place                                  mast ‫ ﻣــﻪﺳــﺖ‬drunk; ~î drunkenness, ine-
makhmar ‫ ﻣﻪﲬﻪر‬velvet                               briation
mako ‫ ﻣـــﻪﮐـــﯚ‬a crowded place, gathering,       matał ‫ ﻣ ـﻪﺗ ـﻪڵ‬riddle; ~-zândrân v.p. for a
 cluster                                           riddle to be figured out
mal ‫ ﻣﻪل‬bird                                      matâ-dân ‫ دان‬c‫ ﻣـــــــــــــــﻪ‬to crouch on the
mala v‫ ﻣــــــــــﻪ‬swimming; ~-kirdin v.t. to      ground in expectation, ambush
 swim; ~wân ‫وان‬v‫ ﻣﻪ‬swimmer                        mawdâ (1) ‫ ﻣـﻪودا‬edge, tip (of sword); (2)
malâ ‫ ,ﻣــــــﻪﻻ‬małâ Ÿ‫ ﻣــــــﻪ‬mulla, religious    period (of time); (3) distance: gundèk
 authority                                         i dîka habû ka mawdây la mâl i najâr
malâbângdân ‫ﮕﺪان‬s¶‫ ﻣﻪﻻ‬dawn                         zor bû there was another village, the
małâmat ‫ﻣــــــﻪت‬Ÿ‫ ﻣــــــﻪ‬reason, cause; be~      distance of which from the carpen-
                                              205
                                     SORANI KURDISH
 ter’s house was great; (4) opportunity,              negotiate with, bargain with
 chance: mawdâm niya biyânbînim I                    mâmir ‫ ﻣﺎﻣﺮ‬chicken
 won’t have a chance to see them; la ~               mâmo ‫ ﻣﺎﻣﯚ‬uncle (paternal)
 i through, by means of                              mâmostâ ‫ ﻣﺎﻣﯚﺳ8ﺘﺎ‬teacher
mawzûn ‫ ﻣ ـﻪوزوون‬metrical, having poetic             mân ‫ ﻣــﺎن‬men- ‫ــﻦ‬Œ‫ ﻣــ‬v.i. to remain; (neg.,
 meter                                                namân) to cease to exist, to be no
maydân ‫ ﻣﻪﯾﺪان‬field, arena                             more; ~-awa v.i. to stay behind, be
maynatî ‫ ﻣﻪﯾﻨﻪﰏ‬grief                                  left behind; dâ-~ to be flabbergasted,
                   ‫ـ‬
maysar ‫ ﻣـﻪ§ﺴـﻪر‬possible; ~-kirdin v.t. to            perplexed; râ-~ to pause, to stop and
 make possible, carry out                             think
maytar ‫ ﻣﻪﯾﺘﻪر‬groom                                  mânâ ‡‫ ﻣـــــــﺎ‬meaning, significance; ~dâr
mazât ‫ ﻣﻪزات‬auction, sale                             ‫ ﻣﺎ‡دار‬significant
mazin ‫ ﻣﻪزن‬great, huge                               mândû ‫ ﻣـــــــﺎﻧـــــــﺪوو‬tired; ~-bûn v.i. to be
mazina ‫ = ﻣﻪزﻧﻪ‬mazinda                                tired; ~-kirdin v.t. to tire out: zorî
                 ‫ﻧ‬
mazinda ‫ ﻣـﻪزـﺪﻩ‬guess, estimate; ~-kirdin             mândû kirdim it made me very tired;
 ba v.t. to estimate at                               ~î ‫ ﻣــــــــﺎﻧــــــــﺪووﱙ‬tiredness, exhaustion;
mazrâ ‫ ﻣﻪزرا‬farm                                      ~nabûn kirdin la v.t. to greet
mazrân ‫ ﻣـﻪزران‬mazre- ‫ ﻣـﻪزرێ‬v.i. to stay,            someone who is working
 dwell, be established; dâ-~ to be set               mândwetî ‫ﱴ‬l‫ ﻣﺎﻧﺪو‬tiredness, exhaustion
 up (tent), be established, be appointed             mâng ‫ ـﮓ‬s‫ ﻣ ـﺎ‬moon, month; ~âna ‫ ـﮕ ـﺎﻧ ـﻪ‬s‫ﻣ ـﺎ‬
mazrândin ‫ ﻣـﻪزراﻧـﺪن‬mazren- ‫ ﻣـﻪزر¤ـﻦ‬v.t.:           monthly salary; ~î ‫ــــﮕــــﯽ‬s‫ ﻣــــﺎ‬monthly,
 dâ-~ ba to set up (tent), appoint as,                lunar
 establish                                           mângâ ‫ﮕﺎ‬s‫ ﻣﺎ‬cow
mâch ‫ ﻣﺎچ‬kiss; ~-kirdin v.t. to kiss                 mângir ‫ﮕﺮ‬s‫ ﻣﺎ‬obstinate
mâdâm ‫ ﻣﺎدام‬as long as                               mâr ‫ ﻣﺎر‬snake
mâfûr ‫ ﻣﺎﻓﻮور‬carpet                                  mâra ‫ ﻣـــــــﺎرﻩ‬marriage; ~-kirdin la v.t. to
mâł ‫ ﻣــــﺎڵ‬house, home; ~akî ‫ــــﻪﰽ‬T‫ ﻣــــﺎ‬like      give in marriage to: kichaká i khoy le
 family, a member of the household;                   mâra kird he gave him his daughter in
 ~ât ‫ت‬Ÿ‫ ﻣ ـﺎ‬possessions; ~lakoł ‫ ـﻪﮐ ـﯚڵ‬T‫ﻣ ـﺎ‬         marriage; ~î ‫ ﻣﺎرﻩﰃ‬wedding gift
 nomadic, vagrant, wanderer; ~werânî                 mârakuł ‫ﻮڵ‬B‫ ﻣﺎرﻩ‬scorpion
 ‫ـــــﻮ¤ـــــﺮاﱏ‬T‫ ﻣـــــﺎ‬destruction, devastation;   mâshen ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ ﻣﺎﺷ‬autombile, car
 chûnà ~è v.i. to go home                            mâsî ‫ ﻣـــﺎﳻ‬fish; ~-girtin v.t. to fish; ~gir
mâłâwâ ‫وا‬Ÿ‫ ﻣــــﺎ‬goodbye; ~î-kirdin la v.t.           ‫ ﻣﺎﺳ8ﻴﮕﺮ‬fisherman
 to say goodbye to                                   mâst ‫ ﻣﺎﺳﺖ‬yoghurt
mâłîn ‫ ـﲔ‬T‫ ﻣ ـﺎ‬v.t. to strike, hit; to rub: ronî     mâsûlka ‫ ﻣﺎﺳﻮو¢ﮑﻪ‬sinew
 pyâ bimâla rub some oil on it; to                   mât ‫ ﻣـــــــــــﺎت‬silent; stunned into silence;
 sweep; dâ-~ to take off, throw off: jil              grief-stricken; shorter than others: aw
 i pâshâî’y la bar khoy dâmâlî she                    bardânaî da regat girtûa yekyân ~a
 threw off her regal garb; râ-~ to                    one of those stones you have lined up
 sweep away, drive off, repel; ~awa to                is shorter than the others; ~î stunned
 take everything away, to clear; to pol-              silence; perplexity; sorrow; ~-kirdin
 ish                                                  to checkmate; to stun into silence
mâm ‫ ﻣﺎم‬paternal uncle                               mâtam ‫ ﻣـﺎﺗـﻪم‬bereavement; ~zada ‫ﻣـﺎﺗـﻪﻣـﺰﻩدﻩ‬
mâmała ‫ــﻪ‬T‫ ﻣــﺎﻣــﻪ‬transaction, interaction;         bereaved, grieving, mourning
 ~-kirdin lagał v.t. to interact with; to            mâwa ‫ ﻣــــﺎوﻩ‬period (of time): dwâ i ~yek,
                                                 206
                         SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  pâsh ~yèk after a while; mâwayèk râ-                 ground
  bwârd a period of time passed                      millat ‫ت‬ƒ‫ ﻣﻠ‬nation
mâyin ‫ﻦ‬a‫ ﻣﺎ‬mare                                      mimbârak ‫ ﳑــــــﺒــــــﺎرﻩک‬happy, felicitous,
me ‰‫ ﻣ‬female                                           blessed
megal ‫ ﻣـ´ـﮕـﻪل‬flock, herd; ~ a mař v‫ﻣـ´ـﮕـﻪ‬          min ‫ ﻣﻦ‬I, me
  ‫ ﻣﻪڕ‬flock of sheep                                  minatbâr i ‫ﻪﺗﺒﺎری‬ž‫ ﻣ‬grateful for
memil ‫ ﻣ´ﻤﻞ‬calamity, catastrophe                                  ‫ـ‬                     ‫ـ‬
                                                     minâł ‫ـﺎڵ‬ž‫ ﻣ‬child; ~âna ‫ ـﻧ ﻪ‬Ÿ‫ـﺎ‬ž‫ ﻣ‬childish; ~î
merd ‫ﺮد‬Œ‫ ﻣ‬man, husband                                                                    ‫ ـ‬ž‫ﻣ‬
                                                       ‫ـﯽ‬T‫ ــﺎ‬childhood; ~ochka ‫ـﯚﭼﮑـﻪ‬T‫ ــﺎ‬small
                                                           ž‫ﻣ‬
merg ‫ﺮگ‬Œ‫ ﻣ‬meadow                                       child, baby
mesh ‫ ـﺶ‬Œ‫ ﻣ ـ‬fly, honeybee; ~ûla v‫ ـﺸ ـﻮو‬Œ‫ﻣ ـ‬         minâra ‫ﺎرﻩ‬ž‫ ﻣ‬tower, minaret
  mosquito                                           mindâł ‫ﺪاڵ‬ž‫ = ﻣ‬minâl
meshik ‫ﺸﮏ‬Œ‫ ﻣ‬brain, mind; skull                                     ‫ــ‬
                                                     minga ‫ﮕـﻪ‬ž‫ ﻣ‬snort: mingayèkî lewa dahât
meshûla v‫ﺸﻮو‬Œ‫ ﻣ‬mosquito                                u wa dar dakawt he snorted and left
mewa ‫ ﻣــ´ــﻮﻩ‬fruit; ~ron ‫ ﻣــ´ــﻮﻩرۆن‬marma-         miqomqo ‫ ﻣـــﻘـــﯚﻣـــﻘـــﯚ‬yelling, screaming,
  lade: wak mewaron labar dast i                       uproar
  dawlata khâwan zordârân-dâ bûn                     mir ‫ ﻣـــــــﺮ‬hen; ~âwî ‫ ﻣـــــــﺮاوی‬duck; ~îshk
  they were like putty in the hands of                 ‫ ﻣﺮ§ﺸﮏ‬chicken
  powerful nations                                   miř g‫ ﻣــ‬satiated, sated: awanda’y khwâr-
mewân ‫ ﻣــ´ــﻮان‬guest; ~dâr ‫ ﻣــ´ــﻮاﻧــﺪار‬host;       dûa miř bûa he ate his fill
  ~dârî-kirdin ‫ﺮدن‬B ‫ ﻣ´ﻮاﻧﺪاری‬v.t. to host           miř-u-misht ‫ و ﻣﺸﺖ‬g‫ ﻣ‬fight, quarrel
mewizh ‫ ﻣ´ﻮژ‬raisins                                  moch ‫ ﻣﯚچ‬frowning
mez ‫ﺰ‬Œ‫ ﻣ‬table, desk                                  mirândin ‫ ﻣـﺮاﻧـﺪن‬miren- ‫ ﻣـﺮ¤ـﻦ‬v.t. to cause
mezar ‫ﺰﻩر‬Œ‫ ﻣ‬turban                                     to die; kho- ~ to play dead
mezh ‫ـــــﮋ‬Œ‫ ﻣـــــ‬long time; la ~-a for a long      mirârî ‫ ﻣﺮاری‬pearl
  time, (+ neg. pres. perf.) it’s been a                                  ‫ﭼﻘ‬
                                                     mirchqândin ‫ ﻣـﺮ ــﺎﻧـﺪن‬mirchqen- ‫ﻣـﺮ ـــﻦ‬  Œ‫ﭼﻘ‬
  long time since: la ~a namdîtûyta it’s               v.t. to crumple
  been a long time since I saw you, I                mirdâr ‫ ﻣﺮدار‬carrion
  haven’t seen you for a long time;                  mirdin ‫ ﻣﺮدن‬mir- ‫ ﻣﺮ‬v.i. to die
  la~îna ‫ﮋﯾﻨﻪ‬Œ‫ﻣ‬v ancient, very old                   mirdov ‫ ﻣﺮدۆڤ‬man
mezhû ‫ ــﮋوو‬history; ~nûs ‫ ــﮋووﻧـﻮوس‬his-
               Œ‫ﻣ‬                          Œ‫ﻣ‬        mirdû ‫ ﻣﺮدوو‬dead; ba ~î dead
  torian                                             mirîshk ‫ ﻣﺮ§ﺸﮏ‬chicken
midbaq ‫ ﻣﺪﺑﻪق‬kitchen                                 mirkân ‫ ﻣــﺮﰷن‬v.i. to subside; dâ-~ to set-
Miḥamad ‫ ,ﳏـﻪﻣـﻪد‬Miḥmid ‫ ,ﶊـﺪ‬Miḥimid                   tle down: bo chi nâmirkî why don’t
  ‫ ﶊﺪ‬Mohammed, masc. proper name                       you settle down?; to die down (flame,
mijrî ‫ ﳎﺮی‬box, chest                                   fire): âgir dâmirkâwa the fire has died
mil ‫ ﻣـــــــﻞ‬neck; ~-nân la v.t. to head for;         down; dâ-mirkândin mirken- v.t. to
  ~huř ‫ ﻣــــﻠــــﻬــــﻮڕ‬tough, bully; charlatan;      quieten down
                   ‫ــ‬
  ~kach ‫ ﻣﻠﮑـﻪچ‬obedient, subservient; la             mirkh ‫ ﻣﺮخ‬passion, lust
  ~ dân v.t. to behead                               mirov ‫ ﻣـﺮۆڤ‬man, person, one: ~èk i feu-
mił Ç‫ ﻣـــــ‬sniff; ~-kirdin v.t. to sniff; ~-u-        dâl u pûldâr bûwa he was a feudal
  mo kirdin ‫ــــﺮدن‬B ‫ و ﻣــــﯚ‬Ç‫ ﻣــــ‬v.t. to sniff     and wealthy man
  around looking for food                            mirwârî ‫ = ﻣﺮواری‬mirârî
miłâz ‫ز‬Ë‫ : ﻣــــــــــــــــ‬kho ~-dânawa v.t. to     misha ‫ ﻣﺸﻪ‬frequent
  crouch on the ground in ambush: khoy               mishik ‫ ﻣﺸﮏ‬mouse
  le miłâz dâwa he crouched on the                   misogar ‫ ﻣـﺴـﯚﮔـﻪر‬insured; ~ kirdin to in-
                                                 207
                                   SORANI KURDISH
  sure                                            muflîs ‫ ﻣﻮﻓﻠ›ﺲ‬bankrupt, impoverished
           ‫ـ‬
mist ‫ ﻣﺴـﺖ‬fist; palm (of the hand), hand-          mu‘jîza ‫ ﻣــــﻮﲺــــﲒﻩ‬miracle; ~yek i pâsha-
  ful; ~-washândin v.t. to box, hit,               rozh a latter-day miracle
  strike with the fist                             mukriyânî ‫ﱏ‬p‫ﺮ‬B‫ ﻣﻮ‬of the Mukri region
mitâłâ Ÿ‫ﺎ‬µ‫ ﻣ‬study, contemplation                  musulmân ‫ ﻣـﻮﺳـﻮﳌﺎن‬Muslim; ~î Muslim-
mitmâna ‫ ﻣـ0ﻧـﻪ‬safe, secure (ba) in, trust-        ism, Islam
  ing (ba) in                                     mutaham ‫ ﻣﻮﺗﻪﻫﻪم‬accused
miza ‫ ﻣﺰﻩ‬wage; expense                            muwaqat ‫ ﻣـــــــﻮﻩﻗـــــــﻪت‬temporary, provi-
mizgawt ‫ ﻣﺰﮔﻪوت‬mosque                              sional: hikûmatèk i muwaqat i Kurdis-
mizgen ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ ﻣﺰﮔ‬good news                             tân a provisional government of
mizgit ‫ = ﻣﺰﮔﺖ‬mizgawt                              Kurdistan
mizh ‫ ﻣـــــــﮋ‬inhaling; ~-dân v.t. to inhale:    mû ‫ ﻣﻮو‬hair; ~khor ‫ ﻣﻮوﺧﯚر‬depilatory
  ~èk i qûlî la jigarakáy dâ he took a            mûch ‫ ﻣــﻮوچ‬wrist, ankle; ~awâna ‫ﻣــﻮو¸ــﻪ‬
  deep drag on his cigarette                       ‫ واﻧﻪ‬bracelet
mizhda ‫ ﻣﮋدﻩ‬good news                             mûcha ‫ ﻣ ـﻮو¸ ـﻪ‬portion; wage; one-family
mizhî ‫ ﻣﮋی‬brain                                    farm; ~khor ‫ ﻣـﻮو¸ـﻪﺧـﯚر‬salaried, wage-
mizhîn ‫ﻦ‬a‫ ﻣﮋ‬mizh- ‫ ﻣﮋ‬v.t. to suck                  earner: kâkim ~ i dawlata my brother
mizmaḥîl ‫ ﻣﺰﻣﻪﺣ;ﻞ‬deprived, destitute               is salaried by the government
mîch ‫ ﻣ;ﭻ‬roof                                     mûchândin ‫ ﻣـﻮو¸ـﺎﻧـﺪن‬mûchen- ‫ ﻣـﻮو ــﻦ‬v.t.
                                                                                       Œ¸
mîdyâ p‫ ﻣ;ﺪ‬media                                   to bend; dâ-~ to turn up (cuff, hem)
mîl ‫ ﻣ;ﻞ‬stripe (in cloth)                                                            ‫ـ‬
                                                  mûnândin ‫ ﻣـﻮو‡ ـﻧ ﺪن‬mûnen- ‫ـﻦ‬Œ‫ ﻣـﻮوﻧ‬v.t. to
mîll|at ‫ت‬ƒ‫ ﻣﻠ‬nation; ~î ‫ﰏ‬ƒ‫ ﻣﻠ‬national              spin (thread)
mînga ‫ ﻣ;ﻨﮕـﻪ‬nasality, talking through the
            ‫ـــ‬
  nose                                            na ‫ ﻧﻪ‬no
mîrât ‫ ﻣﲑات‬legacy, heritage                       ná- ‫ ﻧﻪ‬negative subjunctive prefix
mîrî ‫ ﻣﲑی‬governmental                             nabaga ‫ ﻧﻪﺑﻪﮔﻪ‬weak, feeble
mîrûla v‫ ﻣﲑوو‬ant                                  nabân ‫ ﻧـــــــﻪ¶ن‬animal that spurns its own
mîtr ‫ ﻣ;ﱰ‬meter                                      young; not on speaking terms: kâkim
mîwân ‫ ﻣ;ﻮان‬guest                                   lemân ~a, nâmândwene my brother’s
mokh ‫ ﻣـــﯚخ‬brain, marrow; ~-keshân v.t.            not on speaking terms with us, he
  to bother, annoy                                  doesn’t speak to us; ~-kirdin v.t. to
molaq ‫ق‬v‫ ﻣـــــــــﯚ‬staring: châwî ba molaq         spurn, to disown; to turn away from
  wastâ he stood staring into space               nabz ‫ ﻧﻪ–ﺰ‬pulse
mołat ‫ﻪت‬T‫ ﻣﯚ‬respite                               naft ‫ ﻧﻪﻓﺖ‬oil, petroleum
mom ‫ ﻣﯚم‬candle                                    nagbat ‫ ﻧﻪﮔﺒﻪت‬calamity; unlucky
moř ‫ ﻣــــــــﯚڕ‬frowning; hard stare; ~-bûn-      nagrîs ‫ ﻧ ـﻪﮔ ـﺮ§ ـﺲ‬stubborn, badly behaved;
  awa la to stare at                                mean, evil
mor ‫ ﻣــــــﻮر‬violet; virgin; seal; ant; ash; ~   naguta ‫ ﻧ ـﻪﮔ ـﻮﺗ ـﻪ‬unspoken: ~ la jwâbakám
  kirdin to seal                                    te gaysht he understood my unspoken
mora ‫ ﻣـــــــــﯚرﻩ‬crack in a mud wall; game        answer
  piece                                           najîbzâda ‫ ﻧﻪﺟ;ﱫادﻩ‬aristocratic
mu ‫ ﻣﻮ‬sorrow, worry                               najâr ‫ ﻧﻪ•ﺎر‬carpenter; ~î carpentry
muchiřka ‫ﮐﻪ‬g‫ ﻣﻮﭼ‬shiver, shudder                   nak ‫ ﻧـــــﻪک‬and not: ~ pechawânakáy and
mufařik ‫ ﻣــــﻮﻓــــﻪڕک‬auspiciousness, good         not vice-versa; dû jâr’it le birdawa,
  omen                                              nak se you’ve beat him twice, not
                                              208
                           SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  three times; ba râstî awaî tyâ chûa                       courage; to trip, stumble
  minim, nak aw really the one who                        naw‘ ‫ ﻧﻪوع‬type, sort
  was lost was I, not he                                  nawa ‫ ﻧﻪوﻩ‬grandchild
nakhosh ‫ ﻧـــــــﻪﺧـــــــﯚش‬ill, patient; kho ~-          nawanda ‫ ﻧﻪوﻩﻧﺪﻩ‬fall planting
  khistin v.t. to pretend to be ill; ~î                   nawân ‫ ﻧﻪوان‬naw- ‫ ﻧﻪو‬v.i. to bend over
  ‫ ﻧــﻪﺧــﯚﳽ‬illness; ~khâna ‫ــﺎﻧــﻪ‬Ø‫ﻧــﻪﺧــﯚﺷــ‬           nawândin ‫ ﻧـــﻪواﻧـــﺪن‬nawen- ‫ ﻧـــﻪو¤ـــﻦ‬v.t. to
  hospital                                                  lower; dâ-~ to lower, bring down
nakhsh ‫ ﻧــﻪﺧــﺶ‬role: ~ i daraja dû yâ sey                nawîn ‫ـــــــﻦ‬a‫ ﻧـــــــﻪو‬v.i. to cave in: bânakáy
  haya it has a secondary or tertiary                       nawîbû his roof had caved in
  role; piř ~ u nîgâr ‫ ﻧـــﻪﺧـــﺶو ﻧـــﻴـــﮕـــﺎر‬g‫ـــ‬º    nawroz ‫ ﻧﻪورۆز‬the vernal equinox
  beautiful                                               nawsha ‫ ﻧﻪوﺷﻪ‬poetry; ~kâr ‫ ﻧﻪوﺷﻪﰷر‬poet
               ‫ـ‬
nakhsha ‫ ﻧـﻪﺧﺸـﻪ‬map, plan; ~-dâ-nân v.t.                  Nawshîrwân ‫ ﻧــــــﻪوﺷــــــﲑوان‬Anosharwan,
  to lay a plan; ~-keshân v.t. to lay a                     Sassanian shah of Iran
  plot; ~-keshânawa v.t. to draw maps,                    nazhâd ‫ ﻧﻪژاد‬race, lineage
  make plans                                              nazîla ƒ‫ ﻧﻪزﯾ‬short story
nakhshândin ‫ ﻧـــﻪﺧـــﺸـــﺎﻧـــﺪن‬nakhshen- ‫ﻧـــﻪ‬          nazm ‫ ﻧﻪزم‬poetry
  ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ ﺧﺸ‬v.t. to draw                                       nâ ‡ no, oh no
nakht ‫ ﻧـﻪﺧـﺖ‬bit; ~è(k) ‫ ﻧـﻪ ـــﮏ‬a bit, a lit-
                                ²µ‫ﺧ‬                       nââsâî ‫ ‡ﺋﺎﺳﺎﰃ‬unusual, unaccustomed
  tle, a while; ~-u-pukht ‫ﻧ ـﻪﺧ ـﺖو ﭘ ـﻮﺧ ـﺖ‬              nâbâwařî ‫ ‡¶وﻩڕی‬disbelief
  completely: qsaká’y ~ la bardam’dâ                      nâchâr ‫ ‡¸ـــﺎر‬helpless, there was nothing
  nâ he had his say completely                              he could do
nakhwâzâ ‫ ﻧﻪﺧﻮازا‬especially                               nâdyâr ‫ر‬p‫ ‡د‬invisible, unseen
nakhwendawâr ‫ﻨﺪﻩوار‬l‫ ﻧﻪﺧﻮ‬illiterate                       nâf ‫ ‡ف‬navel
nalâmat ‫ ﻧﻪﻻﻣﻪت‬accursed                                   nâguzûr ‫ ‡ﮔـــــــــــــﻮزوور‬destitute, poverty-
namâm ‫ ﻧﻪﻣﺎم‬sapling                                         stricken
namâm-kirdin ‫ــــﺮدن‬B ‫ ﻧــــﻪﻣــــﺎم‬v.t. to have          nâḥaq ‫ ‡„ــــﻪق‬dishonest, unrightful; ba ~
  someone walled up: khân kâwrâyèkî                         ‫ ﺑﻪ ‡„ﻪق‬unjustly
  namâm kird the khan had a man                           nâḥaz ‫ ‡„ﻪز‬ugly; enemy
  walled up                                               nâkâw, la ‫ ‡ﰷو‬v suddenly, all of a
namân ‫ → ﻧﻪﻣﺎن‬mân                                           sudden
nana ‫ ﻧﻪﻧﻪ‬grandmother                                     nâkh ‫ ‡خ‬depth, interior: la ~ i âkh’dâ
nanâsîwî ‫ ﻧـﻪ‡ﺳـ8ـﻴـﻮی‬disguise: la ~ in dis-                inside the earth, in the grave
  guise, in secret; kho la ~ dân la v.t.                  nâkher ‫ـﺮ‬Œ‫ـ‬L‫ ﻧـﻪ‬no; ba ~ i gyânim unwill-
  to be secretly in favor of                                ingly
naqândin ‫ ﻧـــﻪﻗـــﺎﻧـــﺪن‬naqen- ‫ـــﻦ‬Œ‫ ﻧـــﻪﻗـــ‬v.t. to   nâkhosh ‫ ‡ﺧـــــﯚش‬unpleasant; ~î ‫‡ﺧـــــﯚﳽ‬
  choose, select                                            unpleasantness
nařândin ‫ ﻧـﻪڕاﻧـﺪن‬nařen- ‫ ﻧـﻪڕ¤ـﻦ‬v.t. to roar,           nâł ‫ ‡ڵ‬horseshoe; ~dâr ‫ﺪار‬T‡ horse
  scream                                                  nâla v‡ wail, lament; ~bâr ‫¶ر‬v‡ sad,
nardîwân ‫ ﻧﻪردﯾﻮان‬ladder, staircase                         lamentable
nargiz ‫ ﻧﻪرﮔﺰ‬narcissus                                    nâlândin ‫ ‡ﻻﻧـــﺪن‬nâlen- ‫ـــﻦ‬Œ‫ ‡ﻟـــ‬v.t. to be-
narît ‫ ﻧﻪرﯾﺖ‬custom, manner                                  moan
nastařin ‫ﻦ‬a‫ ﻧﻪﺳ8ﺘﻪڕ‬eglantine                              nâm|a ‫ ‡ﻣﻪ‬letter; ~îlka ‫ ‡ﻣ;ﻠﮑﻪ‬pamphlet
natawa ‫ ﻧـﻪﺗـﻪوﻩ‬nation: ~ yekgirtûakân the                nâmo ‫ ‡ﻣﯚ‬stranger, foreign
  United Nations; ~î ‫ ﻧﻪﺗﻪوﻩﰃ‬national                     nân ‫ ‡ن‬bread, food; ~-khwârdin to eat,
natra ‫ـﺮﻩ‬Ž‫ ﺗـﻪ‬courage; ~-birdin v.t. to lose                have a meal; ~araq ‫ ‡ﻧـﻪرﻩق‬dry crust of
                                                      209
                                   SORANI KURDISH
  bread; ~awâ ‫ ‡ﻧـــﻪوا‬baker; ~azig ‫‡ﻧـــﻪزگ‬      nâtawâw ‫ ‡ﺗــﻪواو‬deficient, incomplete; ~î
  someone who works for his board;                  deficiency
  ~kar ‫ ‡ﻧﻪﮐﻪر‬breadmaker, baker                   nâumed ‫ ‡ﺋ ـﻮﻣ ـ´ ـﺪ‬in despair, desperate; ~-
nân ‫ ‡ن‬ne- ê (v.t., pass. nirân nre-) to            kirdin v.t. to dash someone’s hopes:
  put, place; dâ-~ to put down, set                 hîwâdârim nâumedmân nakay I hope
  down, to compose, put together                    you won’t dash our hopes; ~î despair
  (book): ktebèkî dânâwa he has writ-             nâw1 ‫ ‡و‬midst, middle; among, between;
  ten a book; râ-~ v.t. to exhibit, show;           la ~ birdin v.t. to eradicate, get rid of;
  le-~ bo to fix food for: shorbâm bo                la ~ chûn v.i. to disappear, cease to
  le-nâwa I’ve fixed soup for him; pe-               exist; ~ařâst ‫ ‡وﻩڕاﺳــــﺖ‬middle; ~arok
  ~à to make it to: agar aw shawá                                                       ‫ﻧ‬
                                                    ‫ ‡وﻩرۆک‬contents; ~and ‫ ‡وﻩرـــــﺪ‬center;
  bimâbâya, pemân danâyà rozh i sha-                ~andî ‫ ‡وﻩﻧـــــﺪی‬central; ~châw ‫‡و¸ـــــﺎو‬
  sham if he had remained that night,               forehead; ~qad ‫ ‡وﻗـــــــــــﻪد‬waist; ~râst
  we would have made it to the sixth                ‫ ‡وراﺳـــــــﺖ‬middle, center; ~châw-tur-
  day; sar-~awa to lay one’s head                   shândin ‫ ‡و¸ﺎو ﺗﻮرﺷﺎﻧﺪن‬v.t. to frown
  down (to sleep)                                 nâw2 ‫ ‡و‬name; ~bâng ‫ــــــﮓ‬s¶‫ ‡و‬fame, re-
nâpâk ‫ ‡ﭘﺎک‬unclean, filthy                           nown; ~dâr ‫ ‡ودار‬renowned; ba~bâng
nâřazâ|î ‫ ‡ڕﻩزاﰃ‬unhappiness, dissatisfac-           ‫ﮓ‬s¶‫ ﺑﻪ‡و‬famous, well-known
  tion; ~yatî ‫ ‡ڕازاﯾﻪﰏ‬ditto                      nâwakhtâ, la ‫ــــــﺎ‬µ‫ ‡وﻩﺧــــــ‬v at an unusual
nâřawâ ‫ ‡ڕﻩوا‬unreadable                             time, unexpectedly
nârâstawkho ‫ ‡راﺳ8ﺘﻪوﺧﯚ‬indirect                   nâwcha ‫ ,‡و¸ـﻪ‬newcha ‫ ﻧـ²ـﻮ¸ـﻪ‬administra-
nârâzî ‫ ‡رازی‬unhappy, dissatisfied                   tive region
nârdin ‫ ‡ردن‬ner- ‫ﺮ‬Œ‫ ﻧ‬v.t. to send                 nâwik ‫ ‡وک‬pit: ~ a khurmâ date pit
nârdîwân ‫ ‡ردﯾﻮان‬ladder                           nâyeł- ‫ ‡ﯾــــــــــــﻪڵ‬dial. var. for nâheł- (see
nârdrân ‫ ‡ردران‬nârdre- ‫ ‡ردرێ‬v.p. to be             heshtin)
  sent                                            nâyen- ‫ ‡ﯾﻪن‬see henân
nâsândin ‫ ‡ﺳـــﺎﻧـــﺪن‬nâsen- ‫ـــﻦ‬Œ‫ ‡ﺳـــ‬v.t. to   nâz ‫ ‡ز‬coquetry; ~dâr ‫ ‡زدار‬dear, cute;
  introduce, make known                             ba ~-u-goz bakhew-kirdin v.t. to
nâshe ‰‫ ‡ﺷـــ‬it’s not right, it’s not proper,       spoil (a child)
  shouldn’t                                       nâzlâw ‫ ‡زﻻو‬tender shoot
                              ‫ـ‬
nâshtin ‫ ‡ﺷـﱳ‬nezh- ‫ـﮋ‬Œ‫ ﻧ‬v.t. to bury in the       nâznâw ‫ ‡ز‡و‬nickname, nom de plume
  ground, plant in the ground                     ne ê pres. stem of nân
nâsik ‫ ‡ﺳﮏ‬fine, thin                               nechîr ‫ﲑ‬²‫ ﻧ‬prey
nâs|în ‫ ‡ﺳ ـﲔ‬nâs- ‫ ‡س‬v.t. to know, be ac-         negatîv ‫ ﻧ²ﮕﻪﺗ²ﭫ‬negative
  quainted with, recognize; ~înawa                ner ‫ﺮ‬Œ‫ ﻧ‬male; ~îna male
  ‫ــــﻪوﻩ‬ž‫ ‡ﺳــــ›ــــ‬to recognize: nâynâsîtawa   nerdîwân ‫ﺮدﯾﻮان‬Œ‫ = ﻧ‬nârdîwân
  don’t you recognize him?; ~rân v.p.             nerdrân ‫ﺮدران‬Œ‫ = ﻧ‬nerrân
  ‫ ‡ﴎان‬to be known, recognized; ~rân              nerrân ‫ـــﺮران‬Œ‫ ﻧـــ‬nerre- ‫ـــﺮرێ‬Œ‫( ﻧـــ‬passive of
  ba ‫ ‡ﴎان ﺑـــﻪ‬v.p. to be known as; ~râw           nârdin) to be sent
  ‫ ‡ﴎاو‬well-known, famous; ~yâr ‫‡ﺳـــﺎر‬     ‫8ﻴ‬    new ‫ = ﻧ²ﻮ‬nâw, nâwcha
  acquaintance; ~yâw ‫ ‡ ـــﺎو‬acquainted;
                                ‫ﺳ8ﻴ‬               newarok ‫ ﻧ²ﻮﻩرۆک‬contents
                     ‫ــ‬
  na~yâw ‫ ﻧـﻪ‡ﺳ8ﻴـﺎو‬unacquainted: nanâs-          newchâwân ‫ ﻧ²ﻮ¸ﺎوان‬forehead, brow
  yâwèk biydîbân if someone who                   nezh- ‫ﮋ‬Œ‫ ﻧ‬pres. stem of nâshtin
  didn’t know them were to see them               nigrîs ‫ﮕﺮ§ﺲ‬s = nagrîs
nâsor ‫ ‡ﺳﯚر‬an infected sore, gangrene             nihen ‫ــﻦ‬Œ‫ ﳖــ‬secret, hidden; ~î secret, hid-
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                         SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
   den thing; ba ~î in secret, secretly               nok ‫ ﻧـــــﯚک‬chickpea; ~âw ‫ ﻧـــــﯚﰷو‬chickpea
nihom ‫ ﳖﯚم‬floor, story                                   soup
nimakbaḥarâm ‫ــﺒــﻪ„ــﻪرام‬B‫ ﳕــﻪ‬ingrate, un-          nokar ‫ ﻧـــﯚﮐـــﻪر‬servant; ~âyatî ‫ﻧـــﯚﮐـــﻪراﯾـــﻪﰏ‬
   grateful                                             servitude, service
nimûna ‫ ﳕـــــﻮوﻧـــــﻪ‬example, sample; ~ nî-         nokîsa ‫ ﻧﯚﮐ›ﺴﻪ‬nouveau riche
   shân-dân v.t. to give as an example                noł ‫ ﻧــــــــــﯚڵ‬soft: zhûshik ba bechû i khoy
nirân ‫ﺮان‬s nre- ‫ﺮێ‬s v.p. passive of nân                 dałe okhay roła narm u nołakám the
nirka ‫ﺮﮐﻪ‬s rumble, rumbling sound                       porcupine says to its baby, “O my
nirkândin ‫ــﺮﰷﻧــﺪن‬s nirken- ‫ــﻦ‬Œ‫ــﺮﮐــ‬s v.t. to        soft little one”
   grunt, to make a rumbling sound                    nomâ ‫ ﻧﯚﻣﺎ‬colt
nirkh ‫ـﺮخ‬s value, worth; ~dâr ‫ـﺪار‬L‫ـﺮ‬s valu-          nomâł ‫ ﻧﯚﻣﺎڵ‬newly wed
   able; ba~ ‫ــﺮخ‬s‫ ﺑــﻪ‬worthwhile, valuable;          nora ‫ ﻧﯚرﻩ‬turn
   ~ândin ‫ـﺎﻧـﺪن‬L‫ـﺮ‬s ~en- ‫ـﺮ ــﻦ‬s v.t. to evalu-
                                  ŒL                  nosh ‫ ~ :ﻧﯚش‬i gyân cheers, bon appetit
   ate (ba as)                                        noshân ‫ ﻧﯚﺷﺎن‬nosh- ‫ ﻧﯚش‬v.t. to drink
nishân ‫ﺸﺎن‬ë = nîshân                                  noshâtir ‫ﺮ‬Ž‫ ﻧﯚﺷﺎ‬bleach
niwishta ‫ ﻧﻮﺷ8ﺘﻪ‬inscription                           nuft ‫ ﻧﻮﻓﺖ‬nose
niyâz ‫ ﻧﻴﺎز‬need; desire                               nukrândin ‫ـﺮاﻧـﺪن‬B‫ ﻧـﻮ‬nukren- ‫ـﺮ¤ـﻦ‬B‫ ﻧـﻮ‬v.t. to
nizâw ‫ﺰاو‬s water exuded from anything                   carve (on wood or stone)
nizim ‫ــــــــــــــﺰم‬s low: ba dang i ~ in a low     nukta ‫ ﻧﻮﮐﺘﻪ‬joke, pleasantry
   voice; ~âî ‫ﺰﻣﺎﰃ‬s lowliness                         nuqim-bûn ‫ ﻧ ـﻮﰴ ﺑ ـﻮون‬v.i. to disappear, be
nizîk ‫ـــﮏ‬a‫ـــﺰ‬s near; la khoy ~ khistinawa             lost
   v.t. to seat s.o. near oneself                     nuqta ‫ﻪ‬µ‫ ﻧﻮﻗ‬point
nînok ‫ﯚک‬ž›‫ ﻧ‬fingernail                                 nushân ‫ ﻧـﻮﺷـﺎن‬nushe- ‰‫ ﻧـﻮﺷـ‬v.i.: ~awa to
nîsân ‫ ﻧ›ﺴﺎن‬April                                       bend, be folded; ~dinawa ‫ﻧــﻮﺷــﺎﻧــﺪﻧــﻪوﻩ‬
nîsh- ‫ ﻧ›ﺶ‬pres. stem of nîshtin                         nushen- ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ ﻧﻮﺷ‬v.t. to bend, fold
nîshân ‫ ﻧـــ›ـــﺸـــﺎن‬target; trace, sign; ~-dân      nuskha ‫ ﻧﻮﲯﻪ‬manuscript, copy
   v.t. to show, give forth; ~-shikândin              nustin ‫ ﻧـــﻮﺳـــﱳ‬nu- ‫ ﻧـــﻮ‬v.i. to sleep, go to
   v.t. to practice archery; ~shiken                    sleep
   ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ﺸﮑ‬ë‫ ﻧ›ﺸﺎ‬sharpshooter                             nûk ‫ ﻧــــــﻮوک‬tip, point: nûk a chaqo point
nîshâna ‫ ﻧـــ›ـــﺸـــﺎﻧـــﻪ‬sign, mark; ~-girtin la      of a knife; beak; whimper
   v ‫ﻦ‬Ž‫ ﻧ›ﺸﺎﻧﻪ ﮔﺮ‬to take aim at                       nûka ‫ ﻧﻮوﮐﻪ‬now, at that time
nîshtaje ‰‫ ﻧ›ﺸ8ﺘﻪﺟ‬successor                           nûkanûk ‫ ﻧــﻮوﮐــﻪﻧــﻮوک‬whimper: am ~á la
nîshtimân ‫ ـ ـ ــ0ن‬country, homeland; ~î
                     8‫ﻧ›ﺸ‬                               chiya? what’s this whimpering for?
   ‫ ﻧ›ﺸ8ــ0ﱏ‬national; ~parwar ‫ﻧ›ﺸ8ــ0 ـﻧﭙـﻪروﻩر‬
          ‫ــ‬                                     ‫ــ‬   nûkâ ‫ = ﻧﻮوﰷ‬nûka
   patriot                                            nûq ‫ ﻧـﻮوق‬dunked; ~ân ‫ ﻧـﻮوﻗـﺎن‬nûqe- Õ‫ﻧـﻮو‬
nîshtin ‫ ـ ـــﱳ‬nîsh- ‫ ــﺶ‬v.i. to sit; dâ~ to
             ‫ﺸ8ﻴ‬ë              ›‫ﻧ‬                       v.i. to be dunked; ~ândin ‫ﻧـــــﻮوﻗـــــﺎﻧـــــﺪن‬
   sit down, to dwell                                   nûqen- ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ ﻧﻮوﻗ‬v.t. to dunk
nîw ‫ ــﻮ‬half, mid-; ~ařo ‫ ــﻮﻩڕۆ‬noon, mid-
       ‫ﻧﻴ‬                            ‫ﻧﻴ‬               nûqîn ‫ ﻧــــﻮوﻗــــﲔ‬v.t. to close, shut: châwit
   day; ~ashaw ‫ ﻧﻴﻮﻩﺷﻪو‬midnight                         binûqe shut your eyes
Nîzâmî ‫ ﻧـــــﲒاﻣـــــﯽ‬Nizami (1141–1209), a          nûs|ar ‫ ﻧــــــﻮوﺳــــــﻪر‬writer, author; ~ândin
   very well-known Persian poet                         ‫ ﻧﻮوﺳﺎﻧﺪن‬nûsên- ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ ﻧﻮوﺳ‬v.t. to write
nîzîk ‫ﮏ‬a‫ = ﻧﲒ‬nizîk                                    nûs|en- ‫ــــﻦ‬Œ‫ ﻧــــﻮوﺳــــ‬v.t. to write; ~ânawa
no ‫ ﻧﯚ‬nine; ~(h)am ‫ ﻧﯚﻫﻪم، ﻧﯚﻩم‬ninth                    ‫ ﻧـﻮوﺳـﺎﻧـﻪوﻩ‬copy; ~în ‫ ﻧـﻮوﺳـﲔ‬nûs- ‫ ﻧـﻮوس‬v.t.
noba ‫ ﻧﯚﺑﻪ‬turn; ba ~ by turn                            to write; ~înawa ‫ ﻧـﻮو ـــﻪوﻩ‬v.t. to copy,
                                                                                     ž›‫ﺳ‬
noga ‫ ﻧﯚﮔﻪ‬turn                                          to transcribe; literature
                                                  211
                                     SORANI KURDISH
nûsân ‫ ـﻧ ﻮوﺳـﺎن‬nûse- ‰‫ ـﻧ ﻮوﺳـ‬ba v.i. to stick        grab, snatch, attack
  to, to be stuck to, in                             pałg ‫ـﮓ‬T‫ ﭘﻪ‬eyelid
nûsândin ‫ ﻧـﻮوﺳـﺎﻧـﺪن‬nûsen ‫ ﻧـﻮو ــﻦ‬ba v.t. to
                               Œ‫ﺳ‬                    palk ‫ ﭘـــﻪ¢ـــﮏ‬tress, leaf, branch; ~ i châw
  clutch at                                            ‫ ﭘﻪ¢ﮑﯽ ¸ﺎو‬eyelid; ~a ‫ ﭘﻪ¢ﮑﻪ‬tress
nûsînga ‫ﮕﻪ‬ž›‫ ﻧﻮوﺳ‬office                               pałk ‫ـﮏ‬T‫ ﭘﻪ‬a type of plane tree
nûtak ‫ ﻧﻮوﺗﻪک‬heavy darkness                          palkesh-kirdin ‫ ـﺮدن‬B ‫ ـﺶ‬Œ‫ ﭘ ـﻪ¢ ـﮑ ـ‬v.t. to pick
nûza ‫ ﻧﻮوزﻩ‬moan                                        up
nwândin ‫ ﻧـﻮاﻧـﺪن‬nwen- ‫ ﻧـﻮ¤ـﻦ‬v.t. to repre-         palupo ‫ ﭘـﻪﻟـﻮﭘـﯚ‬endurance: palupoy pichiřâ
  sent, look like; kho ~ to show oneself               he couldn't take it any longer; la ~
nwe ‫ ﻧـــــــــﻮێ‬new; ~-kirdinawa v.t. to re-          kawtin to come to the end of one’s
  new, to renovate                                     endurance
nwen ‫ ﻧﻮ¤ﻦ‬bedclothes, sheets                         pama ‫ ﭘﻪﻣﻪ‬cotton
nwen- ‫ ﻧﻮێ‬pres. stem of nwândin                      panâ ‡‫ ﭘــــــــــــﻪ‬shelter, refuge, asylum; ~-
nwenar ‫ﻨﻪر‬l‫ ﻧﻮ‬representative                           birdin ba v.t. to take refuge in; ~bar
nweshk ‫ﺸﮏ‬â‫ ﻧﻮ‬rennet                                    ‫ ﭘﻪ‡ﺑﻪر‬refugee
nwezh ‫ ﻧــﻮ¤ــﮋ‬prayer (one of the five daily          pand ‫ ﭘﻪﻧﺪ‬advice
  Muslim prayers); ~-khwendin v.t. to                paner ‫ﺮ‬Œ‫ ﭘﻪﻧ‬cheese
  perform prayer; ~-kirdin v.t. to pray              pang-khwârdin ‫ـــﮓ ﺧـــﻮاردن‬s‫ ﭘـــﻪ‬v.t. to be
                                                       pent up
oghir ‫ ﺋــــــﯚﻏــــــﺮ‬journey, good omen for a      panhân ‫ ﭘﻪﳖﺎن‬wonderful, rare, strange
  journey: oghrit kher bet bon voyage                panja ‫ ﭘــﻪﳒــﻪ‬hand; claw; ~-dân lagał v.t.
orgân ‫ ﺋﯚرﮔﺎن‬organ                                     to fight with, contend with; ~ i kho
okhizhn ‫ ﺋﯚﺧﮋن‬rest, calm                               gastin v.t. to bite one’s fingers, to ex-
ordû ‫ ﺋﯚردوو‬camp; ~gâ ‫ ﺋﯚردووﮔﺎ‬campsite                press surprise
otonomî ‫ ﺋﯚﺗﯚﻧﯚﻣﯽ‬autonomy                            panjara ‫ ﭘﻪﳒﻪرﻩ‬window
                                                     panjoła ‫ﻪ‬T‫ ﭘﻪﳒﯚ‬claw
                                                     papka-bastin ‫ـــﮑـــﻪ ﺑـــﻪﺳـــﱳ‬º‫ ﭘـــﻪ‬v.t. to coil:
pak ‫ ﭘﻪک‬need, necessity; amazing
                                                       mârakân papkayân bast the snakes
pakhsh ‫ ﭘـــــﻪﺧـــــﺶ‬dispersal; ~-bûn v.i. to
                                                       coiled up
  spread out, to be dispersed
                                                     pař1 ‫ ﭘــــــــــﻪڕ‬side, direction: aw~ i on the
pakhsha ‫ ﭘﻪﺧﺸﻪ‬publication
                                                       other side of, past
pakhshân ‫ ﭘـــﻪﺧـــﺸـــﺎن‬prose; dispersed; ~-
                                                     pař2 ‫ ﭘﻪڕ‬feather
  bûn v.i. to be dispersed, to spread
                                                     pařa ‫ ﭘﻪڕﻩ‬petal: ~ i gul rose petal
  out; ~-kirdin v.t. to scatter; ~-
                                                     parasandin ‫ ﭘــﻪرﻩﺳــﻪﻧــﺪن‬v.i. to be in gen-
  kirdinawa v.t. to distribute
                                                       eral use
pala v‫ ﭘــﻪ‬haste; ~-kirdin v.t. to hurry; ba
                                                     pařawâza ‫ ﭘﻪڕﻩوازﻩ‬wandering, homeless
  ~ v‫ ﺑﻪ ﭘﻪ‬in haste, hurriedly
                                                     pařândin ‫ ﭘــــﻪڕاﻧــــﺪن‬pařen- ‫ ﭘــــﻪڕ¤ــــﻦ‬v.t. to
pała1 ‫ﻪ‬T‫ ﭘﻪ‬field, farm
                                                       make leap, jump; to cause to flee; to
pała2 ‫ﻪ‬T‫ ﭘﻪ‬stain, spot
                                                       cut off part of something: am liká
pałahawr ‫ﻪﻫﻪور‬T‫ ﭘﻪ‬bird
                                                       bipařena cut off this limb; to leave
palapalî ‫ﭘﻪﱃ‬v‫ ﭘﻪ‬confusion
                                                       out: la khwendinawa’dâ khatèkit
palaqâzhe ‫ﻗـﺎژێ‬v‫ ﭘـﻪ‬flailing the hands and
                                                       pařând you left out a line in your
  feet
                                                       reading; to remove: lamparim pařând
palawar ‫وﻩر‬v‫ ,ﭘﻪ‬palawir ‫ور‬v‫ ﭘﻪ‬bird
                                                       I removed the obstacle; ~awa to save:
palâmâr ‫ ﭘـــــــﻪﻻﻣـــــــﺎر‬attack; ~-dân v.t. to
                                                       pařândûtimawa you've saved me;
                                                 212
                          SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  dar-~ la to drive away from, to chase                  against the wall
  out of; dâ-~ to shake: la dârakáwa                                      8‫ﺷ‬
                                                       pashîmân ‫ ﭘـﻪ ــ7ن‬regretful, sorry; ~-kir-
  am sewâná’m dâpařândà khwâr I                          dinawa to dissuade
  shook these apples down from the                     pashok|ân ‫ ﭘـﻪﺷـﯚﰷن‬pashoke- ‰‫ ﭘـﻪﺷـﯚﮐـ‬v.i.
  tree; râ-~ to wake up, roust out of                    to get upset, be terrified; ~âw ‫ﭘـــﻪﺷـــﯚﰷو‬
  sleep                                                  terrified; ~âwî ‫ ﭘﻪﺷﯚﰷوی‬terror
pařâw ‫ ﭘﻪڕاو‬notebook                                   pasind ‫ ﭘﻪﺳ8ﻨﺪ‬approval
parâwezân ‫ ﭘـﻪراو¤ـﺰان‬parâweze- ‫ﭘـﻪراو¤ـﺰێ‬                                                  8‫ﺳ‬
                                                       past ‫ ﭘـﻪﺳـﺖ‬low, dejected; ~î ‫ ﭘـﻪ ــﱴ‬dejec-
  v.t. to edit                                           tion; ba ~îawa ‫;ﻪوﻩ‬n‫ ﺑﻪ ﭘﻪﺳ‬dejectedly
parcham ‫ ﭘﻪر¸ﻪم‬bangs                                                        ‫ــ‬
                                                       pastâwtin ‫ـﻦ‬Ž‫ ﭘـﻪﺳ8ﺘـﺎو‬v.t. to stuff, cram; to
parch-dânawa ‫ ﭘـــﻪرچ داﻧـــﻪوﻩ‬v.t. to pound             beat with the feet, kick
  (the head of a nail) flat                             pat1 ‫ ﭘـــــــــﻪت‬rope, cord: pat i hîwâ kawtà
parchî ‫ ﭘﻪرﭼﯽ‬cheap, insignificant                         bârîk the thread of hope wore thin,
pardâkh ‫ ﭘﻪرداخ‬glass, tumbler                            there was not much hope left
pare ‫ ﭘﻪرێ‬day before yesterday                         pat2 ‫ ﭘﻪت‬see lat-u-pat
pařendrân ‫ــﻨــﺪران‬l‫ ﭘــﻪڕ‬v.p. passive of pa-          patâta ‫ﺗﻪ‬c‫ ﭘﻪ‬potato
  řândin                                               payâ p‫ = ﭘﻪ‬paydâ
parez ‫ ﭘﻪر¤ﺰ‬place for harvested grain                  payâm ‫م‬p‫ ﭘـﻪ‬message; ~-nârdin to send a
paristin ‫ ﭘــــﻪرﺳــــﱳ‬parist- ‫ ﭘــــﻪرﺳــــﺖ‬v.t. to     message
  serve, adore, worship                                paydâ ‫ ﭘــﻪﯾــﺪا‬visible, found; ~-bûn v.i. to
parî ‫ ﭘﻪری‬peri, fairy                                    happen, to become visible; ~-kirdin
pařîn ‫ـﻦ‬a‫ ﭘـﻪڕ‬pař- ‫ ﭘـﻪڕ‬v.i. to leap, jump; te-          v.t. to find
  ~ la to pass by/through                              payjo(r) ‫ ﭘــﻪﳚــﯚر‬investigator, researcher;
parmûn ‫ ﭘـﻪرﻣـﻮون‬parme- ‰‫ ﭘـﻪرﻣـ‬v.t. to rely             ~î investigation, research
  on oneself; râ-~ to consider worthy,                 paymân ‫ ﭘــــﻪﳝــــﺎن‬promise; ~-bastin lagał
  to find s.o. capable (+ subj.) of doing                 v.t. to make a promise to someone
  something                                                                ‫ـ ـ‬
                                                       paytâ-paytâ ‫ ﭘـﻪﯾﺘـﺎ ﭘـﻪﯾﺘـﺎ‬constantly, contin-
parsh ‫ ﭘــﻪرش‬scattered; ~ u bilâw kirdin-                uously
  awa ‫ ﭘـﻪرش و ﺑـﻼو 6ـﺮدﻧـﻪوﻩ‬v.t. to scatter, let      paywand ‫ ﭘﻪﯾﻮﻩﻧﺪ‬connection, relation
  loose: kichá qizh’î parsh u bilâw                    paz ‫ ﭘﻪز‬sheep
  kirdawa the girl let her hair fly loose               pazhâra ‫ ﭘﻪژارﻩ‬sorrow, worry
parsiv ‫ ﭘﻪرﺳﭫ‬answer, response                          pâchîn ‫ ﭘـــﺎ¸ـــﲔ‬v.t. to pound; dâ-~ to split
partuk ‫ ﭘﻪرﺗﻮک‬book                                       from top to bottom
parwarda-kirdin ‫ــــــﺮدن‬B ‫ ﭘــــــﻪروﻩردﻩ‬v.t. to      pâdâsht ‫ ﭘـﺎداﺷـﺖ‬reward; ~-dânawa to re-
  raise, rear (flocks, herds)                             ward
parzh ‫ ﭘﻪرژ‬opportunity                                 pâk ‫ ﭘـــــــــــﺎک‬pure, clean; ~-kirdin v.t. to
pařzh ‫ ﭘﻪڕژ‬broadcast, widespread                         clean
parzhîn ‫ﻦ‬a‫ ﭘﻪرژ‬relation; business                      pâł ‫ ﭘــــــﺎڵ‬side; back; inside: la ~ khoy’dâ
parzhân ‫ ﭘـــﻪرژان‬parzhe- ‫ ﭘـــﻪرژێ‬v.i. to be            tûřaya he’s angry inwardly; ~-dân
  busy                                                   v.t. to push: nâbizue: wara dagalmân
pasand-bûn la v ‫ ﭘـﻪﺳـﻪﻧـﺪ ﺑـﻮون‬to be pleas-             pâl da it won’t budge: come push
  ing to                                                 with us; ~-dânawa v.t. to lean back,
pasârdin ‫ ﭘـﻪﺳـﺎردن‬paser- ‫ ﭘـﻪ ــﺮ‬v.t.: hał-~
                                Œ‫ﺳ‬                       rest; ~-dân ba v.t. to lean against:
  ba ...awa to lean against: bel ba                      ~im ba dîwârawa dâ I leaned against
  dîwârawa hałpasera lean the shovel                     the wall; ~-kawtin v.i. to lie down; ~
                                                   213
                                      SORANI KURDISH
  pewa nân v.t. to push; la ~ a kho’dâ                  portune; ba ~ i in account of; ~ pewa
  for one’s own part, on one’s own be-                  nân v.t. to get a move on, to hightail
  half                                                  it out; dang i ~yek the sound of a
pâławân ‫ـــــﻪوان‬T‫ ﭘـــــﺎ‬champion, hero; ~etî          footstep; ~ la kawsh’(d)â bûn to in-
  ‫ﱴ‬Œ‫ﻪواﻧ‬T‫~ , ﭘﺎ‬iyatî ‫ﻪواﻧﻴﻪﰏ‬T‫ ﭘﺎ‬heroism                 sist, to be firm: peyèkit la kawsh’â bet
pâłâ Ÿ‫ = ﭘﺎ‬pelâw                                        u aw pekát nakirdibe ba jey bela be
pâłpishtî ‫ﺸ8ﱴ‬ÎT‫ ﭘﺎ‬backing, support                      firmly resolved, stick to your guns
pâłtâw ‫ﺘﺎو‬T‫ ﭘﺎ‬overcoat                                pe3 ‰Š‫( ﭘــــــــــ‬postposition) see ba; ~… wâ
pân ‫ ﭘﺎن‬wide, broad, shallow                            bûn to think, be of the opinion that:
pâr ‫ ﭘﺎر‬last year                                       pem wâ bû I thought so; pey wâ bû
pâra ‫ ﭘﺎرﻩ‬money                                         diz u regirin he thought they were
pâřân ‫ ﭘـــــﺎڕان‬pâře- ‫ ﭘـــــﺎڕێ‬v.i. to beg, be-       robbers and brigands
  seech                                               pe4 ‰Š‫ ﭘـ‬cmpd. vb. element, see under ver-
pârâstin ‫ ﭘـــﺎراﺳـــﱳ‬pârez- ‫ ﭘـــﺎر¤ـــﺰ‬la v.t. to     bal element: pe-gayshtin, pe-kanîn,
  protect from, keep                                    pe-wîstin
pârâztin ‫ﻦ‬Ž‫ = ﭘﺎراز‬pârastin                           pe-chûn ‫ ﭘ²ﭽﻮون‬see under chûn ba
pârez ‫ ﭘــــﺎر¤ــــﺰ‬avoidance, abstaining; am-        pe-kirdin ‫ ﭘــــ²ــــﮑــــﺮدن‬v.t. to force, oblige:
  bush; ~-birdin v.t. to ambush; ~-chûn                 pe’yân kirdim aw kârá bikam they
  v.i. to wait in ambush; ~-kirdin v.t. to              forced me to do it; to fool; to light
  abstain; ~rân ‫ ﭘــــﺎر¤ــــﺰران‬v.p. to be pro-        (fire); dast ~ (+ inf.) to begin (doing)
  tected, kept; ~ar ‫ ﭘـﺎر¤ـﺰﻩر‬defender, pro-          pechawâna ‫ـﻪواﻧـﻪ‬²‫ ﭘ‬reverse, opposite; ba
                                                                                ‫ــ‬
  tector, defence lawyer; ~gâr ‫ﭘـــﺎر¤ـــﺰﮔـــﺎر‬        ~wa ‫ﻪواﻧﻪوﻩ‬²‫ ﺑﻪ ﭘ‬on the contrary
  protector; ~î ‫ ﭘــــــﺎر¤ــــــﺰی‬protection; ~î-    pechân ‫ـﺎن‬²‫ ﭘ‬pech- ‫ ــﭻ‬v.t. to fold, wrap;
                                                                          ‫ــ‬       ²‫ﭘ‬
  kirdin ‫ﺮدن‬B ‫ ﭘﺎر¤ﺰی‬v.t. to protect                    hał-~ v.t. to roll up
pârû ‫ ﭘﺎروو‬morsel                                                            ‫ــ‬              ‫ــ‬
                                                      pechrân ‫ ﭘ²ﭽـﺮان‬pechre- ‫ ﭘ²ﭽـﺮێ‬v.p. to be
pâsawân ‫ ﭘﺎﺳﻪوان‬guard; ~î surveillance                  wrapped
pâsh ‫ ﭘــــــﺎش‬after (prep); ~-kawtin to fall         pedasht ‫ ﭘ²ﺪﻩﺷﺖ‬piedmont plain
  behind, be backward; ~-khistin v.t. to              pedâ ‫ = ﭘ²ﺪا‬paydâ
  delay; to neglect, ignore; ~ awaî (ka)              pedâwîst ‫ = ﭘ²ﺪاو§ﺴﺖ‬pewîst
  after (conj.); la ~’â afterwards; ~a-               peghamar ‫ ﭘ²ﻐﻪﻣﻪر‬prophet
  rozh ‫ ﭘـﺎﺷـﻪرۆژ‬future; ~kawtû ‫ﭘـﺎﺷﮑـﻪوﺗـﻮو‬   ‫ـ‬      pek ‫ ــﮏ‬together, in order; ~-ânîn v.t. to
                                                                ²‫ﭘ‬
  backward; ~mana ‫ ﭘـﺎﴰـﻪﻧـﻪ‬left-over; la-              accomplish, to reconcile; ~-biřrân
  maw~ ‫ﻣﻪوﭘﺎش‬v henceforth                               v.i. to be suitable: to u aw kirâsá
pâshał ‫ ﭘﺎﺷﻪڵ‬back of the skirt; hind leg                daley pek biřrâwin it’s as though you
pâshâ ‫ ﭘﺎﺷﺎ‬king, prince                                 and that shirt were made for each
pâshu ‫ ﭘﺎﺷﻮ‬leg (of an animal)                           other; ~-gayshtin v.i. to meet, see
pâya ‫ ﭘﺎﯾﻪ‬rank                                          each other; ~-hâtin v.i. to agree, get
pâyiz ‫ﺰ‬a‫ ﭘﺎ‬autumn                                       along together; to consist (la of); ~-
pâzh ‫ ﭘﺎژ‬portion, section; document                     henân v.t. to put together, produce,
pe1 ‰Š‫( ﭘـ‬adj.) (1) fasting: min amřo peyim             accomplish; to reconcile; ~awa ‫ﭘ²ﮑـﻪوﻩ‬         ‫ــ‬
  I’m fasting today; (2) on hand: pûl’it                together; ~awa-nân v.t. to shut, close
  peya? do you have any money on                        (book, eyes), to stick together; rek u
  hand?; (3) lit (fire): âgir peya the                   ~ ‫ ر¤ﮏوﭘ²ﮏ‬ordered, arranged
  fire’s lit                                           pe-kanîn ‫ ﭘ²ﮑﻪﻧﲔ‬v.i. to laugh
pe2 ‰Š‫ ﭘـ‬foot; ~-dâ-girtin v.t. to insist, im-                          ‫ـ‬          ‫ــ‬
                                                      pekân ‫ ﭘ²ـﲀن‬peke- ‰‫ ﭘ²ﮑـ‬v.t. to hit with an
                                                  214
                        SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  arrow or bullet, hit the mark                     pewa ‫ ~ :ﭘـــ²ـــﻮﻩ‬dân see ba …awa dân; ~
pełâw ‫و‬˲‫ ﭘ‬shoes                                       girtin see ba …awa girtin
peło ‫ﯚ‬k²‫ ﭘ‬eyelid                                    pewand ‫ ﭘـ²ـﻮﻩﻧـﺪ‬contact, link; ~-girtin la-
penâs ‫ﺎس‬žŒ‫ ﭘ‬identity, identity card                    gał v.t. to form a link with
penâw ‫ـﺎو‬žŒ‫ :ﭘ‬la ~ i ...’dâ for, for the sake
            ‫ــ‬                                      pewân ‫ ﭘ²ﻮان‬pew- ‫ ﭘ²ﻮ‬v.t. to measure
  of: la penâw i âzâdî’dâ khom bakht                pewâr ‫ ﭘ²ﻮار‬unseen, invisible
  akam I’ll risk my life for the sake of            pewdân ‫ ﭘ²ﻮدان‬measure, rule
  freedom                                                              ‫ـ ـ‬                 8‫ـ §ﺴ‬
                                                    pewîst ‫ ﭘ²ـﻮ§ﺴـﺖ‬necessary; ~î ‫ ﭘ²ـﻮ ـ ــﱴ‬ne-
penj ‫ـﺞ‬žŒ‫ ﭘ‬five; ~am ‫ـﻪم‬힌‫ ﭘ‬fifth; ~sham-
         ‫ــ‬                   ‫ـــ‬                      cessity
  ma ‫ﺠﺸﻪﳑﻪ‬žŒ‫ ﭘ‬Thursday                              pey ‫ﯽ‬Š²‫ = ﭘ‬pe2
peřaw ‫ﻩو‬g‫ــــ‬Œ‫ ﭘــــ‬pedestrian; sidewalk; pro-                                  ‫ـ‬               ‫ـ‬
                                                    pichiřândin ‫ا ـﻧ ﺪن‬g‫ ﭘﭽـ‬pichiřen- ‫¤ـﻦ‬g‫ ﭘﭽـ‬v.t.
  gram                                                 to break, break apart
pere ‫ﺮێ‬Œ‫ = ﭘ‬pare                                    pichiřîn ‫ـﻦ‬ag‫ ﭘـﭽـ‬pichiř- g‫ ﭘـﭽـ‬v.t. to break,
          ‫ـ‬
pesh ‫ـﺶ‬Œ‫ ﭘ‬before, ahead; ~ awaî (ka) be-               cut; ~-awa la to sever relations with:
  fore (conj); ~-girtin ba v.t. to                     kâkim la ema pichiřîwatawa, hâtu-
  prevent: la chûn pesh’yân pe girtim                  chû’mân nâkâ my brother has severed
  they prevented me from going; ~-                     relations with us—he doesn’t come to
  girtin la v.t. to stand in front of; ~-              see us; hał-~ to force a cover off
  kawtin v.i. to advance, go forward,                                      ‫ـ‬             ‫ـ‬
                                                    pichiřrân ‫ان‬g‫ ﭘﭽـ‬pichiřre- ‫ێ‬g‫ ﭘﭽـ‬v.p. to be
  get ahead of: peshmân kawtûn they                    broken, snapped
  have gotten ahead of us; dânà ~ to                pichok ‫ ﭘﭽﯚک‬little, tiny
  drive forward                                     pif ‫ ﭘﻒ‬puff; ~-kirdin v.t. to puff, blow
peshak ‫ﺸﻪک‬Œ‫ ﭘ‬foreword                               pil ‫ ﭘﻞ‬finger, toe
peshawâ ‫ﺸﻪوا‬Œ‫ ﭘ‬leader                               pilân ‫ ﭘﻼن‬plan
peshîn ‫ﺸـﲔ‬Œ‫ ﭘ‬former, olden; ~îân ‫ــﺸـــــﺎن‬
              ‫ــ‬                          ;À‫ 8ﻴ‬Œ‫ﭘ‬   piłâw ‫و‬Ë‫ ﭘ‬pilaf, cooked rice
  the ancients, ancestors, forefathers              piling ‫ ﭘﻠﻨﮓ‬tiger
peshkash ‫ﺸﮑـﻪش‬Œ‫ ﭘ‬present, gift; ~-kirdin
                    ‫ــ ـ‬                                                          ‫ـــ‬
                                                    piłîshâ|nawa ‫›ﺸـﺎﻧـﻪوﻩ‬k‫ ﭘ‬v.i. to be mashed,
  ba v.t. to present to; ~-krân v.p. to be                                                  ‫ـــ‬
                                                       squashed; ~ndinawa ‫›ﺸـﺎﻧـﺪﻧـﻪوﻩ‬k‫ ﭘ‬v.t. to
  presented                                            squash
peshkawtû ‫ﺸﮑـﻪوﺗـﻮو‬Œ‫ ﭘ‬advanced, progres-
                         ‫ــ ـ‬                       pilk ‫ ﭘﻠﮏ‬eyelid
  sive                                              piř g‫ــــــــــــ‬º full; for compounds, see next
peshmarga ‫ ـﺸ ـﻤ ـﻪرﮔ ـﻪ‬Œ‫ ﭘ ـ‬guerilla, freedom         element; la ~ g‫ ـ‬º v, la ~èk’á ‫¤ ـﲀ‬g‫ ـ‬º v, la
  fighter                                               ~dâ ‫دا‬g‫ــــــ‬º v suddenly, all at once; ~ la
peshnirâw ‫ ـﺸ ـﲊاو‬Œ‫ ﭘ ـ‬proposed, suggested;            …awa full of; ~-bûn la to be angry
  proposal                                             with: let piřim: mamdwena I’m angry
peshnyâr ‫ ـ; ـﺎر‬À‫ ـﺸ ـ‬Œ‫ ﭘ ـ‬suggestion; ~-kirdin        with you: don’t speak to me; ~’î
  v.t. to suggest                                      pe’dâ kirdin v.t. to snatch away; ~âî
peshnyâz ‫ ـ; ـﺎز‬À‫ ـﺸ ـ‬Œ‫ ﭘ ـ‬suggestion; ~-kirdin        ‫اﰃ‬g‫ـ‬º midst, middle: la piřâî i âwakádâ
  v.t. to suggest                                      in the middle of the water; majority:
peshwakht ‫ﺸﻮﻩﺧﺖ‬Œ‫ ﭘ‬early, untimely                      piřâî i khałkaká hât the majority of
peshwâz ‫ﺸـﻮاز‬Œ‫ ﭘ‬greeting: hât ba peshwâz
                  ‫ــ‬                                   the people came
  i merdakáyawa she came to greet her               pird ‫ﺮد‬º bridge
  husband; ~î kirdin v.t. to receive                piřma ‫ﻣﻪ‬gº whinny, snivel
pest ‫ﺴﺖ‬Œ‫ ﭘ‬skin                                      pirshing ‫ﺮﺷ8ﻨﮓ‬º ray
petakht ‫ﻪﺧﺖ‬µŒ‫ ﭘ‬capital                              pirsîn ‫ﺮﺳﲔ‬º pirs- ‫ﺮس‬º la v.t. to ask
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                                   SORANI KURDISH
                8
pirsyâr ‫ـﺮﺳــﻴـﺎر‬º question; ~-kirdin la v.t.        ‫ ﭘـــــــﲑی‬old age; the act of going out to
   to ask s.o.                                       greet a superior; ba ~î i …awa hâtin
piřtâw ‫و‬cgº haste; ba ~ hâtin to rush                to come/go out to greet
pirtuk ‫ﺮﺗﻮک‬º piece                                Pîrânshâr ‫ـﺸـﺎر‬ë‫ ﭘـﲑا‬Piranshahr, a town in
piryâska ‫ﺳﮑﻪ‬p‫ﺮ‬º small sack                           Iranian Kurdistan
piřzhân ‫ژان‬g‫ـــــ‬º v.i. to be scattered, sprin-   pîroz ‫ ﭘﲑۆز‬happy, blessed, auspicious
   kled; hał-~ to grapple; to squirt: pe’m        pîs ‫ ﭘ ـ› ـﺲ‬dirty, filthy; ~ gâl-dân ‫ﭘ ـ› ـﺲ ﮔ ـﺎل‬
   le nâ, quř u lîta’m pe hałpirzhâ I put            ‫ دان‬v.t. to stir up filth; dil ~-kirdin la
   my foot in it and mud squirted up all             v.t. to suspect the worst of
   over me                                        pîsha ‫ ﭘ›ﺸﻪ‬trade, craft
piřzhândin ‫ژاﻧـﺪن‬g‫ـ‬º piřzhen- ‫ژ¤ـﻦ‬g‫ـ‬º v.t. to     pîshân ‫ ﭘ›ﺸﺎن‬trace; ~-dân v.t. to show
   scatter, sprinkle, squirt                      pît ‫ ﭘ›ﺖ‬letter of the alphabet
pisân ‫ﺴﺎن‬é v.i. to break, snap                    pît u lat ‫ت‬v ‫ ﭘ›ﺖ و‬bit, little bit
pishî ‫ﺸﯽ‬é cat; ~la ƒ‫ﺸ8ﻴ‬é kitten                   pîwâz ‫ ﭘﻴﻮاز‬onion
pishkinîn ‫ـﲔ‬ž‫ـﺸـﮑـ‬é pishkin- ‫ـﺸـﮑـﻦ‬é v.t. to      po ‫ ﭘﯚ‬weft
   examine                                        pol ‫ ﭘﯚل‬flock (of birds)
pisht ‫ ـﺸ ـﺖ‬é back; reliance; generation; ~       poł ‫ ﭘــــــﯚڵ‬grade: la pol i penjam i ibtidâ-
   ba khwâ for God’s sake; ~ bastin ba               î’dâ in the fifth grade of elementary
   v.t. to click on; ~-dân v.t. to run               school; group, squadron
   away; ~-dân-awa v.t. to calm down:             połâ Ÿ‫ ﭘﯚ‬steel
   biro ~ i khot’î le bidawa go calm              pop ‫ ﭘـــﯚپ‬cock’s comb, forelock; lik-u-~
   down; ~-girtin v.t. to help, protect; ~           ‫ ¢ﮏوﭘﯚپ‬branches and twigs
   hał-kirdin v.t. to turn away in anger;         poř ‫ ﭘــــــــــﯚڕ‬hair (on the head); partridge;
   ~-kirdin ba v.t. to rely on; ~ te-kir-            pân u ~ ‫ ﭘﺎنوﭘﯚڕ‬wide, broad
   din v.t. to turn the back on, ignore; ~-       poshîn ‫ ﭘـﯚﺷـﲔ‬posh- ‫ ﭘـﯚش‬v.t. to wear, put
   astûr complacent; ~ i ‫ ـ ــﱴ‬behind; ~î
                                 8‫ﺸ‬é                 on
   ‫ـﺸـ8ـﱴ‬é bolster; ba~ ‫ـﺸـﺖ‬é‫ ﺑـﻪ‬solid, firm,                    8
                                                  poshta ‫ ﭘـﯚﺷــﺘـﻪ‬chic; happy; ~-kirdinawa
   strong                                            v.t. to dress in fine clothes
pishtâw ‫ـﺸــﺘـﺎو‬é gunpowder sack; type of
                  8                               post1 ‫ ﭘـــﯚﺳـــﺖ‬skin, peel; ~-girtinawa v.t.
   pistol                                            to peel: post i am khayârá bigirawa
pishter ‫ﺮ‬Œ‫ﺸ8ﺘ‬é stable                                peel this cucumber
pishû ‫ــــﺸــــﻮو‬é breath; ~-dân v.t. to take a   post2 ‫ ﭘــــــﯚﺳــــــﺖ‬post, mail; ~ i alîktronî
   breath                                            ‫ ﭘﯚﺳ8ﱴ ﺋﻪﻟﻴﮑﱰۆﱏ‬e-mail
pispoř ‫ﺴ8ﭙﯚڕ‬é expert                              prûsk ‫ــــــﺮووﺳــــــﮏ‬º remains of a decayed
pisû ‫ﺴﻮو‬é feeling                                    corpse
pitaw ‫ ﭘﺘﻪو‬strong, firm                            prûsha-kirdin ‫ﺮدن‬B ‫ﺮووﺷﻪ‬º v.t. to nibble
pitir ‫ ﭘﱰ‬earlier; more                            pushpař ‫ ﭘﻮﺷ8ﭙﻪڕ‬the month of Cancer
pizhîshk ‫ﮋ§ﺸﮏ‬º doctor, physician                  pûł ‫ ﭘﻮوڵ‬money
pizhma ‫ﮋﻣﻪ‬º sneeze                                pûř-kirdin ‫ﺮدن‬B ‫ ﭘﻮوڕ‬v.t. to store
pizhmîn ‫ﮋﻣﲔ‬º pizhm- ‫ﮋم‬º v.i. to sneeze            pûs ‫ ﭘﻮوس‬skin
pizîshk ‫ﺰ§ﺸﮏ‬º = pizhîshk                          pûsh ‫ ﭘﻮوش‬dried grass
pîlân ‫ = ﭘﻴﻼن‬pilân                                pût ‫ ﭘﻮوت‬weight equal to sixteen kilos
pîr ‫ ﭘـــــــﲑ‬old, aged; ~ak ‫ ﭘـــــــﲑﻩک‬woman,   pyâ ‫ = ﭘﻴﺎ‬pe’(d)â
   wife; ~amerd ‫ ﭘـﲑﻩ ــﺮد‬old man; ~azhin
                        Œ‫ﻣ‬                        pyâła ‫ﻪ‬T‫ ﭘﻴﺎ‬cup
   ‫~ ,ﭘـــﲑﻩژن‬ezhin ‫ ﭘـــﲑ¤ـــﮋن‬old woman; ~î     pyâsa ‫ ﭘـﻴـﺎﺳـﻪ‬walk, stroll; ~-kirdin v.t. to
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                        SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  take a stroll, go for a walk                     qawr ‫ ﻗﻪور‬grave, tomb
pyâw ‫ ﭘـــﻴـــﺎو‬man; ~atî ‫ ﭘـــﻴـــﺎوﻩﰏ‬manhood,    qaychî ‫ ﻗﻪ:ﯽ‬scissors
  manliness, generosity; ~ a gawrakân              qayd ‫ ﻗـﻪﯾـﺪ‬impediment; link (in a chain);
  dignitaries                                        ~e nâkâ never mind, it doesn’t matter
pyâz ‫ ﭘﻴﺎز‬onion                                    qazâwat ‫ ﻗﻪزاوﻩت‬judgeship, judiciary
                                                   qâch ‫ ﻗــــــﺎچ‬leg; har ~èk kirdin ba duân
qaba ‫ ﻗﻪﺑﻪ‬thick                                      v.t. to run as fast as one can: kichá har
qabûł ‫ ﻗـﻪﺑـﻮوڵ‬acceptance; ~-bûn v.i. to be          qâchèkî dakâ ba duân the girl runs as
  acceptable; ~-kirdin v.t. to accept,               fast as her legs will carry her; ~ khis-
  agree to                                           tinà sar … v.t. to step on; ~ râ-
qadpâl ‫ ﻗﻪدﭘﺎل‬mountainside                           keshân v.t. to stretch out the legs
qafaza ‫ ﻗﻪﻓﻪزﻩ‬closet, storeroom                    qâchâkh ‫ ﻗـــﺎ¸ـــﺎخ‬smuggling, contraband;
qałabâłigh ‫ﻪ¶ﻟﻎ‬T‫ ﻗﻪ‬crowd                             ~chî ‫ ﻗﺎ¸ﺎﺧﭽﯽ‬smuggler
qałam ‫ﻪم‬T‫ ﻗﻪ‬pen                                    qâlî ‫ ﻗﺎﱃ‬carpet
qaław ‫ــﻪو‬T‫ ﻗــﻪ‬fat; lâm i ~ ‫ــﻪو‬T‫ ﻻﱉ ﻗــﻪ‬velar-   qâmik ‫ ﻗﺎﻣﮏ‬finger, finger joint
  ized l                                           qân ‫ ﻗـــﺎن‬qe- Õ v.i.: hał-~ da to get stuck
qałâ Ÿ‫ ﻗﻪ‬fort; ~ycha ‫:ﻪ‬Ÿ‫ ﻗﻪ‬fortress                  on: dâwenim d’ aw bizmârá hałqâ my
qalâcho ‫ ﻗﻪﻻﭼﯚ‬extermination                          skirt got stuck on that nail
qałbaz ‫ـﺒـﻪز‬T‫ ﻗـﻪ‬chain of rocks on a moun-         qâp ‫ ﻗﺎپ‬dish
  tain; ~a ‫ﺒﻪزﻩ‬T‫ ﻗﻪ‬waterfall                       qâpelk ‫ ﻗﺎﭘ²ﻠﮏ‬shell, hollow shell
qalishîn ‫ ﻗﻪﻟﺸﲔ‬v.i. to split, crack                qâpî ‫ﯽ‬Š‫ ﻗﺎﭘ‬door, gate
qalisht ‫ ﻗﻪﻟﺸﺖ‬crack, split                         qâqaz ‫ ﻗﺎﻗﻪز‬paper
qanâra ‫ ﻗﻪ‡رﻩ‬gallows                               qâramân ‫ ﻗﺎرﻩﻣﺎن‬hero; ~î ‫ ﻗﺎرﻩﻣﺎﱏ‬heroism
qandin ‫ :ﻗــــﻪﻧــــﺪن‬hał-~ v.t. to uproot, dig    qârch ‫ ﻗـﺎرچ‬mushroom; ~ik ‫ ﻗـﺎر¸ـﮏ‬mush-
  up, get out                                        room
qandrân ‫ ﻗ ـﻪﻧ ـﺪران‬qandre- ‫ :ﻗ ـﻪﻧ ـﺪرێ‬hał-~      qârpoz ‫ ﻗﺎرﭘﯚز‬saddlehorn
  v.p. to be uprooted, dug up                      qârpuz ‫ ﻗﺎرﭘﻮز‬melon; lampshade
qara ‫ ﻗـــﻪرﻩ‬nearness, vicinity; kho nadân         qât ‫ ﻗـﺎت‬time: hazâr ~ jwântir a thousand
  la ~ i … not to get anywhere near                  times more beautiful
qarabâłikh ‫ﺦ‬T¶‫ = ﻗﻪرﻩ‬qalabâligh                    qâw1 ‫ ﻗـــــــــــــﺎو‬rumor; ~ dâ-khistin v.t. to
qarâkh ‫ ﻗﻪراخ‬edge, outskirts                         spread a rumor
qasâb ‫ ﻗﻪﺳﺎب‬butcher                                qâw2 ‫ ﻗﺎو‬dish, plate, container
qast ‫ ﻗﻪﺳﺖ‬intention; la ~ intentionally            qâwa ‫ ﻗﺎوﻩ‬coffee
qat ‫ ﻗﻪت‬absolutely                                 qâwirma ‫ ﻗـــــــﺎورﻣـــــــﻪ‬meat fried in small
qatl ‫ ﻗﻪﺗﻞ‬murder                                     pieces
qawân ‫ ﻗـــــــــــــﻪوان‬phonograph record; ~-     qâyil-bûn ba ‫ ﻗﺎﯾﻞ ﺑﻮون ﺑﻪ‬v.i. to agree to
  khwendinà gwe i … v.t. to harp on                qâyim ‫ : ﻗﺎﱘ‬ba ~ quick, fast, hard
  the same theme to, to keep repeating             qâzân ‫ ﻗـﺎزان‬pot, cauldron; ~asar ‫ﻗـﺎزاﻧـﻪﺳـﻪر‬
  into s.o.’s ear                                    bogey man
qawîl ‫ ﻗﻪوﯾﻞ‬accepted, acceptable                   qâzânj ‫ ﻗـﺎزاﱋ‬profit; ~-kirdin v.t. to make
qawmân ‫ ﻗ ـﻪوﻣ ـﺎن‬qawme- ‰‫ ﻗ ـﻪوﻣ ـ‬v.i. la to        a profit
  have something wrong or bad happen               qâzî ‫ ﻗﺎزی‬cadi, Islamic judge
  to: wak ley naqawmâbe wâ bû it was               qez ‫ ــﺰ‬revulsion: ba ~ u bezawa with re-
                                                         Œ‫ﻗ‬
  as though nothing bad had happened                 pugnance
  to him                                           qiłâycha ‫:ﻪ‬Ë‫ ﻗ‬small fortress, castle
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                                    SORANI KURDISH
                  ‫ـــ‬             ‫ــ‬
qiłîshân ‫›ﺸـﺎن‬k‫ ﻗ‬qiłîsh- ‫›ـﺶ‬k‫ ﻗ‬v.i. to split;      qoř ‫ ﻗﯚڕ‬nonsense
  dâ-~ to split from top to bottom                 qořa ‫ ﻗﯚڕﻩ‬rumble, rumbling sound
qiłîshândin ‫›ﺸـﺎﻧـﺪن‬k‫ ﻗ‬qiłîshen- ‫ ـــ ــﻦ‬v.t.
                        ‫ـــ‬              Œ‫›ﺸ‬k‫ﻗ‬     qoztin ‫ـﻦ‬Ž‫ ﻗـﯚز‬qoz- ‫ ﻗـﯚز‬v.t.; ~awa to snatch
  to split, be split; dâ-~ to be split from          out of the air: topaká’m hałdâ, la ha-
  top to bottom                                      wâ qoztîawa I threw the ball up and
qilyân ‫ ﻗـــﻠـــﻴـــﺎن‬waterpipe, long-stemmed        he caught it in mid air
  smoking pipe                                             ‫ـ‬
                                                   qsa ‫ ﻗﺴـﻪ‬words, speech, story; ~-pe-birîn
qing ‫ﮓ‬ž‫ ﻗ‬buttocks                                    v.t. to interrupt: ba tundî qsaká’m pe
qinj ‫ﺞ‬ž‫ ﻗ‬upright, upturned                           biřî u gutim I quickly interrupted him
qinyât ‫ﻴﺎت‬ž‫ ﻗ‬patience                                and said; ~-kirdin v.t. to speak, to tell
qircha ‫ ﻗ ـﺮ¸ ـﻪ‬sound of cracking, splinter-         a story
  ing; ~-kirdin v.t. to splinter                   qtâw = qutâb
qirchân ‫ ﻗ ـﺮ¸ ـﺎن‬v.i. to melt (fat over fire);     qubûł ‫ = ﻗﻮﺑﻮوڵ‬qabûl
  ~-awa to sting, hurt; hał-~ to be                qula v‫ ﻗﻮ‬mountain peak
  heated over fire, sizzle, shrivel up              qułang ‫ﮓ‬s‫ﻪ‬T‫ ﻗﻮ‬crane (zoo.)
qirchândin ‫ ﻗـﺮ¸ـﺎﻧـﺪن‬qirchen- ‫ ﻗـﺮ ــﻦ‬v.t. to
                                       Œ¸          qułâkh ‫خ‬Ÿ‫ ﻗـﻮ‬sensitive (of the ear); gwe~
  heat fat, grease; to make something                bûnawa v.i. to listen attentively
  shrivel up over heat; ~-awa to cau-              qułf ‫ﻒ‬T‫ ﻗﻮ‬lock; ~-kirdin v.t. to lock
  terize                                           qum ‫ ﻗـﻮم‬draught, drink: ~e âw a drink of
qirîwa ‫ ﻗﺮﯾﻮﻩ‬a shout for joy                         water
qirtaqirt ‫ ﻗﺮﺗﻪﻗﺮت‬peep, chirp                      quř ‫ ﻗـﻮڕ‬mud; ba ~ girtin v.t. to seal with
                                     ‫ﺗ‬
qirtândin ‫ﻧـﺪن‬c‫ ﻗـﺮ‬qirten- ‫ـﻦ‬Œ‫ ﻗـﺮـ‬v.t. to cut       mud: mâlit ba quř gîre “may your
  (with scissors), to tear with the teeth;           house be mudded up,” damn you
  to crack (seeds with the teeth)                  qurbân ‫ ﻗـــﻮر¶ن‬sacrifice; (vocative) qúr-
qirzhâng ‫ﮓ‬s‫ ﻗﺮژا‬crab                                 bân sir, sire; ~î-kirdin labar pe i
qisht ‫ ﻗﺸﺖ‬cute                                       …dâ v.t. to sacrifice for the sake of
qit-kirdin ‫ﺮدن‬B ‫ ﻗﺖ‬v.t. to eliminate               qurchândin ‫ ﻗـﻮر¸ـﺎﻧـﺪن‬qurchen- ‫ ﻗـﻮر ــﻦ‬v.t.
                                                                                          Œ¸
qizh ‫ ﻗﮋ‬hair (on the head)                           to swallow; dâ-~ to swallow, gulp
            ‫ــ‬
qîbla ƒ‫ ﻗ;ﺒـ‬the kiblah, the direction of Is-         down
  lamic prayer                                     qurg ‫ ﻗﻮرگ‬throat
qîn ‫ ﻗﲔ‬spite                                       qurosh ‫ ﻗﻮرۆش‬piastre
qîr ‫ ﻗــــــــﲑ‬tar, pitch; ~rezhî-kirdin v.t. to   quřqushim ‫ ﻗﻮڕﻗﻮﴌ‬lead (metal)
  cover with tar                                   qurs ‫ ﻗﻮرس‬heavy, weighty
qît ‫ ﻗـ;ـﺖ‬erect, in order; kho ~-kirdin v.t.       qursh ‫ ﻗﻮرش‬footstool of a throne
  to put oneself in order, straighten one-         qurwâq ‫ ﻗﻮرواق‬frog
  self up; ~ u zît ‫ ﻗـــ;ـــﺖوزﯾـــﺖ‬stylish; ~ u   qut ‫ ﻗﻮت‬short, brief
  qoz ‫ ﻗ;ﺖوﻗﯚز‬tall and elegant                     qutâb ‫ب‬c‫ ﻗـــــــﻮ‬book; ~î ‫ﰉ‬c‫ ﻗـــــــﻮ‬student;
qîzh Ã‫ ﻗـــ‬cry, scream; ~ândin ‫اﻧـــﺪن‬Ã‫ ﻗـــ‬qî-      ~khâna ‫ﲞﺎﻧﻪ‬c‫ ﻗﻮ‬school
  zhen- ‫¤ﻦ‬Ã‫ ﻗ‬v.t. to scream                        qutân ‫ن‬c‫ ﻗـﻮ‬qute- ì‫ ﻗـﻮ‬v.t. to beat, strike,
qol ‫ ﻗــــﯚل‬arm, sleeve; ~ hał-mâlân v.t. to         hit
  roll up one’s sleeves, get to work in            qutîla ƒ‫ ﻗﻮﺗﻴ‬small box; small lamp
  earnest                                          qûchândin ‫ ﻗ ـﻮو¸ ـﺎﻧ ـﺪن‬qûchen- ‫ ـﻦ‬Œ‫= ﻗ ـﻮو¸ ـ‬
qonâgh ‫ = ﻗﯚ‡غ‬qonâkh                                 qûjândin
qonâkh ‫ ﻗـــــﯚ‡خ‬lodging, place to stay the        qûjândin ‫ ﻗـﻮو•ـﺎﻧـﺪن‬qûjen- ‫ـﻦ‬Œ‫ ﻗـﻮو•ـ‬v.t. to
  night; historical event                            close together (eyes, fingers)
                                               218
                          SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
qûł ‫ ﻗــــﻮوڵ‬deep; ~âî ‫ﰃ‬Ÿ‫ ﻗــــﻮو‬depth: la ~ i          rat-dânawa ‫ رﻩت داﻧﻪوﻩ‬v.t. to rouse
  dilawa kâr’î kirdûa he labored from                   rawand ‫ رﻩوﻩﻧﺪ‬nomad
  the bottom of his heart; ~î ‫ﯽ‬T‫ ﻗﻮو‬depth               rawâ-dîtin ‫ رﻩوا دﯾﱳ‬v.t. to allow
qûłîna ‫ﻴﻨﻪ‬T‫ ﻗﻮو‬fruit basket                             rawg ‫ رﻩوگ‬herd: ~ a asp herd of horses
qûn ‫ ﻗـﻮون‬anus, butt; ~ i qalam ‫م‬v‫ﻗـﻮوﱏ ﻗـﻪ‬             rawisht ‫ رﻩوﺷﺖ‬manner
  stub of a pencil                                      rawîn ‫ﻦ‬a‫ رﻩو‬v.i. to shy, run away
Qûstantaniya ‫ ﻗ ـﻮوﺳ ـ8 ـﺘ ـﻪﻧ ـﺘ ـﻪﻧ ـﻴ ـﻪ‬Constanti-   razâ ‫ رﻩزا‬face, mien, aspect; ~girân dul-
  nople                                                   lard
                                                        razâmandî ‫ رﻩزاﻣـﻪﻧـﺪی‬agreement, accept-
rachałak ‫ــﻪک‬T‫ رﻩ¸ــﻪ‬root; ~-birînawa v.t.                ance
  to uproot, eradicate                                  razbar ‫ رﻩزﺑــــــﻪر‬the month of Libra (Sep-
rachâw ‫ رﻩ¸ــــﺎو‬observation; ~-kirdin v.t.               tember 23–October 22)
  to observe                                            razîl ‫ رﻩزﯾــــــﻞ‬stingy, tightfisted; ~î stingi-
rafîq ‫ رﻩﻓ;ﻖ‬friend, comrade                               ness
rag ‫ رﻩگ‬vein, root                                      râ ‫ را‬view, opinion
ragaz ‫ رﻩﮔـﻪز‬origin, race; ~âyatî ‫زﻩﮔـﻪزاﯾـﻪﰏ‬           râ- ‫ را‬cmpd. vb. agent; see under the ver-
  racism                                                  bal element: râ-bwârdin, râ-girtin, râ-
rahanda ‫ رﻩﻫﻪﻧﺪﻩ‬wanderer, nomad                           hâtin, râ-henân, râ-keshân, râ-wastân
rakhsân ‫ رﻩﺧ ـﺴ ـﺎن‬rakhse- ‰‫ رﻩﺧ ـﺴ ـ‬v.i. to            râ-bûn ‫ راﺑـﻮون‬to be awakened, roused; la
  come into existence                                     khaw ~ to be roused from sleep
                      ‫ـ‬
rakhsândin ‫ رﻩﺧﺴـﺎﻧـﺪن‬rakhsen- ‫ـﻦ‬Œ‫رﻩﺧﺴ‬ ‫ـ ـ‬              râbirdû ‫ را–ـــﺮدوو‬last, past: rozh i shamma
  v.t. to bring about accidentally                        i ~ last Saturday; la chand sada i ~’dâ
rama ‫ رﻩﻣـــــﻪ‬herd; ~kî common, ordinary                 over the last several centuries
  (people), of the common herd                          râburdû ‫ = راﺑﻮردوو‬râbirdû
rang1 ‫ـــــــﮓ‬s‫ رﻩ‬color; ~-dân da/la to hap-            râ-chanîn, la khaw ‫ـﻪو را¸ـﻪﻧـﲔ‬L v to wake
  pen to; ~-dânawa to bleed (as color                     from sleep with a start
  onto a fabric); ~dânawa i … bûn v.i.                  râchâw-kirdin ‫ـــﺮدن‬B ‫ را¸ـــﺎو‬v.t. to choose,
  to be in accordance with; ~-hałbizir-                   select, elect
  kân v.i. to lose color, go pale; ~hałbi-              râda ‫ رادﻩ‬degree, extent: tâ ~yèk to an
  zirkâw ‫ـﱫرﰷو‬T‫ـﮓﻫـﻪ‬s‫ رﻩ‬pale, “white as a                 extent; tâ chi ~yèk to what extent?
  sheet” (with fright); ~în ‫ﮕﲔ‬s‫ رﻩ‬colorful              râgayândin ‫ﻧﺪن‬p‫ﮔﻪ‬ä‫ ر‬communications
rang2 ‫ ـﮓ‬s‫ رﻩ‬possible; ~ a ka ‫ ـﮕ ـﻪ ﮐ ـﻪ‬s‫+( رﻩ‬         râhat ‫ راﻫﻪت‬comfortable
  subj.) it’s possible that                             râhî ‫ راﻫﯽ‬solution; salvation
ranj ‫ رﻩﱋ‬pain, suffering; ~-dân to take                 râ-kirdin ‫ﺮدن‬Bä‫ ر‬v.t. to run
  pains; to go to trouble; to suffer                    râmyâr ‫ راﻣــــــــ;ــــــــﺎر‬shepherd, herdsman;
raq ‫ رﻩق‬stiff; ~ hał-hâtin v.i. to be                     statesman, politician
  frozen stiff; ~-kirdin v.t. to freeze; ~-             rân1 ‫ ران‬herd
  u-hîshk i sar ‫ رﻩقوﻫ›ﺸﮑﯽ ﺳﻪر‬madness                   rân2 ‫ ران‬leg, thigh
raqan ‫ رﻩﻗﻪن‬hard, stoney ground                         rândin ‫ راﻧــــــﺪن‬ren- ‫ ر¤ــــــﻦ‬v.t. to drive; to
rasan ‫ رﻩﺳﻪن‬pure, pure-blooded                            throw (stones)
rash ‫ رﻩش‬black; ~abâ ¶‫ رﻩﺷـــﻪ‬dust storm;               râspârda ‫ راﺳ8ﭙﺎردﻩ‬errand, charge
  ~mâl ‫ رﻩﺷــــﲈڵ‬black tent, nomadic tent;              râsperî ‫ﺮی‬Œ‫ راﺳ8ﭙ‬charge, commission
  ~posh ‫ رﻩﺷ8ﭙﯚش‬clad in black                           râst ‫ راﺳـﺖ‬right, correct, true; ~-bûnawa
rashama ‫ رﻩﺷـــــﻪﻣـــــﻪ‬the month of Pisces              to get up; ~-bûnawa la to loom over;
  (February 20– March 20)                                                ‫ــ ـ ـ‬
                                                          ~aqîna ‫ راﺳ8ﺘـﻪﻗ;ﻨـﻪ‬truth: ~y bo darkawt
                                                    219
                                     SORANI KURDISH
  the truth dawned on him; ~awkho                    rebwâr ‫ـﺒﻮار‬l‫ ر‬wayfarer
                8
  ‫ راﺳــــــﺘـــﻪوﺧـــﯚ‬straight, direct: ~ biro go   rechâł ‫ﺎڵ‬Âl‫ ,ر‬rechâr ‫ﺎر‬Âl‫ ر‬marmalade
  straight ahead; ba ~î ‫ ﺑ ـﻪراﺳ ـ8 ـﱴ‬actually,                    ‫ــ‬
                                                     rechka ‫ﭽﮑـﻪ‬l‫ ر‬path of a swarm of insects;
  really, frankly; dast i ~ right hand; ~î              ~-bastin v.t. to swarm (of insects); ~
  ‫ راﺳ8ﱴ‬truth                                           hał-kirdin v.t. to send out a swarm
râtib ‫ راﺗـــــــــﺐ‬salary, stipend: ~ dadre ba      rega ‫ ر¤ـﮕـﻪ‬road, way; la ~ i…awa via; ~-
  darskhwen u kârkar i dawlat stipends                  girtin ba v.t. to stop, make halt: pâsa-
  are given to students and government                  wân rega’yân pe girt the guards
  workers                                               stopped him; ~-kutân v.t. to travel;
râtu(a) ‫ راﺗﻮ‬theological student’s stipend           regâ ‫ ر¤ﮕﺎ‬road; ~ i âsin railroad;
râva-kirdin ‫ﺮدن‬B ‫ راوﻩ‬v.t. to explain                regir ‫ ر¤ﮕﺮ‬highway robber, bandit
râw ‫ راو‬prey, hunt; ~-kirdin v.t. to hunt;           rek ‫ ر¤ــــﮏ‬smooth, organized, correct; ~-
  ~-nân v.t. to hunt down, track down:                  kawtin v.i. to go well, to be smoothly;
  polîs râwî nây the police tracked you                 ~-kawtin lagał v.i. to arrange with; ~-
  down; ~ařewî-henân bo ‫ـﻮی ـــﺎن‬l‫راوﻩڕ‬
                                      ‫ﻫ²ﻨ‬               khistin v.t. to rub together; to organ-
  ‫ ﺑـﯚ‬v.t. to foxhunt; to sidetrack; ~ashaw             ize; to make up; to make a truce; ~-
  ‫ راوﻩﺷـــﻪو‬night hunt; ~chî ‫ راوﭼـــﯽ‬hunter,          kirdin v.t. to smooth, arrange; ~kew-
  out hunting; ~kar ‫ راوﮐــــﻪر‬hunter; ~- u-            tin arrangement, agreement; ~-u-pek
  shikâr ‫ راووﺷﲀر‬hunting                                ‫ ر¤ﮏوﭘ²ﮏ‬arranged, in order
râwezh ‫ راو¤ـﮋ‬speaking (lagał with), man-            rekawt ‫ ر¤ــــﮑــــﻪوت‬chance, accident: ba ~
  ner of speaking                                       by chance, by accident
rây ‫ رای‬idea, plan                                   renwen ‫ـــﻨـــﻮ¤ـــﻦ‬l‫ ر‬leader; ~î-kirdin v.t. to
râyakh ‫ راﯾﻪخ‬rug                                        lead
râz ‫ راز‬conversation; story                          reřaw ‫ﻩو‬g‫ ر¤ـــــــــ‬crossroads; chance: ba ~
râz|ân ‫ رازان‬râze- ‫ رازێ‬v.i. to be embel-               tûshî bûm I met him by chance
  lished; ~ândin ‫ رازاﻧــﺪن‬râzen- ‫ راز¤ــﻦ‬v.t.       resh ‫ﺶ‬â‫ ر‬wound, wounded
  to embellish; ~ândinawa ‫ رازاﻧـــﺪﻧـــﻪوﻩ‬to        reushwen ‫ رێ و ﺷﻮ¤ﻦ‬way
  adorn, embellish                                   rewân ‫ﻮان‬l‫ ر‬guide
râzâwa ‫ رازاوﻩ‬embellished, decorated                 rewî ‫ﻮی‬l‫ ر‬fox
râzî ‫ رازی‬satisfied, content; lakho~                  rez1 ‫ = ر¤ﺰ‬rîz
  ‫ﺧﯚڕازی‬v self-satisfied                              rez2 ‫ ر¤ــــﺰ‬respect; ~-girtin la v.t. to show
re ‫ رێ‬way, road; ~-dân v.t. to admit,                   respect for; ~legîrâw ‫ ر¤ــــﺰﻟــــ²ــــﮕــــﲑاو‬re-
  allow in; ~-girtin v.t. to commit high-               spected; ba~ ‫ ﺑﻪر¤ﺰ‬respected, eminent
  way robbery; ~-kawtin la to chance                 rez-3 ‫ ر¤ﺰ‬pres. stem of ristin
  upon: ~m l’ aw jegâyá kawt I chanced               reza ‫ ر¤ـــــﺰﻩ‬bit, little bit; la ~ i ...dâ equal
  upon that place; ~ te-chûn to be pos-                 to: kichim la reza i kuř i aw’dâya my
  sible; ba ~ kirdin v.t. to escort out/                daughter is equal to his son
  away; ba ~wa birdin v.t. to lead,                  rezh- ‫ ر¤ﮋ‬pres. stem of rishtin
  manage, administer; ba ~wa kawtin                  rezmân ‫ ر¤ـﺰﻣـﺎن‬grammar; ~î ‫ ر¤ـﺰﻣـﺎﱏ‬gram-
  to get under way, hit the road; birdi-                matical
  nà ba ~wa to carry out, execute; la ~ i            ridenspî ‫ﯽ‬Š‫ﺴ8ﭙ‬Àl‫ رد‬elder
  ‫ﻰ‬Šl‫ ر‬v by way of, through, via                     rif ‫ رف‬shelf
rebandân ‫ ر ــﻪﻧـﺪان‬the month of Aquarius
                      ‫ﺒ‬l                             rifḥa ‫ = رﲿﻪ‬rif
  (January 21– February 19)                          rikef ‫ رﮐ²ﻒ‬stirrup
rebar ‫ـﺒﻪر‬l‫ ر‬leader, guide                           rim ‫ رم‬spear
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                         SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
rimândin ‫ رﻣــــﺎﻧــــﺪن‬rimen- ‫ــــﻦ‬Œ‫ رﻣــــ‬v.t. to   rîz2 ‫ــﺰ‬a‫ ر‬line, rank: rîz i lashkir i duzhmin
   destroy                                               enemy army ranks; ~-kirdin v.t. to
rinân ‫ :ر‡ن‬dâ-~ v.t. to shed (skin,                      line up, arrange
   clothes)                                           ro ‫ = رۆ‬rozh
             ‫ﻧ‬
rinîn ‫ رـــــﲔ‬v.t. to scratch with the finger-         rochin ‫ رۆﭼــــــﻦ‬window, skylight: ~akán
   nails; ~-awa ditto; qizh-~awa to pull                 bikaynawa let’s open the windows
   the hair out                                       roła ‫ﻪ‬T‫ رۆ‬child
riq ‫ رق‬spite, spitefulness; ~abar ‫رﻗــــﻪﺑــــﻪر‬      român ‫ رۆﻣﺎن‬story
   spiteful rival; ~abarâyatî ‫رﻗـــﻪﺑـــﻪراﯾـــﻪﰏ‬     ron ‫ رۆن‬oil, grease, fat
   spiteful rivalry                                   roshin ‫ رۆﺷـﻦ‬bright; ~bîr ‫ـﲑ‬Ò‫ رۆﺷـ8ـﻨـ‬intel-
rishqanjâr ‫ رﺷﻘﻪﳒﺎر‬butt of a joke                        lectual, enlightened; ~-kirdin v.t. to
rishtin ‫ رﺷـﱳ‬rezh- ‫ ر¤ـﮋ‬v.t. to pour; ~awa               light, turn on, start (machines)
   ‫ـﻪوﻩ‬ž‫ـ‬n‫ رﺷـ‬to pour, cast (metal), to stir up                            8
                                                      Rostam ‫ رۆﺳــــﺘــﻪم‬Rustam, the legendary
   trouble; dâ-~ = dâ-rizhândin; hał-~                   champion of Iran
   to shed (tears)                                    royshtin ‫ رۆ§ــﺸــﱳ‬ro- ‫ رۆ‬v.i. to go (away,
rist ‫ رﺳﺖ‬line, dog collar                                off), leave
rista ‫ رﺳ8ﺘﻪ‬noodle; sentence                          rozh ‫ رۆژ‬day; ~âna ‫ رۆژاﻧ ـﻪ‬daily; ~(h)alât
ristin ‫ رﺳﱳ‬rez- ‫ ر¤ﺰ‬v.t. to spin (thread)                ‫ت‬Ÿ‫ رۆژﻫـــﻪ‬east, orient, dawn: rozhałât i
riwân ‫ روان‬v.i. to be green (of a field)                  nâwrâst the Middle East; ~hałâtnâs
riwâłat ‫ﻪت‬T‫ روا‬mien                                      ‫ﺗـــــﻨـــــﺎس‬Ÿ‫ روژﻫـــــﻪ‬orientalist; ~âwâ ‫رۆژاوا‬
rizân ‫ رزان‬v.i. to rot; dâ-~ to be over-                 west; ~èkyân ‫ رۆژ¤ ـﮑ ـ; ـﺎن‬one day; ~nâ-
   cooked; to rot and fall to pieces                     ma ‫ رۆژ‡ﻣـــــــــــﻪ‬newspaper; ~nâmanûs
rizândin ‫ رزاﻧــﺪن‬rizen- ‫ رز¤ــﻦ‬v.t. to make/            ‫ رۆژ‡ﻣﻪﻧﻮوس‬journalist
   let rot                                            rozhgâr ‫ رۆژﮔــــــــــــــﺎر‬days, time: la ~ân i
rizgâr ‫ رزﮔـﺎر‬saved, rescued; ~-bûn v.i. to              kon’dâ in olden times; fate
   be saved, to escape: rizgâryân bû they             rozhû ‫ رۆژوو‬fasting; ~-girtin to fast
   were saved, they escaped; ~-kirdin                 rukhân ‫ـــــــــﺎن‬L‫ رو‬rukhe- ‰‫ روﺧـــــــــ‬v.i. to
   v.t. to rescue, to save: tanyâ to dat-                collapse
   wânî l’ am balâyá rizgârmân bikay                  rukhândin ‫ـﺎﻧـﺪن‬L‫ رو‬rukhen- ‫ـﻦ‬ŒL‫ رو‬v.t. to ‫ـ‬
   only you can save us from this catas-                 destroy, pull down
   trophe; ~î salvation, liberation, res-             rukhsat ‫ روﺧ ـﺴ ـﻪت‬permission; ~-dân v.t.
   cue; ~îkhwâz ‫ رزﮔــــﺎرﳜــــﻮاز‬liberationist;         to give permission; ~-khwâstin la v.t.
   ~kar ‫ رزﮔﺎرﮐﻪر‬rescuer, savior                         to request permission of
rizhân ‫ رژان‬v.i. to pour out, be poured               rukhsâr ‫ روﺧﺴﺎر‬face
   out; dâ-~ to pour down, fall down                  runâk ‫ = رو‡ک‬rûnâk
rizhândin ‫ رژاﻧـﺪن‬rizhen- ‫ رژ¤ـﻦ‬v.t. to pour          ruwâłat ‫ــــﻪت‬T‫ روا‬obviousness; hypocrisy;
   out; dâ-~ to pour, mold; lay (founda-                 ba ~ obviously
   tion)                                              rû ‫ روو‬face, aspect, mien; ~-dân v.t. to
rizhdî ‫ رژدی‬miserliness, stinginess                      happen, occur; ~-dân ba yek v.t. to
rizhtin ‫ﻦ‬Ž‫ = رژ‬rishtin                                   frown; ~-kirdin rwaw v.t. to face,
rîkordar ‫ﮑﯚردﻩر‬a‫ ر‬tape recorder                          turn toward; ~-kirdinà … to face,
rîqna ‫ﻪ‬ž‫ رﯾﻘ‬bird droppings                               head for (s.o., s.th.); ~ ba ~ i face to
rîsh ‫ ر§ﺶ‬beard; ~-tâshîn v.t. to shave                   face with, opposite; ~ i dam kirdinà
rîsha ‫ ر§ﺸﻪ‬root                                          … v.t. to turn to face …; ba ~ kho’dâ
rîz1 ‫ﺰ‬a‫ ر‬small, tiny                                     henân to reveal; khistinà ~ v.t. to
                                                  221
                                   SORANI KURDISH
  bring to light, to reveal; l’ am ~áwa v         sagasaga-kirdin ‫ــﺮدن‬B ‫ ﺳــﻪﮔــﻪﺳــﻪﮔــﻪ‬v.t. to
  ‫ مرووﻩوﻩ‬in this respect                           play ’possum
rûbâr ‫ روو¶ر‬river                                 saghlat ‫ت‬ƒ‫ ﺳــﻪ™ــ‬confused, perplexed; ~î
rûdiřâw ‫ روودڕاو‬event                               ‫ﰏ‬ƒ™‫ ﺳﻪ‬confusion
rûdâw ‫ رووداو‬event, incident                      saḥrâ ‫ ﺳﻪﺣﺮا‬field
rûgirzh ‫ رووﮔﺮژ‬frowning                           sakht ‫ ﺳﻪﺧﺖ‬hard, difficult
rûkândin ‫ رووﰷﻧـــﺪن‬rûken- ‫ـــﻦ‬Œ‫ رووﮐـــ‬v.t. to   sako ‫ ﺳﻪﮐﯚ‬bench
  scratch                                                   ‫ـ‬
                                                  sakta ‫ ﺳـﻪﮐﺘـﻪ‬heart attack; ~-kirdin v.t. to
rûkâr ‫ رووﰷر‬cover                                   have a heart attack
rûkhosh ‫ رووﺧـــــﯚش‬cheerful; ~î cheerful-        sałâ Ÿ‫ ﺳـــــﻪ‬resurrection; ro i ~ Ÿ‫رۆى ﺳـــــﻪ‬
  ness                                              doomsday
rûmat ‫ رووﻣﻪت‬cheek                                salâmat ‫ ﺳـــﻪﻻﻣـــﻪت‬healthy; ~î health; ba
rûn ‫ روون‬bright, clear; ~-kirdin v.t. to            ~î in good health
  explain                                         sałmândin ‫ـﲈﻧـﺪن‬T‫ ﺳـﻪ‬sałmen- ‫ ﺳـﻪ ـ ــﻦ‬v.t. to
                                                                                       Œ‫ﻤ‬T
rûnâk ‫ روو‡ک‬bright; ~bîr ‫ـــﺒـــﲑ‬B‡‫ روو‬intel-       prove, to accept
  lectual; ~î ‫ روو‡ﰽ‬brightness                                           ‫ــ‬
                                                  sałmenrân ‫ﻤ²ـﲊان‬T‫ ﺳـﻪ‬sałmenre- ‫ﻤ²ـﲊێ‬T‫ﺳـﻪ‬      ‫ــ‬
rûpař ‫ رووﭘﻪڕ‬page                                   v.p. to be proven
rûshân ‫ رووﺷـــﺎن‬v.i. to be scratched; ~din       sałp ‫ـﭗ‬T‫ ﺳـﻪ‬oar; ~ândin ‫ـﭙـﺎﻧـﺪن‬T‫ ﺳـﻪ‬salpen-
  ‫ رووﺷﺎﻧﺪن‬rûshen- ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ رووﺷ‬v.t. to scratch           ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ﭙ‬T‫ ﺳﻪ‬v.t. to row
rût ‫ رووت‬naked; ~al ‫ رووﺗـــــــﻪل‬naked; ~alî     sałt ‫ــــﺖ‬T‫ ﺳــــﻪ‬single, unmarried; ~azalâm
  ‫ رووﺗﻪﱃ‬nakedness                                  ‫ﺘﻪزﻩﻻم‬T‫ ﺳﻪ‬a solitary traveler on foot
rûtâł ‫ڵ‬c‫ روو‬frowning, with a sour                 samar ‫ ﺳﻪﻣﻪر‬fruit
  expression                                      samara ‫ ﺳــﻪﻣــﻪرﻩ‬amazing: shitèk i sayr u
rûtan ‫ رووﺗﻪن‬wasteland, desert                      ~ya it’s something amazing; toil
rwaw ‫ روﻩو‬toward                                  samâ ‫ ﺳﻪﻣﺎ‬dance; ~-kirdin v.t. to dance
rwân ‫ روان‬rwe- ‫ روێ‬v.i. to grow, sprout:          samâs ‫ ﺳﻪﻣﺎس‬patient, calm
  tokaî chândim rwâ the seed I planted            samâwar ‫ ﺳﻪﻣﺎوﻩر‬samovar
  sprouted; ~ga ‫ ـﮕ ـﻪ‬s‫ روا‬standpoint, view-      sandin ‫ ﺳ ـﻪﻧ ـﺪن‬sen- ‫ ـﻦ‬Œ‫ ﺳ ـ‬v.t. to take, take
  point                                             hold of, get, buy
rwânîn ‫ رواﻧــــــﲔ‬v.t. to look; ~à ... to look   sangân ‫ـــﮕـــﺎن‬s‫ ﺳـــﻪ‬sange- ‰‫ـــﮕـــ‬s‫ ﺳـــﻪ‬v.i. to
  at: rwânîyânà min they looked at me;                                       ‫ـ‬
                                                    weigh; ~din ‫ﮕـﺎﻧـﺪن‬s‫ ﺳـﻪ‬sangen- ‫ـﻦ‬Œ‫ﮕ‬s‫ﺳـﻪ‬   ‫ــ‬
  hał-~ ba to look something over from              v.t. to weigh, evalute; hał-~din to
  top to bottom, to give s.o. the “once-            evaluate, assess
  over”                                           sangîn ‫ﮕﲔ‬s‫ ﺳﻪ‬heavy
                                                  sannalî ‫ ﺳﻪﻧﻨﻪﱃ‬chair
sa ‫ = ﺳﻪ‬sag                                       sapân ‫ ﺳـــﻪﭘـــﺎن‬v.i. to be imposed, forced;
sa‘ât ‫ ﺳـﻪ`ـﺎت‬hour, clock, o’clock: la ~ (i)        ~din ‫ ﺳـﻪﭘـﺎﻧـﺪن‬sapen- ‫ـﻦ‬Œ‫ ﺳـﻪﭘـ‬v.t. to im-
  chwâr-dâ at four o’clock                          pose
sabârat ba ‫ ﺳـﻪ¶رﻩت ﺑـﻪ‬concerning, about,         saqat ‫ ﺳ ـﻪﻗ ـﻪت‬dangerous: pyâwèk i saqat
  in terms of                                       a— nâwerim bichimà lây he’s a dan-
sabîl ‫ ﺳﻪﺑﻴﻞ‬tobacco pipe                            gerous man—I don’t dare go near him
sad ‫ ﺳﻪد‬hundred; ~a century                       Saqiz ‫ ﻗــــــﻪﻗــــــﺰ‬Saqqez, a town in Iranian
safar ‫ ﺳﻪﻓﻪر‬trip; ~-kirdin v.t. to travel           Kurdistan
sag ‫ ﺳــــــﻪگ‬dog; ~ i pe-sûtâw wandering         saqâ ‫ ﺳﻪﻗﺎ‬watercarrier, waterseller
  aimlessly                                       sar ‫ ﺳـﻪر‬head (verbal expressions involv-
                                              222
                   SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
ing sar are given below; for all other       shâr it has come to my mind to go to
compounds, see alphabetically): ~ âw         town
chûnawa v.i. to go to the bathroom; ~      sarabahâr ‫ ﺳﻪرﻩﺑﻪﻫﺎر‬beginning of spring
bilind-kirdinawa v.t. to rebel; ~ dâ-      sarak ‫ ﺳــــــــــــﻪرﻩک‬head, chief, president:
nwândin ba to bow the head to; la ~          sarak wazîrân prime minister; ~î
dân v.t. to decapitate; ~ dar-henân          ‫ ﺳﻪرﻩﰽ‬main, chief
v.t. to appear: gyâ sar’î darhenâwa        sar’anjâm ‫ ﺳﻪرﺋﻪﳒﺎم‬in the end, finally
the plants have appeared; to stick the     sarařâ i ‫ ﺳﻪرﻩڕای‬in addition to
head out: sar’î la panjara darhenâ         sarařo ‫ ﺳﻪرﻩڕۆ‬headstrong
she stuck her head out of the window;      saratâ c‫ ﺳﻪرﻩ‬beginning
~ kho hâtin v.i. to recover; ~ la far-     sarawa ‫ ﺳﻪرﻩوﻩ‬upward
mân i … hał-pechân to disobey; ~ la        sarawgird ‫ ﺳﻪرﻩوﮔﺮد‬guardian (of a child)
re dân v.t. to disappoint: sar’mân la      sarawkhwâr ‫ ﺳﻪرﻩوﺧﻮار‬headed down
re’t dâya you’ve disappointed us; ~-       sarawzher ‫ ﺳﻪرﻩوژ¤ﺮ‬headed down
birdin v.t. to spend (time); ~ cha-        sarawzhûr ‫ ﺳﻪرﻩوژوور‬headed up
mândin v.t. to lower the head, to give     sarâ ‫ ﺳﻪرا‬government building
up, submit; ~-dar-chûn la v.i. to          sarâpâ ‫ ﺳـــــﻪراﭘـــــﺎ‬from head to foot, com-
understand: sarim le darnâche I don’t        pletely
understand; ~-dâ-nawândin v.t. to          sarâw ‫ ﺳﻪراو‬spring
lower the head; ~-dân la v.t. to visit,    sarbadarawa ‫ ﺳــــﻪرﺑــــﻪدﻩرﻩوﻩ‬well-known,
go to see; ~-gum-kirdin v.t. to get          famous
excited; ~-hał-girtin v.t. to break the    sarbakho ‫ ﺳـﻪرﺑـﻪﺧـﯚ‬independent; ~î inde-
reins; ~-keshân v.t. to peek; ~ khis-        pendence
tinà ~ v.t. to tease: saryân khistà sar-   sarbaraw|zher(a) (‫ ﺳـﻪرﺑـﻪرﻩوژ¤ـﺮ)ه‬headed
mân they teased us; ~-khulânawa v.i.         down; ~zhûr(a) ‫ ﺳـــﻪرﺑـــﻪرﻩوژوورﻩ‬headed
to be dizzy; kirdinà ~… v.t. to im-          up
pose on, charge with: pâshâ dakâtà         sarbarz ‫ ﺳــــﻪرﺑــــﻪرز‬honorable, respected,
sar âshawân kichaká’y bidâtè the             with one’s head held high
king forces the miller to give him his     sarbast ‫ ﺳـــﻪرﺑـــﻪﺳـــﺖ‬free, independent; ~î
daughter; ba ~ kirdinawa v.t. to visit;      freedom, independence
~ le-shewân v.i. to be helpless, in dis-   sarbân ‫ ﺳﻪر¶ن‬roof
tress; ~-nânawa v.t. to lay one’s head     sarbâz ‫ ﺑﻪر¶ز‬soldier; ~î military
down (to sleep): dabûâya sarî be           sarbilind ‫ ﺳﻪرﺑﻠﻨﺪ‬proud
shew binetawa he would have had to         sarbiř g‫ ﺳــــــﻪر–ــــــ‬shortcut: ~ royshtim, zû
lay his head down without supper;            gayshtim I took a shortcut and got
~pechî-kirdin v.t. to be obstinate; ~-       here early
spârdin ba v.t. to rely totaly upon:       sarburd ‫ ﺳﻪرﺑﻮرد‬adventure
sar’im pe daspere she relies totally       sarbûrî ‫ ﺳﻪرﺑﻮوری‬adventure
upon me; ~-tâshîn v.t. to have a hair-     sarchâwa ‫ ﺳــــــﻪر¸ــــــﺎوﻩ‬source, spring; ~-
cut; ~udar dar-kirdin la v.t. to un-         girtin la v.t. to originate with
derstand: l’ am kârá sarudar darnâ-        sarchopî ‫ﯽ‬Š‫ ﺳـــﻪرﭼـــﯚﭘـــ‬leadership of a ring
kam I don’t understand this; ba ~            dance
hâtin v.i. to happen; birdinà ~ v.t. to    sardam ‫ ﺳـﻪردﻩم‬moment; ~è(k) ‫ﺳـﻪردﻩﻣ´ـﮏ‬     ‫ـ‬
spend (time); hâtinà ~ v.i. to think, to     all at once; ~î ‫ ﺳﻪردﻩﻣﯽ‬temporary
come to mind: hâtûtà sarim bichim bo       sardast ‫ ﺳـﻪردﻩﺳـﺖ‬sleeve; ~akî ‫ﺳـﻪردﻩﺳـــﻪﰽ‬
                                                                                    ‫8ﺘ‬
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                                  SORANI KURDISH
  standing (doing something normally             sarpot ‫ ﺳﻪرﭘﯚت‬desultory, superficial
  done seated or lying down): ~ tifang’î         sarqâp ‫ ﺳﻪرﻗﺎپ‬lid
  hâwîsht he fired the rifle standing              sarqâfilachî ‰‫ﭼ‬ƒ‫ ﺳﻪرﻗﺎﻓ‬caravan leader
sardân i ‫ ﺳﻪرداﱏ‬visit to                         sarraq ‫ ﺳﻪررﻩق‬stubborn
sardâr ‫ ﺳﻪر¶ر‬leader, chief                       sarrâ ‫ ﺳـﻪررا‬in addition; by the by; on the
saren ‫ ﺳﻪر¤ﻦ‬lifetime                               way
             ‫ـ‬                     ‫ـ‬
saresha ‫ﺸـﻪ‬â‫ ,ﺳـﻪر‬sareshân ‫ﺸـﺎن‬â‫ ﺳـﻪر‬head-       sarrishta ‫ ﺳﻪررﺷ8ﺘﻪ‬expertise
  ache                                           sarrût ‫ ﺳﻪررووت‬bareheaded, schoolchild
sargardânî ‫ ﺳﻪرﮔﻪرداﱏ‬perplexity                  sarsarî ‫ ﺳﻪرﺳﻪری‬flighty, empty-headed
sargarmkar ‫ ﺳﻪرﮔﻪرﻣﮑﻪر‬amusing                    sarsâm ‫ ﺳﻪرﺳﺎم‬perplexed, dumbfounded
sargirân ‫ ﺳﻪرﮔﺮان‬lazy, drunk                     sarshoř ‫ ﺳﻪرﺷﯚڕ‬humiliated
sargurushta ‫ ﺳﻪرﮔﻮروﺷ8ﺘﻪ‬adventure                sarsuřmân ‫ ﺳـــﻪرﺳـــﻮڕﻣـــﺎن‬amazement: ba
sarhât ‫ ﺳﻪرﻫﺎت‬event                                sarsuřmânawa gutim I said with
sarinj ‫ ﺳــــــﻪرﱋ‬scrutiny, investigation; ~-      amazement
  dân la to scrutinize, investigate close-       sartâsh ‫ش‬c‫ ﺳـــــــﻪر‬barber; ~khâna ‫ﺳـــــــﻪ‬
  ly; ~ râ-keshan v.t. to attract the at-          ‫ﺎﻧﻪ‬Ø‫ﺷ‬c‫ ر‬barbershop
  tention; ~râkesh ‫ﺶ‬Œ‫ﮐ‬ä‫ ﺳﻪرﳒﺮ‬attractive                          ‫ﺗ‬
                                                 sartop ‫ ﺳــــﻪرــــﯚپ‬unrivaled (in beauty or
sarîn ‫ﻦ‬a‫ ﺳﻪر‬pillow                                 bravery): l’ am nâwá’dâ ~a he is
sarjam ‫ ﺳ ـﻪر• ـﻪم‬collection, ensemble, al-        unrivaled in these parts
  together; ba ~ together with; ~gal ‫ﺳـــﻪ‬       sarugwelâk ‫ﻼک‬l‫ ﺳﻪروﮔﻮ‬form, shape
  ‫ ر¸ﻪﻣﮕﻪل‬community                              sarwar ‫ ﺳﻪروﻩر‬leader; ~î leadership
sarkawtû ‫ ﺳـــﻪرﮐـــﻪوﺗـــﻮو‬successful, having   saryek ‫ ﺳﻪرﯾﻪک‬altogether
  attained one’s desire, having made an          sarzawî ‫ ﺳﻪرزﻩوی‬earth, land
  achievement; ~âna ‫ ﺳـﻪرﮐـﻪوﺗـﻮواﻧـﻪ‬trium-      sarzârakî ‫ ﺳﻪرزارﻩﰽ‬all talk and no action
  phantly                                        sarzârî ‫ ﺳﻪرزاری‬talk, speech
sarkhosh ‫ ﺳﻪرﺧﯚش‬drunk                            sarzhimârî ‫ ﺳﻪرژﻣﺎری‬census
sarkird|a ‫ـﺮدﻩ‬B‫ ﺳـﻪر‬commander, leader; ~aî       sawa ‫ ﺳﻪوﻩ‬basket
  ‫ـﺮدﻩﰃ‬B‫ ﺳـﻪر‬leadership, command; ~âyatî         sawdâ ‫ ﺳــــﻪودا‬commerce, trade; love; ec-
  ‫ﺮداﯾﻪﰏ‬B‫ ﺳﻪر‬leadership                            zema; ~î ‫ ﺳـــــــﻪوداﰃ‬afflicted with ecze-
sarkomâr ‫ ﺳﻪرﮐﯚﻣﺎر‬president                        ma; violently in love
sarkona ‫ ﺳﻪرﮐﯚﻧﻪ‬reproach, rebuke                 sawr ‫ ﺳــــــــــــﻪور‬slowly: ~ qsa bika speak
sarkwer ‫ﻮ¤ﺮ‬B‫ ﺳﻪر‬stupid                             slowly
sarleshewâw ‫ﺸ8²ﻮاو‬Œ‫ ﺳﻪرﻟ‬distressed               sawz ‫ ﺳﻪۆز‬green
sarmashq ‫ ﺳ ـﻪرﻣ ـﻪﺷ ـﻖ‬lesson; hâtinà ~ to       say ‫ = ﺳﻪی‬sag
  serve as an example                            sayâra ‫رﻩ‬p‫ ﺳﻪ‬automobile
sarmâ ‫ ﺳـﻪرﻣـﺎ‬cold, coldness; ~-khwârdin         saydawân ‫ ﺳﻪﯾﺪﻩوان‬hunter
  v.t. to catch cold                             sayid ‫ ﺳـﻪﯾـﺪ‬sayyid, title borne by descen-
sarmâwaz ‫ ﺳـــﻪرﻣـــﺎوﻩز‬the month of Sagit-        dants of the Prophet Muhammad
  tarius (November 22–December 21)               sayr ‫ـﺮ‬a‫ ﺳـﻪ‬strange, odd: ~a that’s odd; ~-
sarnâs ‫ ﺳﻪر‡س‬famous, well-known                    kirdin v.t. to look: sayr i amá ka look
sarok ‫ ﺳـــﻪرۆک‬leader; ~âyatî ‫ﺳـــﻪرۆﰷﯾـــﻪﰏ‬       at this!
  leadership                                                                              ‫ـ‬
                                                 sayrân ‫ـﺮان‬a‫ ﺳـﻪ‬outing, trip; ~gar ‫ﮕـﻪر‬s‫ـﺮا‬a‫ﺳـﻪ‬
sarparisht ‫ ﺳﻪرﭘﻪرﺷﺖ‬chief, head                    excursioner, tourist
sarpech ‫ ﺳﻪرﭘ²ﭻ‬obstinate, refractory             sâ1 ‫ ﺳﺎ‬then, so
sarpiř gº‫ ﺳﻪر‬brimful                             sâ2 ‫ ﺳـــــﺎ‬shadow; na bikay na bikhoy, har
                                             224
                        SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  tamâshâ i sâ i gardinî bikay you                    waffle; be seudû lekirdin ‫/ ﺳـــ‰ و دوو‬
  wouldn’t be able to do anything or eat              ‫ ﻟ²ﮑﺮدن‬without hesitation
  anything, you’d just look at the shad-            sebar ‫ﻪر‬mŒ‫ ﺳ‬shadow
  ow of her neck (an expression for be-             sedâra ‫ ﺳ8²ﺪارﻩ‬gallows
  ing mesmerized by beauty)                         sełâw ‫و‬˲8‫ ﺳ‬flood, deluge
sâbûn ‫ ﺳﺎﺑﻮون‬soap                                   sew ‫ ﺳ8²ﻮ‬apple
sâda ‫ ﺳﺎدﻩ‬simple                                    shabaq ‫ ﺷــــﻪﺑــــﻪق‬dawn; ~-dân v.t. imprs.
sâgh ‫ ﺳـــﺎغ‬whole, hail, healthy; ~î ‫ﺳـــﺎﻏـــﯽ‬       for dawn to break: wirda wirda sha-
  health; ~-bûnawa to reach a conclu-                 baqî dadâ little by little dawn was
  sion, come to an end                                breaking
sâkâr ‫ ﺳ˜ﰷر‬straightforward                          shakat ‫ ﺷﻪﮐﻪت‬tired; ~î exhaustion
sâkhta ‫ﻪ‬µ‫ ﺳﺎﺧ‬fabricated, false                      shakând- ‫ = ﺷﻪﰷﻧﺪ‬shikând-
sâkhtimân ‫ ﺳﺎﺧ0ن‬building                            shakhs ‫ ﺷﻪﺧﺲ‬person, personage
sâł ‫ ﺳﺎڵ‬year; ~gâr a long period of time            shałâł ‫ڵ‬Ÿ‫ ﺷــــــــــــــــــﻪ‬steeped; la khwen ~
sâm ‫ ﺳــــــــــــــﺎم‬fear: sâm’î le nîsht he was     steeped in blood
  gripped by fear; ~nâk ‫ ﺳـﺎ ــﺎک‬frightful;
                                    ž‫ﻣ‬              shamcha ‫ﻪ‬Â‫ ﺷﻪﻣ‬match
  ba~ ‫ ﺑــﻪﺳــﺎم‬fearful, terrible; piř~ ‫ﺳــﺎم‬g‫ــ‬º   shamma ‫ ﺷﻪﳑﻪ‬Saturday
  fearful, frightful                                                          ‫ـ‬
                                                    shamshama ‫ ﺷـﻪﻣﺸـﻪﻣـﻪ‬bat; ~kwera ‫ﺷـﻪﻣﺸـﻪ‬      ‫ـ‬
sâmâł ‫ ﺳﺎﻣﺎڵ‬clear (sky, weather)                      ‫ﻮ¤ﺮﻩ‬B‫ ﻣﻪ‬bat
sândin ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺪن‬sen- ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ = ﺳ‬sitândin                    shan ‫ ﺷﻪن‬winnowing
sâqata ‫ ﺳﺎﻗﻪﺗﻪ‬tree trunk                            shap ‫ ﺷﻪپ‬slap
sârd ‫ ﺳـﺎرد‬cold; ~î coldness; ~î u garmî i          shapoł ‫ ﺷﻪﭘﯚڵ‬wave
  zhyân dîtin to have much experience               shaq ‫ ﺷــــــــﻪق‬slap, kick; ~ hał-dân ba to
  in life                                             kick; ba ~ pe-kirdin to kick around:
sârghî ‫ ﺳﺎرﻏﯽ‬bandage                                  ba shaq tarâten i hawshaká’yân pe
sâřezh ‫ ﺳـــﺎڕ¤ـــﮋ‬healed; ~-bûn v.i. to heal         kirdim they kicked me all around the
  (wound)                                             courtyard; ~-birdin v.t. to crack, split;
Sâsânî ‫ ﺳﺎﺳﺎﱏ‬Sassanian                                to go to pieces, to fly into a rage
sât ‫ ﺳــــــــﺎت‬time, moment; la dwâ ~ i aw         shaqa ‫ ﺷــــــﻪﻗــــــﻪ‬flutter, sound of a bird’s
  rozhá in the aftermath of that day                  wing in flight; dân la ~ i bâl v.t. to
sâwân ‫ ﺳــــﺎوان‬sâw- ‫ ﺳــــﺎو‬v.t. to rub, wear        flap the wings
  down                                              shaqâm ‫ ﺷﻪﻗﺎم‬street
sâwîlka ‫ ﺳﺎوﯾﻠﮑﻪ‬poor, beggarly                      shaqâw ‫ ﺷﻪﻗﺎو‬big step
sâya ‫ ﺳـﺎﯾـﻪ‬shadow; la ~ i ‫ ﺳـﺎﯾـﻪى‬v because        shaqqa ‫ = ﺷﻪﻗﻘﻪ‬shaqa
  of, on account of                                 shař ‫ ﺷــــﻪڕ‬fight; ~-kirdin v.t. to fight; ~-
sâz ‫ ﺳـــــــــــــﺎز‬musical instrument; happy;       nânawa v.t. to stir up war; ~ajwen-
  wealthy; ready; baggage; ~inda ‫ﺳـﺎزـﺪﻩ‬        ‫ﻧ‬     kirdin dagal ‫ـﺮدن دﻩﮔـﻪڵ‬B ‫ ﺷـﻪڕﻩﺟـﻮ¤ـﻦ‬v.t.
  musician; ~-kirdin v.t. to construct;               to exchange curses with; ~agařak ‫ﺷـــﻪ‬
  ~-krân la v.p. to be constructed of                 ‫ ڕﻩﮔـــــــــﻪڕﻩک‬war between city quarters,
sbayn|î ‫ ﺳـــﻪﯾـﲎ‬tomorrow; bo ~e >‫ﺑـﯚ ﺳـــﻪﯾـ‬
                   ‫8ﺒ‬                        ‫8ﺒ‬       civil war; ~ânî ‫ ﺷﻪڕاﱏ‬hostile
  the next morning, tomorrow morning                sharm ‫ ﺷــــــــــــﻪرم‬shame, embarrassment:
sbene >Œ‫ = ﺳ8ﺒ‬sbaynî                                  sharm girtimî I was embarrassed;
                               8
se ‰‫ ﺳـ‬three; ~ham ‫ ﺳــ²ـﻬـﻪم‬third; ~sham-            ~azâr ‫ ﺷﻪرﻣﻪزار‬embarrassed
                   ‫ــ‬
  ma ‫ﺸـﻪﳑـﻪ‬Œ‫ ﺳ‬Tuesday; ~-u-dû-(le) kir-             sharwâł ‫ ﺷﻪرواڵ‬pants, trousers
  din v.t. ‫ ﺳــ‰ و دوو )ﻟــ‰( 6ــﺮدن‬to hesitate,    shash ‫ ﺷﻪش‬six; ~am ‫ ﺷﻪﺷﻪم‬sixth
                                                225
                                    SORANI KURDISH
shatak-dân ‫ ﺷﻪﺗﻪک دان‬to tie up tight                  ~zwân ‫ ﺷ8²ﻮﻩزوان‬dialect
shaw ‫ ﺷـــﻪو‬night; am~ ‫ ﺋـــﻪﻣـــﺸـــﻪو‬tonight;     shewała ‫ﻪ‬T‫ ﺷ8²ﻮﻩ‬very small valley
  ~chara ‫ ﺷ ـﻪو¸ ـﻪرﻩ‬banquet; ~è ‫ ﺷ ـﻪوێ‬by                            ‫ــ‬               ‫ــ‬
                                                    shewân ‫ ﺷ8²ـﻮان‬shewe- ‫ ﺷ8²ـﻮێ‬v.i. to be in
  night; ~gâr ‫ ﺷﻪوﮔﺎر‬all night long                                               ‫ــ‬
                                                      distress; ~din ‫ ﺷ8²ـﻮاﻧـﺪن‬shewen- ‫ﺷ8²ـﻮ¤ـﻦ‬   ‫ــ‬
shaytân ‫ ﺷﻪﯾﺘﺎن‬Satan, the devil                       v.t. to cause distress
                                 ‫ـ‬
shâ ‫ ﺷـﺎ‬king; ~nishîn ‫ﺸـﲔ‬ë‫ ﺷـﺎ‬capital; ~rag         shewâz ‫ = ﺷ8²ﻮاز‬shîwâz
  ‫ ﺷﺎرﻩگ‬artery                                      shikaft ‫ ﺷﮑﻪﻓﺖ‬cave
shâbâł ‫ ﺷﺎ¶ڵ‬wing feather                            shikân ‫ ﺷﲀن‬shke- ‰‫ ﺷﮑ‬v.i. to break
shâd ‫ ﺷـﺎد‬happy; ~î joy, rejoicing; ~-bûn           shikândin ‫ ﺷــﲀﻧــﺪن‬shken- ‫ــﻦ‬Œ‫ ﺷــﮑــ‬v.t. to
  v.i. to rejoice at seeing someone from              break, to vanquish, to dishonor
  whom one has been separated                       shikâr ‫ ﺷﲀر‬hunting
shâdimânî ‫ ﺷﺎدﻣﺎﱏ‬gaity, joy                         shikeř gŒ‫ ﺷﮑ‬mountain crag
                    ‫ـ‬
shâgashka ‫ ﺷـ˜ﮔـﻪﺷﮑـﻪ‬overjoyed, about to            shikhâta ‫ﺎﺗﻪ‬Ø‫ ﺷ‬matches
  faint from joy                                    shikift ‫ = ﺷﮑﻔﺖ‬shikaft
shâhîd ‫ ﺷﺎﻫﻴﺪ‬witness                                shikist ‫ ﺷـــﮑـــﺴـــﺖ‬defeat; ~-henân v.t. to
shâkh ‫ ﺷﺎخ‬mountain; horn                              defeat; ~-khwârdin v.t. to be defeated
shâłîna ‫ﻴﻨﻪ‬T‫ ﺷﺎ‬a square of woolen cloth             shil ‫ ﺷــــــــﻞ‬loose, weak, flabby; wet, wa-
shâłłâ Ë‫ــ‬T‫ ﺷــﺎ‬I wish (+ past cond.) shâłłâ          tery; ~-kirdin v.t. to loosen, untie (a
  bíhâtîtâya I wish you had come                      knot); ~~-kutân v.t. to beat to a pulp:
shân ‫ ﺷـــــــﺎن‬shoulder; ~-dânà bar v.t. to          shilshil kutâyânim they beat me to a
  undertake                                           pulp
shân-dân ‫ ﺷﺎن دان‬v.t. to show                                             ‫ـ‬                 ‫ـ‬
                                                    shiłazhân ‫ـﻪژان‬k‫ ﺷ‬shiłazhe- ‫ـﻪژێ‬k‫ ﺷ‬v.i. to
shâno ‫ ﺷﺎﻧﯚ‬stage                                      get confused
shânâzî ‫ ﺷــﺎ‡زی‬pride; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to          shiłâp ‫پ‬Ë‫ ﺷ‬splash
  take pride in                                     shiller ‫ﺮ‬Œ‫ ﺷﻠﻠ‬a type of tulip
shâr ‫ ﺷــــﺎر‬city; ~azâ ‫ ﺷــــﺎرﻩزا‬urbane, citi-    shiłpa ‫ـــﭙـــ ﻪ‬k‫ ﺷـــ‬splat, splash; (meta.) very
  fied; ~azâ la knowledgeable, expert                  greasy pilaf
  in; ~ângař ‫ــــﮕــــﻪڕ‬s‫ ﺷــــﺎرا‬world traveler;   shimak ‫ ﴰﻪک‬belongings
  ~badar ‫ ﺷــــﺎرﺑــــﻪدﻩر‬exiled, driven from       shimqâr ‫ ﴰﻘﺎر‬hawk
                                ‫ــ ـ‬
  town; ~istâniyatî ‫ ﺷـﺎرﺳ8ﺘـﺎﻧﻴـﻪﰏ‬civiliza-        shimsher ‫ﺮ‬Œ‫ ﴰﺸ‬sword
  tion; ~î ‫ ﺷـﺎری‬urban; ~ochka ‫ﺷـﺎرۆﭼـﮑـﻪ‬           shinashin ‫ ﺷ8ﻨﻪﺷﻦ‬huffing and puffing
  town; ~oka ‫ ﺷﺎرۆﮐﻪ‬town                            shingił-dân ‫ دان‬Ç‫ ﺷـ8ـﻨـﮕـ‬v.t. to bestir one-
shârdin ‫ ﺷـــﺎردن‬shâr- ‫-~ :ﺷـــﺎر‬awa v.t. to          self
  hide, conceal                                                   ‫ــ‬
                                                    shinîn ‫ ﺷ8ﻨـﲔ‬v.i. to blow (wind); ~awa to
shâro ‫ ﺷﺎرۆ‬a sheaf of reaped wheat                    blow (in the wind)
shât u shût ‫ ﺷﺎت و ﺷﻮوت‬bragging                     shipirza ‫ﺮزﻩ‬Î‫ ﺷ‬scattered, distracted
shâyî ‫ = ﺷـــﺎﱙ‬shâdî; ~ u zamâwand kir-             shiř-u-wiř-bûn ‫ و وڕ ﺑــــــــﻮون‬g‫ ﺷــــــــ‬to be
  din lagał to get married to                         ripped: kirâsakám shiřuwiřbûwa my
shena ‫ﻪ‬žŒ‫ ﺷ‬breeze; ~î patience, stealth               shirt is ripped and torn
sher ‫ﺮ‬Œ‫ ﺷ‬lion; ~panja ‫ﺮﭘﻪﳒﻪ‬Œ‫ ﺷ‬cancer                shirîkhândin ‫ ﴍﳜـﺎﻧـﺪن‬shirîkhen- ‫ـﻦ‬Œ‫ﴍﳜ‬       ‫ـ‬
shet ‫ــﺖ‬Œ‫ ﺷــ‬crazy; ~-bûn v.i. to go crazy;           v.t. to roar
  ~khâna ‫ﺎﻧﻪ‬صŒ‫ ﺷ‬insane asylum                      shit ‫ ﺷﺖ‬thing
shew1 ‫ ﺷ8²ﻮ‬dinner, evening meal                     shitin ‫ ﺷـــﱳ‬sho- ‫( ﺷـــﯚ‬v.t.; 3rd sing. pres.
shew2 ‫ = ﺷ8²ﻮ‬shîw                                     shwâ) to wash; ~awa to wash again
                   8
shewa ‫ ﺷــــــــــ²ـــــﻮﻩ‬style, manner; dialect;   shîla ƒ‫ ﺷ8ﻴ‬juice
                                                226
                        SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
shîn1 ‫ ﺷـــــﲔ‬dark blue, dark green; ~-bûn          shûra ‫ ﺷﻮورﻩ‬city wall
  to become green (plants); ~-bûnawa                shûraî ‫ ﺷﻮورﻩﰃ‬shame, disgrace
  la v.i. (1) to importune, pester: to bo           shûsha ‫ ﺷﻮوﺷﻪ‬glass; ~band windshield
  la min shîn bûyawa u das bar nâday?               shwâ(t) (‫( ﺷــــﻮا)ت‬third sing. pres. of shi-
  why are you pestering me so inces-                   tin)
  santly?; (2) to turn blue from laughter:          shwân ‫ ﺷﻮان‬shepherd
  la pekanîn shîn bûmawa I died laugh-              shwen ‫ ﺷــﻮ¤ــﻦ‬place; ~ a gishtîakân pub-
  ing                                                  lic places; ~ … kawtin v.i. to follow,
shîn2 ‫ ﺷﲔ‬wail, lament                                  pursue, chase: shwen kilâw i bâbirdû
shînatî ‫ﻪﰏ‬ž›‫ = ﺷ‬shînaward                              kawtûa he’s on a wild goose chase;
shînaward ‫ ـﻪوﻩرد‬ž‫/ﺷ ـ› ـ‬shînawird ‫ ـﻪورد‬ž‫ﺷ ـ› ـ‬       ba ~ regâ i …dâ gařân to look for a
  summer garden                                        way to …; ~awâr ‫ــــﻨــــﻪوار‬l‫ ﺷــــﻮ‬remain,
shîr ‫ ﺷﲑ‬milk; sword                                    monument, ruin; ~awârî ‫ــــﻨــــﻪواری‬l‫ﺷــــﻮ‬
shîrîn ‫ﻦ‬a‫ ﺷﲑ‬sweet, nice                                monumental
Shîrîn ‫ـــﻦ‬a‫ ﺷـــﲑ‬Shirin, Armenian princess                    ‫ـ‬                     ‫ـ‬
                                                    sifat ‫ ﺳﻔـﻪت‬fidelity; ba~ ‫ ﺑـﻪﺳﻔـﻪت‬faithful;
  and wife of the Sassanian Chosroës                   be~ ‫ /ﺳــﻔــﻪت‬unfaithful; be~î ‫/ﺳــﻔــﻪﰏ‬
  Parvez                                               infidelity
shîsh ‫ ﺷـ›ـﺶ‬skewer, stake; ~a ‫ ﺷـ›ـﺸـﻪ‬bot-          sija ‫ ﲭﻪ‬red
  tle; skewer                                       sik ‫ ﺳــــــﮏ‬belly, womb; ~-dâ-nân v.t. to
shîw ‫ ﺷ8ﻴﻮ‬narrow valley                                give birth; ~-kirdin v.t. to get preg-
shîwâz ‫ ﺷ8ﻴﻮاز‬appearance, form                         nant
sho ‫ ﺷـﯚ‬limit, boundary; be~ ‫ﺸـﯚ‬Œ‫ ﺑ‬without
                                     ‫ــ‬             sika ‫ ﺳﮑﻪ‬coin
  limit                                             sikâłâ Ÿ‫ ﺳﲀ‬complaint
sho- ‫ ﺷﯚ‬pres. stem of shitin                        sikirter ‫ﺮ‬Œ‫ ﺳﮑﺮﺗ‬secretary
shokh ‫ ﺷـــﯚخ‬graceful, beautiful; jokester;         sim ‫ ﰟ‬hoof; ~kol-kirdin ‫ ـﺮدن‬B ‫ ﲰ ـﮑ ـﯚل‬v.t.
  ~ u shang ‫ ـﮓ‬s‫ ﺷ ـﯚخ و ﺷ ـﻪ‬beautiful, en-            to stomp the hooves on the ground
  chanting                                          simt ‫ ﲰﺖ‬side
shon ‫ ﺷــﯚن‬trace; ~gîrî-kirdin v.t. to pur-         sindûq ‫ ﺳ8ﻨﺪووق‬box
  sue, look for                                     sing ‫ ﺳ8ﻨﮓ‬stake, peg
shoř-kirdin(awa) ‫ـــﺮدﻧـــﻪوﻩ‬B ‫ ﺷـــﯚڕ‬v.t. to let   sinif ‫ ﺳ8ﻨﻒ‬class
  down, lower; mil ~-kirdin to bend the             sinoq ‫ ,ﺳ8ﻨﯚق‬sinûq ‫ ﺳ8ﻨﻮوق‬chest, trunk
  neck, submit; sar ~-kirdin to bow the             sinûr ‫ ﺳ8ﻨﻮور‬boundary, border
  head                                              sip ‫ ﺳـﭗ‬perfect; ‫ ~ ﺳـﭗ و ﺳـﺎغ‬u sâgh hail
shorbâ ¶‫ ﺷﯚر‬soup, broth                                and hearty
shorish ‫ ﺷﯚرش‬uprising, rebelion                     sipâ ‫ ﺳ8ﭙﺎ‬army
shu ‫ ﺷﻮ‬plow; ~-kirdin v.t. to plow                  sipła ‫ﻪ‬k‫ ﺳ8ﭙ‬unfaithful; ~î infidelity
shubât ‫ ﺷﻮ¶ت‬February                                siraw|ân ‫ ﴎﻩوان‬sirawe- ‫ ﴎﻩوێ‬v.i. to
shukir ‫ﺮ‬B‫ ﺷﻮ‬gratitude                                  become calm, be at rest
shurdin ‫ ﺷﻮردن‬shur- ‫ ﺷﻮر‬v.t. to wash                sirawândin ‫ ﺳــﻬــﺮﻩواﻧــﺪن‬sirawen- ‫ﴎﻩو¤ــﻦ‬
shû ‫ ﺷـﻮو‬husband; ~-kirdin v.t. to marry:              v.t. to make calm; to strike; kho-~ la
  khwayshkim shûy-kird my sister got                   to hit against, collide with
  married; ba ~ dân v.t. to marry (a                sirinj ‫ = ﴎﱋ‬sarinj
  girl) off: dagâtà taman i bashûdân                siřînawa ‫ﯾﻨﻪوﻩ‬g‫ ﺳ‬v.t. to wipe clean
  she is reaching a marriageable age                sirkândin ‫ ﴎﰷﻧـــﺪن‬sirken- ‫ـــﻦ‬Œ‫ ﴎﮐـــ‬v.t. to
shûm ‫ ﺷﻮوم‬ill-omened, gloomy                           mutter
                                                227
                                    SORANI KURDISH
sirta ‫ ﴎﺗﻪ‬whisper                                    ten, to bleach
                                        ‫ﺗ‬
sirtândin ‫ﻧــــﺪن‬c‫ ﴎ‬sirten- ‫ــــﻦ‬Œ‫ ﴎــــ‬v.t. to    suâlkar ‫ ﺳﻮا¢ﮑﻪر‬beggar
   whisper                                         suja ‫ = ﺳﻮ•ﻪ‬sija
sirusht ‫ ﴎوﺷﺖ‬nature                                suk ‫ = ﺳﻮک‬sok
sirûd ‫ ﴎوود‬anthem                                  sułtân ‫ﺘﺎن‬T‫ ﺳﻮ‬sultan, ruler
sirwa ‫ ﴎوﻩ‬breeze                                   supâ ‫ ﺳﻮﭘﺎ‬army
             ‫ــ‬
sitam ‫ ﺳ8ﺘـﻪم‬bad, grievous: châkbûnaway            supâs ‫ = ﺳﻮﭘﺎس‬spâs
   zor ~a prospects for his recovery are           surâkh ‫ = ﺳﻮراخ‬sorâgh
   very slim                                       surisht ‫ = ﺳﻮرﺷﺖ‬sirusht
                 8                 8
sitândin ‫ ﺳــﺘـﺎﻧـﺪن‬siten- ‫ـﻦ‬Œ‫ ﺳــﺘـ‬v.t. to get,   sûch ‫ ﺳﻮوچ‬corner
   take, buy; hał-~ to flush (animals) out          sûd ‫ ﺳﻮود‬profit, benefit
   of their holes, lairs, &c.                      Sûdâba ‫ ﺳـــــﻮوداﺑـــــﻪ‬Sudaba, wife of Kay-
                       8
siyâs|at ‫ ﺳــــــﻴـــﺎﺳـــﻪت‬politics; ~atmadâr       Kaus and step-mother of Siyawush
   ‫ ﺳ8ﻴﺎﺳﻪﲤﻪدار‬politician; ~î ‫ ﺳ8ﻴﺎﳻ‬political      sûk ‫ ﺳـــــﻮوک‬light in weight; deprecation,
Siyâwish ‫ ﺳـــ8ـــﻴـــﺎوش‬Siyawush, son of the        contempt: khałk ba sûkawa ley da-
   Iranian shah Kay-Kaus                             řwânîn the people were looking at
sîkatora ‫ ﺳ8ﻴﮑﻪﺗﯚرﻩ‬gizzard                           him with contempt; ~-kirdin v.t. to
           8                          8
sîlâ ‫ ﺳــﻴـﻼ‬hole; ~mîsh ‫ ﺳــﻴـﻼﻣـ›ـﺶ‬mouse-           lighten (a weight), thin out; to depre-
   hole                                              cate
sîng ‫ﮓ‬ž›‫ ﺳ‬breast                                   sûr (1) ‫ ﺳــــــــﻮور‬red; ~-kirdin-awa v.t. to
sînî ‫ ﺳ›ﲎ‬tray                                        fry, saute; gul a ~ rose; châw ~-
sîs ‫ ﺳ›ﺲ‬withered; ~-bûn to wither                    kirdinawa la v.t. to glare at: kârakar
słâw ‫و‬Ë‫ ﺳــــــ‬greetings; ~-kirdin la v.t. to        châw’î le sûr kirdimawa the servant
   greet; ~-sandinawa v.t. to acknowl-               glared at me; (2) insistent, deter-
   edge a greeting: slâw’yân nasandîna-              mined; ~ lasar determined to; ~âî
   wa they did not acknowledge our                   ‫ ﺳﻮوراﰃ‬redness
   greeting                                        sûř ‫ ﺳـــــــــــﻮوڕ‬spin; ~-mân to spin: sarî ~
so ‫ ﺳﯚ‬doubt; be~ ‫ﺴﯚ‬Œ‫ ﺑ‬doubtless(ly)                  damene his head is spinning
sok ‫ ﺳــــــﯚک‬light, lightweight: ~ u hâsân        sûřân ‫ ﺳـــــﻮوڕان‬sûře- ‫ ﺳـــــﻮوڕێ‬v.i. to turn
   ‫ ﺳـﯚکوﻫـﺎﺳـﺎن‬easy: zhyân boy sok u hâ-            around, to circle around; ~-awa to
   sân bû life was easy for him                      walk about, stroll; hał-~ to spin, be
songa ‫ﮕﻪ‬s‫ ﺳﯚ‬reason; la ~ i because of                moved; to evolve
sorâgh ‫ ﺳـــﯚراغ‬trace; ~-kirdin v.t. to look       sûřândin ‫ ﺳـﻮوڕاﻧـﺪن‬sûřen- ‫ ﺳـﻮوڕ¤ـﻦ‬v.t. to
   for, search out; hâtinà ~ v.i. to come            turn, spin; hał-~ to turn, spin, accom-
   after, to come looking for: hâtà sorâ-            plish (a task)
   ghim dâwâ i qarzaká’y kird he came              sûtân ‫ن‬c‫ ﺳﻮو‬sûte- ì‫ ﺳﻮو‬v.i. to burn
   looking for me to ask for his loan              sûtândin ‫ﻧ ـﺪن‬c‫ ﺳ ـﻮو‬sûten- ‫ ـﻦ‬Œ‫ ﺳ ـﻮوﺗ ـ‬v.t. to
   back; ~ i … pirsîn la to ask (s.o.) the           burn
   whereabouts of …; be~ ‫ـــﺴـــﯚراغ‬Œ‫ ﺑـــ‬lost,    sûzyân ‫ن‬p‫ ﺳﻮوز‬sûz- ‫ ﺳﻮوز‬v.i./t. to burn
   disappeared without a trace                     swâłat ‫ﻪت‬T‫ ﺳﻮا‬pottery
sorâkh ‫ = ﺳﯚراخ‬sorâgh                              swân ‫ ﺳﻮان‬swe- ‫ ﺳﻮێ‬v.t. to rub
spâ ‫ = ﺳ8ﭙﺎ‬sipâ                                    swâr ‫ ﺳــــــــﻮار‬horseman, mounted; ~ i …
spârdin ‫ ﺳ8ﭙﺎردن‬sper- ‫ﺮ‬Œ‫ ﺳ8ﭙ‬v.t. to entrust          bûn to get in, ride in/on (vehicle); ~ i
spâs ‫ ﺳ8ﭙﺎس‬thanks; ~-kirdin v.t. to thank            … kirdin v.t. to mount on, let into (a
        ‫ــ‬
spî ‫ﯽ‬Š‫ ﺳ8ﭙـ‬white; ~-kirdinawa v.t. to whi-           vehicle): swâr i karèkyân kird they
                                               228
                         SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  put him on a donkey                                 talafon ‫ﻓﯚن‬v‫ ﺗﻪ‬telephone
swe ‫ ﺳـــــــﻮێ‬longing, yearning, regret; ~-          talasm ‫ﰟ‬v‫ ﺗـــــــﻪ‬talisman, magic spell; ~-
  bûnawa to yearn for someone, to pine                  khwendin ba sar …dâ v.t. to cast a
swend ‫ـــﻨـــﺪ‬l‫ ﺳـــﻮ‬oath; ~-khwârdin v.t. to           spell over
  take an oath, to swear: swend’im bo                 talatal-chûn ‫ﺗــــﻪل ﭼــــﻮون‬v‫ ﺗــــﻪ‬v.i. to walk
  dakhoy beytawa? do you swear to me                    very quietly
  you’ll come back?                                   talavizyon ‫ﭬﺰﯾﯚن‬v‫ ﺗﻪ‬television
swenka ‫ﻨﮑﻪ‬l‫ ﺳﻮ‬dregs, swill                            tałâq ‫ق‬Ÿ‫ ﺗــــــــــــﻪ‬divorce; ~-dân v.t. to di-
Swîs ‫ ﺳﻮ§ﺲ‬Switzerland; ~î Swiss                         vorce: ~’î dâwim he has divorced me
                                                      talâr ‫ ﺗﻪﻻر‬hall, room in an upper story
tabaq ‫ ﺗﻪﺑﻪق‬platter                                   talîsm ‫ = ﺗﻪﻟ›ﺴﻢ‬talasm
tadârak ‫ ﺗـــــﻪدارﻩک‬preparations; ~-kirdin           tam ‫ ﺗـــــــﻪم‬dust; mist, fog; puff on a ciga-
  v.t. to prepare: ~ i safar’im bo âmâda                rette; ~-rândin v.t. to bury
  bikan let them prepare for me the par-              taman ‫ ﺗـﻪﻣـﻪن‬age: la ~ i mindâlî i khoydâ
  aphernalia for a journey                              during one’s childhood
tafâwat ‫ ﺗﻪﻓﺎوﻩت‬difference                            tamara ‫ ﺗﻪﻣﻪرﻩ‬hurly-burly
tagara ‫ ﺗﻪﮔﻪرﻩ‬wheel (of cart, carriage)               tamâ ‫ ﺗـﻪﻣـﺎ‬desire, greed; ba ~ i ‫ ﺑـﻪ ﺗـﻪﻣـﺎى‬de-
tagbîr ‫ ﺗﻪﮔﺒﲑ‬plan, plot                                 sirous of; ~kâr ‫ ﺗﻪﻣ˜ﰷر‬greedy
tak ‫ ﺗﻪک‬near, next to, opposite                       tamâḥkâr ‫ = ﺗﻪﻣﺎﺣﲀر‬tamâkâr
takân ‫ ﺗــــﻪﰷن‬motion; ~-dân v.t. to shake;           tamâko ‫ ﺗﻪﻣ˜ﮐﯚ‬tobacco
  ~-khwârdin v.t. to move, budge:                     tamâshâ ‫ ﺗـﻪﻣـﺎﺷـﺎ‬spectacle; ~-kirdin v.t. to
  pyâwaká takân’î nakhwârd the man                      look at; to watch (a performance), to
  didn’t budge                                          see (a sight); ~khâna ‫ﺎﻧﻪ‬L‫ ﺗﻪﻣﺎﺷﺎ‬theater
takândin ‫ ﺗـــﻪﰷﻧـــﺪن‬taken- ‫ـــﻦ‬Œ‫ ﺗـــﻪﮐـــ‬v.t. to   tamâta ‫ ﺗﻪﻣﺎﺗﻪ‬tomato
  shake; hał-~ ditto; râ-~ ditto                      tambał ‫ﻪڵ‬m‫ ﺗﻪﻣ‬lazy
takîn-awa la v ‫ﻴﻨﻪوﻩ‬B‫ ﺗﻪ‬v.i. to avoid                 tame ‰‫ ﺗــــﻪﻣــــ‬admonition; ~-kirdin to ad-
takht ‫ ﺗ ـﻪﺧ ـﺖ‬smooth, flat; throne, bed; ~-             monish, to instruct
  kirdin v.t. to flatten; ~ i zawî kirdin              tamez ‫ﺰ‬Œ‫ ﺗﻪﻣ‬clean
  v.t. to flatten to the ground; to wipe               tammûz ‫ ﺗﻪﳑﻮوز‬July
  out; ~ u tânj ‫ﱋ‬c‫ ﺗــــــﻪﺧــــــﺖو‬throne and        tan ‫ ﺗﻪن‬body; ~drust ‫ ﺗﻪﻧﺪروﺳﺖ‬healthy
  crown; la sar ~ dâ-nân v.t. to seat on              tanaka ‫ ﺗﻪﻧﻪﮐﻪ‬tin, tin can
  the throne, to enthrone                             tanâf ‫ ﺗﻪ‡ف‬rope
takhta ‫ ﺗـﻪ ــﻪ‬board, slab; ~-bûn v.i. to be
            µ‫ﺧ‬                                        tanâna(t) (‫ ﺗﻪ‡ﻧﻪ)ت‬especially
  boarded shut: bâzâr ~ ya the market’s               tandûr ‫ ﺗـﻪﻧـﺪوور‬oven; ~-dâ-khistin v.t. to
  boarded shut; ~-kirdin v.t. to board                  light an oven
  up: dukânakáy ~ kirâwa his shop has                 tang ‫ـﮓ‬s‫ ﺗـﻪ‬tight, narrow; saddle strap; ba
  been boarded up; ~rash ‫ـــــﻪرﻩش‬µ‫ﺗـــــﻪﺧـــــ‬        ~ …awa bûn v.i. to belong to, to be
  blackboard                                                                                  ‫ـ‬
                                                        encompassed by; ~atâw ‫و‬c‫ﮕـﻪ‬s‫ ـﺗ ﻪ‬hectic
ta’kîd ‫ ـﮑ ـ; ـﺪ‬C‫ ﺗ ـﻪ‬affirmation; ~-kirdinawa           pressure; ~atâw-nân ‫و ‡ن‬c‫ـﮕـﻪ‬s‫ ﺗـﻪ‬v.t. to
  lasar to reaffirm                                      put pressure on; ~âna ‫ــﮕــﺎﻧــﻪ‬s‫ ﺗــﻪ‬narrow
takûz ‫ــــﻮوز‬B‫ ﺗــــﻪ‬ordered, organized; ~î ‫ﺗــــﻪ‬      pass, strait; dire straits; ~âw ‫ــــﮕــــﺎو‬s‫ﺗــــﻪ‬
  ‫ﻮوزى‬B orderliness, organization                       under pressure, in dire straits; ~dast
tała ‫ـﻪ‬T‫ ﺗـﻪ‬trap, snare; ~-nânawa v.t. to lay           ‫ﮕـﺪﻩﺳـﺖ‬s‫ ﺗـﻪ ـ‬poor; ~ u chałama ‫ـﻪ‬T‫ـﮓو¸ـﻪ‬s‫ﺗـﻪ‬
  a trap                                                ‫ ﻣﻪ‬difficulty
tałaba ‫ﻪﺑﻪ‬T‫ ﺗﻪ‬student                                 tanhâ ‫ ﺗﻪﳖﺎ‬only; alone; ~î loneliness
                                                  229
                                        SORANI KURDISH
tanîsht ‫ ﺗﻪﻧ›ﺸﺖ‬beside, next to                             house they had set aside for him
tankhwâ ‫ ﺗــــﻪﳔــــﻮا‬commercial goods; in-              tarkhun ‫ ﺗﻪرﺧﻮن‬tarragon
  vestment capital                                       tarm ‫ ﺗﻪرم‬body, corpse
tanyâ ‫ ﺗ ـﻪﻧ ـﻴ ـﺎ‬alone, only; following a neg.          tarsa ‫ ﺗﻪرﺳﻪ‬reversed, upside down
  clause, tanyâ…nabe nothing/nobody                      tarza ‫ ﺗﻪرزﻩ‬hail
  but: kasim niya, tanyâ dâyk a pîrèk                    tashanâ-kirdin ‫ـﺮدن‬B ‡‫ ﺗـﻪﺷـﻪ‬v.t. to heal, to
  nabe I have no one but an old mother;                    heal over
  kam yân zor roysht kasèk nâzâne                        tashrîn ‫ ـﻦ‬a‫ ~ :ﺗ ـﻪﴍ‬i yekam ‫ﺗ ـﻪﴍﯾ ـﲎ ﯾ ـﻪﻛ ـﻪم‬
  tanyâ Khwâ nabe how far he went                          October; ~ i dûham ‫ ﺗـﻪﴍﯾـﲎ دووﻫـﻪم‬No-
  only God knows; ~î ‫ ﺗــــﻪﻧــــﻴــــﺎﱙ‬solitude,          vember
  loneliness; ~bâł ‫ ﺗﻪﻧﻴﺎ¶ڵ‬alone, forlorn                task ‫ ﺗﻪﺳﮏ‬narrow
tapândin ‫ ﺗـﻪﭘـﺎﻧـﺪن‬tapen- ‫ ﺗـﻪ ــﻦ‬v.t. to stuff,
                                     Œ‫ﭘ‬                  tawakul ‫ﻮل‬B‫ ﺗﻪوﻩ‬trust in God
  cram; to kick, beat with the hands                     tawar ‫ ﺗﻪوﻩر‬aim
tapîn ‫ ﺗﻪﭘﲔ‬v.i. to collapse                              tawâfat ‫ = ﺗﻪواﻓﻪت‬tafâwat
tapsî ‫ﴗ‬é‫ ﺗﻪ‬plate                                         tawâfiq ‫ ﺗﻪواﻓﻖ‬agreement, co-operation
taqa ‫ ﺗــﻪﻗــﻪ‬thump, thud, sound of a heavy              tawâncha ‫ ﺗﻪوا#ﻪ‬pistol
  thing falling                                          tawândin ‫ ﺗﻪواﻧﺪن‬tawen- ‫ ﺗﻪو¤ﻦ‬v.t. to fold
taqał ‫ ﺗـــﻪﻗـــﻪڵ‬stitch; ~-dân v.t. to stitch; ~        tawâw ‫ ﺗـــــــﻪواو‬complete; ~-bûn v.i. to be
  le-dân v.t. to stitch; ~ hał-dân la to                   finished; ~-kirdin v.t. to finish; ba ~î
  take a stitch in                                         completely
taqâlâ ‫ ﺗ ـﻪﻗ ـﺎﻻ‬attempt; ~-kirdin v.t. to try,          tawizhm ‫ ﺗﻪوژم‬pressure
  attempt                                                tawq ‫ ﺗــﻪوق‬ring; ~ a sar ‫ ﺗــﻪوﻗــﻪﺳــﻪر‬top of
taq|în ‫ ﺗـﻪﻗـﲔ‬v.i. to burst; ~înawa ba ‫ﺗـﻪﻗ;ﻨـﻪ‬   ‫ــ‬       the head: ba ~ i sarîawa on top of his
  ‫ وﻩ ﺑـﻪ‬to break out in, burst out into; ~a-              head
  manî ‫ ﺗﻪﻗﻪﻣﻪﱏ‬explosive material                        taws ‫ ﺗﻪوس‬taunt
tař ‫ ﺗـﻪڕ‬moist, wet; nice; ~dam ‫ ﺗـﻪڕدﻩم‬elo-             tay ‫ ﺗﻪی‬tame, trained
  quent; ~dast ‫ ﺗﻪڕدﻩﺳﺖ‬expert, dextrous                  tay-kirdin ‫ﺮدن‬B ‫ ﺗﻪی‬v.t. to traverse
tara ‫ ﺗﻪرﻩ‬in exile                                       tayâr ‫ر‬p‫ ﺗﻪ‬ready
taraqî ‫ ﺗــــــــــﻪرﻩﰵ‬advancement, progress;            tayâra ‫رﻩ‬p‫ ﺗﻪ‬airplane
  ~khwâz ‫ ﺗــﻪرﻩﻗــ;ــﺨــﻮاز‬progressive: koř i           tâ1 (1) c to, up to: l’ erawa tâ awe from
  yekiyatî u taraqîkhwâzî i kurd Society                   here to there; (2) by the time: tâ min
  for the Unity and Advancement of                         gayshtim namâ by the time I arrived
  Kurds                                                    he wasn’t there any longer; (3) until
tarât(en) ‫ــــﻦ، ﺗــــﻪرات‬Œ‫ ﺗــــﻪراﺗــــ‬prancing of a     (conj. + neg. subj.): tâ nayey, nâyem I
  horse up and down the field                               won’t come until you do; until (intro-
tarâten i ‫ﲎ‬Œ‫ ﺗﻪراﺗ‬all around (prep)                        ducing final clause + indicative) min
tareq ‫ﻖ‬l‫ = ﺗﻪر‬tarîq                                        l’ era bot dâdanem tâ deytawa I’ll put
tarfana ‫ ﺗﻪرﻓﻪﻧﻪ‬lost                                       it here for you until you come back;
tarîq ‫ ﺗﻪرﯾﻖ‬shy; ~î shyness                                (4) (prep.) until tâ sa’ât i penj châ-
tarkhân ‫ـــﺎن‬L‫ ﺗـــﻪر‬special, devoted (ba/bo               wařwânit dakam I’ll wait for you until
  to); exempt from taxes and imposts;                      five o’clock; (5) the longer, to keep on
  ~-kirdin bo v.t. to give someone ex-                     (getting …er): ~ dahât as time went
  clusive use of something: îtir la nâw                    by, the longer (a situation pertained):
  aw khânûá bo’yân tarkhân kirdibû,                        tâ dahât, girântir dabû as time went
  nadagunjâ he no longer fit in the                         by, the heavier it got; tâ de, rangî
                                                     230
                       SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  zard u lâwâz dabe he keeps on getting          tâw1 ‫و‬c period of time; ~è(k) ‫و¤ ـﮏ‬c for a
  paler and thinner; ~kû ‫ــــﻮو‬Bc so that, in       while;
  order that (+ subj.)                           tâw2 ‫و‬c (1) heat, burning, fever, long-
tâ2 c fever                                         ing, grieving: la ~ i dûrî i kuřakáy har
tâ3 c fold; ~-kirdin v.t. to fold: kâghaza-         dû châwî kwer bûbû both his eyes had
  ká tâ bika fold the paper                         gone blind from grieving over separa-
tâj ‫ج‬c crown                                        tion from his son; (2) downpour (of
tâk ‫ک‬c sole, solitary, alone; ~-u-tanyâ             rain): ~ i bârân nabiřrâyawa the
  ‫کوﺗـﻪ ــﺎ‬c all by oneself; ~-u-tarâ(k) ‫ک‬c
   ‫ﻧﻴ‬                                               downpour has not ceased; (3) turn,
  (‫ وﺗﻪرا)ک‬miscellaneous                            charge, gallop; ~-dân v.t. to make (a
tâkû ‫ــــﻮو‬Bc (+ subj.) in order that; (prep.)      horse) gallop; ~-girtin v.t. to work
  until: ~ estâ until now                           assiduously; ~-kirdin v.t. to trick s.o.
tâł ‫ڵ‬c bitter                                       into believing; ~ sandin v.t. for heat
tâłân ‫ن‬Ÿc plunder; ~-kirdin v.t. to                 to become intense
  pillage, plunder                               tâwân1 ‫وان‬c reward; fault, guilt, crime;
tâm ‫م‬c taste; ~-kirdin v.t. to taste                ~bâr ‫واﻧـــــــﺒـــــــﺎر‬c blameworthy, guilty;
tâmazro ‫ﻣـــﻪزرۆ‬c, tâmâzro ‫ﻣـــﺎزرۆ‬c eager,         ~bâr-kirdin v.t. to blame; ~ rek-
  craving; ~î ‫ﻣﻪزرۆﰃ‬c eagerness, craving            khistin v.t. to accuse falsely
tân ‫ن‬c warp (weaving)                            tâwân2 ‫وان‬c tâwe- ‫وێ‬c v.i. to melt; ~din
tâna ‫ﻧﻪ‬c taunt; ~ le-dân v.t. to taunt              ‫واﻧﺪن‬c tâwen- ‫و¤ﻦ‬c v.t. to melt
tânj ‫ﱋ‬c = tâj                                    tâwił ‫وڵ‬c tent
tânjî ‫ﳒﯽ‬c hunting dog                            tâwistân ‫وﺳ8ﺘﺎن‬c summer
tânût ‫ﻧﻮوت‬c taunt, abuse                         tâwlama ‫ﻣـــﻪ‬v‫و‬c wire basket spun to heat
tâpo ‫ﭘﯚ‬c ghost, apparition                          charcoal
tâq ‫ق‬c sole, only: ~ a kuřèkî dabe he            tâwtwe-kirân ‫ﺮان‬B ‫وﺗﻮێ‬c v.i. to suffer
  has only one son; odd, not even                tâybat ‫ﯾــﺒــﻪت‬c personal, special, devoted
tâqat ‫ﻗـﻪت‬c energy; be~ ‫ـﺎﻗـﻪت‬µŒ‫ ﺑ‬anxious,
                                    ‫ــ‬              (ba to); ba ~î ‫ﯾـــــﺒـــــﻪﰏ‬c‫ ﺑـــــﻪ‬especially;
  sad                                               ~mandî ‫ﺒﻪﲤﻪﻧﺪی‬lc characteristic
tâqâna ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻪ‬c only child                          tâza ‫زﻩ‬c new, fresh; ~lâw ‫زﻩﻻو‬c adoles-
tâqim ‫ﰴ‬c group                                      cent
tâqî ‫ﰵ‬c test, trial; ~-kirdinawa v.t. to         tâzhân ‫ژان‬c whip, lash
  try, to test                                   tâzhî ‫ژی‬c hunting dog
Târân ‫ران‬c Tehran                                tâzî ‫زی‬c Arabic
târândin ‫راﻧــﺪن‬c târen- ‫ر¤ــﻦ‬c v.t. to drive    tâziyâna ‫ﻧﻪ‬p‫ز‬c whip
  away forever                                   te ì see da; ~-birdin (v.t., = birdin da)
târîf ‫رﯾــﻒ‬c description: la ~ nâye it can’t        to put something inside something
  be described, it is beyond description            else; ~-chûn (v.i., = chûn da) to suf-
târîk ‫ﮏ‬a‫ر‬c dark                                     fer loss; to cost a lot: mâlakám zorî te
târîkh ‫رﱗ‬c history                                  chûwa my house has cost me a lot; ~-
tâsân ‫ﺳــــﺎن‬c tâse- ‰‫ﺳــــ‬c v.i. to choke, be      gayândin v.t. to make understand,
  strangled; ~din ‫ﺳـﺎﻧـﺪن‬c tâsen- ‫ ــﻦ‬c v.t.
                                       Œ‫ﺳ‬           explain to: hâl u masala’y te gayân-
  to choke, strangle                                dim he explained the situation to me;
tâsh ‫ش‬c big slab of rock; ~abard ‫ﺷــﻪﺑــﻪ‬c          ~-gayshtin v.i. to understand; ~-girtin
  ‫ رد‬ditto                                          v.t. to take aim at: bardî te bigra aim
tâshîn ‫ﺷﲔ‬c tâsh- ‫ش‬c v.t. to shave                   at the rock; ~-gîrân v.i. to tangle; ~-
                                             231
                                      SORANI KURDISH
   kishân v.t. to pass quickly: b’ era dâ                ing had enough sleep; ~-khwârdin la
   hât u tekishâ he came there and                       to eat one’s fill of
   quickly passed by; ~-kirdin v.t. =                 ter2 ‫ﺮ‬Œ‫ ﺗ‬large saddlebag
   kirdin da to pour onto: âwî te ka pour             teshu ‫ـــﺸـــﻮ‬Œ‫ ﺗـــ‬pile, heap; ~-kirdin v.t. to
   some water on it; to make ready: sabîl                make a pile; to have breakfast
   te ka get the pipe ready; ~-mân v.i. to            teska ‫ﺴﮑﻪ‬Œ‫ = ﺗ‬tîshk
   be bewildered                                      tif ‫ ﺗــــــﻒ‬spit; ~-kirdin v.t. to spit; ~-kir-
te- ì cmpd. vb. agent; see te-gayshtin,                  dinawa v.t. to spit out; ~ân ‫ ﺗـــﻔـــﺎن‬tife-
   te hał-chûn, te-kutân                                   ‫ﺗﻔ‬
                                                         ‰‫ ــ‬v.i. to spit; ~ânà dam yek ‫ــﺎﻧـﻪ دﻩم ﯾـﻪ‬     ‫ﺗﻔ‬
tebar ‫ــﻪر‬m‫ــ‬Œ‫ ﺗــ‬lit, burning; ~-bûn v.i. to be         ‫ ک‬to plot, conspire
   lit (fire), to burn; ~-dân v.t. to light            tifang ‫ـﮓ‬s‫ ﺗـﻔـﻪ‬rifle, shotgun; ~-hâwîshtin
   (fire): âgirî tebar dâ he lit a fire; to set            v.t. to fire a rifle
   a dog on                                           tikândin ‫ ـﲀﻧ ـﺪن‬Ž tiken- ‫ ـﻦ‬Œ‫ ـﮑ ـ‬Ž v.t. to drip,
tebînî ‫;ﲎ‬Ò²‫ ﺗ‬observation                                 cause to drip; âbřû-~ to dishonor:
tek ‫ ــﮏ‬together; ~-bar-bûn v.i. to fight;
        ²‫ﺗ‬                                               âbřû’y tikândim he dishonored me
   ~-birdin v.t. to throw things together;            tifâq ‫ ﺗﻔﺎق‬provisions
   ~-chûn v.i. to change, lose one’s com-             tift ‫ ﺗﻔﺖ‬mouth-puckeringly sweet
   posure, to get mixed up; ~-chûn la to              tikheł Ç‫ ﲣــ²ــ‬stretched out on the ground,
   be mistaken, be the wrong person:                     prone, prostrate
   lem tek chûy I thought you were                    tikhun ‫ ﲣــــــــﻮن‬near; ~ i ... kawtin to get
   someone else; ~-chûn lagał to dis-                    near: tikhun i âgir nakawî you
   agree with; ~-dân v.t. to spoil, mix                  shouldn’t get near the fire
   up; ~-hał-dân v.t. to kick; to lock                                     ‫ـ‬                  ‫ـ‬
                                                      tiłakân ‫ـﻪﰷن‬k‫ ﺗ‬tiłake- ‰‫ـﻪﮐـ‬k‫ ﺗ‬v.i. to be sha-
   horns; ~-khirân v.p. to get tied to-                  ken; râ-~ to be shaken up (as liquid in
   gether; ~-khistin v.t. to tie together;               a bottle); râ-tiłakândin tiłaken- v.t.
   ~-kirdinawa v.t. to break someone’s                   to shake up
   bones in a fight: lashyân hamû tek                  tiłaqân ‫ﻪﻗﺎن‬k‫ = ﺗ‬tiłakân
   kirdawa they beat him to a pulp; ~-                tilân ‫ ﺗـــﻼن‬tile- ‰‫ ﺗـــﻠـــ‬v.i. to toss and turn;
   shikân v.i. to collapse                               ~dinawa ‫ ﺗـﻼﻧـﺪﻧـﻪوﻩ‬v.t. to toss; to juggle;
tekał ‫ ﺗــــ²ــــﮑــــﻪڵ‬with, along with; bo ~ ba        to deal (ba with)
   together with; ~-pekał all mixed up,               tilîs ‫ ﺗـــﻠـــ›ـــﺲ‬drenched, sopping wet; ~ân
   jumbled; ~-dân v.t. to stir: shîraká                  ‫ ﺗﻠ›ﺴـﺎن‬tilîse- ‰‫ ﺗﻠ›ﺴـ‬v.i. to get drenched;
                                                              ‫ـــ‬                ‫ـــ‬
   tekał da stir the milk; dast ~-kirdin                 ~ândin ‫ ﺗـﻠـ›ـﺴـﺎﻧـﺪن‬tilîsen- ‫ـﻦ‬Œ‫ ﺗـﻠـ›ـﺴـ‬v.t. to
   lagał v.t. to have carnal relations with:             wet
   damawe lagałim rek bikawî u dast’im                tiłîsh ‫ـــ›ـــ ﺶ‬k‫ ﺗـــ‬ripped, torn: kirâsakám ~ ~
   lagał tekał bikay I want you to lie                   bû my shirt was ripped to shreds; ~-
   with me and have sex with me                          birdin v.t. to split: dâr tilîshî bird the
te-koshân ‫- ﺗ ـ² ـﮑ ـﯚﺷ ـﺎن‬koshe- ‰‫ ﺗ ـ² ـﮑ ـﯚﺷ ـ‬to                                  ‫ـ ــ‬          ‫ـ ــ‬
                                                         tree split; ~ân ‫›ﺸـﺎن‬k‫ ﺗ‬tilîshe- ‰‫›ﺸـ‬k‫ ﺗ‬v.i.
   strive, to struggle                                   to split; ~ândin ‫›ﺸـﺎﻧـﺪن‬k‫ ﺗ‬tilîshen- ‫ـــ ــﻦ‬
                                                                                          ‫ـــ‬           Œ‫›ﺸ‬k‫ﺗ‬
tekrâ ‫ ﺗــ²ــﮑــﺮا‬altogether; ba ~î in general,          v.t. to split
   generally                                          tilyâk ‫ = ﺗﻠﻴﺎک‬tiryâk
tepar ‫ــﻪر‬Ü‫ــ‬Œ‫-~ :ﺗــ‬bûn ba sar …dâ v.i. (for         tiłyân ‫ﻴﺎن‬k‫ ﺗ‬tiłe- ‰k‫ ﺗ‬v.t. to leave, allow
   time) to pass after …; ~-kirdin la v.t.            tir ‫ـﺮ‬Ž other; hîch i ~ nothing else: nama-
   to exceed, surpass                                    twânî hîch i tir bikam I couldn’t have
ter1 ‫ـﺮ‬Œ‫ ﺗـ‬full, satiated; ~khaw ‫ـﻪو‬L‫ـﺮ‬Œ‫ ﺗـ‬hav-          done anything else; yek~ each other
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                           SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
tirâzân ‫ـــــــــﺮازان‬Ž v.i. to go to pieces; ~ la          pe dakan he thought they were mak-
   shwen kho to be unrecognizable                           ing fun of him
tire ‫ﺮێ‬Ž grapes                                          tîz-kirdin ba ‫ــﺮدن ﺑــﻪ‬B ‫ ﺗــﲒ‬v.t. to make fun
tiřo-kirdin ‫ــــﺮدن‬B ‫ۆ‬g‫ــــ‬Ž v.t. to disgrace, to           of; ~-kirdin ba ...awa v.t. to poke,
   drive away in disgrace                                   poke fun at
tirpa sound ‫ـﺮﭘـﻪ‬Ž of a footfall; ~ i pe ‫ـﺮﭘـﻪى‬Ž         tîzh Ã‫ ﺗـــ‬sharp, hot, spicy; fast, quick; in-
   ‰Š‫ ﭘ‬footstep                                             sistent
tirs ‫ﺮس‬Ž fear                                            tkâ ‫ـــــﲀ‬Ž request; ~-kirdin v.t. to request,
tirsân ‫ــــﺮﺳــــﺎن‬Ž tirse- ‰‫ــــﺮﺳــــ‬Ž la v.i. to be      beg: tkâ akam please
   afraid of, fear                                       to ‫ ﺗﯚ‬you (sing.)
tirsândin ‫ــﺮﺳــﺎﻧــﺪن‬Ž tirsen- ‫ــﻦ‬Œ‫ــﺮﺳــ‬Ž v.t. to      tobra ‫ ﺗﯚ–ﺮﻩ‬sack
   scare; tirsenar ‫ـــﻪر‬ž‫ـــ‬Œ‫ـــﺮﺳـــ‬Ž frightening,      tof ‫ ﺗـﯚف‬blizzard; ~ân ‫ ﺗـﯚﻓـﺎن‬blizzard, del-
   scary                                                    uge
tirsh ‫ـــــــــــــﺮش‬Ž bitter; khoshit be u ~it be       tok ‫ ﺗﯚک‬tree bark
   whether you like it or not                            toła ‫ـﻪ‬T‫ ﺗـﯚ‬revenge; ~ i … kirdinawa v.t. to
tiryâk ‫ک‬p‫ـﺮ‬Ž opium; ~kesh ‫ک ــﺶ‬p‫ـﺮ‬Ž opi- Œ‫ﮐ‬                 take revenge for: biřyâr’yân dâ toła i
   um smoker; ~î ‫ﰽ‬p‫ﺮ‬Ž opium addict                          am âbřûchûnáyân bikanawa they de-
tis ‫ـــﺲ‬E fart (noiseless); ~-dân v.t. to fart;             cided to take revenge for this outrage
   ~in ‫ــــﺴــــﻦ‬E farter, “old fart,” idler; ~în           against their dignity
   ‫ﺴﲔ‬E v.i. to fart                                      tom(a) ‫ ﺗـــــــﯚﻣـــــــﻪ، ﺗـــــــﯚم‬seed, grain; tom-
tizân ‫ـﺰان‬Ž tize- ‫ـﺰێ‬Ž v.i. to collect (liquid),            washândin v.t. to sow, scatter seed
   well up: dastim khwenî te tizâwa                      tomâr ‫ ﺗــﯚﻣــﺎر‬record, document; ~-kirdin
   blood has collected in my hand; fir-                      v.t. to record
   mesk la châwim tizâ tears welled up                   top ‫ ﺗــــﯚپ‬ball; big lie; ~al ‫ ﺗــــﯚﭘــــﺎل‬round;
   in my eyes                                               ~chî ‫ ﺗﯚﭘﭽﯽ‬cannoneer; liar
tîgh ‫ ﺗﻴﻎ‬blade                                           topîn ‫ ﺗـﯚﭘـﲔ‬top- ‫ ﺗـﯚپ‬v.i. to die (of an ani-
tîka ‫ ﺗﻴﮑﻪ‬bit, piece                                        mal); hał-~ to drop dead
tîmâr-kirdin ‫ــﺮدن‬B ‫ ﺗــ7ر‬v.t. to care for the           toplâkh ‫ ﺗـﯚﭘـﻼخ‬piled up; ~a-kirdin ‫ـﻪ‬L‫ﺗـﯚﭘـﻼ‬
   ill                                                      ‫ـــــﺮدن‬B v.t. to pile up: payn u qur ba sar
tîn ‫ ﺗـــﲔ‬power, force; ba ~awa powerful-                   yekâ toplâkhay kirdûa he’s piled up
   ly; be~ ‫ﲔ‬n²‫ ﺑ‬powerless, weak                             dung and mud on top of each other
tîn|û ‫ـﻮو‬ž›‫ ﺗ‬thirsty: ~ma I’m thirsty; ~wetî
           ‫ــ‬                                            toq ‫ ﺗــــــﯚق‬top: bardèkî la ~ i sarim dâ he
   ‫ﱴ‬l‫ﻮ‬ž›‫ ﺗ‬thirst                                            threw a stone on top of my head
tîp ‫ ﺗ›ﭗ‬group, contingent; team                          toqał ‫ ﺗـﯚﻗـﻪڵ‬patch: ~ a tûtiřikèk a patch of
tîr ‫ ﺗﲑ‬arrow                                                wild strawberries
tîra ‫ ﺗــﲑﻩ‬clan, family branch, subdivision              tow ‫ = ﺗﯚو‬tom; ~ i mirîshik egg
   of a hoz                                              toz ‫ ﺗـــﯚز‬dust; ~-kirdin v.t. to stir up dust;
tîsha ‫ ﺗـ›ـﺸـﻪ‬sprout; ~biř g‫ ﺗـ›ـﺸـﻪ–ـ‬frost that            ~e ‫~ , ﺗﯚزێ‬èk ‫ ﺗﯚز¤ﮏ‬a little bit
   kills young sprouts                                   tozhar ‫ ﺗﯚژﻩر‬researcher, investigator
tîshk ‫ ﺗ›ﺸﮏ‬ray                                           trâzân ‫ــــــﺮازان‬Ž trâze ‫ــــــﺮازێ‬Ž v.i. to go to
tîsk ‫ ﺗـــــ›ـــــﺴـــــﮏ‬clump of hair; bunch of            pieces, fall apart; kâr la kâr ~ to be
   grapes; long-haired: mařèk i ~ long-                     all over
   haired sheep                                          trîkândin ‫ـﲀﻧـﺪن‬a‫ـﺮ‬Ž trîken- ‫ـﻦ‬Œ‫ـﮑـ‬a‫ـﺮ‬Ž v.t. to
tîtâł ‫ ـﺎڵ‬µ‫ ﺗ ـ› ـ‬joke; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to make            scream
   fun of, play a joke on: pey wâ bû tîtâlî                                    ‫ﯾﻘ‬                 ‫ﯾﻘ‬
                                                         trîqânawa ‫ـﺮــﺎﻧـﻪوﻩ‬Ž trîqe- ‰‫ـﺮــ‬Ž v.i. to guf-
                                                     233
                                       SORANI KURDISH
   faw, laugh out loud                                   ness of character; ~-kirdin v.t. imprs.
trîshqa ‫ﺮ§ﺸﻘﻪ‬Ž lightning                                 to be cold and rainy (of the weather):
tropîn ‫ﺮۆﭘﲔ‬Ž v.i. = topîn                                hawâkay tûsh kird the weather turned
trombel ‫²ﻞ‬m‫ﺮۆﻣ‬Ž = trumbîl                                bad; ~î ‫ ﺗﻮوﳽ‬bad weather
trumbîl ‫ﻴﻞ‬m‫ﺮوﻣ‬Ž automobile                             tûtiřik ‫ک‬gŽ‫ ﺗﻮو‬wild strawberry
                                       ‫ـ‬
trushkân ‫ـﺮوﺷـﲀن‬Ž trushke- ‰‫ـﺮوﺷﮑـ‬Ž v.i. to            twân ‫ ﺗـــﻮان‬twe- ‫ ﺗـــﻮێ‬v.t. to want; ~awa =
   squat; hał-~ to squat down                            tâwân
trûkân ‫ـﺮووﰷن‬Ž trûke- ‰‫ـﺮووﮐـ‬Ž v.i. to blink:          twânâ ‡‫ ﺗـــــــﻮا‬ability: hargiz la twânâm’â
   la châw trûkânèk’dâ in the twinkling                  niya it will never be within my ability,
   of an eye; ~din ‫ـــــــﺮووﰷﻧـــــــﺪن‬Ž trûken-        ba pe i ~ inasfar as possible
   ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ﺮووﮐ‬Ž v.t. to blink                               twânîn ‫ ﺗـﻮاﻧـﲔ‬twân- ‫ ﺗـﻮان‬v.t. to be able (+
trûsk ‫ـﺮووﺳـﮏ‬Ž shine, gleam; ~a ‫ـﺮووﺳـﮑـﻪ‬Ž               subj)
   glimmer, gleam; ~âî ‫ـــــﺮووﺳـــــﲀﰃ‬Ž faint         twânj ‫ ﺗـﻮاﱋ‬disapprobation; ~-girtin da to
   glimmer; ~ân ‫ـﺮووﺳـﲀن‬Ž trûske- ‰‫ـﺮووﮐـ‬Ž               find fault with
   v.i. to shine, to gleam                             twâshâ-kirdin ‫ــــﺮدن‬B ‫ = ﺗــــﻮاﺷــــﺎ‬tamâshâ-
tułân-awa ‫ﻧـــــﻪوﻩ‬Ÿ‫ ﺗـــــﻮ‬v.i. to fall to pieces       kirdin
   (from being cooked too much): gosh-                 twe-kirdin ‫ــﺮدن‬B ‫ ﺗــﻮێ‬v.t. to rip to shreds:
   taká hend kulîwa tulâwatawa the                       bulbul ka garm i naghmaya âgir da-
   meat has been so overcooked it’s                      kâtawa / khuncha hazîna, jarg u dilî
   fallen to pieces                                      bo dakâ twe (Nâlî) the nightingale,
tumaz ‫ ﺗﻮﻣﻪرز‬wouldn’t you know?                          hot with song, bursts into flame; the
tumâr ‫ = ﺗﻮﻣﺎر‬tomâr                                      bud is saddened and rips her heart to
tund ‫ ﺗــﻮﻧــﺪ‬tight; fast, swift; hot, spicy; ~-         shreds for him
   kirdin v.t. to hold tight, to make fast             tweł Çl‫ ﺗﻮ‬forehead
turben ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ ﺗﻮرﺑ‬bag, sack                                tyâ ‫ = ﺗـﻴـﺎ‬tey(d)â in it; ~-birdin v.t. to do
turkmân ‫ ﺗﻮرﮐﲈن‬Turcoman                                  away with, to eliminate; ~-chûn v.i. to
tursh ‫ ﺗـــــﻮرش‬sour; ~ândin ‫ﺗـــــﻮرﺷـــــﺎﻧـــــﺪن‬     go away, disappear; ~ râ-mândin v.i.
   turshen- ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ ﺗﻮرﺷ‬v.t. to make sour                     to be perplexed, confused; to ponder
tutin ‫ﻦ‬Ž‫ ﺗﻮ‬tobacco                                     tyâtro ‫ ـﺮۆ‬Ž‫ ﺗ ـﻴ ـﺎ‬theater; ~khâna ‫ ـﺎﻧ ـﻪ‬L‫ ـﺮۆ‬Ž‫ﺗ ـﻴ ـﺎ‬
tûk ‫ ﺗـﻮوک‬hair; ~asar ‫ ﺗـﻮوﮐـﻪﺳـﻪر‬hair on the            theater
   head
tûla v‫ ﺗﻮو‬a small hunting dog                          u ‫ و‬and
tûřa ‫ ﺗــــﻮوڕﻩ‬angry, mad; ~î ‫ ﺗــــﻮوڕﻩﱙ‬anger:        umed ‫ ﺋـﻮ ــﺪ‬hope; nâ~ ‫ ‡ﺋـﻮ ــﺪ‬desperate, in
                                                               ´‫ﻣ‬              ´‫ﻣ‬
   ba tûřaîawa rû’y le kirdim he turned                  despair
   away from me in anger                               urûpâ ‫ﻮرووﭘﺎ‬l Europe
tûraka ‫ ﺗﻮورﻩﮐﻪ‬sack, bag                               utrumbîl ‫ﻴﻞ‬m‫ﺮوﻣ‬Ž‫ ﺋﻮ‬automobile
Tûrân ‫ ﺗـــــــــــــــﻮوران‬Turan, the traditional
   Transoxanian enemy of Iran                          wa1 ‫ = وﻩ‬ba: wakhabar = bakhabar, wa
tûsh1 ‫ ﺗـﻮوش‬meeting, involved; ~-bûn v.i.               re = ba re; wadast = ba dast
   to meet, come across: dwene la sha-                 wa2 ‫ وﻩ‬and
   qâm’dâ tûshî bûm I met him in the                   wach ‫ وﻩچ‬offshoot, offspring
   street yesterday; ~-kirdin v.t. to get              wa‘d ‫ وﻩ`ـــــﺪ‬promise; ~-dân v.t. to prom-
   someone involved: to tûshit kirdim                   ise
   you got me involved                                 wadast ‫ = وﻩدﻩﺳﺖ‬ba dast
tûsh2 ‫ ﺗـــــــﻮوش‬cold, rainy weather; mean-           wafât ‫ وﻩﻓﺎت‬death; ~-kirdin v.t. to die
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                         SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
wafd ‫ وﻩﻓﺪ‬delegation                                  shaken out: jilakát dâwashâ your
wajâkh ‫ وﻩ•ـــــــــﺎخ‬male offspring; ~kwer           clothes have been shaken out; râ-~ to
 ‫ﻮ¤ﺮ‬B‫ وﻩ•ﺎخ‬childless                                  be shaken; to waste away (from ill-
wak ‫ وﻩک‬like; ~ yek alike, all the same;              ness): lashî dâwashâwa his body has
 ~î ka on the other hand                              wasted away; ~-awa la to be suitable
wakht ‫ وﻩﺧــــــــﺖ‬time: l’ aw ~á’dâ at that          for, proper for: am kârá la to nâwa-
 time; ~ bû, ~â bû nearly, almost (+                  shetawa this is not suitable for you,
 subj.) wakht bû bizîqene he almost                   am jilá la to dawashetawa these
 screamed; wakht-a la birsân bimirim                  clothes suit you
 I’m about to die of hunger; ~ basar                 washândin ‫ وﻩﺷـﺎﻧـﺪن‬washen- ‫ وﻩ ــﻦ‬v.t. to
                                                                                         Œ‫ﺷ‬
 birdin ba v.t. to while away time by;                shake, scatter; dâ-~ to bend down and
 ~î ‫ وﻩﺧﱴ‬temporary                                    shake: dârèkî bo dâwashând barî na-
wakû ‫ـﻮو‬B‫ وﻩ‬as though (+ subj.): ~ shitèk’î           kawt he bent down a tree and shook it
 bîr kawtibetawa as though he remem-                  but the fruit didn’t fall; hał-~ to rip
 bered something                                      open, rip apart; râ-~ to shake violent-
wałâm ‫م‬Ÿ‫ وﻩ‬answer, response; ~-dân v.t.               ly
 to answer                                           washârtû ‫ وﻩﺷﺎرﺗﻮو‬hidden
waqt ‫ = وﻩﻗﺖ‬wakht                                    wastâ ‫ وﻩﺳ8ﺘﺎ‬master, professor
wára ‫ وﻩرﻩ‬come!, come on! (impt. sing.               wassân ‫ وﻩﺳــــــــــــــﺎن‬wass- ‫ = وﻩس‬wastân
 of hâtin)                                            wast-
warân ‫ وﻩران‬v.i. to fall; to writhe; hał-~                          8
                                                     wastân ‫ وﻩﺳــــﺘــﺎن‬wast- ‫( وﻩﺳــﺖ‬v.i., pres.
 to fall down                                         tense often contracted to dast- for
wargeř g‫ـــ‬Œ‫ وﻩرﮔـــ‬translator; ~ân ‫ان‬g‫ـــ‬Œ‫وﻩرﮔـــ‬    dawast-) to stand, stop; ~ la to be
 translation                                          tired of: wastâwim la kâr I’m tired of
war-geřân ‫ان‬g‫ــــ‬Œ‫ وﻩرﮔــــ‬v.t. to translate; ~à      working; ~awa la to confront: ley
 sar ... to translate into: am ktebáy                 wastâmawa shaqèkim te hałdâ I con-
 wargeřâyà sar fârsî he translated this               fronted him and gave him a kick; hał-
 book into Persian; ba pishtè ~ to                    ~ to get up, stand up; ba pe i … hał-~
 knock (s.o.) over on his back, to                    to carry out, execute; râ-~ to stand up,
 knock down                                           stop, stay
wárin ‫ وﻩرن‬come!, come on! (impt. pl.                                       ‫ــ‬             ‫ــ ـ‬
                                                     wastândin ‫ وﻩﺳ8ﺘـﺎﻧـﺪن‬wasten- ‫ـﻦ‬Œ‫ وﻩﺳ8ﺘ‬v.t.
 of hâtin)                                            to stop; (2) to tire out; (3) to take
wařis(t) ‫ وﻩڕﺳﺖ‬fed up, exasperated                    back, to get back: dabe aw qarzáy le
wařîn ‫ـــﻦ‬a‫ وﻩڕ‬v.i. to bark: sa i hîch darkèk         wastenim I have to get that loan back
 pet nâwaře “you’re a stranger at no                  from him
 door”; hał-~ = hał-warân                            wawî ‫ وﻩوی‬bride, daughter-in-law
wařs ‫ وﻩڕس‬bored                                      waz ‫ وﻩز‬down
warz ‫ وﻩرز‬tall (= barz); season of plant-            waz‘ ‫ وﻩزع‬situation
 ing and harvesting                                  wazândin ‫ وﻩزا ـﻧ ﺪن‬wazen- ‫ وﻩز¤ـﻦ‬v.t.: dâ-~
warza ‫ وﻩرزﻩ‬height, promontory, hill                  to let out/off (of vehicle)
warzish ‫ وﻩرزش‬sports, exercise                       wazârat ‫ وﻩزارﻩت‬ministry: ~ i darawa
waset ‫ــﺖ‬Œ‫ وﻩﺳــ‬will and testament; ~-kir-            ministry of the interior
 din v.t. to make one’s last will                    wazin ‫ وﻩزن‬pain, hurt, annoyance
washân ‫ وﻩﺷـــــﺎن‬washe- ‰‫ وﻩﺷـــــ‬v.i. to be        wazîn ‫ــــﻦ‬a‫ وﻩز‬v.i. to blow (wind); dâ-~ to
 shaken, to be scattered; dâ-~ to be                  get out/off (of a vehicle), to come
                                                 235
                                       SORANI KURDISH
  down; (2) to lose (game); hał-~ to                     ‫ و¸ﺎﻧ²ﮏ‬after a short pause
  jump up                                              wiłâkh ‫خ‬Ÿ‫ و‬beast of burden
wazîr ‫ـــــــﺮ‬a‫ وﻩز‬vizier, minister: sarak ~ân         wiłâm ‫م‬Ÿ‫ = و‬walâm
  prime minister                                       wiłât ‫ت‬Ÿ‫ و‬country, state; homeland: ~ a
wâ ‫ وا‬thus                                               yekgirtûakân i Amerikâ the United
wâda ‫ وادﻩ‬appointed time, usual time                     States of America
wâq ‫ واق‬mind, brain: ~im wiř-mâ my                     win ‫ ون‬lost; ~-bûn v.i. to be lost; la
  brain spun                                             châw ~-bûn v.i. to disappear from
wâqi‘ ‫ واﻗــــﻊ‬actuality, reality: la ~ i zhyân          sight: tâ la châw win nabet until it
  zor ba dûrin they are far from the                     disappears from view; ~-kirdin v.t. to
  reality of life                                        lose
wârisht ‫ وارﺷﺖ‬raining                                  wiř ‫ وڕ‬dizzy; ~-bûn/mân v.i. to spin, be
wâta ‫ واﺗﻪ‬i.e., that is to say                           dizzy; ~-kirdin v.t. to make dizzy
wâz-henân la v ‫ واز ﻫـــ²ـــﻨـــﺎن‬v.t. to leave,       wirch ‫ ورچ‬bear
  abandon; to dissuade, persuade … not                 wird ‫ ورد‬little, tiny; ~a ~a ‫ وردﻩ وردﻩ‬little
  to: zor hawl dadâ bâwkî l’ am kalkalá                  by little, slowly; ~-bûnawa v.i. to
  i zhin henâná wâzbene he is trying                     investigate, examine closely; ~ u
  hard to dissuade his father from his                   khâsh-kirdin ‫ـــــﺮدن‬B ‫ـــــﺎش‬L ‫ ورد و‬v.t. to
  wish to take a wife                                    crush, smash; ~akâr ‫ وردﻩﰷر‬investi-
wâzha ‫ واژﻩ‬word; ~gal ‫ واژﻩﮔـــــــﻪل‬vocabu-             gator; ordered, regular; ~akârî ‫وردﻩ‬
  lary                                                   ‫ ﰷری‬investigation; order, regularity
we ‫ وێ‬lighted, afire: âgir weya the fire’s               wiřena-kirdin ‫ـﺮدن‬B ‫ـﻨـﻪ‬l‫ وڕ‬v.t. to talk non-
  lit; ~-kawtin v.t. to try: we kawa bizâ-               sense, to talk in one’s sleep
  na la kweya try to find out where it is;              wirg ‫ ورگ‬tripe
  ~-kirdin v.t. to light: âgiraká we ka                wiřk ‫ وڕک‬childish begging, whining; ~-
  light the fire; ~-rizân v.t. to bother,                 girtin la v.t. to pester
  annoy: wem darize dastim le bar nâdâ                 wirm ‫ ورم‬destroyed, damaged
  he annoys me constantly                              wirsha ‫ ورﺷــــــــــﻪ‬brightness, glitter; ~dâr
weł Ç‫ـــــــــ‬l‫ و‬loose, wandering, stray; mis-           ‫ ورﺷﻪدار‬bright, loud in color
  aimed, misfired; ~-bûn v.i. to search                 wiryâ p‫ ور‬clever; observant: wiryây ba
  (ba dwâ i …dâ for); ~-kirdin v.t. to                   observe it carefully
  let go, turn loose, cease                            wirûzhân ‫ ورووژان‬v.i. to be excited (of a
wena ‫ـــﻨـــﻪ‬l‫ و‬picture, image; ~gir ‫ـــﻨـــﻪﮔـــﺮ‬l‫و‬     flock, crowd)
  photographer                                         wis-bûn ‫ وس ﺑــــﻮون‬v.i. to be quiet: wis ba
werâ i ‫ و¤ﺮای‬along with                                  be quiet!, shut up!
werân ‫ و¤ﺮان‬destroyed, ruined                          wisha ‫ وﺷﻪ‬word; ~dân ‫ وﺷﻪدان‬dictionary
werân ‫ و¤ـــﺮان‬were- ‫( و¤ـــﺮێ‬v.t. + subj.) to         wishk ‫ وﺷـــــﮏ‬dry; ~-bûn to stop dead in
  dare: nayawerâ bibizûetawa he didn’t                   one’s tracks: la je i khom wishk bûm I
  dare budge                                             was glued to the spot
weza ‫ و¤ﺰﻩ‬ambush, sneak attack                         wishtir ‫ وﺷﱰ‬camel
wezh|ân ‫ و¤ـﮋان‬wezhe- ‫ و¤ـﮋێ‬v.t. to speak,             wishyâr ‫ وﺷـ8ـﻴـﺎر‬awake; ~-bûnawa v.i. to
  say; ~a ‫ و¤ـﮋﻩ‬literature; ~ar ‫ و¤ـﮋﻩر‬speak-            wake up, be awake
  er, announcer; ~wân ‫ و¤ﮋوان‬literary                  wit ‫ وت‬speech; ~-u-wezh ‫ وت و و¤ـــــﮋ‬lan-
wichân ‫ و¸ـــــــﺎن‬rest, pause; be~ ‫/و¸ـــــــﺎن‬         guage, speech, talk; ~-u-wezh-kirdin
                                        ‫ﺗ‬
  without rest; pâsh kurta ~èk ‫ـﻮرـﻪ‬B ‫ﭘـﺎش‬               v.t. to talk, to discuss; ~a ‫ وﺗــــــــــﻪ‬word,
                                                   236
                          SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
  speech; ~âr ‫ر‬c‫ و‬speech, article                         man
witin ‫ــــــﻦ‬Ž‫ و‬łe- ‰‫ــــــ‬T ba v.t. to say to, tell:   yek ‫ ﯾــــــــﻪک‬one: ~e l’ awân one of them;
  pe’m wit I told him; ~awa to repeat                     ~èkyân one of them; each other; dânà
witrân ‫ـــﺮان‬Ž‫ و‬witre- ‫ـــﺮێ‬Ž‫ و‬v.p. to be said;           ~ v.t. to throw together; har ~ay each
  ~ ba to be called: Hama’y pe dawitre                    one of them; hâtinà ~ to collapse, to
  he is called Hama                                       go to pieces; ~-girtin v.i. to unite; ~ la
witû ‫ وﺗ ـﻮو‬iron; ~-kirdin v.t. to iron; ~chî             dwâ i ~ one after another, successive:
          ‫ـ‬
  ‫ ﮐﺘـﻮوﭼـﯽ‬ironer, cleaner; ~kirâw ‫ـﺮاو‬B‫وﺗـﻮو‬             rizhem a yekladwâiyekakân i ‘erâq
  ironed                                                  successive regimes in Iraq; ~-khistin
wiza ‫ وزﻩ‬power, ability                                   v.t. to unite
wîrd ‫ــــﺮد‬a‫ و‬charm, incantation; ~-khwen-              -yèk ‫( ﯾـــــﻪک‬indef. encl. after vowels) = -
  din to recite an incantation                            èk
wîst ‫ و§ﺴﺖ‬will                                          yekatî ‫ ﯾــــﻪﮐــــﻪﰏ‬union: yekatî i sovyet the
wîstin ‫ و§ــــــﺴــــــﱳ‬we- ‫( وێ‬v.t., pres. tense         Soviet Union
  ‫( دﻩﻣـــــﻪوێ‬d)amawe, ‫( دﻩﺗـــــﻪوێ‬d)atawe,           yekdang ‫ﮓ‬s‫ ﯾﻪﮐﺪﻩر‬unanimous(ly)
  &c., or ‫- ـﻢ دﻩوێ‬im (d)awe, ‫- ـﺖ دﻩوێ‬it               yekè ‰‫ ﯾﻪﮐ‬la one of
  (d)awe, &c.) to want; pe-~ to be                      yekèk ‫ ﯾــﻪﮐــ²ــﮏ‬someone, anyone who (+
  necessary                                               subj)
wurd ‫ = وورد‬wird                                        yeketî ‫ = ﯾﻪﮐ²ﱴ‬yekatî
wutuwezh-kirdin lagał ‫ﮔـﻪڵ‬v ‫ـﺮدن‬B ‫ـﮋ‬a‫ووﺗـﻮو‬                             ‫ـ ﺗ‬
                                                        yekgirtû ‫ ﯾـﻪﮐﮕـﺮـﻮو‬united: natawa yekgir-
  v.t. to converse, hold talks with                       tûakân the United Nations
wutin ‫ﻦ‬Ž‫ = وو‬witin                                                    ‫ـ‬
                                                        yekjâr ‫ـﺎر‬í'‫ ﯾـﻪ‬at once, altogether; ~î last,
wutû ‫ = ووﺗﻮو‬witû                                         final
                                                        yekkhistin ‫ ﯾﻪ'ﺨﺴﱳ‬unification
yakha ‫ ـﻪ‬L‫ ﯾ ـﻪ‬collar: dastyân dâyà yakha i             yeksar ‫ﺴﻪر‬B‫ ﯾﻪ‬immediately, right away
  yek they grabbed each other by the                    yeksân ‫ـﺴـﺎن‬B‫ ﯾـﻪ‬alike, identical; ~î identi-
  collar; ~-girtin ‫ـــﻦ‬Ž‫ـــﻪ ﮔـــﺮ‬L‫ ﯾـــﻪ‬v.t. to lay      cality
  hands on, get hold of, trap: ~’y girtim               yekshamma ‫ ﯾﻪ'ﺸﻪﳑﻪ‬Sunday
  she trapped me                                        yektir ‫ ﯾﻪﮐﱰ‬each other, one another
yaqa ‫ = ﯾﻪﻗﻪ‬yakha                                       yekudû ‫ـــﻮدوو‬B‫ ﯾـــﻪ‬without pause, straight-
yâd ‫د‬p memory; henânà ~ ‫د‬p ‫ ﻫـــ²ـــﻨـــﺎﻧـــﻪ‬to          away
  call to mind, remember; ~agâr ‫دﻩﮔــــﺎر‬p              yen- ‫ﻦ‬Œ‫ ﯾ‬see henân
  memory, souvenir, memento; ~âwar                      yeshân ‫ﺸـﺎن‬Œ‫ ﯾ‬yesh- ‫( ــﺶ‬v.i.&t.) to hurt:
                                                                        ‫ــ‬          Œ‫ﯾ‬
  ‫داوﻩر‬p reminder                                         sarim ayeshâ I had a headache
yâkhud ‫ﺧﻮد‬p or
yân ‫ن‬p or                                               zabalâḥ ‫ زﻩﺑﻪﻻح‬huge, enormous
yâna ‫ﻧﻪ‬p club                                           zabr ‫ زﻩ–ﺮ‬blow, force, strength
yâr ‫ر‬p friend                                           zabûn ‫ زﻩﺑــــــــــــﻮون‬miserable, helpless; ~î
yârałmâsî ‫ﲈﳻ‬T‫رﻩ‬p potato                                   ‫ زﻩﺑﻮوﱏ‬misery, helplessness
yârî ‫ری‬p play, game; ~-kirdin ‫ــــﺮدن‬B ‫ری‬p              zaḥmat ‫ زﻩﲪﻪت‬trouble, difficulty
  v.t. to play; ~kar ‫ﮑﻪر‬a‫ر‬p player                      za’îf ‫ زﻩﻋ ـﻴ ـﻒ‬thin; lâm i ~ ‫ ﻻﱉ زﻩﻋ ـﻴ ـﻒ‬the
yârîda ‫رﯾﺪﻩ‬p help, assistance                             liquid l
yârmatî ‫رﻣـﻪﰏ‬p help; ~-dân ‫رﻣـﻪﰏ دان‬p v.t.              zalâm ‫ زﻩﻻم‬big, large; fellow
  to help                                               zalîl ‫ زﻩﻟﻴﻞ‬wretched, downcast
yâsâ ‫ﺳـﺎ‬p law, statute; ~wil ‫ﺳـﺎول‬p police-             zamân ‫ زﻩﻣﺎن‬time
                                                    237
                                       SORANI KURDISH
zamâwin ‫ , زﻩﻣــــﺎون‬zamâwand ‫زﻩﻣــــﺎوﻩﻧــــﺪ‬           i ~ Ministry of Education
  wedding; ~-kirdin v.t. to wed                        zâr1 ‫ زار‬mouth: zârim bû ba tala i taqîw
zambar ‫ﻪر‬m‫ زﻩﻣ‬ornament                                   I was left speechless; dam-u-~ ‫دﻩم و‬
zamîn ‫ زﻩﻣﲔ‬earth, globe                                  ‫ زار‬mouth
zand ‫ زﻩﻧﺪ‬forearm                                      zâr2 ‫ زار‬miserable; la ~î in misery
zang ‫ﮓ‬s‫ زﻩ‬bell                                         zârâwa ‫ زاراوﻩ‬accent, dialect; zârawagal
zangał ‫ﮕﻪڵ‬s‫ = زﻩ‬zargal                                   ‫ زاراوﻩﮔﻪل‬dialect bundle
zangî ‫ﮕﯽ‬s‫ زﻩ‬black                                      zârawok ‫ زارﻩوۆک‬dialect, accent
zangîn ‫ﮕﲔ‬s‫ زﻩ‬rich                                      zârik ‫ زارک‬mouth, opening
zaq ‫ زﻩق‬outstanding                                    zârola v‫ زارۆ‬child
zař ‫ زﻩڕ‬gold; ~angar goldsmith                         zât ‫ زات‬being, personage; courage, dar-
zarâ’at ‫ زﻩرا`ﻪت‬agriculture                              ing; ~ i … bûn to dare to (do some-
zard ‫ زﻩرد‬yellow, blond; ~awâla v‫زﻩردﻩوا‬                 thing): ley datirsân u zât i nizzîk
  wasp, hornet; ~hałgařâw ‫ ـﮕ ـﻪڕاو‬T‫زﻩردﻫ ـﻪ‬             bûnawayân nabû they were afraid of
  yellowed                                               him and didn’t dare get near
zardakhana ‫ـــﻪﻧـــﻪ‬L‫ زﻩردﻩ‬smile; ~-girtin, -          zâwâ ‫ زاوا‬husband, in-law; father’s sis-
  kirdin v.t. to smile                                   ter’s husband; daughter’s husband;
zargał ‫ زﻩرﮔﻪڵ‬leggings                                   sister’s husband
zařîn ‫ﻦ‬a‫ زﻩڕ‬wasp                                       zâyała ‫ﻪ‬T‫ زاﯾﻪ‬echo
zarkî ‫ زﻩرﰽ‬jaundice, hepatitis                         zâye ‫ زاﯾﻪ‬lost; ~-bûn to be lost
zarq ‫ زﻩرق‬glitter, glimmer; ~î glittering,             zâyinî ‫ , زاﯾـــﲎ‬zâyînî ‫ زاﯾـــ›ـــﲎ‬A.D.: sada i
  bright                                                 nozdaham i ~ the 19th century A.D.
zarra ‫ زﻩررﻩ‬particle, atom                             zelkâw ‫ﻠﲀو‬l‫ ز‬marsh
zawî(n) ‫ﻦ‬a‫ زﻩوی، زﻩو‬earth, ground, floor                zeř g¤‫ ز‬gold; ~în ‫ﻦ‬ag¤‫ ز‬golden
zawîr ‫ــــﺮ‬a‫ زﻩو‬angry; ~ bûn la to be angry            zhahr ‫ ژﻩﻫـﺮ‬poison; ~âwî ‫ ژﻩﻫـﺮاوی‬poison-
  with                                                   ous; ~âwî-kirdin v.t. to poison
zawq ‫ زﻩوق‬taste; ~î ‫ زﻩوﰵ‬happiness                     zham ‫ ژﻩم‬meal
zawt-kirdin ‫ﺮدن‬B ‫ زﻩوت‬v.t. to usurp                    zhaman ‫ ژﻩﻣﻪن‬sustenance
zân ‫ زان‬ze- ‫ زێ‬v.i. to be born; to be col-             zhandin ‫ ژﻩﻧ ـﺪن‬v.t. to rub, stick (s.th. into
  lected (liquid), to well up: châwim                    s.th. else); hał-~ ditto: har dû dast’î
  firmeskî te zâ tears welled up in my                    hałzhandà khwen i azhdîhâká’dâ she
  eyes; âw zâyà dammân we’re drool-                      rubbed both hands in the dragon’s
  ing (in anticipation)                                  blood
zân|â ‡‫ زا‬learned; ~ist ‫ـﺴـﺖ‬ë‫ زا‬knowledge,             zhang ‫ــﮓ‬s‫ ژﻩ‬rust, verdigris; ~ le-dân v.t.
                               ‫ـ ـــ‬
  learning; ~istga ‫ﺴ8ﺘﮕـﻪ‬ë‫~ ,زا‬istgâ ‫ﺴ8ﺘﮕـﺎ‬ë‫زا‬ ‫ـ ـــ‬     to rust, get rusty
  university; ~istî ‫ـــﺴـــ8ـــﱴ‬ë‫ زا‬teaching, in-      zhân ‫ ژان‬pain, illness; ~-kirdin v.t. to
  struction; ~în ‫ زاﻧــــــــــــــﲔ‬zân- ‫ زان‬v.t. to     hurt, be painful; ~asar ‫ ژاﻧــــﻪﺳــــﻪر‬head-
  know: wâ bizânim as I believe, I think                 ache
  (so); wâ’m zânî gâlta’m dagal dakâ I                 zhândin ‫ ژاﻧــــــﺪن‬zhen- ‫ ژ¤ــــــﻦ‬v.t.: râ-~ to
  thought he was joking with me; ~în                     shake, rock
  zân- ba v.t. to consider as; ~rân ‫ـــﺮان‬s‫زا‬          zhânpon ‫ ژاﻧﭙﯚن‬Japan
  zânre- ‫ ـﺮێ‬s‫ زا‬v.p. to be known, discov-             zhâr ‫ ژار‬poor, miserable; poison; ~-dân
  ered; ~râw ‫ــــــــﺮاو‬s‫ زا‬discovery, finding;           v.t. to poison
  ~yâr ‫ زاﻧـــــــﻴـــــــﺎر‬learned, erudite; ~yârî    zher ‫ ژ¤ـــــــــــﺮ‬under, beneath; la ~ …awa
  ‫ زاﻧـﻴـﺎری‬knowledge, education: wazârat                from beneath, secretly; la ~ …dâ
                                                   238
                        SORANI–ENGLISH VOCABULARY
   under                                                                                ‫ﻧ‬
                                                       back to life; ~agânî ‫ زـﺪﻩﮔـﺎﱏ‬animation,
zhimâra ‫ ژﻣﺎرﻩ‬number, issue                                                           ‫ﻧ‬
                                                       liveliness; ~awar ‫ زــــــﺪﻩوﻩر‬animal, liv-
zhimârdin ‫ ژﻣــــﺎردن‬zhimer- ‫ــــﺮ‬Œ‫ ژﻣــــ‬v.t. to      ing creature
   count; ~ ba to consider as                       zinjîr ‫ زﳒﲑ‬chain
zhimerrân ‫ـــــﺮران‬Œ‫ ژﻣـــــ‬v.p. to be counted,     ziř ‫ زڕ‬barren tree; fart; step-; ~birâ ‫زڕ–ـــــﺮا‬
   reckoned                                            step-brother; ~khwishk ‫ زڕﺧـﻮﺷـﮏ‬step-
zhin ‫ ژن‬woman, wife; ~-henân v.t. to                   sister
   get married (of a man), to take a wife;          zirânî ‫ زراﱏ‬knee
                   ‫ﻧ‬
   ~brâ ‫ ژـــــــــﱪا‬wife’s brother; ~î ‫ ژﱏ‬wo-      zirâw ‫ زراو‬gall, courage; ~toqîn ‫زراوﺗــﯚﻗــﲔ‬
   manhood                                             galling
                     ‫ﻧ‬            ‫ﻧ‬
zhinawtin ‫ـﻦ‬Ž‫ ژـﻪو‬zhinaw- ‫ ژـﻪو‬v.t. to hear,                       ‫ـ‬                 ‫ـ‬
                                                    ziringân ‫ﮕـﺎن‬s‫ زر‬ziringe- ‰‫ﮕـ‬s‫ زر‬v.i to ring;
   listen to                                           ~awa ‫ﮕﺎﻧﻪوﻩ‬s‫ زر‬to reverberate
zhîkała ‫ﻪ‬T‫ﮑﻪ‬a‫ ژ‬cute, darling                        zirma ‫ زرﻣﻪ‬explosion, blast
zhîla(mo) (‫)ﻣﯚ‬ƒ‫ ژﯾ‬ember under ashes                 zirtaboz ‫ زرﺗﻪﺑﯚز‬crooked old man
zhîn ‫ﻦ‬a‫ ژ‬life; ~azhân ‫ ژﯾﻨﻪژان‬life                  zistân ‫ زﺳ8ﺘﺎن‬winter
zhîshik ‫ ژ§ﺸﮏ‬hedgehog                               ziwân ‫ = زوان‬zimân
zhûr ‫ ژوور‬room; upward direction; la                ziyâ p‫ ز‬much, more; ~tir la v ‫ـــﺮ‬Žp‫ ز‬more
   ~awa ‫ژوورﻩوﻩ‬v inside; ~è ‫ ژوورێ‬inside;              than
   baraw~ la v ‫ ﺑـــــــــــﻪرﻩوژوور‬on the other    ziyâd ‫د‬p‫ ز‬much; ~î increase; ~tir la
   side of                                             more than; ~-kirdin v.t. to add
zhûrû ‫ ژووروو‬north                                  ziyâfat ‫ﻓﻪت‬p‫ ز‬banquet
zhûzhû ‫ ژووژوو‬hedgehog                              ziyân ‫ن‬p‫ ز‬damage, loss
zhwânga ‫ﮕﻪ‬s‫ ژوا‬meeting place                        zîlamo ‫ﻣﯚ‬ƒ‫ = زﯾ‬zhîlamo
zhyân ‫ن‬p‫ ژ‬life; ~dostî ‫ﻧ ـﺪۆﺳ ـ8 ـﱴ‬p‫ ژ‬love of       zît ‫ زﯾﺖ‬clever
   life                                             zîn ‫ﻦ‬a‫ ز‬saddle
zhyân ‫ن‬p‫ ژ‬zhî- ‫ ژی‬v.i. to live; bízhî …             zînawar ‫ زﯾﻨﻪوﻩر‬alive, living thing
   long live …                                      zînd- ‫ زﯾﻨﺪ‬see zind-
zhyâr ‫ر‬p‫ ژ‬urban life                                zîndân ‫ زﯾﻨﺪان‬prison
zibân ‫ = ز¶ن‬zimân                                   zîndû ‫ = زﯾﻨﺪوو‬zindû
zibr ‫ ز–ﺮ‬rough, coarse                              zîqândin ‫ زﯾـــﻘـــﺎﻧـــﺪن‬zîqen- ‫ـــﻦ‬Œ‫ زﯾـــﻘـــ‬v.t. to
zig ‫ = زگ‬sik                                           scream
zigmâk ‫ زﮔــــﲈک‬congenital, native: zwân i          zîrak ‫ﺮﻩک‬a‫ ز‬clever
   ~im my native language                           zîz ‫ﺰ‬a‫ ز‬unhappy, angry
zik ‫ = زک‬sik                                        zmân1 ‫ = زﻣﺎن‬zabân
zikmâk ‫ = زﮐﲈک‬zigmâk                                zmân2 ‫ = زﻣﺎن‬zimân
zil ‫ زل‬large in body, huge                          zoł ‫ زۆڵ‬bastard
zilâm ‫ = زﻻم‬zalâm                                   zor1 ‫ زۆر‬force; ~-henân bo v.t. to apply
zilla ò‫ ز‬slap; ~-sirawândin v.t. to slap               force to; ~-kirdin la kho- v.t. to force
zimân ‫ زﻣـﺎن‬tongue, language; ~bad ‫زﻣـﺎ ــﻪد‬ ‫ﻧﺒ‬        oneself, try hard (+ subj., to do s.th.);
   foul-mouthed, ill-speaking; ~wân                    ~dâr ‫ زۆردار‬forceful, cruel, oppres-
   ‫ زﻣﺎﻧﻮان‬linguist                                    sive; ~dârî ‫ زۆرداری‬cruelty, oppres-
zindâna ‫ زﻧﺪاﻧﻪ‬prison                                  sion; piř~ ‫زۆر‬gº strong, forceful
              ‫ﻧ‬                       ‫ﻧ‬
zind|û ‫ زـﺪوو‬alive; ba ~ûî ‫ ﺑـﻪزـﺪووﰃ‬alive:         zor2 ‫ زۆر‬very; a lot, much; …èk i ~
   ba zindûî darhenrâ he was taken out                 many: shitèk i zor many things; ~’î pe
   alive; ba ~ heshtinawa v.t. to bring                nachû before long, it wasn’t long be-
                                                239
                                 SORANI KURDISH
  fore                                          zuřnâ ‡‫ زوڕ‬clarion
zorân ‫ زۆران‬wrestling; ~-girtin v.t. to         zurûf ‫ زورووف‬circumstances
  wrestle                                       zû ‫ زوو‬early, soon; ba ~î quickly, fast
zorba ‫ زۆرﺑــــﻪ‬large quantity; majority; ~ i   zûr ‫ زوور‬rough, coarse
  zor i the vast majority of                    zwân1 ‫ = زوان‬zimân tongue, language;
zorzân ‫ زۆرزان‬clever; ~î cleverness               ~nâs ‫ زوا ــﺎس‬linguist; ~nâsî ‫ زوا ــﺎﳻ‬lin-
                                                            ‫ﻧﻨ‬                     ‫ﻧﻨ‬
zozân ‫ زۆزان‬mountainous region, sum-                                                      8
                                                  guistic, linguistics; shewa~ ‫ﺷــــ²ــﻮﻩزوان‬
  mer pasturage                                   dialect
zubân ‫ = زو¶ن‬zimân                              zwân2 ‫ زوان‬time: b’ am ~á at this time
zulm ‫ زوﱂ‬injustice, tyranny; ~lekrâw ‫زوﱂ‬        zwel ‫ﻞ‬l‫ زو‬garbage
  ‫ ﻟ²ﮑﺮاو‬oppressed                              zwer ‫ زو¤ﺮ‬angry
zuřât ‫ زوڕات‬corn                                zwîr ‫ﺮ‬a‫ = زو‬zwer
zurba ‫ = زورﺑﻪ‬zorba




                                            240
                                General Index

‘Able, be’ §21                              §12.1
Adjectives, attributive §5; compara-      Orthographic peculiarities §41
   tive §13; with definite nouns §8;       Participles, past passive §34.1; per-
   superlative §13; synopsis §9             fect active §28
Alphabet, pp. 4–7                         Phonology, pp. 1–3
Bîr §22                                   Possession §6
Calendar §12.3                            Postpositions §14
Circumpositions §14                       Prepositions §14, preposed pronom-
Conditionals §19(5), §32(a), §33            inal prepositional complements
Conjunctions, subordinating §38             §14.1; possessive pronouns dis-
Copulas §15                                 placed by preposed prepositional
                                            complements §27.4
Days of the week §12.2
                                          Pronouns, agent affixes §27, as
Demonstratives §4
                                            logical objects of past transitive
Directionals §40                            verbs §27.2; personal §10; pos-
-è §40                                      sessive §10.1; preposed pronom-
Ergativity §27, §27.1                       inal complements §14.1; preposi-
‘Have’ §16                                  tional complements with agent af-
-îsh §11                                    fixes §27.3; possessive pronouns
                                            displaced by preposed preposi-
Izâfa §6, §7
                                            tional complements §27.4; pro-
Months §12.3
                                            nominal objects of verbs §23
Moods, irrealis §32
                                          Relative clauses §39
Noun, absolute state §1; definite
                                          ‘Remember’ §22
   state §3; indefinite state §2; plural
   nouns with attributive adjectives      South Sorani §27.1
   §8; postposed verbal comple-           Stress, p. 3
   ments §35; synopsis of states §9       Temporal duration §37
Numbers, cardinal §12, ordinal            Twânîn §21

                                      163
                           SORANI KURDISH
Verbs, factitive §36; imperative      perfect tense §29, §29.1; present
 §24; irrealis mood §32; in -awa      subjunctive §19; simple past §25;
 §18; passive voice §34; past con-    §27
 ditional §33; past habitual/pro- Vowel contractions §42
 gressive (intransitive) §26; past ‘Want’ §20
 passive participle §34.1; past per-
                                     Wîstin §20
 fect tense §30, §30.1; present ha-
 bitual/progressive §17; present -yatî §15, §29.1




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