Mountain Koiali – English Dictionary English – Mountain Koiali by abstraks

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									Mountain Koiali – English
      Dictionary

English – Mountain Koiali
       Dictionary



                by


       Roger & Susan Garland
               1983




          Unpublished 2009
Introduction

Mountain Koiali is one of six languages in the Koiarian language family (a subgroup of the
the Trans-New Guinea family), spoken by about 3,000 people, most of whom live on the
southern slopes of the Owen Stanley range in Central Province with a smaller group on the
northern slopes in Oro Province.

The information in this dictionary was collected over a 13-year period from 1970 to 1983 in
Efogi village. There are several dialects spoken elsewhere, but the material in this dictionary
is almost exclusively the Efogi dialect. Our primary language assistants during this time were
Ebe Bokoi, Nanaba Auka and Malulu Gilina as well as many others who helped us learn their
language and translate the Scriptures into their language. All work was done under the
auspices of SIL. The data here represents language information that we gleaned as we learned
Mt. Koiali and did translation. No attempt was made to thoroughly check every entry for
meaning and derivation




2                               Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary
a                                                                                                         avuti

                                                            A - a
a     you, your. A oleve tima? Where are you going? A sigau       aleto Lord's supper, communion. From: Motu.
      kubilianu. Your knife is dull. Subject and object           alia party, feast. From: Motu.
      pronouns are the same forms except subject sometimes        alikikia to yawn. Variant: alivovoa.
      carries the subject marker -u.                              alima to flow out. Mune ke malei vaki mole otovage e keu
abata hole(in the ground).                                              alimai. Take those stones and put them to the side so the
abavu to bury(a person or things). Abu nivu malaha ke                   water will flow out.
      abavulu. They buried that man yesterday. Dana di hau        alu corpse, spirit of dead ancestor.
      malei vatamo abavui. I will take my things and bury         alumuve root (of trees, plants).
      them.                                                       amakini sister. A kinship term used by males to refer to
abege should, ought(in a past context). Abege au ui nivu tai.           sisters or cousin son same generation level.
      He should have stayed and gone tomorrow(but he already      amatamaia to start, begin. From: Motu.
      left).                                                      ame army. From: English.
abu they, their. Abu abu lovi halevalu. They left their food.     amu breast, mu-mu.
      Di hotoeabe eviholinu. I did not hear their talk. The       amule to nest, sit on eggs, to stretch out on, to sprawl.
      possessive form changes when used in the object position          Kokolugu keu au unimo amulenu. The chicken is
      or when two persons or groups are used.                           sitting on its eggs. Di tiale idimo amulenu. I went and
abui two. Variant: abuita.                                              stretched out on the tree.
ada hand, arm, foreleg. idie ada branch (hand of tree) ugue       amututu variety of small ground lizard.
      ada wing(hand of bird) adae oko fingernail (claw of         amuva to make a mu-mu. Variant: auva.
      hand) adae viso finger (tip of hand)                        anaba bank of river.
adahi to weave (basket, net, string bag), to mend (basket, net,   anaka steps. Originally this was a notched log but now is
      string bag). Only used when referring to the bottom or            extended to mean any kind of steps.
      beginning of the weaving process and the closing of the     anani tangerine.
      top.                                                        ane to put on a hat. Di saneka mai kina anenu. I took my hat
aeama pig wallow.                                                       and put it on my head.
aeate large ground lizard.                                        anekia to be impossible, an intensive form of anekia. Di
aeate utite small ground lizard.                                        velou uvuge di tiveve keu anekianekianu. My foot is
aeha to divert, go around(a person or place), to not associate          swollen so my going is really impossible. 1s:
      with. Talive guli ke aeha Go and divert around that hole.         anekinekia.
      Vaveve toela vale ke aeha Don't associate with the one      anelu angel, spirit. From: Motu.
      who did that bad thing.                                     anua to make a deep, gutteral sound,e.g., to groan in pain. This
aga to be light. Di udaha alavoge aganu. I opened the door              is the sound used sometimes to make someone think you
      and light came in.                                                are a wild animal or a bad spirit.
agi to put(many things) inside(a string bag, knapsack, bag,       ataga to shine, be bright.
      purse). See: ehavu.                                         ataga torch, light.
ago a woven band. Used to be worn on arm or leg. Now used         atia to sprout new branches.
      to bind together something, e.g., the split stock of a      atugu wing tips.
      shotgun.                                                    au he, she, it.
agu red clay used for decorating one's body. It can also be       auaua large passion fruit.
      used as a verb meaning 'to be red colored like clay'.       augavada thumb.
ai    mouth.                                                      auli iron, steel. From: Motu.
aie bu lips(edge of mouth).                                       ausa chin.
aie luhu teeth(row of mouth).                                     ava woven mat.
aie vomo beard(fur of mouth).                                     avatutu name of a bad bush spirit which enters a person and
aihania to be poisonous, fierce. Can only refer to animals,             causes death.
      fish, snakes, not people.                                   ave brother-in-law.
aike now, at the present time.                                    avidoa to gather leaves for a bush bed. Avidoai malei lohoi
aiohavo to spoil someone or something.                                  tedinela. Gather leaves and bring them and put them
aivolovoloa to be a loudmouth(literally - to wring out the              down.
      mouth).                                                     avu third singular form used with suffixes.
akikino smallest finger.                                          avuemo from/on him/her/it.
akisia to sneeze.                                                 avuho for him/her/it.
alamege day after tomorrow, day before yesterday.                 avuti with him/her/it.
alavo to open(door, window, container).


                                     Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary                                      3
ba                                                                                                               beva

                                                                B - b
ba no(strong disagreement). Variant: be.                               bebunia to become thick and grey(like grease or storm
babaea to yell excitedly. Kosiau idi baluga heilage                           clouds).
      bokohovoge babaealu. The men cut the big tree down               beda to carry slung over the should(string bag, shotgun), to be
      and when it fell, they yelled excitedly.                               strung tightly. Gobavu etunuvage au bedai. Ige hau
babatisoa to be baptized. Basta keu ata ke                                   malei avuemo otovage au bedai ehumo ui. Hang up a
      babatisohavonu. The pastor baptized that person. In                    line of cane so it is tight. Then when you put things on it ,
      order to show an object of the action, -havo must be                   it will be tight(not sagging).
      added to the root word. Variant: babasitoa.                      bedada to block someone's way. Ata keu humahamo
badeli side. tanae badeli side of mountain kinae badeli side                 bedadage di halei humaha mole tinu. That person
      of head                                                                blocked my way so I took another road.
badi side. Talive e badie di hau mamoale ke ma. Go and get             bedalova to rake fire along the ground when burning a
      the thing I put at the side of the river. Often used of a side         garden.
      which is sloping or slanted.                                     bedi small stick.
badia to be tilted, not level. Beleiniu hovelahai tanaho               bedoia walking stick.
      badianu. The plane took off and turned because of the            beduti to slide down a hill by itself(things, not people).
      mountain.                                                        bego shoulder.
badivu to sew, to patch a kunai roof or bamboo wall.                   behisa large bush animal.
badua to be angry. From: Motu.                                         beholo bark or leaf water container. used for getting a quick
bae later, then.                                                             drink, not for carrying.
baea to be ripe, ready to pick.                                        beholoa to make a bark or leaf container.
baeki bag. From: English.                                              bei to weave or arrange(roof leaves, basket, bamboo), to
bagu bamboo(generic name).                                                   build(a fire).
bahata all, every. Variant: baita.                                     beia to itch(after touching certain grass or tree leaves).
bahoe opponent, enemy.                                                 beiava to go and meet someone(in order to help). A haokau
bai fruit. idie bai tree fruit                                               toveta lohoma. Talive beiava. Your friend is coming
baia to bear fruit.                                                          with a heavy load. Go and meet him.
baidisi bowl. From: English.                                           bekabeka thorns.
baita all, hard, loud. Baita lou. Speak loudly. Baita ke hama.         bekibekia to play(children or adults).
      Hit it hard. Variant: bahata.                                    bekuia to stir food in a cooking pot, to move things around
bala to be red-hot(stone or iron when heated).                               looking for something. Di moniu uoholige di hau
balamasi flying machine(airplane). From: English.                            bekuai niai. My money is finished and I will search
balia brown beetle.                                                          through my things and look(for more).
baluga big, much.                                                      bela to ask. Variant: belaha.
bamu to close(door, window, water tap, etc.).                          belala large parrot.
bana to lean against. Subject can be animate or inanimate.             belavu to join two things together. Hote abuita mai mole
banahu a bad feeling one has. Di banahu ualemo ainaho                        belavui butuha. Take the two vines and join them
      bulue tigei. I have this bad feeling so you should not go              together and pull.
      to the garden. Di aiti lahale kemo di banahumo omo u             beleidi bread. Variant: beledi. From: English.
      unahai. Because I slept with you(in same house) I have a         belema to meet someone(on the road).
      bad feeling and will stay home. This has to do with one's        belika spinster, a woman who has never married. an old word
      feelings about evil influences which are transmitted from              that had a meaning that indicated there was some bad
      one person to another. Hence one does not walk about                   reason she had not married.
      when that feeling is present because of the danger.              beloveta prophet. From: English.
banisia to punish. From: English.                                      bema if, unless. From: Motu.
basikolo bicycle. From: English.                                       benia to paint. From: English.
basileia kingdom. From: Motu.                                          benisi sword, bayonet.
bata moon.                                                             beno ridgepole.
bata to be fat(said of animals and people). From: English.             beoho stop it!(similar to 'hale'). Variant: boeho.
bato to yell suddenly to scare someone.                                bese family. From: Motu.
bavagu small things(stones, sticks) used to plug up small              betakamo to prick with sharp instrument ;, to get out a thorn
      holes when covering a large pit.                                       or splinter.
be river mouth, no(strong negative), one, some. Ata beu                betaki shoulder blade.
      uoholinu. There is no person(there).                             beteva to cut all the leaves off a tree(so the sun can shine
beba paper. Variant: beiba.                                                  through to the garden).
bebe other(person, thing). Da igae ua. Bebeu uoholinu Only I           beu mouse.
      am here. No other is here.                                       beva to be yellow(leaves, skin).
4                                       Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary
bevate                                                                                            debekebekea
bevate yellow(color).                                               boeho stop it!(similar to `hale'). Variant: beoho.
beve to search for(things, people), to spread(gossip).              boehoma to release from one's hand. Di ugu boehomage
beve where? A beve tima? Where are you going? See: oleve.                  tinu. I released the bird and it went.
bevua to gather together(things, people).                           bohi to cut(hair, cloth), to stop(rain).
bi   to stab, pierce. the action of this verb involves something    boho pit-pit fruit.
      going into something else. It can be used of a knife or       bokoa to break, fold. used with a plural object. See: eguma.
      spear piercing a person. It can be used of combing hair. It   bolekava green tree python.
      can also be used of a spirit piercing a person.               bolia to be tangled up, improperly done(refers to work, talk,
biage self(intensive marker). di biage I myself Biageu                   things). Bataniu konemo bolianu. The squash has
      lohonu. The owner(self) has come. Biaeau bae vai. They             become tangled among the corn. A bagu ko beilage ke
      themselves will do it later.                                       elehage keu bolianu. I see that the bamboo you wove is
biala shell breastplate shaped like a crescent.                          improperly done.
bibo Jew's harp.                                                    boloko gecko lizard.
biboma to blame someone else(for your mistake).                     bonasua to be blackened by fire(inside of a house).
bidoa to drip, leak(water from a tap or from a hole in roof or      boseka bark headcloth.
      container). can also be used with water 'e bido' to mean      bosolo variety of grass.
      water spout.                                                  boto bush, jungle.
biloa to jump down, to jump across.                                 bubua to run. the plural subject form is 'bubuluvi' when there
binihe to pour liquid in a small stream. Kelosini mai di                 is more than one person doing the action. Variant: bibua.
      botolomo binihe. Take the kerosene and pour it in my          bubuhavo to kiss, nuzzle(done only to children).
      bottle.                                                       bubuka to mix food together(when cooking or eating).
bioni variety of bamboo.                                            budia to slander, say bad things about someone.
bisi a type of fern. the stems of this fern were used formerly      bueka g-string made of bark.
      to make armbands.                                             bui temporary markings on the body.
bituhavo to mock, to make fun of.                                   buka book. From: English.
boamaho to have a black eye, to have blackened skin(from a          bukate black, two-kina note(because it has black inking).
      bad burn).                                                    bukia to cut a section of(vine, piece of meat, etc.).
boataho betelnut. From: Motu.                                       bukinia to charge a purchase(to book it instead of paying).
bobo variety of grass(used for lawns).                                   From: English.
boboa to take skin off(banana, manderin, corn).                     bulibuli a type of sorcery. From: Motu.
boboluka to slide along ground in a squatting position.             bulu garden.
      Esebuluiau hevahamo bobolukalu. The children slid             buluka old man. From: Motu.
      down the steep place.                                         buluma to sweep or broom. From: English.
bodilaha to come loose by itself(bandage, scab, bark). See:         buluve his garden.
      ebodia.                                                       buluvia clan.
bodu stump(of finger or tree).                                      bunu iron roofing. From: Motu.
bodua to become a stump, to have no descendants(like a              busebuse very small bag. From: Motu.
      stump which has no branches), to become indistinct(road,      busi bag. From: Motu.
      path). Di humaha ke tilage boduage di hoilahanu. I            butuha to pull.
      went along that path until it became indistinct then I        buve edge(of table, book, picture, etc.).
      returned.                                                     buvelea to rain steadily.

                                                             D - d
da I, me.                                                                more than one object falls over, the word changes to
da to step on, to perch on(bird), to stick together(things).             'dakohovo'. The same motion is involved whether
daba cold. this word can be used as a noun, 'Dabau lohonu.'              someone does it or it does it by itself. Variant: edakoa.
      The cold has come/It's cold. And it can also be used as a     dalama a tree which has had all but the tips of its branches
      verb, 'Nova keu dabanu.' Today it is cold.                         shorn of leaves. this is usually done by young fellows
daele mine(da + possessive marker). See: -ele.                           with the purpose of displaying their ability.
dagilia to be only half-done(when boiled or cooked in fire).        dao to give me. Variant: daoma.
daia to open up(box), to reveal oneself to someone after            daoi bird of paradise(the one with two thin, black tail feathers
      hiding. Di haoka hogolahage di elehaholige biageu                  that curl around).
      daianu. My friend was hiding and when I did not see           daudaua to be confused. From: Motu.
      him, he revealed himself.                                     daukia mosquito.
daihovo to be revealed. Di hoto mole mahogovalage keu               de feces.
      daihovonu. I hid my talk until later it was revealed.         dea to eliminate, have a bowel movement.
dakoa to pick, break off(corn). a variation of this word,           deba clay(formerly used to make clay pots).
      'dakolaha' is used when the object itself falls over. If      debekebekea to squat down.
                                      Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary                                          5
debibia                                                                                                 egoliha
debibia to have diarrhea.                                           dibula jail. From: Motu.
debikia to jerk (when startled or when someone pokes you).          didi star.
deboikea to tickle(someone).                                        dikidikia to splatter(when pouring liquids in a hot pan).
deboto tailbone.                                                    dikodikoa to split or crack in many places. Vaniu haluge
debuka lastborn, last in order.                                          vatau dikodikoanu. The sun shined and the ground
debutoa to break wind.                                                   cracked in many places. Di giluasege di bilibou
degeta naked.                                                            dikolahanu. While I was playing my pants split. if it is
degini small of the back.                                                only a single split, the form dikolaha is used.
degomole some, other.                                               dikoha to split(something). Talive vene malei lohoi dikoha.
dehisia to smell bad(said only of breaking wind).                        Go bring some firewood and split it.
deholo good smelling liquid(perfume, coconut oil, etc.).            dioa to give forth smoke. Keu neniai vene beiholige dioanu.
deholuvu visitor, guest.                                                 He did not build the fire properly and it is smoking.
dehunihunia to shift one's body to gain relief from pain or         disi large bowl. From: English.
       from sitting in one position too long.                       doba to fall down(people or things). Ata moagaeau seikamo
deia visitor, guest.                                                     dobuluvilu. Many people fell down the steep place. the
deiada story, tale.                                                      plural subject form is 'dobuluvi'.
deive corner, last of something(rice, salt, nails, grease).         dobia chasm, gorge.
dekae to cut(by holding stalks with one hand and slashing           dobo platform built in a tree for defense.
      with knife in other hand, as with sugar cane). Variant:       doda to drop, drip(tears, water). also used now for describing
      delea.                                                             the ring of the telephone.
dekube long, meaningless talk.                                      dodave to count, read.
delua to enter into. said of a person entering a house or going     doga new, young, now, today.
      into the water or a spirit entering a person or animal.       dohaea widower. From: Motu.
demodo navel.                                                       dokoa to dismiss from work, to fire. From: Motu.
deohea to be tired, wanting to quit.                                dolodoloa to be confused, undecided.
desidesia to teach children ancestors' ways.                        domo leech.
dete tail.                                                          dove fork(of tree, road).
deteki insect which lives in bananas with pinchers.                 dovudovu parable.
detiti to run away. if there is a plural subject, that is, more     dua good.
      than one person doing the action, the form changes to         duba cassowary.
      'detuluvi'.                                                   dubitoa to swear, say bad words.
detumua to be angry. Variant: itumua.                               dubu church building. From: Motu.
devuia buttocks.                                                    dulumu variety of pigeon.
devuka tadpole.                                                     dumu mother's brother, sister's child.
di    I, me, my.                                                    duna hawk.
diba arrow. From: Motu.                                             duti asparagus-like green.
diba to know, understand. From: Motu.

                                                              E - e
e     water, river.                                                 ebodiha to masturbate.
-e    a marker attached to words meaning `to, towards'. Di          ebokeha to spread out, expand, to become too long (talk, a
      bulue tinu. I went to the garden.                                   task). Laba butuhage ebokehage di esivai. Pull the
e bido water spout, trough.                                               rubber and when it is spread wide, I will cut it in strips.
e ha to fetch water.                                                      Malaha mole hoto lounata ebokehanu. A man spoke a
ea to be watery.                                                          long time and it got too long.
eahale to like someone or something(when he/it is really good       ebou meeting. From: Motu.
      or worthy of being liked). when there is a plural object      ebuia to stir. See: evutiva.
      the form changes to 'eageve'.                                 edaga bottom section of garden.
ealova to stumble over something.                                   edakoa to break off. Variant: dakoa.
eavu waterfall.                                                     edeka between.
ebagema to lift up, raise higher (used metaphorically to mean       edoa to vomit.
      'to honor'). when there is a plural object the form changes   edole to step over something or someone low to the ground.
      to 'tabageve' when there is a plural subject the form         egea to be long, to last a long time.
      changes to 'ebageva'.                                         egeholi to be too short. Variant: vugea.
ebamo to carry on shoulder. when the subject is plural the          egelegelea to be the same, enough, equal. From: Motu.
      form changes to 'ebavo'.                                      egigiva to tie very tight or make it very strong.
ebaoha to pick off (scab, bandage, or skin).                        egoliha to bend something over, to make something rounded,
ebe downstream, river mouth.                                              to change someone's talk, misrepresent. Di ata mole hoto
6                                      Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary
egudoha                                                                                                evutiva
      ke egolihai louge ihuve keu tota nimoleai. I               eni   brother/sister-in-law.
      misrepresented that person's talk and its meaning was      eni   That's true, isn't it?(question marker expecting a yes
      different. See: goligolia.                                       answer).
egudoha to chop across the grain.                                eno neck(front part only). See: gobe ; tu.
eguma to fold, break(one thing). See: bokoa.                     enoa to cough.
eha to pick(fruit), to take down from a hook, to                 enua to be thirsty.
      choose(people). Ata degomoleau tiale ata degomole          enuha to make it straight(wire, tree, deeds).
      ehai abuhi idi heiliho tilu. Some people went and chose    esaga shore(of lake or ocean).
      other people and went with them to cut trees.              esalia to divide into groups(people or things). Variant:
ehaloma to lose something, drop something. See: keoha.                 tasalia.
ehalu to wrap around oneself(blanket or other piece of           ese child.
      material). See: tahalu.                                    esemu workman, someone under your influence, follower,
ehana source of river.                                                 disciple.
ehanuma to hang one thing across a line or nail so that two      esesia to be barren, unable to bear children.
      sides or ends hang down. See: teleka.                      eseti to slip on something.
ehavu to put in string bag(one thing). See: agi.                 eseve small.
eho to cook with water, boil.                                    esikoha to split something. Variant: edikoha.
ehobeha to cause someone/something to fall, to push down.        esiva to tear or cut into strips(bark, cloth, rubber).
      See: hobelaha.                                             esoa to be wet(clothes, grass).
ehoma to follow. When the subject is plural, the form            esokuva to sprain(leg), to branch off on a new road, to go
      changes to 'ehova'.                                              around a fallen tree with a new path. Humahae mami ke
ehosiva to pour(water, rice, etc.). Variant: bubua.                    esokuvai humahae dua loisi. Leave/branch off from the
ehu up above(by extension means heaven). Variant: ehuda.               old road and clear the new one.
eia to cook in a bamboo tube.                                    etatavoa to set up(a wall, a stud, or rafters). this is the motion
ekitoha to use something(besides your hand) to scoop up                of going from horizontal to vertical position.
      food, water, etc. See: kitoa.                              etebe to tamp down(ax handle, food in bamboo tube).
ekosiha to pull up, tear out.                                    eteka side of body.
ekoveha to turn over(something), to interpret, translate. See:   etiamo to bake food in hot ashes. Variant: toagai.
      takoveha.                                                  etoa boundary between 2 pieces of land belonging to different
-ele possessive marker. aele, daele, etc. yours, mine, etc.            people, a pool of water that cassowaries use to cool
eleha to look, see.                                                    themselves in hot weather.
elehavololoa to covet.                                           etoaka rivulet of rain water.
elehilehi appearance, the way something looks.                   etolema to lower something.
elemoto just keep on and on. Keu elemoto loui ua. He just        etule to slice, cut off a section.
      keeps talking on and on.                                   etunuva to hang up onething by tying on string (stalk of
elemua enough, sufficient.                                             bananas,etc.). See: tunave.
elenadi ribs.                                                    etuva to revive, awaken someone. See: tatuve.
elike a connecting word indicating purpose. Di taunie talive     evadoma to bend something over. Variant: enadova.
      elike ogoe doga malei. I will go to town in order to get   evakoa to divide(food), to split into groups.
      new clothes.                                               evali mirror.
elioha to straighten(wire, board,your back).                     evavaga temporary shelter built of leaves.
elokiha to bend or push over(things, people). See: lokilaha.     eve just, so. Eve te. Just go.
elokoha to take off(skirt or laplap). See: lokohovo.             evea to work sorcery. Variant: evema.
eluluma to clear a place of weeds.                               evetevetea to mimic(talk, actions).
eme to drop something through a small hole, to put food in a     evi to hear.
      pot.                                                       eviha to let someone pass, to move out of way.
emedada vertical garden markings.                                eviko very small fish.
emena or. Variant: mena.                                         evilikahavo to crowd around someone.
emoa to wash oneself. a plural subject takes the form            evokiha to skin(bird or animal), to strip off(bark from a tree).
      'emolaha'.                                                 evola variety of bush bamboo.
emogo pus.                                                       evonema to roll by pushing. Variant: evoneva.
emohate a derogatory term said to someone who is lazy or         evotoha to spread or roll out(bread dough, plastic, material).
      doesn't try very hard.                                     evovoa to move or push aside to make room for something or
emuga to scoop up(rice, sugar, etc.) with hand, spoon or cup.          someone.
emukiha to pick one at a time(bananas off the stalk).            evude to hold in lap, to embrace someone, to catch(ball, bird,
ene sound, When someone dies, teach each other how to                  etc.). See: vudieve.
      wail(sound of tears). Ata moleu hatige ninana ene mole     evutiva to turn around or over, to stir(cake, flour).
      haive.



                                     Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary                                      7
gabele                                                                                                     hadebi

                                                             G - g
gabele vine used to climb trees(tied between feet or hands).             we threw it)."
gabia to finish, to be finished. Di ke vai gabianu. I did it and   gilia to dry out(wood, grass, etc.).
       finished.                                                   giloka to dry out(garden after clearing for burning, firewood
gabie later, next.                                                       trees left standing in garden).
gabive the last one.                                               gilua to play.
gabu place. From: Motu.                                            gina fish scales.
gabua to mix up talk so it's not clear. A hoto ke louale keu       gini small bones of bird or fish, the bone needle used to make
      gabuanu. Iale di neniai evioholinu. The talk that you              string bags.
      spoke was mixed up and not clear. Therefore I did not        gitoki really small version of something. See: gi.
      hear it properly.                                            goata leprousy.
gabuia spiderweb. Variant: gabua.                                  goavo to sharpen, make into a point(pencil, stick).
gadana variety of small animal.                                    gobavu split cane.
gadehavo to get things ready. Beleiniu lohoma. Solekai a           gobe neck(whole thing).
      hau gadehavo. The plane is coming. Get your things           gobeli widower.
      ready quickly.                                               gobese orphan.
gadia female animal or bird.                                       gobu widow.
gaeahavo to listen intently.                                       goda string.
gala male initiate, young man of marriageable age.                 godi charcoal.
galasia to swim with goggles or face mask. this comes from         goe cloud.
      the idea of wearing glass over the eyes under water.         gogea dust, to be dusty. functions as a noun or verb.
      From: English.                                               gogo intestines, paunch.
galia to form a scab(sore), a skim(milk), a crust(bread).          goia to be burnt, overcooked.
galo variety of vine. a basket is woven from that vine for         golelea to be sick. From: Motu.
      mumu food.                                                   golema ear.
galo raven, black bird. From: Motu.                                golemate deaf(literally or figuratively).
gasigasia to shrink back from.                                     goli a person whose husband or father has died and left them
gebeu sweet potato. Variant: gobeu.                                      with no one to help them. this word is always used with
gebole shell necklace.                                                   verb 'holi', to become.
geda variety of large animal.                                      goligolia to be wavy(hair).
geda woven mat for sleeping. From: Motu.                           golilaha to bend(by itself).
gi    small. batanie gi small pumpkin esee gi small child          goloa to wind back and forth(river).
gibole grille, a scaly skin disease.                               goloba variety of tree.
gibosoune long lasting, eternal.                                   gologoloa to not be strong(animals, people).
gidua to go down(sun).                                             golote curved, crooked.
gigia to be tight(things), to be crowded(with people). Di          golove top.
      beletata bilibo umuvage gigianu. I fasten my pants with      gomigomia to pray, worship.
      a belt and it was tight. Ata moagau mole uguiavoi            govaea any kind of vegetable greens.
      gigialu. Many people sat together and were crowded.          gove tree kangaroo.
giginahavo to instruct or warn about what to watch out for.        gugua to growl(stomach).
      if more than one person is being instructed it changes to    guli pit, hole(in the ground). From: Motu.
      'giginageve'.                                                gulia to bury. From: Motu.
gilea guess. Esebulu abuna adamo hau mole mavoi moleho             guligulia to worship, pray. From: Motu.
      gileai. Children put something in their hand and guess       guluba spear, steel rod.
      with each other(which hand has the thing in it).             guluna to get goose-bumps.
      Esebuleau mune bai malei hatui moleho gileai loui            gunugunu new, fresh. referring to teenagers who have just
      avoe, Gilea, gilea. Children throw a stone(in the bush)            begun to develop and mature.
      and guess with each other saying, "Guess, guess(where        gutumo afternoon.

                                                            H - h
ha to plant, to fetch water.                                             under the skin and keeps pricking).
haadana to shake. Hamu hatuge ou hadanu. When there is             habokasi halfcaste, mixed race. From: English.
       an earthquake, the house shakes.                            hada upper back.
habeona to twist and turn with pain.                               hade post.
habiha to be upset, to prick or hurt(as a thorn breaks off         hadebi to prop up. Uveu bokohovoge di hadebinu. The
8                                     Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary
hadua                                                                                                   hobea
      banan(tree) broke and I propped it up.                       hanube to put on headdress or hat, to cover mumu with tin or
hadua to snore.                                                           something, to cover saucepan with lid.
hae to tie with vine. (used only with 'mala', leaves and 'kulu',   hanunu big wind and rain storm.
      grass).                                                      haoka friend.
haeavo to hunt(birds and animals). Variant: halamo.                hasia to be thin(people, trees, animals).
haegihatu rainbow.                                                 hasihasia to blow inside the house(rain), to be bare of
haeho centipede.                                                          leaves(tree).
haenihatu to perch all in a row(birds).                            hasive tips of branches.
haetoa to flame up(like burning kunai).                            haso nest(birds, pigs).
hago a cat-like animal of the bush.                                hatau nivoleka to lightening(the flash of lightening). See:
hagoa to smell good. Uve keu vovoai hagoanu. The banana is                kibala.
      ripe and smells good.                                        hatau vuto to thunder.
hahosihovo to boil over, to overflow.                              hati light, torch(of pit-pit or tree branch).
hahova to go out of sight on the road, to cut off the into the     hati to die.
      bush.                                                        hatihati death.
hahuhumi fruit(of a tree).                                         hato to be slippery, to glance off, deflect. Veni lohoge muneu
hahuma to lodge on something, to bear fruit, to rub on                   hatoge di esetisi dobanu. The rain came and the rock
      body(powder, ashes). Hau mole mai mihatuge oe                      was slick and I slipped and fell.
      lagadae hahumanu. (He) took something and threw it           hatogo bark of certain trees used for tying,etc.
      up on the roof and it lodged there.                          hatu to put on clothes(those with arm or leg holes), to throw,
haia to betray a friend. This is the act of going to a friend's          to throw away(more than one thing or a mass of things),
      enemies and making a way for them to get the friend.               to completely do something(when used with another verb
haidole to jump over, jump across.                                       as `ihatu', to eat everything).
haima namesake. kinship term that implies a relationship           hau thing. From: Motu.
      similar to godfather/godmother to a godchild only more       haukala to work. From: Motu.
      involved.                                                    hauma to scrape sweet potato after cooking in fire.
haivu to teach, show.                                              havai to scrape out the inside of(pumpkin, yam, etc. when it
halahatu to promise. this word is a compound from 'hala',                has a shell or crust), to be next to, to be touching(said of
      fence, 'hatu', put up.                                             people and things).
halamo to hunt(birds, animals). Variant: haeavo.                   have flame(of fire, lamp).
hale to leave, depart from, to stop, quit.                         havikoa to whistle(with fingers in mouth) to get someone's
halema to leave(a thing, someone).                                       attention.
haliabemo ua to be a spectator. the verb 'ua', to be, always       havisuva to brush off(flies, dust, etc.).
      goes with this word.                                         havua to dance(traditional).
halidi side of a garden(located on hillside).                      havutoa to bark.
halihalia continually, repeatedly. Ata keu beleinimo               hea to laugh, to be sweet or good(food, talk).
      halihaliai tai lohoma. That person is repeatedly going       hebulu wind. Variant: heluka.
      back and forth on the plane.                                 hedaka porch.
haliko inside of elbow.                                            hedima to climb(tree, hill), to bite hard on something.
halio to dodge, get out of the way, by-pass(people, things).       hei to cut.
haliohatui intensive form of 'halio'.                              heiata by chance. Keu heiata lohoholinu. He didn't come by
halu to shine(sun, moon).                                                chance, ie., he came for a reason.
hama to hit, kill, to knock down(someone's talk).                  heie down below, outside.
hamubi to stack up(bundles of grass, stones, food, people).        heila by foot(when used with go or come).
hamuhatu to have an earthquake.                                    heimei u to wait for.
hana source(of river).                                             henunu a blast of wind with rain.
hanavo to push, send.                                              hevaha a steep place.
hane to blow up(the fire). used when embers are blow on to         hevaloho to come down(hill, tree).
      cause flame to come up.                                      hevati to go down(hill, tree).
hania to doze, to be heavy-eyed, to be satisfied(enough food       heve heat(of fire, lamp).
      in stomach), to be droopy, heavy feeling of the body. Di     hiloka to know.
      niu hanianu. My eyes are heavy(with sleep). Di uniu          hisaia to color, mark, write. Variant: hisalia.
      hanianu. My stomach is satisfied(full). Di vavau             hisia to rot(said only of meat).
      hanianu. My body is heavy(I feel droopy).                    hoa to call out.
hanida perch, roosting place.                                      hoahoa to shake, quiver(with much exertion, used for people
hanihavo to dodge something. A haokau mune mai a                         and vehicles). Di hevaha kela veatisi hoahoanu. I
      hamage ke hanihavo. If your friend takes a stone to hit            climbed up that steep place and was quivering(with
      you, dodge it.                                                     exertion).
hanivava to play around, jest.                                     hobe fever.
hanogo bird feather headdress.                                     hobea to be feverish.
                                      Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary                                         9
hobelaha                                                                                            initehate
hobelaha to be uprooted and fallen down(tree), to lean to the       honi hips.
      side.                                                         hosi horse. From: English.
hodeka inside of thigh.                                             hosidi to miss(target, a word).
hodohodo first light, daybreak. Vae hodohodota vavita               hote vine, rope.
      hovelahai te. In the morning at first light, get up and go.   hotee haliko string, by extension can mean radio and
hodova to die down(fire).                                                 telephone.
hoeava to tie around(firewood, bag, etc.).                          hoto talk.
hoesea to be lucky.                                                 hotoa to talk, to call(birds), to make sound.
hoesehavo to fix something up(things), to bless, do good            hotoe haliko kernel of the talk.
      to(food, persons).                                            hotoe umuka root of the talk.
hogoa to hide many things. See: mahogova.                           hotohotoa to talk alot, to discuss.
hogolaha to hide oneself. if more than one person, the form         hou to build, to beget(children).
      changes to 'hogodeve'.                                        hovadave on top of.
hohavo to call someone.                                             hove chest(of body).
hoho younger sibling.                                               hovelaha to get up, rise(literally or figuratively).
hohoa to rub out, erase.                                            hubahuba to be rotten on inside(tree, bamboo, etc.).
hoilaha to return.                                                  hudua to grate(bananas, yam, etc.).
holi to touch, grasp, to be, become. 'keho mole holige' is used     hue to disturb from sleep. Di lahasege a di nita huege di
      to mean to become a habit.                                         hovelahanu. While I was sleeping you disturbed me and
-holi negative particle.                                                 I got up.
holo sorcerer(type which can come invisibly and hit one with        huena fish(local variety only).
      sickness).                                                    huhua to think, remember.
holoeve(see= melame) to lead, guide someone, to marry               huhugologoloa to not think strongly about, to not worry
      someone.                                                           about.
hologigia to stretch oneself.                                       huhuihuhui thoughts.
holoma to snare(birds, animals), to step on a sharp stick, to       huhutumuai to think deeply about something or someone.
     really grow good, to go inside a person and make                    Variant: huhuvololoa.
     sick(spirit).                                                  hulegea to stand on tiptoes.
holova to wrap around oneself(skirt, laplap).                       huleki variety of banana.
holuma to bend over, stoop down.                                    humaha road, path, way.
homasia to be lazy, not wanting to do anything.                     humu new leaves.
homasihavo to be tired of something.                                hune landslide. Tana kemo huneu tulenu. On that mountain a
homedo a fly.                                                            landslide broke away.
homo roofing leaves.                                                husia to rub or spread with fingers, to wipe something off
homo to break off pieces(greens for cooking, sugar cane,                 hands.
     etc.).

                                                                I - i
i    to eat, drink.                                                       word is used for closer thing and 'uoke' for farther.
iahe to turn one's back to.                                         iene to the side of.
ialeme to cause someone or something to follow. Di to mai           igae one.
       ialemege di ehomai tinu. I caused by dog to follow me        igaetoa to be together, to be one.
       and he followed me.                                          ihu meaning. hotoe ihu meaning of the talk
ialialihavo to lag behind(because you don't want to go). Ma         ihunivesite quickly. Variant: solekavesite.
       mole eseu au neina ehomai ialialihovoi hogolahai             ikela over there.
       tima. Isiviholinu taliho. A small girl was following her     ikoko nail. From: Motu.
       mother, lagging behind and hiding. (She) did not want to     ilada edge, side of.
       go.                                                          ilive mouth, opening(of a bag, hole).
iamo to pull out, to unscrew, to take off clothes.                  ilukaveho to wait for. See: inohoveho.
iave back(body part or the opposite of front).                      imekeve on the other side of.
ibina price, payback, answer.                                       imene just over there(closeby).
idi to make string by twirling on knee.                             imi sugar cane.
idi tree.                                                           imida stick for tying up sugar cane.
idie livu tree sap.                                                 imiha to ask someone for something, to pray. Variant: imilia.
idie vana tree leaves.                                              imutava dove.
iduhu family, line. From: Motu.                                     inaho should not, must not.
idumuka roots of a tree.                                            inia to be sharp.
ieke in back of, on other side of. if comparing distances, this     initehate a very sharp thing(knife, ax, etc.).
10                                    Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary
inogo                                                                                              kibidihavo
inogo thorn leaves, nettles(used for alleviating pain).           isua to be heavy(literally or figuratively).
inohoveho to wait for someone. Ainaho talive. A haoka             itava bone.
       inohoveho u. Don't go. Wait for your friend.               ito to yell loudly in surprise or when something unusual
       'inohoabeho', waiting for many persons.                          happens.
inu middle of back.                                               ito yes.
inuhania to cause pain in childbirth. Eseu inuhaniage             itumua to be angry. Variant: detumua.
       neinaveu kekoanu. The child caused pain in childbirth      iuha to collect, pick up(items one by one). Ebavae talive
       and his mother cried out.                                        labaho mune iuha. Go to the river and collect rocks for
inutolotoloa to be straight, to be righteous, with straight             the sling shot.
       ways.                                                      ive seed.
inuvia rock python.                                               ivi name, part or section.
io     wasp(red and brown).                                       ivi to scrape(skin off sweet potato, skin off ax handle).
iogo flea.                                                        iviania to be really happy.
ioma to send away, to fire or dismiss from work.                  iviaviha to begin start.
iona to invite or send an invitation. A haoka ionage au           iviga at the other end. Ko haleito ivigae dodave. Leave this
       loholive kone mai. Invite your friend to come get the            and count at the other end. Variant: ivigani.
       corn.                                                      iviha to name(a person or place).
isahete green wood, young person. Hatiale keu ata isahete.        iviholi to be too short.
       Keu goleleholisito ata isahete hatinu. The one who died    ivogi brains.
       was a young person. He wasn't sick but died young.         ivolovoloa to stuff yourself with food, to eat too much, gorge
isate uncooked.                                                         oneself.
isivia to like, want.                                             ivuka breast bone.
isivisivia to really like.

                                                           K - k
kabani a spinster. said of a girl who is losing her young look.   kavoloti to make double, to put two things next to each other
      From: Motu.                                                       to make a pair.
kabebia to be tired.                                              kavu dead leaves of sugar cane.
kabebihavo to be tired of(someone or something).                  ke that, it.
kabiti to push someone.                                           keate woman, wife.
kaea cockatoo.                                                    keboa to swallow.
kaeahavo to decorate.                                             kedua to be blind.
kaia to surprise(by suddenly saying 'kaia').                      kedute a blind person.
kainaku grasshopper.                                              keilo forked stick used for raking.
kakamo to carry on shoulder(one thing). if more than one          keioho to pour out, splash out by itself, to spill. Variant:
      thing, the form changes to 'kakeve'.                              keiolaha.
kala fashion, deed, behavior. From: Motu.                         keitakeita to favor one foot because of a sore, cut or sprain.
kalikalia to stare, look intently.                                kekea to cock the head to listen carefully.
kalova to castrate.                                               kekoa to make a noise when hurt or in distress(people,
kamadia to cut in pieces for cooking.                                   animals, birds).
kaova to find out about, to look for.                             kelelea to make a mistake. From: Motu.
kasea to plane timber with ax, knife or adze.                     keloa to have a white spot in the pupil of the eye, to be blind
kasi cards. From: English.                                              to the truth.
kaso taro paste made from pounded taro and ashes.                 kelosini kerosene. From: English.
katea to be like that, to be similar.                             kelua to stop someone from doing something, to prevent.
katelesi cartridge. From: English.                                keoha to lose, drop(many things). See: ehaloma.
kaudate horn(animal).                                             kesi casket, case. From: English.
kaula stretcher.                                                  kesomi pit-pit.
kaulati to carry on stretcher.                                    keuka to be crooked(literally or figuratively). Idi keu
kausalave very good. an old word no longer used much.                   keukanu. That tree is crooked. Ata ke vaveveu
      'Duave', good, is used now.                                       keukanu. That person's ways are crooked.
kava to be stupid, mentally deranged. From: Motu.                 keve there.
-kava just, only, for nothing.                                    kevia to have a skin rash(from touching certain plants).
kavi wooden tongs(for handling hot rocks).                        kibala to spark(e.g. when iron hits iron or stone), to
kavoloa to be twins, to be double, two together(things,                 flash(lightening-the zig-zig kind).
      people). Ese ke abuitau kavoloage neinaveu manu. The        kibia to shake, quiver.
      mother had twins. Di ko mai ko havaige kavoloanu. I         kibidi gun.
      put this touching this(other thing) and they are double.    kibidihavo to shoot. with a plural object the form becomes
                                     Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary                                    11
kibikibia                                                                                               laluva
      'kibidigeve'.                                                  kosea to be like this.
kibikibia to really shake, quiver.                                   kosi revered person, old person, mature(referring to children
kibila bottle.                                                              who show signs of growing up), mature male animal.
kikia rope. Variant: hote kikia.                                     kosive important man, leader, lord.
kikikikia to spark up(fire).                                         kota court, lawsuit. From: English.
kikilahai to talk and visit. Variant: kiki vai.                      kota to hold court, to take someone to court. From: English.
kikoka to swing on a rope or wire(people only). Esebulu              koteita variety of yam that grows in a circle(like a coil).
      keau hote kemo vikokai tai lohoma. Those children are          koua to be bald. Ata ke kinau kouanu. That person's head is
      swinging back and forth on that rope. Variant: vikoka.                bald.
kimeia to fish with line and hook.                                   koua variety of greens.
kina head, hair.                                                     kove here.
kinabamo to carry on head.                                           koveatae on this side of.
kitoa to scoop up in hands(water, trash, weeds), to lift up to see   kovili variety of small animal.
      what is underneath.                                            kualuma fish. From: Motu.
ko this.                                                             kubaia to be round shaped.
kobo top, tip of(tree, greens, mountain).                            kubia to have a fever blister, cold sore.
kobuha to chisel a hole in something.                                kubilia to be dull(knife, ax).
koda to frisk about(dog only).                                       kudava club. formerly used for fighting.
koi at edge of(fireplace, water, etc.). Utie koimo venehemo          kukoi deadfall(to catch birds and animals).
      unela Stay by the fire at the edge of the fireplace.           kuku tobacco, cigarette. Ata keu misini holisi kuku
koia to tear down something, to put out a fire.                           ioholima. That person became a mission adherent and
koka to howl.                                                             doesn't eat tobacco(smoke). From: Motu.
kokae to hunt for birds.                                             kulu kunai grass.
koki penis.                                                          kulubua to secrete a whitish substance(sugar cane, ear, etc.).
kokia to pull out, unscrew, to take off line(clothes). From:         kuluka rat.
      Motu.                                                          kulukulua to rinse out the mouth.
kokolugu chicken. From: Motu.                                        kumo place of death. this is the fartherest place in the bush,
kokova to be engaged. used to mean to make first payment of               cold, inhospitable.
      bride price.                                                   kuna string, rope. Variant: goda.
kolemi root of ginger bush. used for several purposes: (l) to        kunaea to say something false about someone.
      relieve colds and sore throats (2) to use to cause one to      kunai goods, things, wealth.
      dream of a girl and make her want you (3) to use in            kususuai to blow something out of mouth(water, rubbish).
      sorcery to poison people or to cause pigs to ruin a garden     kutikutia to become loud and boisterous.
      (4) to bring good luck when hunting tucked into a gun.         kuto to call out in a high pitched, drawn out tone. used for
kolia husband.                                                            incidents where something unusual happens like a cow
kolia to marry, take a husband.                                           getting into someone's house.
kololoi horisontal garden markings. Variant: kololovi.               kutu string bag of different weave than 'laha'. used for fishing
kome knee.                                                                net as well as for carrying things, has a looser weave than
komusaka ankle.                                                           'laha'.
koneluhu grain of corn.                                              kuvikuvia to shake off water(dog), to shake off
konuve lid(of pot or pan).                                                attackers(people).
kosada variety of bird.

                                                               L - l
la    second person plural prounoun, you, shell bands worn in              wanted more. Eu valava ke lahoanu. The water
      former days.                                                         permeated the flour completely. Isti keu valava ke
la    to be crushed(with no hardness left). Muneu ada ko                   lahoanu. The yeast permeated the flour completely.
      hamage lanu. A rock hit this hand and crushed it. Ugu          lahoahoa dream. Variant: tababu.
      kibidihavoge lanu. The bird was shot and crushed(not fit       lahoe to lay down a baby.
      to eat because it was shot to pieces).                         lako should not. La lako talive. You should not go. Abu lako
labana to hunt. From: Motu.                                                talive. They should not go. always uses '-live' verb
lagada top surface.                                                        ending.
lagati to go around the side(of a mountain), to angle across.        lala to crackle(fire, rain on roof).
laha string bag.                                                     lala crayfish, lobster. From: Motu.
laha to sleep, to burn, to die(people, animals, machines).           lalamo to climb down a tree, to come down a river(said of
lahoa to really satisfy, to create a thirst, hunger for more, to           water after it rains), to grow in a clump.
      permeate completely. A mahina keki mahoale ke di ige           laluva to flow(water), to move along together strung out in a
      keu di lahoanu I ate the cake your wife cooked and I                 line, to pull down(vine) from a tree.
12                                     Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary
lama                                                                                                  mahogova
lama to lay a fireplace, to sit together in a row(birds only).       loi    to clean up a road(cutting grass and weeds along the
lameamea to dream.                                                          side). this is usually done when government or other
laoka pandanus tree.                                                        important people are coming on that road.
laove to give you(plural).                                           lokia to fall out(tooth), to come loose(bolt, etc.).
Lauma Helaga Holy Spirit. From: Motu.                                lokilaha to topple over by itself(tree, person, etc.).
launia to circle around(bird or plane). From: Motu.                  lokili bai a kind of tree nut.
lava to pull out weeds, to trim trees so only the tips of brances    lokive hipbone.
       have leaves on them(that tree is then called a `dalama').     lokoa to pick something out of the fire.
lavu to have water standing in it(drum, lake, etc.).                 lokohovo to fall off by itself(skirt, pants).
lea kin term-mother's brother's wife. Variant: leaka.                lokoi morning star. Variant: lokou.
legea to salivate.                                                   lokua to fold up(blanket, mat).
lele iron, metal, old term for god or deity.                         lolokua to be hollow inside(referring to something like a skull
lenia to learn. From: English.                                              or shell). kinae loloku skull
levaleva letter. From: Motu.                                         lomo to weave(string bag, basket, roofing leaves).
leve to touch, come in contact with. Di teibolo ko levenu. I         loti to move over.
       touched this table. Di adau teibolo levenu. My hand           lotihatu to spill out of a container completely.
       touched the table.                                            lou to say, speak.
leveha to chop(firewood).                                            louhatu to finish speaking.
levelaha to split, crack open(ground, tree, cloth).                  louka speck of dirt. Variant: loe.
levoka to reflect(sun on a glass, tin, water, etc.).                 lovi yam, food.
levolevoa to be shiny(like tabletop, watch, crystal, etc.), to       lovia to work.
       sparkle(dew when sun shines on it).                           lovo position, place one once occupied.
libia to be cold(water, food).                                       lovo to dig.
lilia to be dizzy(said of the eyes), to practice(singing, wailing)   lu     breath.
       and learn from each other.                                    lua to breathe heavily(when out of breath or when sick).
lilikate privately, separately.                                      ludua to pull down(vine after cutting at base).
linia to ring, call(on telephone). From: English.                    luhu a grouping of something in a row. aie luhu teeth(mouth
livu tree sap. Idi ke heige livuveu lohonu. The tree was cut                grouping)
       and the sap came(ran out).                                    lulea to be hoarse.
livua to be stained(cloth, skin). Idi ke heige di ogomo              luleha to unfasten, untie.
       livuanu. The tree was cut and my clothes were stained.        lulelaha to come undone, to become loose(by itself).
loa to be dark(sun, water), to have poor vision. Solekai te.         lulelea to be intelligent, gifted.
       Vau loanu Quickly go. The sun is getting dark(setting).       lulelete a wise person.
       Di niu loage di neniai elehaholinu. My eyes are poor          lulua to rumble(thunder, rain on tin roof). Veniu bunumo
       and I can't see properly.                                            luluanu. The rain rumbled on the tin roof.
loboa to lie.                                                        lumuva to gather together(leaves, trash, paper, etc.) with
loboana first fruits.                                                       intention of throwing it away.
lobohavo to deceive someone.                                         luovo to arrive out of breath.
loboho have not yet. Loboho di haube elehai bulu ke                  luti liver.
       uvumo. I have not yet seen anything(fruit) in that garden.    lutie bai heart.
lodi charcoal. Variant: logido.                                      -luvu plural accompaniment suffix. avuluvuta with him(him
lodini small finch-like bird. Variant: lodinidini.                          @ `-luvu' @ also)
loe speck of dirt. Loeu a nimo dobanu. A speck of dirt fell          luvua to feel bad because you are lacking something. Ata keu
       in your eye. Variant: louka.                                         moniho luvuanu. That person is feeling bad because of a
loea to whistle(with lips only).                                            lack of money. Ata keu madeliniholisi madeliniho
loetava variety of bird.                                                    luvuanu. That person doesn't have any maderines and is
loho flat area, level ground.                                               feeling bad because of a lack of manderines.
loho to come.

                                                              M - m
ma girl, female.                                                     magoloa to be weak. from eating something taboo.
ma to get, take.                                                     magomago type of butterfly.
mabata old woman.                                                    maha vagina.
mabata to become an old woman.                                       mahae exclamation of surprise.
mabia young woman, female initiate.                                  mahatu to throw(one thing). Variant: mihatu.
mabitula leg band.                                                   mahina wife.
madea salt.                                                          maho to burn something, to cook(food), to light(lamp).
maduna to carry on shoulder. From: Motu.                             mahogova to hide one thing. See: hogoa.
                                       Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary                                     13
mahoho                                                                                           mutamuta
mahoho teenage girl.                                             menaka law.
mahoho belika wanton girl.                                       mesia bush game.
maholili to heal up(sore or cut).                                mesoho maybe.
maia young girl. used as a form of direct address.               mesulu poison, bait.
maili shell breastplate.                                         metau heavy. From: Motu.
maina jealousy. A di maina mai isi di aiohavoma. You are         mihatu to throw, throw away(one thing). Variant: mahatu.
      jealous of me and are ruining me.                          mihisi wooden shield. used now for any shield.
maite nice(said of people and things).                           mili sand. From: Motu.
maketi market. From: English.                                    mimisa woven breastplate.
makua to be damp(matches, firewood).                             minama eel.
makukua to shrink back from doing something. used of             minohavimo border(of land).
     people and of a dog when not wanting to fight another       misi raw meat.
     dog.                                                        misitetea to shake quiver(from fear or cold).
mala horizontal strips of wood that go on rafters. See: ti.      misitoa to click tongue in surprise.
malaha man.                                                      mitani pawpaw.
maliha to watch from concealment(without other person            miti tinned meat. From: English.
     seeing you). Ata moleu bulue hala housege ata moleu         mo boy, male.
     tiale malihama. While one man was building a fence          -mo suffix meaning on, from.
     another man went and was watching him in concealment.       moaga many, plenty.
mamaesi illegimate child.                                        mogua to be grown up in weeds.
mami old(things only).                                           mohoho teenage boy.
mamia to be old(things only).                                    moia young boy. used only for direct address.
mamo to put something(one person putting it). more than one      moka uncertainly marker. Moka beleini kena bae lohoi
     person putting it = 'mavo'. See: otova.                          mena nivu bae lohoi. Maybe the plane will come later or
mamoe sheep. From: Motu.                                              come tomorrow. comes at beginning of sentence usually.
manaka suspension bridge made of vines.                          mole other one, another.
mane true, yes.                                                  molele someone else's, another's.
maneme to drop something to someone, to lower someone            molemolea to go back to its original state, disappear.
     into a hole, to stick something into something else.             Bolomaka keau vavimo lohoi vatagiage veniu lohoge
mani small oppossum.                                                  vatagiabe keu molemoleanu. The cattle came at night
manoka to be weak. From: Motu.                                        and left footprints and when the rain came the footprints
manu stone cave, stone club.                                          disappeared.
maoka frog.                                                      molevu general kin term used to refer to in-laws.
masiva to say spoiling talk to someone so they will be           molia to be cold(refers to skin or body).
     unsucessful in work, hunting, etc. Ata moleu botoe          Molio another name for Efogi village.
     tisege abu masivage ugu bioholinu. When a person            moma to forget.
     went to the bush they said spoiling talk and he didn't      momahavo to forget something.
     shoot a bird.                                               momolea to get better, to heal.
masovi wart.                                                     momolu rubbish, garbage. From: Motu.
matama place, location.                                          moni money. From: English.
matamata beginning, origin, new, young. From: Motu.              monie luhu coins(grouping of money).
mataulaihavo to respect someone. From: Motu.                     monogigia to grind teeth(when sleeping or dreaming).
mati shame. A di mati vanu. You are ashamed of me.               mosala cucumber.
matia to be embarrassed or ashamed.                              mua to gather materials and build nesting mound(bush
matiti to shame someone. Variant: matihavo.                           turkey).
matuku flintstone.                                               muki noseplug.
maulia to be alive, to revive. From: Motu.                       muko hankerchief. From: Motu.
mavi snare.                                                      mulamula medicine. From: Motu.
maviti to hang oneself.                                          muliki small bat.
me no. in the Avoma dialect this word means yes.                 muluka bark of a tree used for flooring.
mea daughter-in-law, mother-in-law.                              mulumulua to whisper. From: Motu.
meamo to put. Variant: mamo.                                     munana shadow(animals, people), spirit.
medibe to put something on top to cover or hold down what is     mune sorcery for spoiling people so they die.
     underneath.                                                 mune stone.
melame to lead, guide(one person), to marry. See: holoeve.       mune bai money(round stone).
meleani watermelon. From: English.                               musini vine whose juice is used to make skin markings, skin
melegi plate, dish.                                                   markings.
meli muscle, ligament.                                           mutamuta to twist and break into pieces(greens for cooking).
mena or. Variant: emena.

14                                   Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary
nahate                                                                                                  ogomu

                                                           N - n
nahate like, similar.                                             nilogologoa to be clear and clean(river, water).
nahi we(inclusive).                                               nimanima open space(usually on top of a ridge with good
naiti we two(inclusive).                                                 view).
nakimi kin term - refers to sister's husband. From: Motu.         nimo tahoa to allow someone to do anything they want. Ese
nali to take care of, to look after.                                    keu vaveve toela valage ata moleu lohoale a namihai
namiha to tell.                                                         loui avoe,"Ese keu vaveve toela vanu." Ige a namihai
nana older brother.                                                     loui kosea,"Ke nimo tahoa." That child keeps doing
nana to chew.                                                           bad things and another person comes and says to you,
nao foreigner(normally used for white people). From: Motu.              "That child is doing bad things." Then you say, "Let him
negoa to be strong.                                                     do anything he wants."
negobeda to be very strong.                                       nimole different, strange.
negoti to strengthen.                                             nina to cry, wail.
neguve food from an old garden(sweet potato, banana). this is     ninana wailing. Ninana liliai talive louve ata moleu
       eaten while new ones are ripening.                               hatialeho. Learn the wailing(song) and go say it for the
nehane should, ought.                                                   person who died.
nehe former, one referred to before.                              ninelea to watch the view.
neina mother(can also be used to refer to wife).                  ninita to be even(same length), on the same level or in a line
neme tongue.                                                            with. Variant: niniveta.
nena just, go ahead. Nena vaveve ke va. Just go ahead and do      niogea to signal 'yes' by closing eyes and raising eyebrows, to
       that thing.                                                      put your boil or inflamed eye over the steam of a cooking
nenia to do something properly, carefully.                              bird to make it better. Abu ugu ke ehoge di kemo
neniholi to be insufficient, not able to do something.                  niogeanu. They boiled that bird and I put my boil over it.
nenilaha to be careful, beware of.                                niololoa to stare wildly about.
neto bridge.                                                      nita alive(literally 'with eyes').
ni    face, eyes.                                                 nivaga hama to wink, to blink.
nia to see.                                                       nivakilaha to open one's eyes sleepily. Ata keu vavimo
niavo to look at(someone, something).                                   lohoale di etuvage di nivakilahai elehanu. That person
nibadibadia to look out the side of one's eyes.                         who came at night woke me and I open my eyes sleepily
nibeda to be unconscious.                                               and looked.
nibi to keep an eye on.                                           nivu yesterday, tomorrow.
nibitumutumua to watch carefully, to search carefully.            no we(exclusive).
nibuka the black one(refers only to dogs or cats). To ke eseu     noeve to give us.
      uale au neina nahate nibuka. That puppy which was           nogoli song(modern).
      born is black like his mother.                              nohoma goodbye, farewell, too bad, really sad. when
nibunia to look hungrily at something. Variant: nibunihavo.             addressing more than one person this word takes the form
nie vaga eyelid.                                                        'nohovu'.
nigi grass skirt.                                                 nona to discuss together.
nigi ogo cloth skirt.                                             nonu stone axe.
nigia to be ripe(said about corn when the silk appears).          nova today, now.
nigu sticky sap from a tree by that name, a name of a type of     nukunukua to hum a tune.
      tree.                                                       numu leaf.
nigua to be sticky, to stick to.                                  nunuva to chase someone, to exorcize(chase out a spirit), to
nihodova to close eyes in prayer or sleep(also euphemism for            follow(in time). Aike bulu ko nunuvaito Monde kemo
      death).                                                           ke vai. Following this sabbath the course will start
nihoma to wait for.                                                     Monday.

                                                           O - o
o    house, village.                                              oe nehe former person(someone previously talked about).
oa to walkabout.                                                  oenisi to braid(hair, string, etc). Variant: oenitisi.
oako butterfly.                                                   ogabi net(to catch fish, birds). Variant: ugabi.
oala large spider.                                                ogo cloth, clothes.
obea variety of small animal.                                     ogoa to vaporize, steam(boiling water, vapor off the ground).
odava far place where spirits live, place of death.               ogoloa to grumble, complain.
oe kobo house top.                                                ogomu moss.
                                      Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary                                    15
ohano                                                                                                sisoa
ohano to walk about with, to stick closely to someone.             onobenobe things.
ohea to have a skin sore.                                          onovade what?(Kagi dialect).
oheleka to waste away(body).                                       ose question marker which comes before verb and expects a
okali kind of nut.                                                       yes answer.
oko claw, fingernail.                                              osio to do what(question). A osionu? What have you done?
okolo flying fox, fruit bat.                                       osioho what for, why?
ole who?                                                           osisi variety of bird(black with two long broad tail feathers).
oleka to jump from branch to branch.                               otea to be empty(drum, saucepan, village).
olemea who?(when subject is plural).                               otogo sky, heaven.
oletana variety of kangaroo.                                       otova to put(more than one person doing the action). more
oleve where?                                                             than one person putting many things='otove'. See: mamo.
ologo yard, village clearing.                                      ovaite male(animal, bird).
olomo to cut a ring around tree trunk(so it will die and remain    ove to give them.
       standing for firewood).                                     oveva to swerve around an obstacle.
omea to dry(clothes, ground, blood).                               ovo pig. generic term for large animal and also by extension
omi to give him/her, to dam up(river). Nahi tai tabu omige               to mean car or truck.
     au lavui. Let's go make a dam and it will fill up.            ovo to spit out.
omokuti to wrap up in a cloth.                                     ovodovodoa to creep on all four.
ono what? Variant: onole.                                          ovokina firstborn.
onoa to be otherwise.                                              ovotava old garden site now overgrown in trees.

                                                             S - s
sabeda cowrie shell money.                                         sesia to sprinkle(salt, small seeds), to shake out(a cloth).
sagu old(garden, house).                                           seta to pick off(burrs from clothes, fuzz from hair).
saiamo to be slow, to do something slowly. Saiamo te. Go           sia to bloom, to wear loincloth.
       slowly.                                                     siaua to be hot(stones, water), to have power, authority.
sakava to be rotten(wood, food, rubbish).                                From: Motu.
sale sing-sing drum.                                               sibelea to take a rest. From: Motu.
saleka to be thin(paper, cloth).                                   siboa to be newly ripe and juicy.
saloa to scoop up(with hands).                                     sibuta long ago, before, already. Variant: subuta.
samaea to put greenery on body or clothes for decoration.          sibutaele old one(things or people).
samanihavo to betray, trap someone. From: Motu.                    sideka wooden club.
sami former house or village site.                                 siga knife.
samoho to rub hands over someone's body as gesture of              sigilesi singlet, T-shirt. From: English.
       happiness(to show you are happy with them).                 sigu something very small. idie sigu splinter lovie sigu
samota rubbish from eating(peels, sugar cane pith, etc).                 crumbs
samua to be smooth textured(food).                                 siimini age-mates, contemporaries.
samuguve scar(from cut or wound).                                  sikala comb.
samuta to smack the lips when eating(people, pigs).                silakia to backslide, to slack off(on something). From:
saneka hat, cap.                                                         English.
saokave old garden just about depleted.                            silava to be crazy. caused by a bad bush spirit ; similar to
sasaia to make a platform.                                               'tilogoa'.
sasala high platform for putting food.                             silibohi fierce wild pig.
sava to be wet(clothes), to be easy, not difficult(work).          silisilia to spray in different directions(water from a hose,
savasava to be soft(bed, clothes, food), to be easy to get along         waterfall).
      with.                                                        silumu ant.
sebele rough-hewn planks.                                          simea to itch, burn(can refer to some foods which burn the
segele cockroach.                                                        mouth if not cooked properly).
seika cliff, steep place.                                          sinele katydid, insect.
seleve true, really, very.                                         siniate small snare(for catching birds).
selia to be cold(water, food).                                     sisama to hide one's inner ways. A hoto ko sisamai a
selomi variety of small animal.                                           kinamo lou kavama. You are hiding your speech and
sena variety of small animal.                                             just saying it in your head.
senisi a good smelling substance(powder, perfume). From:           sisia to be torn, worn out(clothes, roofing material).
      English.                                                     sisiha to take possession of land, to keep constant company
senisia to change(clothes). From: English.                                with.
seseka variety of bird.                                            sisila to visit with.
sesena small vine used in making baskets.                          sisoa to be gray(hair).
16                                    Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary
sitohavo                                                                                                   tivu
sitohavo to get someone's attention by making sound with           soinia to miss out on something, to sharpen(stone ax), to miss
       mouth(ssst).                                                       a target.
siva to be not satisfied(with what one has eaten or received as    soleka to be fast, quick.
       a gift).                                                    solekavesite quickly. Variant: ihunivesite.
sivalai Bible story. From: Motu.                                   sonana yam stick(for yam to grow up).
soa to be loose, to come loose.                                    sonuma to spread around(talk,seed,etc.).
soba carrying pole.                                                sosibani saucepan. From: English.
sobati to carry on a pole(2 people).                               sovaviha to calm someone down gently, to persuade someone
sobea to circle around(bird, plane).                                      with nice words and gifts.
sobia to slant downward(writing, ridgepole, etc.).                 subua to be bitter.
sobo soap. From: English.                                          sugu crumbs, whiteness of the eye.
soe steel ax.                                                      sugua to have an eye that is discolored or white. Variant:
soe kina dull ax.                                                         sigua.
sogolo dead banana leaves(used for sitting on).                    suluka over ripe(fruit).
sohoa to smell bad.                                                sulusulu swamp.
soholima small wasp.                                               susuka fringe, loose-hanging threads. Variant: suluka.
sohu not yet.                                                      suviki horsefly.
soini name of a certain stone used for filing ax or knife.

                                                             T - t
ta   bodily filth(from sweat and lack of washing).                 tatuve to awaken(more than one person). See: etuva).
tababu dream. Variant: lahoahoa.                                   tauli a pot the people used to make out of clay.
tababua to dream.                                                  tautauhavo to be greedy and take some of another person's
tabageve to lift up, raise(many things), to choose(many                   food or things. A meligimo lovi isege di a tautauhavoi a
      people). See: ebagema.                                              lovi ima. While you were eating food from the plate I
tabe to inspect(traps, buildings, fruit trees).                           was greedy and took your food and ate it.
tabu dam, lake.                                                    tava middle. humahae tava on the way idie tava middle of
taete white.                                                              tree trunk
tagave green(not ripe).                                            tavala together with. Tavala avuti idi ke ebamai te. Together
tagula variety of large animal.                                           with him carry that tree and go
tahalu to wrap many pieces around the upper body(blanket,          tebua to be lost in the bush, to be away from village and
      bed sheet). See: ehalu.                                             living bad.
taho blood, bush turkey.                                           tedi to lay flooring material, to lay a mat on floor. Variant:
taho vosele pink.                                                         etedi.
tahosiga to be sunny after a rain.                                 tegitegite green color.
tahote red(also metonomy for Australian dollar bill).              teiba prostitute(male or female).
takalaha to be slightly open(window, door).                        teige that which is already prepared, made, set aside. A hau
takoveha to turn over, change(many), to translate(talk). See:             vale ke teige mai dao. Give me that which you have
      ekoveha.                                                            already prepared. Bulu lavale ke talive teigeve hei. Go
talavatu law, command. From: Motu.                                        and cut(trees) in the garden I've prepared by clearing it.
talemihavo to test to see if one is strong or not.                 teina to hunt(birds, animals).
tali steering wheel, tiller. From: Motu.                           teleka to hang(many things) across a line or nail so two ends
tamaea shell breastplate.                                                 hang down.
tamoeve to crowd together(people).                                 teme to sprinkle(salt on food), to tie roofing leaves on roof.
tanahae up above, uphill.                                          tenae to carry in string bag.
tanama brother-in-law. (said only by males to their wife's         tenia folktale.
      sisters' husbands).                                          tetea to shiver(with cold, sickness), to be dumb with
tanikiu thank you. From: English.                                         amazement, surprised into immobility.
taoa to peel. (sweet pototato, yam, taro).                         teve earthworm.
tasalia to divide, separate. Govaea homoale ke a haokaho           teve to lick.
      esalia. Divide the greens you picked and give some to        ti     rafters.
      your friend. Ata kebia tasaligevege abu keve tai             ti     to go.
      lovilahasege degomole kove lovilahai. Divide these           tihatu to go(meaning everyone went,'ti', go plus 'hatu', throw).
      people and while some work there some can work here.         tilikite tricky, deceitful.
      Variant: esalia.                                             tilogoa to act crazy(caused by a spirit which makes one act
tata older sister.                                                        crazy).
tatave top.                                                        tiokolu spinach-like greens.
tatua to prepare a bush bed.                                       tivu mud.
                                       Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary                                    17
tivua                                                                                                uoke
tivua to be muddy.                                                 totonamo for the sake of, for benefit of. Di a totonamo
to    dog.                                                               lohoale lovi ke vanu. I came for your sake and did the
toa to make it one's own or call it one's own. Dilavau nahie             food.
      malevei au ese toanu. God took us and made us his            toua to really want something(food, revenge). Di oai unata
      children. A haoka ledia ke maime a ebika toanu. You                mesiaho touanu. I walked about for awhile and really
      took your friend's radio for yourself.                             wanted some bush game.
toaka to be empty(drum, village, river).                           tove a heavy load.
toamo to rock in one's arms.                                       tovetove drama.
toba edge(of a container), surface(of water), texture(of skin).    toveva to carefully inspect, examine.
tobaloho to be full(of water, things).                             tovua to yell excitedly. used especially when welcoming
tobalu wild dog.                                                         someone back to the village.
tobeka to be quiet.                                                tu    nape of neck, variety of greens.
tobilaka to shake in the throes of death. Variant: tobiobio.       tubuna to work without stopping, to be a strong worker.
tobu womb.                                                         tule to break apart(rope, earthslide). this is an intransitive
tobua to be pregnant. Keate keu tobuanu. That woman is                   verb ; the transitive form is 'etule'.
      pregnant. Keate ke eseu tobuta ua. That woman's child        tulia to sew.
      is in the womb.                                              tuma to scratch(an itch).
toela bad.                                                         tumua to hurt, pain.
toga to bake food in hot ashes.                                    tumusohoa to smell very bad.
togai evening star.                                                tumute holy, taboo.
tohoa to try attempt, to pluck up, pull out. with plural subject   tunavu to hang down from. this is the intransitive form, the
      this word takes the form 'toholahai'.                              transitive is 'etunuva'. Variant: tunave.
toia upper section of a tree trunk.                                tuteha to be waiting, standing around.
tola variety of tree, waistband.                                   tutua to be weak(person), to be no good for eating because it
tolea to write.                                                          has been too long in the ground.
tolele wild boar.                                                  tutuka to be wilted(leaves), to be shriveled up(root
tolema to diminish, go down(food, water, strength).                      vegetables).
toloa to be difficult, to be hard-textured.                        tutukolo the only one, unique.
toluma to lean something against.                                  tuvali war, fight.
tomo red pandanus fruit.                                           tuvalia to fight.
toto sore, bruise.                                                 tuvikivikia to shake head and click tongue as a gesture of
totoa to wash(something).                                                disapproval.

                                                             U - u
u    to be, stay.                                                  uluda large wasp(red and brown).
uaha to bite, gnaw.                                                ululumi owl.
udaha door.                                                        uluva to jab a stick into ground(e.g., post, etc.).
udio planting stick.                                               umida clear, in a position to be seen easily.
ugabi net. Variant: ogabi.                                         umu lice.
ugologoloa to be upset or at odds with one another.                umua to make a sound like an engine, to run, drone,
ugu bird(by extension, plane).                                           purr(engine).
ugulamo to sit down. when used with plural subject it takes        umudi to fasten, put together in a bundle(firewood, sticks,
       the form 'uguiavo'. Variant: uguma.                               trees).
ukauka to stay a little while.                                     umuka base of tree trunk, root of family, root or underlying
ukolikoli eternal life. derived from the Koiali word 'u', to be         meaning(of talk). idie umuka tree root iduhue umuka
      plus the Motu word 'korikori', real.                              root of family line hotoe umuka the root of the talk
ukolikolia to live a long time, forever.                           umulaha to bind something as belonging to you(to mark
ula to want, like. From: Motu.                                          something as yours by saying this word). Di ata ke imi
uleme to smell, sniff(something). Di ke ulemege keu                     ke elehai avuemo umulahage keu daho malenu. I saw
      sohoanu. I smelled it and it smelled bad.                         that person's sugar cane and marked it and he got it for
uli nose.                                                               me.
uli to grow(plants).                                               umuva to tie, fasten.
ulida front(house only).                                           unaha only, just.
uliha to rub out, off(dirt from body, chalk, grease), to           uni stomach, egg(when combined with bird word). ugue uni
      cleanse(bad deeds).                                               a bird's egg kokolugu uni a chicken's egg
uliholi to lead the way. Au daho uliholisi te. You go and lead     unuku gnat.
      the way for me.                                              uoholi to be finished.
ulikukuhavo to kiss on cheek.                                      uoke way over there.
18                                    Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary
uone                                                                                                  vavua
uone to the side of over there.                                       uvua to be sad.
ute snake.                                                            uvuhatu to put close together with. A auvaniege mune
uti ashes, fireplace.                                                      malei govaea ke uvuhatu. Ige au lahae dua vai. When
utua to blow(wind).                                                        you mumu take rocks and put them close together with
uve banana.                                                                greens. And they will cook well.
uvevete a peaceful one(person).                                       uvulalavu to swell up, to be bloated(animal carcass), to
uvu inside, insides, heart. oe uvu inside house, room 'uvuve               rise(bread).
    isi' is an idiom that literally means to eat his insides, but     uvusahavo to blow upon to cool(food, burned skin).
    idomatically means, to butter him up.                             uvute to be dumb(not able to speak).
uvu to blow(with mouth), to swell up.

                                                                V - v
va to do, make.                                                       vanagi boat. From: Motu.
vabala variety of small animal.                                       vanate bird of paradise(Count Ragi).
vabua to be afraid. this is the intransitive form, the intransitive   vani sun, day.
       becomes 'vabuhavo', to be afraid of someone.                   vaoe later.
vabuti calf of leg.                                                   vasala raised platform outside house for storing food and pots.
vadia taro.                                                           vasidoi legband(old term).
vadia belika said of a girl who doesn't marry, a spinster.            vasiha to prepare food. Variant: vasia.
vae alalami daybreak.                                                 vasohuta first, before(in time, not position).
vae minamo midnight.                                                  vasoini large orange flower which grows on vine.
vae vovo sun shining on mountain in late afternoon.                   vata ground, country, earth.
vaea to be hungry.                                                    vata to become dirty.
vaeaha dry season.                                                    vatahi footprint, track.
vaeahovaeaho flying ants. they only come during dry                   vatahia to make footprints or tracks. A vatahiai tisege di a
       season and during daytime.                                           vatahi elehai. You make footprints while you walk and I
vaesute how much, how many.                                                 will see your footprints.
vaesuvela when?                                                       vatata to smoke meat above fire.
vagana rainy season(by extension, year).                              vate skin(of person, animal, tree, etc.).
vagasoa to have a hole in it(only used of house or house              vate tobate white person. Variant: nao.
       materials). Beu bagu ige vagasoanu. A rat ate the              -vatege contrary to fact marker. Di a holivatebe ke hamanu.
       bamboo and (the house) has a hole in it.                             If I were you I would have hit it. Variant: vatebe.
vaha the inside of.                                                   vatehani pain, suffering. Variant: vatetumu.
vaha to have a large hole in it(string bag, fence, etc.), to be       vato to make a loud crack or noise(like a tree when it falls or
       holey(bread, clothes, house).                                        car when it crashes).
vahaehoa to be happy.                                                 vatohovo to blister(because of chaffing).
vahahi to make a large hole in something.                             vau sun.
vahotoa to perspire.                                                  vava body.
Vahume name of large river below Efogi.                               vavae beside.
vaili friend. Variant: haoka.                                         vavaha to cover with something.
vaki side.                                                            vavahania to be sick.
vakia to sprout(seed).                                                vavaunahata naked.
vakoa to break off a little piece.                                    vaveha to untie, unfasten.
vala variety of vine(by extension a big basket).                      vavelaha to come untied.
valada tips of branches(by extension can mean descendants).           vaveve custom, way, deed.
valaha down below, downhill.                                          vavi night.
valahu yam storehouse.                                                vavia grandmother, grandfather, grandchild.
valava flour, bread.                                                  vavido mottled-color(a mixture of brown and black on an
valave underneath, underside.                                               animal).
valelete good appearance, nice looking.                               vavie mina middle of night.
vali forehead.                                                        vavita morning.
vali may, can(asking permission).                                     vavitege three days from now or three days before now.
vali maho to be married(old term).                                    vavoloa to steal. with an object to steal from one person is
valigani shin.                                                              'vavoha' and to steal from more than one becomes
valiti to recognize.                                                        'vavogeve'.
valolaha to sway in the wind(tree), to lean over to                   vavoloe ata thief.
       side(person).                                                  vavu measuring stick.
vana leaf.                                                            vavua to measure.
                                       Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary                                      19
veati                                                                                                vukahavo
veati to go up, to climb up, to rise(flames). Variant: vati.      viso tip, peak(house, tree), tip of running plant like 'tiokolu' or
vedodoa to flame up(fire), to smolder with anger(eyes).                  'govaea'.
       Niveu vedodoanu. His eyes were smoldering with anger.      visuha to beat someone with stick, belt. with plural object the
vedoho flying termites(that come at night).                              word becomes 'visugeve'. Variant: visuhavo.
vedove flame. Variant: vedovedove.                                vita pile of firewood for mumu, altar.
vedu pumpkin pulp.                                                vita to build firewood pile for mumu.
veduvedua to talk, discuss(Kagi talk). Variant: hotohotoa.        vito to jump up in the air.
vei to have intercourse.                                          vivi the feel of air on your face.
veitave at once, at the same time. Variant: vetava.               viviti fifty. From: English.
vekea to insist on doing something, to be close or                vivitini fifteen. From: English.
       almost(doing something). to insist on doing something to   voativoatia to be loosely woven(bamboo, string bag).
       someone else is 'vekehavo'.                                voevoea to float on water(people or things).
velaha to stretch oneself.                                        vogoa to be moldy.
velema to arrive. with plural subject the word becomes            voia to buy, sell, trade.
       'velehovo'.                                                vokia to strip bark off a tree.
velemege four days from now or four days before now.              vokilaha to get blisters(hands).
velo leg, foot.                                                   vokovokoa to be easy, light.
veloe viso toe.                                                   volia to go back to sleep.
vene fire, firewood.                                              voloa to wring out.
venee go live coal.                                               voloa floor. From: English.
venee ha heat of the fire.                                        volovoloa to really talk a lot(loud mouth), to make a loud
veni rain.                                                             noise, to roar(animal). Malaha keu hoto loui ai
vesava testicle.                                                       volovoloanu. That man spoke words and really talked a
vesite not much or very much. moaga vesite not much soleka             lot.
       vesite very fast In Ahisi dialect this word means none     vomo hair, fur, feather.
       and is used as a strong negative. In Efogi dialect         vomu bench.
       'uoholinu' is used to mean none.                           votaha to squeeze, knead, mash.
vesokavesoka slowly(Kagi talk). Variant: samosamo.                votoa to be wide.
vesua to be finished(Kagi dialect). Variant: uoholinu.            votove width, sole(of foot), sandal, thong.
vetava variety of tree.                                           vovoa to be ripe, to be light(not heavy).
veua to urinate.                                                  vovoho to conceal(the truth), to deny(that you knew someone
vevovevoa to whistle a tune(only with lips).                           or something). Variant: vovoha.
vevu penis.                                                       vovolutua to be ripe for picking.
vidia honey bee.                                                  vovono the frame or base logs for building a mumu fire.
vidia e honey(water of honey bee).                                vovoti to roll by itself(like a log).
vido green and red metallic-like beetle.                          vuai crocodile.
vigove between.                                                   vudieve to hold in lap(more than one person), to catch(more
vigu thigh.                                                            than one thing). See: evude.
vikoa to be surprised.                                            vudihe to face towards, to turn towards. Variant: vudihea.
vikoka a swing.                                                   vudive the front of.
vikoka to swing on a vine or rope(a person).                      vugea to be too short. Variant: vugeholinu.
vilevale things(Agisi talk). Variant: onobenobe.                  vugeve the short one.
vilia to wrap around.                                             vuguta close, near.
vilivilia to spin, twirl, go around in circles. to spin or        vuguvugua to be short(in stature, in length, etc.).
       twirl(something) becomes 'vilivilihavo'.                   vuka to shorten, or tuck up. used when a cloth is hanging down
vilo variety of greens.                                                and needs to be fixed to shorten it.
vina shadow(of inanimate object).                                 vukahavo to cramp(leg). Variant: vukalaha.
vioa to spit.

                                                  Total number of entries: 1477




20                                   Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary
vukahavo                                              vukahavo




           English – Mountain Koiali




               Mountain Koiali — English Dictionary         21
a bad feeling one has                                                                      brother-in-law


                                                          A - a
a bad feeling one has — banahu.                                  a type of fern — bisi.
a blast of wind with rain — henunu.                              a type of sorcery — bulibuli.
a blind person — kedute.                                         a very sharp thing(knife, ax, etc.) — initehate.
a cat-like animal of the bush — hago.                            a wise person — lulelete.
a connecting word indicating purpose — elike.                    a woven band — ago.
a derogatory term said to someone who is lazy or doesn't         afternoon — gutumo.
              try very hard — emohate.                           age-mates, contemporaries — siimini.
a fly         — homedo.                                          alive(literally 'with eyes') — nita.
a good smelling substance(powder, perfume) — senisi.             all            — baita.
a grouping of something in a row — luhu.                         all, every     — bahata.
a heavy load — tove.                                             altar          — vita.
a kind of tree nut — lokili bai.                                 an intensive form of anekia — anekia.
a marker attached to words meaning `to, towards'                 angel          — anelu.
                 — -e.                                           ankle          — komusaka.
a name of a type of tree — nigu.                                 another name for Efogi village — Molio.
a peaceful one(person) — uvevete.                                ant            — silumu.
a person whose husband or father has died and left them          any kind of vegetable greens — govaea.
             with no one to help them — goli.                    appearance, the way something looks — elehilehi.
a pool of water that cassowaries use to cool themselves in       arm            — ada.
             hot weather — etoa.                                 army           — ame.
a pot the people used to make out of clay — tauli.               arrow          — diba.
a spinster — kabani.                                             ashes, fireplace — uti.
a steep place — hevaha.                                          asparagus-like green — duti.
a swing      — vikoka.                                           at edge of(fireplace, water, etc.) — koi.
a tree which has had all but the tips of its branches shorn      at once, at the same time — veitave.
             of leaves — dalama.                                 at the other end — iviga.

                                                          B - b
back(body part or the opposite of front)     — iave.             bird of paradise(Count Ragi) — vanate.
bad         — toela.                                             bird of paradise(the one with two thin, black tail feathers
bag         — baeki;                                                           that curl around) — daoi.
             — busi.                                             bird(by extension, plane) — ugu.
bamboo(generic name) — bagu.                                     black         — bukate.
banana        — uve.                                             blood         — taho.
bank of river — anaba.                                           boat          — vanagi.
bark headcloth — boseka.                                         bodily filth(from sweat and lack of washing) — ta.
bark of a tree used for flooring — muluka.                       body          — vava.
bark of certain trees used for tying,etc. — hatogo.              bone          — itava.
bark or leaf water container — beholo.                           book          — buka.
base of tree trunk — umuka.                                      border(of land) — minohavimo.
bayonet       — benisi.                                          bottle        — kibila.
beard(fur of mouth) — aie vomo.                                  bottom section of garden — edaga.
beginning, origin — matamata.                                    boundary between 2 pieces of land belonging to different
bench         — vomu.                                                          people — etoa.
beside        — vavae.                                           bowl          — baidisi.
betelnut      — boataho.                                         boy, male — mo.
between       — edeka;                                           brains        — ivogi.
             — vigove.                                           bread         — beleidi.
Bible story — sivalai.                                           breast        — amu.
bicycle       — basikolo.                                        breast bone — ivuka.
big           — baluga.                                          breath        — lu.
big wind and rain storm — hanunu.                                bridge        — neto.
bird feather headdress — hanogo.                                 brother-in-law — ave;

22                                         English — Mountain Koiali
brother/sister-in-law                                                                           eyelid
              — tanama.                                      butterfly    — oako.
brother/sister-in-law — eni.                                 buttocks     — devuia.
brown beetle — balia.                                        by chance — heiata.
bush game — mesia.                                           by extension can mean radio and telephone   — hotee
bush, jungle — boto.                                                     haliko.
bush turkey — taho.                                          by foot(when used with go or come)   — heila.

                                                      C - c
calf of leg — vabuti.                                        cloth, clothes — ogo.
cards        — kasi.                                         cloth skirt — nigi ogo.
carrying pole — soba.                                        cloud         — goe.
cartridge    — katelesi.                                     club          — kudava.
casket, case — kesi.                                         cockatoo      — kaea.
cassowary — duba.                                            cockroach — segele.
centipede — haeho.                                           coins(grouping of money) — monie luhu.
charcoal     — godi;                                         cold          — daba.
             — lodi.                                         comb          — sikala.
chasm, gorge — dobia.                                        continually, repeatedly — halihalia.
chest(of body) — hove.                                       contrary to fact marker — -vatege.
chicken        — kokolugu.                                   corner        — deive.
child          — ese.                                        corpse        — alu.
chin           — ausa.                                       court, lawsuit — kota.
church building — dubu.                                      cowrie shell money — sabeda.
clan           — buluvia.                                    crayfish, lobster — lala.
claw, fingernail — oko.                                      crocodile     — vuai.
clay(formerly used to make clay pots) — deba.                crumbs        — sugu.
clear, in a position to be seen easily — umida.              cucumber — mosala.
cliff, steep place — seika.                                  curved, crooked — golote.
close, near — vuguta.                                        custom, way, deed — vaveve.

                                                      D - d
dam, lake — tabu.                                            dog        — to.
daughter-in-law, mother-in-law — mea.                        door       — udaha.
day after tomorrow — alamege.                                dove       — imutava.
day before yesterday — alamege.                              down below, downhill   — valaha.
daybreak       — vae alalami.                                down below, outside — heie.
dead banana leaves(used for sitting on) — sogolo.            downstream — ebe.
dead leaves of sugar cane — kavu.                            drama      — tovetove.
deadfall(to catch birds and animals) — kukoi.                dream      — lahoahoa;
deaf(literally or figuratively) — golemate.                              — tababu.
death          — hatihati.                                   dry season — vaeaha.
deceitful      — tilikite.                                   dull ax       — soe kina.
different, strange — nimole.                                 dust, to be dusty — gogea.

                                                       E - e
ear          — golema.                                       enough       — egelegelea.
earthworm — teve.                                            enough, sufficient — elemua.
edge, side of — ilada.                                       equal        — egelegelea.
edge(of a container) — toba.                                 eternal life — ukolikoli.
edge(of table, book, picture, etc.) — buve.                  evening star — togai.
eel          — minama.                                       exclamation of surprise — mahae.
egg(when combined with bird word) — uni.                     eyelid       — nie vaga.



                                       English — Mountain Koiali                                    23
face, eyes                                                                                           hips

                                                         F - f
face, eyes — ni.                                               flying machine(airplane) — balamasi.
family         — bese.                                         flying termites(that come at night) — vedoho.
family, line — iduhu.                                          folktale      — tenia.
far place where spirits live, place of death — odava.          food          — lovi.
fashion, deed, behavior — kala.                                food from an old garden(sweet potato, banana) — neguve.
feces          — de.                                           footprint, track — vatahi.
female animal or bird — gadia.                                 for benefit of — totonamo.
fever          — hobe.                                         for him/her/it — avuho.
fierce wild pig — silibohi.                                    for the sake of — totonamo.
fifteen        — vivitini.                                     forehead      — vali.
fifty          — viviti.                                       foreigner(normally used for white people)   — nao.
fire, firewood — vene.                                         foreleg       — ada.
first, before(in time, not position) — vasohuta.               forked stick used for raking — keilo.
first fruits — loboana.                                        fork(of tree, road) — dove.
first light, daybreak — hodohodo.                              former house or village site — sami.
firstborn      — ovokina.                                      former, one referred to before — nehe.
fish           — kualuma.                                      former person(someone previously talked about)
fish scales — gina.                                                            — oe nehe.
fish(local variety only) — huena.                              four days from now or four days before now — velemege.
flame          — vedove.                                       friend       — haoka;
flame(of fire, lamp) — have.                                                — vaili.
flat area, level ground — loho.                                fringe, loose-hanging threads — susuka.
flea           — iogo.                                         frog           — maoka.
flintstone — matuku.                                           from/on him/her/it — avuemo.
floor          — voloa.                                        front(house only) — ulida.
flour, bread — valava.                                         fruit          — bai.
flying ants — vaeahovaeaho.                                    fruit(of a tree) — hahuhumi.
flying fox, fruit bat     — okolo.

                                                        G - g
garden        — bulu.                                          grass skirt — nigi.
gecko lizard — boloko.                                         grasshopper — kainaku.
general kin term used to refer to in-laws — molevu.            green and red metallic-like beetle — vido.
girl, female — ma.                                             green color — tegitegite.
gnat          — unuku.                                         green tree python — bolekava.
good          — dua.                                           green wood — isahete.
good appearance, nice looking — valelete.                      green(not ripe) — tagave.
good smelling liquid(perfume, coconut oil, etc.) — deholo.     grille, a scaly skin disease — gibole.
goodbye, farewell, too bad, really sad — nohoma.               ground, country, earth — vata.
goods, things, wealth — kunai.                                 g-string made of bark — bueka.
grain of corn — koneluhu.                                      guess          — gilea.
grandmother, grandfather, grandchild — vavia.                  gun            — kibidi.

                                                        H - h
hair, fur, feather — vomo.                                     head, hair — kina.
halfcaste, mixed race — habokasi.                              heart          — lutie bai.
hand           — ada.                                          heat of the fire — venee ha.
hankerchief — muko.                                            heat(of fire, lamp) — heve.
hard           — baita.                                        heavy          — metau.
hat, cap       — saneka.                                       here           — kove.
have not yet — loboho.                                         high platform for putting food   — sasala.
hawk           — duna.                                         hipbone        — lokive.
he             — au.                                           hips           — honi.
24                                       English — Mountain Koiali
his garden                                                                                           loud
his garden — buluve.                                           horn(animal) — kaudate.
hole(in the ground) — abata.                                   horse        — hosi.
Holy Spirit — Lauma Helaga.                                    horsefly     — suviki.
holy, taboo — tumute.                                          house top — oe kobo.
honey bee — vidia.                                             house, village — o.
honey(water of honey bee) — vidia e.                           how much, how many — vaesute.
horisontal garden markings — kololoi.                          husband      — kolia.
horizontal strips of wood that go on rafters   — mala.

                                                           I - i
I, me         — da.                                            inside of thigh — hodeka.
I, me, my — di.                                                insides, heart — uvu.
if, unless    — bema.                                          intensive form of 'halio' — haliohatui.
illegimate child — mamaesi.                                    intestines — gogo.
important man, leader, lord — kosive.                          iron          — auli.
in back of, on other side of — ieke.                           iron, metal — lele.
insect which lives in bananas with pinchers    — deteki.       iron roofing — bunu.
inside        — uvu.                                           it            — au.
inside of elbow — haliko.

                                                           J - j
jail         — dibula.                                         just keep on and on — elemoto.
jealousy     — maina.                                          just, only, for nothing — -kava.
Jew's harp — bibo.                                             just over there(closeby) — imene.
just, go ahead — nena.                                         just, so       — eve.

                                                           K - k
katydid, insect — sinele.                                      kind of nut   — okali.
kernel of the talk — hotoe haliko.                             kingdom       — basileia.
kerosene      — kelosini.                                      knee          — kome.
kin term - refers to sister's husband — nakimi.                knife         — siga.
kin term-mother's brother's wife — lea.                        kunai grass   — kulu.

                                                           L - l
landslide     — hune.                                          leech         — domo.
large bowl — disi.                                             leg band      — mabitula.
large bush animal — behisa.                                    leg, foot     — velo.
large ground lizard — aeate.                                   legband(old term) — vasidoi.
large orange flower which grows on vine — vasoini.             leprousy      — goata.
large parrot — belala.                                         letter        — levaleva.
large passion fruit — auaua.                                   lice          — umu.
large spider — oala.                                           lid(of pot or pan) — konuve.
large wasp(red and brown) — uluda.                             light, torch(of pit-pit or tree branch) — hati.
last in order — debuka.                                        like, similar — nahate.
last of something(rice, salt, nails, grease) — deive.          lips(edge of mouth) — aie bu.
lastborn      — debuka.                                        live coal     — venee go.
later         — vaoe.                                          liver         — luti.
later, next — gabie.                                           long ago, before, already — sibuta.
later, then — bae.                                             long lasting, eternal — gibosoune.
law           — menaka.                                        long, meaningless talk        — dekube.
law, command — talavatu.                                       Lord's supper, communion — aleto.
leaf          — numu;                                          loud          — baita.
             — vana.
                                         English — Mountain Koiali                                       25
male initiate                                                                               over there

                                                      M - m
male initiate — gala.                                        mirror       — evali.
male(animal, bird) — ovaite.                                 money        — moni.
man           — malaha.                                      money(round stone) — mune bai.
many, plenty — moaga.                                        moon         — bata.
market        — maketi.                                      morning      — vavita.
mature male animal — kosi.                                   morning star — lokoi.
mature(referring to children who show signs of growing       mosquito     — daukia.
              up) — kosi.                                    moss         — ogomu.
may, can(asking permission) — vali.                          mother(can also be used to refer to wife) — neina.
maybe         — mesoho.                                      mother's brother, sister's child — dumu.
meaning       — ihu.                                         mottled-color(a mixture of brown and black on an animal)
measuring stick — vavu.                                                      — vavido.
medicine      — mulamula.                                    mouse        — beu.
meeting       — ebou.                                        mouth        — ai.
middle        — tava.                                        mouth, opening(of a bag, hole) — ilive.
middle of back — inu.                                        much         — baluga.
middle of night — vavie mina.                                mud          — tivu.
midnight      — vae minamo.                                  mu-mu        — amu.
mine(da + possessive marker) — daele.                        muscle, ligament — meli.

                                                         N - n
nail        — ikoko.                                         net(to catch fish, birds) — ogabi.
naked       — degeta;                                        new, fresh — gunugunu.
            — vavaunahata.                                   new leaves — humu.
name        — ivi.                                           new, young — doga;
name of a bad bush spirit which enters a person and causes               — matamata.
            death — avatutu.                                 nice(said of people and things) — maite.
name of a certain stone used for filing ax or knife          night         — vavi.
                — soini.                                     no            — me.
name of large river below Efogi — Vahume.                    nose          — uli.
namesake — haima.                                            noseplug      — muki.
nape of neck — tu.                                           no(strong disagreement) — ba.
navel         — demodo.                                      no(strong negative) — be.
neck(front part only) — eno.                                 not much or very much — vesite.
neck(whole thing) — gobe.                                    not yet       — sohu.
negative particle — -holi.                                   now, at the present time — aike.
nest(birds, pigs) — haso.                                    now, today — doga.
net           — ugabi.

                                                         O - o
old garden just about depleted — saokave.                    one         — be;
old garden site now overgrown in trees — ovotava.                        — igae.
old man       — buluka.                                      only, just  — unaha.
old one(things or people) — sibutaele.                       open space(usually on top of a ridge with good view)
old term for god or deity — lele.                                            — nimanima.
old woman — mabata.                                          opponent, enemy — bahoe.
older brother — nana.                                        or          — emena;
older sister — tata.                                                     — mena.
old(garden, house) — sagu.                                   orphan        — gobese.
old(things only) — mami.                                     other one, another — mole.
on the other side of — imekeve.                              other(person, thing) — bebe.
on this side of — koveatae.                                  over ripe(fruit) — suluka.
on top of     — hovadave.                                    over there — ikela.
26                                     English — Mountain Koiali
owl                                                                          shadow(animals, people)
owl          — ululumi.

                                                          P - p
pain, suffering — vatehani.                                    place, location — matama.
pandanus tree — laoka.                                         place of death — kumo.
paper         — beba.                                          planting stick — udio.
parable       — dovudovu.                                      plate, dish — melegi.
part or section — ivi.                                         platform built in a tree for defense — dobo.
party, feast — alia.                                           plural accompaniment suffix — -luvu.
paunch        — gogo.                                          poison, bait — mesulu.
pawpaw        — mitani.                                        porch         — hedaka.
penis         — koki;                                          position, place one once occupied — lovo.
             — vevu.                                           possessive marker — -ele.
perch, roosting place — hanida.                                post          — hade.
pig            — ovo.                                          price, payback, answer — ibina.
pig wallow — aeama.                                            privately, separately — lilikate.
pile of firewood for mumu — vita.                              prophet       — beloveta.
pink           — taho vosele.                                  prostitute(male or female) — teiba.
pit, hole(in the ground) — guli.                               pull out      — tohoa.
pit-pit        — kesomi.                                       pumpkin pulp — vedu.
pit-pit fruit — boho.                                          pus           — emogo.
place          — gabu.

                                                          Q - q
question marker which comes before verb and expects a          quickly      — ihunivesite;
            yes answer — ose.                                               — solekavesite.

                                                          R - r
rafters       — ti.                                            river mouth — be;
rain          — veni.                                                       — ebe.
rainbow       — haegihatu.                                     rivulet of rain water — etoaka.
rainy season(by extension, year) — vagana.                     road, path, way — humaha.
raised platform outside house for storing food and pots        rock python — inuvia.
                — vasala.                                      roofing leaves — homo.
rat           — kuluka.                                        root of family — umuka.
raven, black bird — galo.                                      root of ginger bush    — kolemi.
raw meat      — misi.                                          root of the talk — hotoe umuka.
really small version of something — gitoki.                    root or underlying meaning(of talk) — umuka.
red clay used for decorating one's body — agu.                 root(of trees, plants) — alumuve.
red pandanus fruit — tomo.                                     roots of a tree — idumuka.
red(also metonomy for Australian dollar bill) — tahote.        rope          — kikia.
revered person, old person — kosi.                             rough-hewn planks — sebele.
ribs          — elenadi.                                       rubbish from eating(peels, sugar cane pith, etc) —
ridgepole — beno.                                                           samota.
river         — e.                                             rubbish, garbage   — momolu.

                                                          S - s
said of a girl who doesn't marry, a spinster   — vadia         scar(from cut or wound) — samuguve.
             belika.                                           second person plural prounoun, you — la.
salt         — madea.                                          seed          — ive.
sand         — mili.                                           self(intensive marker) — biage.
sandal, thong — votove.                                        separate      — tasalia.
saucepan     — sosibani.                                       shadow(animals, people) — munana.
                                         English — Mountain Koiali                                     27
shadow(of inanimate object)                                                       teeth(row of mouth)
shadow(of inanimate object) — vina.                            something very small — sigu.
shame         — mati.                                          song(modern) — nogoli.
she           — au.                                            sorcerer(type which can come invisibly and hit one with
sheep         — mamoe.                                                       sickness) — holo.
shell bands worn in former days — la.                          sorcery for spoiling people so they die — mune.
shell breastplate — maili;                                     sore, bruise — toto.
             — tamaea.                                         sound         — ene.
shell breastplate shaped like a crescent — biala.              source of river — ehana.
shell necklace — gebole.                                       source(of river) — hana.
shin          — valigani.                                      spear, steel rod — guluba.
shore(of lake or ocean) — esaga.                               speck of dirt — loe;
should not — lako.                                                         — louka.
should not, must not — inaho.                                  spiderweb — gabuia.
should, ought — nehane.                                        spinach-like greens — tiokolu.
should, ought(in a past context) — abege.                      spinster, a woman who has never married — belika.
shoulder      — bego.                                          spirit       — anelu;
shoulder blade — betaki.                                                   — munana.
side          — badeli;                                        spirit of dead ancestor — alu.
             — badi;                                           split cane — gobavu.
             — vaki.                                           star          — didi.
side of a garden(located on hillside) — halidi.                steel         — auli.
side of body — eteka.                                          steel ax      — soe.
singlet, T-shirt — sigilesi.                                   steering wheel — tali.
sing-sing drum — sale.                                         steps         — anaka.
sister        — amakini.                                       stick for tying up sugar cane — imida.
skin markings — musini.                                        sticky sap from a tree by that name — nigu.
skin(of person, animal, tree, etc.) — vate.                    stomach       — uni.
sky, heaven — otogo.                                           stone         — mune.
slowly(Kagi talk) — vesokavesoka.                              stone axe — nonu.
small         — eseve;                                         stone cave — manu.
             — gi.                                             stone club — manu.
small bat     — muliki.                                        stop it!(similar to `hale') — boeho.
small bones of bird or fish — gini.                            stop it!(similar to 'hale') — beoho.
small finch-like bird — lodini.                                story, tale — deiada.
small ground lizard — aeate utite.                             stretcher     — kaula.
small of the back — degini.                                    string        — goda;
small oppossum — mani.                                                     — hotee haliko.
small snare(for catching birds) — siniate.                     string bag — laha.
small stick — bedi.                                            string bag of different weave than 'laha' — kutu.
small things(stones, sticks) used to plug up small holes       string, rope — kuna.
              when covering a large pit — bavagu.              stump(of finger or tree) — bodu.
small vine used in making baskets — sesena.                    suffix meaning on, from — -mo.
small wasp — soholima.                                         sugar cane — imi.
smallest finger — akikino.                                     sun           — vau.
snake         — ute.                                           sun, day      — vani.
snare         — mavi.                                          sun shining on mountain in late afternoon — vae vovo.
soap          — sobo.                                          surface(of water) — toba.
sole(of foot) — votove.                                        suspension bridge made of vines — manaka.
some          — be.                                            swamp         — sulusulu.
some, other — degomole.                                        sweet potato     — gebeu.
someone else's, another's — molele.                            sword         — benisi.

                                                           T - t
tadpole      — devuka.                                         taro         — vadia.
tail         — dete.                                           taro paste made from pounded taro and ashes — kaso.
tailbone     — deboto.                                         teenage boy — mohoho.
talk         — hoto.                                           teenage girl — mahoho.
tangerine    — anani.                                          teeth(row of mouth) — aie luhu.
28                                       English — Mountain Koiali
temporary markings on the body                                                                to be hoarse
temporary markings on the body — bui.                            to be alive, to revive — maulia.
temporary shelter built of leaves — evavaga.                     to be angry — badua;
testicle       — vesava.                                                      — detumua;
texture(of skin) — toba.                                                      — itumua.
thank you — tanikiu.                                             to be away from village and living bad — tebua.
that, it       — ke.                                             to be bald — koua.
that which is already prepared, made, set aside — teige.         to be baptized — babatisoa.
That's true, isn't it?(question marker expecting a yes           to be bare of leaves(tree) — hasihasia.
               answer) — eni.                                    to be barren, unable to bear children — esesia.
the black one(refers only to dogs or cats) — nibuka.             to be, become — holi.
the bone needle used to make string bags — gini.                 to be bitter — subua.
the feel of air on your face — vivi.                             to be blackened by fire(inside of a house) — bonasua.
the frame or base logs for building a mumu fire —                to be blind — kedua.
              vovono.                                            to be blind to the truth — keloa.
the front of — vudive.                                           to be burnt, overcooked — goia.
the inside of — vaha.                                            to be careful, beware of — nenilaha.
the last one — gabive.                                           to be clear and clean(river, water) — nilogologoa.
the only one, unique — tutukolo.                                 to be close or almost(doing something) — vekea.
the short one — vugeve.                                          to be cold(refers to skin or body) — molia.
their         — abu.                                             to be cold(water, food) — libia;
there         — keve.                                                         — selia.
they          — abu.                                             to be confused — daudaua.
thief         — vavoloe ata.                                     to be confused, undecided — dolodoloa.
thigh         — vigu.                                            to be crazy — silava.
thing         — hau.                                             to be crooked(literally or figuratively) — keuka.
things        — onobenobe.                                       to be crowded(with people) — gigia.
things(Agisi talk) — vilevale.                                   to be crushed(with no hardness left) — la.
third singular form used with suffixes — avu.                    to be damp(matches, firewood) — makua.
this          — ko.                                              to be dark(sun, water) — loa.
thorn leaves, nettles(used for alleviating pain)     — inogo.    to be difficult — toloa.
thorns        — bekabeka.                                        to be dizzy(said of the eyes) — lilia.
thoughts      — huhuihuhui.                                      to be double, two together(things, people) — kavoloa.
three days from now or three days before now         —           to be droopy, heavy feeling of the body — hania.
            vavitege.                                            to be dull(knife, ax) — kubilia.
thumb       — augavada.                                          to be dumb with amazement, surprised into immobility
tiller      — tali.                                                              — tetea.
tinned meat — miti.                                              to be dumb(not able to speak) — uvute.
tip, peak(house, tree), tip of running plant like 'tiokolu' or   to be easy, light    — vokovokoa.
             'govaea' — viso.                                    to be easy, not difficult(work) — sava.
tips of branches    — hasive.                                    to be easy to get along with — savasava.
tips of branches(by extension can mean descendants)              to be embarrassed or ashamed — matia.
                 — valada.                                       to be empty(drum, saucepan, village) — otea.
to act crazy(caused by a spirit which makes one act crazy)       to be empty(drum, village, river) — toaka.
                 — tilogoa.                                      to be engaged — kokova.
to allow someone to do anything they want        — nimo          to be even(same length), on the same level or in a line with
              tahoa.                                                             — ninita.
to arrive     — velema.                                          to be fast, quick — soleka.
to arrive out of breath — luovo.                                 to be fat(said of animals and people) — bata.
to ask        — bela.                                            to be feverish — hobea.
to ask someone for something, to pray — imiha.                   to be finished — uoholi.
to awaken(more than one person) — tatuve.                        to be finished(Kagi dialect) — vesua.
to backslide, to slack off(on something) — silakia.              to be full(of water, things) — tobaloho.
to bake food in hot ashes — etiamo;                              to be gray(hair) — sisoa.
              — toga.                                            to be greedy and take some of another person's food or
to bark      — havutoa.                                                        things — tautauhavo.
to be a loudmouth(literally - to wring out the mouth)            to be grown up in weeds — mogua.
                 — aivolovoloa.                                  to be happy — vahaehoa.
to be a spectator — haliabemo ua.                                to be hard-textured — toloa.
to be a strong worker — tubuna.                                  to be heavy(literally or figuratively) — isua.
to be afraid — vabua.                                            to be hoarse — lulea.
                                           English — Mountain Koiali                                      29
to be holey(bread, clothes, house)                                              to bend something over
to be holey(bread, clothes, house) — vaha.                      to be stained(cloth, skin) — livua.
to be hollow inside(referring to something like a skull or      to be, stay — u.
               shell) — lolokua.                                to be sticky, to stick to — nigua.
to be hot(stones, water) — siaua.                               to be straight — inutolotoloa.
to be hungry — vaea.                                            to be strong — negoa.
to be impossible — anekia.                                      to be strung tightly — beda.
to be insufficient, not able to do something — neniholi.        to be stupid, mentally deranged — kava.
to be intelligent, gifted — lulelea.                            to be sunny after a rain — tahosiga.
to be lazy, not wanting to do anything — homasia.               to be surprised — vikoa.
to be light — aga.                                              to be sweet or good(food, talk) — hea.
to be light(not heavy) — vovoa.                                 to be tangled up, improperly done(refers to work, talk,
to be like that, to be similar — katea.                                        things) — bolia.
to be like this — kosea.                                        to be the same — egelegelea.
to be long, to last a long time — egea.                         to be thin(paper, cloth) — saleka.
to be loose, to come loose — soa.                               to be thin(people, trees, animals) — hasia.
to be loosely woven(bamboo, string bag) — voativoatia.          to be thirsty — enua.
to be lost in the bush — tebua.                                 to be tight(things) — gigia.
to be lucky — hoesea.                                           to be tilted, not level — badia.
to be married(old term) — vali maho.                            to be tired — kabebia.
to be moldy — vogoa.                                            to be tired of something — homasihavo.
to be muddy — tivua.                                            to be tired of(someone or something) — kabebihavo.
to be newly ripe and juicy — siboa.                             to be tired, wanting to quit — deohea.
to be next to, to be touching(said of people and things)        to be together, to be one — igaetoa.
                 — havai.                                       to be too short — egeholi;
to be no good for eating because it has been too long in the                 — iviholi;
              ground — tutua.                                                — vugea.
to be not satisfied(with what one has eaten or received as a    to be torn, worn out(clothes, roofing material) — sisia.
              gift) — siva.                                     to be twins — kavoloa.
to be old(things only) — mamia.                                 to be unconscious — nibeda.
to be only half-done(when boiled or cooked in fire)             to be uprooted and fallen down(tree) — hobelaha.
                 — dagilia.                                     to be upset — habiha.
to be otherwise — onoa.                                         to be upset or at odds with one another    — ugologoloa.
to be poisonous, fierce — aihania.                              to be very strong — negobeda.
to be pregnant — tobua.                                         to be waiting, standing around — tuteha.
to be quiet — tobeka.                                           to be watery — ea.
to be really happy — iviania.                                   to be wavy(hair) — goligolia.
to be red-hot(stone or iron when heated) — bala.                to be weak — magoloa;
to be revealed — daihovo.                                                    — manoka.
to be righteous, with straight ways — inutolotoloa.             to be weak(person)     — tutua.
to be ripe — vovoa.                                             to be wet(clothes) — sava.
to be ripe for picking — vovolutua.                             to be wet(clothes, grass) — esoa.
to be ripe, ready to pick — baea.                               to be wide — votoa.
to be ripe(said about corn when the silk appears)               to be wilted(leaves) — tutuka.
                 — nigia.                                       to be yellow(leaves, skin)   — beva.
to be rotten on inside(tree, bamboo, etc.) — hubahuba.          to bear fruit — baia;
to be rotten(wood, food, rubbish) — sakava.                                  — hahuma.
to be round shaped — kubaia.                                    to beat someone with stick, belt — visuha.
to be sad     — uvua.                                           to become a stump — bodua.
to be satisfied(enough food in stomach) — hania.                to become an old woman — mabata.
to be sharp — inia.                                             to become dirty — vata.
to be shiny(like tabletop, watch, crystal, etc.) — levolevoa.   to become indistinct(road, path) — bodua.
to be short(in stature, in length, etc.) — vuguvugua.           to become loud and boisterous — kutikutia.
to be shriveled up(root vegetables) — tutuka.                   to become thick and grey(like grease or storm clouds)
to be sick — golelea;                                                           — bebunia.
             — vavahania.                                       to become too long (talk, a task) — ebokeha.
to be slightly open(window, door) — takalaha.                   to beget(children) — hou.
to be slippery — hato.                                          to begin start — iviaviha.
to be slow, to do something slowly — saiamo.                    to bend or push over(things, people) — elokiha.
to be smooth textured(food) — samua.                            to bend over, stoop down — holuma.
to be soft(bed, clothes, food) — savasava.                      to bend something over — egoliha;
30                                        English — Mountain Koiali
to bend(by itself)                                                         to cut in pieces for cooking
              — evadoma.                                       to cause someone or something to follow — ialeme.
to bend(by itself) — golilaha.                                 to cause someone/something to fall — ehobeha.
to betray a friend — haia.                                     to change someone's talk, misrepresent — egoliha.
to betray, trap someone — samanihavo.                          to change(clothes) — senisia.
to bind something as belonging to you(to mark something        to charge a purchase(to book it instead of paying)
              as yours by saying this word) — umulaha.                         — bukinia.
to bite, gnaw — uaha.                                          to chase someone — nunuva.
to bite hard on something — hedima.                            to chew       — nana.
to blame someone else(for your mistake) — biboma.              to chisel a hole in something — kobuha.
to bless, do good to(food, persons) — hoesehavo.               to choose(many people) — tabageve.
to blister(because of chaffing) — vatohovo.                    to choose(people) — eha.
to block someone's way — bedada.                               to chop across the grain — egudoha.
to bloom      — sia.                                           to chop(firewood) — leveha.
to blow inside the house(rain) — hasihasia.                    to circle around(bird or plane) — launia.
to blow something out of mouth(water, rubbish) —               to circle around(bird, plane) — sobea.
             kususuai.                                         to clean up a road(cutting grass and weeds along the side)
to blow upon to cool(food, burned skin) — uvusahavo.                           — loi.
to blow up(the fire) — hane.                                   to cleanse(bad deeds) — uliha.
to blow(wind) — utua.                                          to clear a place of weeds — eluluma.
to blow(with mouth) — uvu.                                     to click tongue in surprise — misitoa.
to boil over, to overflow — hahosihovo.                        to climb down a tree — lalamo.
to braid(hair, string, etc) — oenisi.                          to climb(tree, hill) — hedima.
to branch off on a new road, to go around a fallen tree with   to close eyes in prayer or sleep(also euphemism for death)
              a new path — esokuva.                                            — nihodova.
to break apart(rope, earthslide) — tule.                       to close(door, window, water tap, etc.) — bamu.
to break, fold — bokoa.                                        to cock the head to listen carefully — kekea.
to break off — edakoa.                                         to collect, pick up(items one by one) — iuha.
to break off a little piece — vakoa.                           to color, mark, write — hisaia.
to break off pieces(greens for cooking, sugar cane, etc.)      to come        — loho.
                — homo.                                        to come down a river(said of water after it rains) — lalamo.
to break wind — debutoa.                                       to come down(hill, tree) — hevaloho.
to breathe heavily(when out of breath or when sick)            to come loose by itself(bandage, scab, bark) — bodilaha.
                — lua.                                         to come undone, to become loose(by itself) — lulelaha.
to brush off(flies, dust, etc.) — havisuva.                    to come untied — vavelaha.
to build       — hou.                                          to completely do something(when used with another verb
to build firewood pile for mumu — vita.                                       as `ihatu', to eat everything) — hatu.
to build(a fire) — bei.                                        to conceal(the truth), to deny(that you knew someone or
to burn        — laha.                                                        something) — vovoho.
to burn something — maho.                                      to cook in a bamboo tube — eia.
to bury        — gulia.                                        to cook with water, boil — eho.
to bury(a person or things) — abavu.                           to cook(food) — maho.
to buy, sell, trade — voia.                                    to cough       — enoa.
to call out — hoa.                                             to count, read — dodave.
to call out in a high pitched, drawn out tone — kuto.          to cover mumu with tin or something, to cover saucepan
to call someone — hohavo.                                                     with lid — hanube.
to calm someone down gently — sovaviha.                        to cover with something — vavaha.
to carefully inspect, examine — toveva.                        to covet       — elehavololoa.
to carry in string bag — tenae.                                to crackle(fire, rain on roof) — lala.
to carry on a pole(2 people) — sobati.                         to cramp(leg) — vukahavo.
to carry on head — kinabamo.                                   to creep on all four — ovodovodoa.
to carry on shoulder — ebamo;                                  to crowd around someone — evilikahavo.
             — maduna.                                         to crowd together(people) — tamoeve.
to carry on shoulder(one thing) — kakamo.                      to cry, wail — nina.
to carry on stretcher — kaulati.                               to cut         — hei.
to carry slung over the should(string bag, shotgun)            to cut a ring around tree trunk(so it will die and remain
                — beda.                                                       standing for firewood) — olomo.
to castrate — kalova.                                          to cut a section of(vine, piece of meat, etc.) — bukia.
to catch(ball, bird, etc.) — evude.                            to cut all the leaves off a tree(so the sun can shine through
to catch(more than one thing) — vudieve.                                      to the garden) — beteva.
to cause pain in childbirth — inuhania.                        to cut in pieces for cooking — kamadia.
                                         English — Mountain Koiali                                       31
to cut off the into the bush                           to hang one thing across a line or nail so that two sides or
to cut hang down bush — hahova.
ends off the into the                                            to fix something up(things) — hoesehavo.
to cut(by holding stalks with one hand and slashing with         to flame up(fire) — vedodoa.
             knife in other hand, as with sugar cane)            to flame up(like burning kunai) — haetoa.
                — dekae.                                         to flash(lightening-the zig-zig kind) — kibala.
to cut(hair, cloth) — bohi.                                      to float on water(people or things) — voevoea.
to dam up(river) — omi.                                          to flow out — alima.
to dance(traditional) — havua.                                   to flow(water) — laluva.
to deceive someone — lobohavo.                                   to fold, break(one thing) — eguma.
to decorate — kaeahavo.                                          to fold up(blanket, mat) — lokua.
to die         — hati.                                           to follow     — ehoma.
to die down(fire) — hodova.                                      to follow(in time) — nunuva.
to die(people, animals, machines) — laha.                        to forget     — moma.
to dig         — lovo.                                           to forget something — momahavo.
to diminish, go down(food, water, strength) — tolema.            to form a scab(sore), a skim(milk), a crust(bread)
to discuss together — nona.                                                       — galia.
to dismiss from work, to fire — dokoa.                           to frisk about(dog only) — koda.
to disturb from sleep — hue.                                     to gather leaves for a bush bed — avidoa.
to divert, go around(a person or place) — aeha.                  to gather materials and build nesting mound(bush turkey)
to divide      — tasalia.                                                         — mua.
to divide into groups(people or things) — esalia.                to gather together(leaves, trash, paper, etc.) with intention
to divide(food) — evakoa.                                                       of throwing it away — lumuva.
to do, make — va.                                                to gather together(things, people) — bevua.
to do something properly, carefully — nenia.                     to get better, to heal — momolea.
to do what(question) — osio.                                     to get blisters(hands) — vokilaha.
to dodge, get out of the way, by-pass(people, things)            to get goose-bumps — guluna.
                — halio.                                         to get out a thorn or splinter — betakamo.
to dodge something — hanihavo.                                   to get someone's attention by making sound with
to doze, to be heavy-eyed — hania.                                              mouth(ssst) — sitohavo.
to dream      — lameamea;                                        to get, take — ma.
             — tababua.                                          to get things ready — gadehavo.
to drip, leak(water from a tap or from a hole in roof or         to get up, rise(literally or figuratively) — hovelaha.
               container) — bidoa.                               to give forth smoke — dioa.
to drop, drip(tears, water)      — doda.                         to give him/her — omi.
to drop something through a small hole — eme.                    to give me — dao.
to drop something to someone — maneme.                           to give them — ove.
to dry out(garden after clearing for burning, firewood trees     to give us — noeve.
               left standing in garden) — giloka.                to give you(plural) — laove.
to dry out(wood, grass, etc.) — gilia.                           to glance off, deflect — hato.
to dry(clothes, ground, blood) — omea.                           to go          — ti.
to eat, drink — i.                                               to go and meet someone(in order to help) — beiava.
to eliminate, have a bowel movement — dea.                       to go around the side(of a mountain), to angle across
to enter into — delua.                                                            — lagati.
to exorcize(chase out a spirit) — nunuva.                        to go back to its original state, disappear — molemolea.
to face towards, to turn towards — vudihe.                       to go back to sleep — volia.
to fall down(people or things) — doba.                           to go down(hill, tree) — hevati.
to fall off by itself(skirt, pants) — lokohovo.                  to go down(sun) — gidua.
to fall out(tooth), to come loose(bolt, etc.)   — lokia.         to go inside a person and make sick(spirit) — holoma.
to fasten, put together in a bundle(firewood, sticks, trees)     to go out of sight on the road      — hahova.
                — umudi.                                         to go up, to climb up, to rise(flames) — veati.
to favor one foot because of a sore, cut or sprain —             to go(meaning everyone went,'ti', go plus 'hatu', throw)
             keitakeita.                                                          — tihatu.
to feel bad because you are lacking something      — luvua.      to grate(bananas, yam, etc.) — hudua.
to fetch water — e ha;                                           to grind teeth(when sleeping or dreaming) — monogigia.
             — ha.                                               to grow in a clump — lalamo.
to fight       — tuvalia.                                        to growl(stomach) — gugua.
to find out about, to look for — kaova.                          to grow(plants) — uli.
to finish speaking — louhatu.                                    to grumble, complain — ogoloa.
to finish, to be finished — gabia.                               to hang down from      — tunavu.
to fire or dismiss from work — ioma.                             to hang one thing across a line or nail so that two sides or
to fish with line and hook     — kimeia.                                       ends hang down — ehanuma.
32                                         English — Mountain Koiali
to hang oneself                                                       to make a sound like an engine
to hang oneself — maviti.                                      to keep an eye on — nibi.
to hang up onething by tying on string (stalk of               to keep constant company with — sisiha.
             bananas,etc.) — etunuva.                          to kiss, nuzzle(done only to children) — bubuhavo.
to hang(many things) across a line or nail so two ends         to kiss on cheek — ulikukuhavo.
             hang down — teleka.                               to knock down(someone's talk) — hama.
to have a black eye      — boamaho.                            to know         — hiloka.
to have a fever blister, cold sore — kubia.                    to know, understand — diba.
to have a hole in it(only used of house or house materials)    to lag behind(because you don't want to go) — ialialihavo.
                — vagasoa.                                     to laugh        — hea.
to have a large hole in it(string bag, fence, etc.) — vaha.    to lay a fireplace — lama.
to have a skin rash(from touching certain plants)              to lay a mat on floor — tedi.
                — kevia.                                       to lay down a baby — lahoe.
to have a skin sore — ohea.                                    to lay flooring material — tedi.
to have a white spot in the pupil of the eye — keloa.          to lead, guide someone — holoeve(see= melame).
to have an earthquake — hamuhatu.                              to lead, guide(one person) — melame.
to have an eye that is discolored or white — sugua.            to lead the way — uliholi.
to have blackened skin(from a bad burn) — boamaho.             to lean against — bana.
to have diarrhea — debibia.                                    to lean over to side(person) — valolaha.
to have intercourse — vei.                                     to lean something against — toluma.
to have no descendants(like a stump which has no               to lean to the side — hobelaha.
              branches) — bodua.                               to learn        — lenia.
to have poor vision — loa.                                     to leave, depart from — hale.
to have power, authority — siaua.                              to leave(a thing, someone) — halema.
to have water standing in it(drum, lake, etc.) — lavu.         to let someone pass — eviha.
to heal up(sore or cut) — maholili.                            to lick         — teve.
to hear       — evi.                                           to lie          — loboa.
to hide many things — hogoa.                                   to lift up, raise higher (used metaphorically to mean 'to
to hide one thing — mahogova.                                                  honor') — ebagema.
to hide one's inner ways — sisama.                             to lift up, raise(many things) — tabageve.
to hide oneself — hogolaha.                                    to lift up to see what is underneath — kitoa.
to hit, kill — hama.                                           to lightening(the flash of lightening) — hatau nivoleka.
to hold court, to take someone to court — kota.                to light(lamp) — maho.
to hold in lap, to embrace someone — evude.                    to like someone or something(when he/it is really good or
to hold in lap(more than one person) — vudieve.                                worthy of being liked)   — eahale.
to howl       — koka.                                          to like, want — isivia.
to hum a tune — nukunukua.                                     to listen intently — gaeahavo.
to hunt       — labana.                                        to live a long time, forever — ukolikolia.
to hunt for birds — kokae.                                     to lodge on something — hahuma.
to hunt(birds and animals) — haeavo.                           to look at(someone, something) — niavo.
to hunt(birds, animals) — halamo;                              to look hungrily at something — nibunia.
             — teina.                                          to look out the side of one's eyes — nibadibadia.
to hurt, pain — tumua.                                         to look, see — eleha.
to insist on doing something — vekea.                          to lose, drop(many things) — keoha.
to inspect(traps, buildings, fruit trees) — tabe.              to lose something, drop something — ehaloma.
to instruct or warn about what to watch out for —              to lower someone into a hole       — maneme.
             giginahavo.                                       to lower something — etolema.
to interpret — ekoveha.                                        to make a bark or leaf container — beholoa.
to invite or send an invitation — iona.                        to make a deep, gutteral sound,e.g., to groan in pain.
to itch, burn(can refer to some foods which burn the mouth                     — anua.
               if not cooked properly) — simea.                to make a large hole in something — vahahi.
to itch(after touching certain grass or tree leaves)           to make a loud crack or noise(like a tree when it falls or
                — beia.                                                     car when it crashes) — vato.
to jab a stick into ground(e.g., post, etc.) — uluva.          to make a loud noise, to roar(animal) — volovoloa.
to jerk (when startled or when someone pokes you)              to make a mistake — kelelea.
                — debikia.                                     to make a mu-mu — amuva.
to join two things together — belavu.                          to make a noise when hurt or in distress(people, animals,
to jump down, to jump across — biloa.                                       birds) — kekoa.
to jump from branch to branch — oleka.                         to make a platform — sasaia.
to jump over, jump across — haidole.                           to make a sound like an engine — umua.
to jump up in the air — vito.
                                         English — Mountain Koiali                                      33
to make double, to put two things next to each other to make a pair                                                    to
ring, call(on telephone)
to make double, to put two things next to each other to       to pour out, splash out by itself, to spill — keioho.
              make a pair — kavoloti.                         to pour(water, rice, etc.) — ehosiva.
to make footprints or tracks — vatahia.                       to practice(singing, wailing) and learn from each other
to make it one's own or call it one's own — toa.                               — lilia.
to make it straight(wire, tree, deeds) — enuha.               to pray, worship — gomigomia.
to make something rounded — egoliha.                          to prepare a bush bed — tatua.
to make string by twirling on knee — idi.                     to prepare food — vasiha.
to marry      — melame.                                       to prick or hurt(as a thorn breaks off under the skin and
to marry someone — holoeve(see= melame).                                     keeps pricking) — habiha.
to marry, take a husband — kolia.                             to prick with sharp instrument — betakamo.
to masturbate — ebodiha.                                      to promise — halahatu.
to measure — vavua.                                           to prop up — hadebi.
to meet someone(on the road) — belema.                        to pull        — butuha.
to mend(basket, net, string bag) — adahi.                     to pull down(vine after cutting at base) — ludua.
to mimic(talk, actions) — evetevetea.                         to pull down(vine) from a tree — laluva.
to miss a target — soinia.                                    to pull out, to unscrew     — iamo.
to miss out on something — soinia.                            to pull out, unscrew, to take off line(clothes) — kokia.
to miss(target, a word) — hosidi.                             to pull out weeds — lava.
to mix food together(when cooking or eating) —                to pull up, tear out — ekosiha.
             bubuka.                                          to punish      — banisia.
to mix up talk so it's not clear — gabua.                     to push down — ehobeha.
to mock, to make fun of — bituhavo.                           to push, send — hanavo.
to move along together strung out in a line — laluva.         to push someone — kabiti.
to move or push aside to make room for something or           to put         — meamo.
               someone — evovoa.                              to put close together with — uvuhatu.
to move out of way — eviha.                                   to put food in a pot     — eme.
to move over — loti.                                          to put greenery on body or clothes for decoration
to move things around looking for something     — bekuia.                      — samaea.
to name(a person or place) — iviha.                           to put in string bag(one thing) — ehavu.
to nest, sit on eggs — amule.                                 to put on a hat — ane.
to not associate with — aeha.                                 to put on clothes(those with arm or leg holes) — hatu.
to not be strong(animals, people) — gologoloa.                to put on headdress or hat — hanube.
to not think strongly about, to not worry about —             to put out a fire — koia.
             huhugologoloa.                                   to put something on top to cover or hold down what is
to open one's eyes sleepily — nivakilaha.                                    underneath — medibe.
to open up(box) — daia.                                       to put something(one person putting it) — mamo.
to open(door, window, container) — alavo.                     to put your boil or inflamed eye over the steam of a
to paint      — benia.                                                       cooking bird to make it better — niogea.
to patch a kunai roof or bamboo wall. — badivu.               to put(many things) inside(a string bag, knapsack, bag,
to peel       — taoa.                                                        purse) — agi.
to perch all in a row(birds) — haenihatu.                     to put(more than one person doing the action) — otova.
to perch on(bird) — da.                                       to rain steadily — buvelea.
to permeate completely — lahoa.                               to rake fire along the ground when burning a garden
to perspire — vahotoa.                                                         — bedalova.
to persuade someone with nice words and gifts —               to really grow good — holoma.
             sovaviha.                                        to really like — isivisivia.
to pick, break off(corn) — dakoa.                             to really satisfy, to create a thirst, hunger for more
to pick off (scab, bandage, or skin) — ebaoha.                                 — lahoa.
to pick off(burrs from clothes, fuzz from hair) — seta.       to really shake, quiver — kibikibia.
to pick one at a time(bananas off the stalk) — emukiha.       to really talk a lot(loud mouth) — volovoloa.
to pick something out of the fire    — lokoa.                 to really want something(food, revenge) — toua.
to pick(fruit) — eha.                                         to recognize — valiti.
to plane timber with ax, knife or adze — kasea.               to reflect(sun on a glass, tin, water, etc.) — levoka.
to plant      — ha.                                           to release from one's hand — boehoma.
to play       — gilua.                                        to respect someone       — mataulaihavo.
to play around, jest    — hanivava.                           to return      — hoilaha.
to play(children or adults) — bekibekia.                      to reveal oneself to someone after hiding — daia.
to pluck up — tohoa.                                          to revive, awaken someone — etuva.
to pour liquid in a small stream — binihe.                    to ring, call(on telephone) — linia.
34                                      English — Mountain Koiali
to rinse out the mouth                                                             to stare, look intently
to rinse out the mouth — kulukulua.                             to shoot      — kibidihavo.
to rise(bread) — uvulalavu.                                     to shorten, or tuck up — vuka.
to rock in one's arms — toamo.                                  to shrink back from — gasigasia.
to roll by itself(like a log) — vovoti.                         to shrink back from doing something — makukua.
to roll by pushing — evonema.                                   to signal 'yes' by closing eyes and raising eyebrows
to rot(said only of meat) — hisia.                                               — niogea.
to rub hands over someone's body as gesture of                  to sit down — ugulamo.
               happiness(to show you are happy with them)       to sit together in a row(birds only) — lama.
                 — samoho.                                      to skin(bird or animal) — evokiha.
to rub on body(powder, ashes) — hahuma.                         to slander, say bad things about someone — budia.
to rub or spread with fingers, to wipe something off hands      to slant downward(writing, ridgepole, etc.) — sobia.
                 — husia.                                       to sleep       — laha.
to rub out, erase — hohoa.                                      to slice, cut off a section — etule.
to rub out, off(dirt from body, chalk, grease) — uliha.         to slide along ground in a squatting position — boboluka.
to rumble(thunder, rain on tin roof) — lulua.                   to slide down a hill by itself(things, not people) — beduti.
to run        — bubua.                                          to slip on something — eseti.
to run away — detiti.                                           to smack the lips when eating(people, pigs) — samuta.
to run, drone, purr(engine) — umua.                             to smell bad — sohoa.
to salivate — legea.                                            to smell bad(said only of breaking wind) — dehisia.
to say something false about someone — kunaea.                  to smell good — hagoa.
to say, speak — lou.                                            to smell, sniff(something) — uleme.
to say spoiling talk to someone so they will be unsucessful     to smell very bad — tumusohoa.
              in work, hunting, etc — masiva.                   to smoke meat above fire — vatata.
to scoop up in hands(water, trash, weeds) — kitoa.              to smolder with anger(eyes) — vedodoa.
to scoop up(rice, sugar, etc.) with hand, spoon or cup          to snare(birds, animals) — holoma.
                 — emuga.                                       to sneeze      — akisia.
to scoop up(with hands) — saloa.                                to snore       — hadua.
to scrape out the inside of(pumpkin, yam, etc. when it has      to spark up(fire) — kikikikia.
             a shell or crust) — havai.                         to spark(e.g. when iron hits iron or stone) — kibala.
to scrape sweet potato after cooking in fire — hauma.           to sparkle(dew when sun shines on it) — levolevoa.
to scrape(skin off sweet potato, skin off ax handle)            to spill out of a container completely — lotihatu.
                 — ivi.                                         to spin, twirl, go around in circles — vilivilia.
to scratch(an itch) — tuma.                                     to spit        — vioa.
to search for(things, people) — beve.                           to spit out — ovo.
to secrete a whitish substance(sugar cane, ear, etc.)           to splatter(when pouring liquids in a hot pan) — dikidikia.
                 — kulubua.                                     to split, crack open(ground, tree, cloth) — levelaha.
to see       — nia.                                             to split into groups — evakoa.
to send away — ioma.                                            to split or crack in many places — dikodikoa.
to set up(a wall, a stud, or rafters) — etatavoa.               to split something — esikoha.
to sew       — badivu;                                          to split(something) — dikoha.
             — tulia.                                           to spoil someone or something — aiohavo.
to shake     — haadana.                                         to sprain(leg) — esokuva.
to shake head and click tongue as a gesture of disapproval      to spray in different directions(water from a hose,
                 — tuvikivikia.                                                waterfall) — silisilia.
to shake in the throes of death — tobilaka.                     to spread around(talk,seed,etc.) — sonuma.
to shake off attackers(people) — kuvikuvia.                     to spread or roll out(bread dough, plastic, material)
to shake off water(dog) — kuvikuvia.                                             — evotoha.
to shake out(a cloth) — sesia.                                  to spread out, expand — ebokeha.
to shake, quiver      — kibia.                                  to spread(gossip) — beve.
to shake quiver(from fear or cold) — misitetea.                 to sprinkle(salt on food) — teme.
to shake, quiver(with much exertion, used for people and        to sprinkle(salt, small seeds) — sesia.
               vehicles) — hoahoa.                              to sprout new branches — atia.
to shame someone — matiti.                                      to sprout(seed) — vakia.
to sharpen, make into a point(pencil, stick) — goavo.           to squat down — debekebekea.
to sharpen(stone ax) — soinia.                                  to squeeze, knead, mash — votaha.
to shift one's body to gain relief from pain or from sitting    to stab, pierce — bi.
               in one position too long — dehunihunia.          to stack up(bundles of grass, stones, food, people)
to shine, be bright — ataga.                                                     — hamubi.
to shine(sun, moon) — halu.                                     to stand on tiptoes — hulegea.
to shiver(with cold, sickness) — tetea.                         to stare, look intently — kalikalia.
                                          English — Mountain Koiali                                      35
to stare wildly about                                                        to whistle(with lips only)
to stare wildly about — niololoa.                              to think, remember      — huhua.
to start, begin — amatamaia.                                   to throw, throw away(one thing) — mihatu.
to stay a little while — ukauka.                               to throw, to throw away(more than one thing or a mass of
to steal        — vavoloa.                                                    things) — hatu.
to step on — da.                                               to throw(one thing) — mahatu.
to step on a sharp stick — holoma.                             to thunder — hatau vuto.
to step over something or someone low to the ground            to tickle(someone) — deboikea.
                — edole.                                       to tie around(firewood, bag, etc.) — hoeava.
to stick something into something else — maneme.               to tie, fasten — umuva.
to stick together(things) — da.                                to tie roofing leaves on roof — teme.
to stir        — ebuia.                                        to tie very tight or make it very strong — egigiva.
to stir food in a cooking pot — bekuia.                        to tie with vine — hae.
to stir(cake, flour) — evutiva.                                to topple over by itself(tree, person, etc.) — lokilaha.
to stop, quit — hale.                                          to touch, come in contact with — leve.
to stop someone from doing something, to prevent               to touch, grasp — holi.
                — kelua.                                       to translate(talk) — takoveha.
to stop(rain) — bohi.                                          to trim trees so only the tips of brances have leaves on
to straighten(wire, board,your back)    — elioha.                             them(that tree is then called a `dalama')
to strengthen — negoti.                                                        — lava.
to stretch oneself — hologigia;                                to try attempt — tohoa.
             — velaha.                                         to turn around or over — evutiva.
to stretch out on, to sprawl — amule.                          to turn one's back to — iahe.
to strip bark off a tree — vokia.                              to turn over, change(many) — takoveha.
to strip off(bark from a tree) — evokiha.                      to turn over(something) — ekoveha.
to stuff yourself with food, to eat too much, gorge oneself    to twist and break into pieces(greens for cooking)
                — ivolovoloa.                                                  — mutamuta.
to stumble over something — ealova.                            to twist and turn with pain — habeona.
to surprise(by suddenly saying 'kaia') — kaia.                 to unfasten, untie — luleha.
to swallow — keboa.                                            to untie, unfasten — vaveha.
to sway in the wind(tree) — valolaha.                          to urinate — veua.
to swear, say bad words — dubitoa.                             to use something(besides your hand) to scoop up food,
to sweep or broom — buluma.                                                  water, etc. — ekitoha.
to swell up — uvu.                                             to vaporize, steam(boiling water, vapor off the ground)
to swell up, to be bloated(animal carcass) — uvulalavu.                        — ogoa.
to swerve around an obstacle — oveva.                          to visit with — sisila.
to swim with goggles or face mask — galasia.                   to vomit      — edoa.
to swing on a rope or wire(people only) — kikoka.              to wait for — heimei u;
to swing on a vine or rope(a person) — vikoka.                               — ilukaveho;
to take a rest — sibelea.                                                    — nihoma.
to take care of, to look after — nali.                         to wait for someone — inohoveho.
to take down from a hook — eha.                                to walk about with, to stick closely to someone — ohano.
to take off clothes — iamo.                                    to walkabout — oa.
to take off(skirt or laplap) — elokoha.                        to want, like — ula.
to take possession of land       — sisiha.                     to wash oneself — emoa.
to take skin off(banana, manderin, corn) — boboa.              to wash(something) — totoa.
to talk alot, to discuss — hotohotoa.                          to waste away(body) — oheleka.
to talk and visit — kikilahai.                                 to watch carefully, to search carefully — nibitumutumua.
to talk, discuss(Kagi talk)      — veduvedua.                  to watch from concealment(without other person seeing
to talk, to call(birds), to make sound — hotoa.                              you) — maliha.
to tamp down(ax handle, food in bamboo tube) — etebe.          to watch the view — ninelea.
to teach children ancestors' ways — desidesia.                 to wear loincloth — sia.
to teach, show — haivu.                                        to weave or arrange(roof leaves, basket, bamboo)
to tear down something — koia.                                                 — bei.
to tear or cut into strips(bark, cloth, rubber) — esiva.       to weave(basket, net, string bag) — adahi.
to tell        — namiha.                                       to weave(string bag, basket, roofing leaves) — lomo.
to test to see if one is strong or not — talemihavo.           to whisper — mulumulua.
to the side of — iene.                                         to whistle a tune(only with lips) — vevovevoa.
to the side of over there — uone.                              to whistle(with fingers in mouth) to get someone's
to think deeply about something or someone —                                 attention — havikoa.
             huhutumuai.                                       to whistle(with lips only) — loea.
36                                       English — Mountain Koiali
to wind back and forth(river)                                                                wanton girl
to wind back and forth(river) — goloa.                         tobacco, cigarette — kuku.
to wink, to blink — nivaga hama.                               today, now — nova.
to work       — haukala;                                       toe          — veloe viso.
             — lovia.                                          together with — tavala.
to work sorcery — evea.                                        tongue       — neme.
to work without stopping — tubuna.                             top          — golove;
to worship, pray — guligulia.                                               — tatave.
to wrap around — vilia.                                        top surface — lagada.
to wrap around oneself(blanket or other piece of material)     top, tip of(tree, greens, mountain) — kobo.
                — ehalu.                                       torch, light — ataga.
to wrap around oneself(skirt, laplap) — holova.                translate      — ekoveha.
to wrap many pieces around the upper body(blanket, bed         tree           — idi.
              sheet) — tahalu.                                 tree kangaroo — gove.
to wrap up in a cloth — omokuti.                               tree leaves — idie vana.
to wring out — voloa.                                          tree sap       — idie livu;
to write      — tolea.                                                      — livu.
to yawn       — alikikia.                                      tricky         — tilikite.
to yell excitedly — babaea;                                    true, really, very — seleve.
             — tovua.                                          true, yes      — mane.
to yell loudly in surprise or when something unusual           two            — abui.
              happens — ito.                                   two-kina note(because it has black inking)     — bukate.
to yell suddenly to scare someone — bato.                      type of butterfly — magomago.

                                                           U - u
uncertainly marker — moka.                                     up above(by extension means heaven) — ehu.
uncooked — isate.                                              uphill       — tanahae.
underneath, underside — valave.                                upper back — hada.
up above     — tanahae.                                        upper section of a tree trunk — toia.

                                                           V - v
vagina        — maha.                                                       — selomi;
variety of bamboo — bioni.                                                  — sena;
variety of banana — huleki.                                                 — vabala.
variety of bird — kosada;                                      variety of small ground lizard   — amututu.
             — loetava;                                        variety of tree — goloba;
             — seseka.                                                       — tola;
variety of bird(black with two long broad tail feathers)                     — vetava.
                — osisi.                                       variety of vine — galo.
variety of bush bamboo — evola.                                variety of vine(by extension a big basket) — vala.
variety of grass — bosolo.                                     variety of yam that grows in a circle(like a coil) — koteita.
variety of grass(used for lawns) — bobo.                       vertical garden markings — emedada.
variety of greens — koua;                                      very good — kausalave.
             — tu;                                             very small bag — busebuse.
             — vilo.                                           very small fish — eviko.
variety of kangaroo — oletana.                                 vine, rope — hote.
variety of large animal — geda;                                vine used to climb trees(tied between feet or hands)
             — tagula.                                                         — gabele.
variety of pigeon — dulumu.                                    vine whose juice is used to make skin markings — musini.
variety of small animal — gadana;                              visitor, guest — deholuvu;
             — kovili;                                                      — deia.
             — obea;

                                                           W - w
wailing      — ninana.                                         walking stick — bedoia.
waistband    — tola.                                           wanton girl — mahoho belika.
                                         English — Mountain Koiali                                       37
war, fight                                                                                     your
war, fight — tuvali.                                        who?       — ole.
wart         — masovi.                                      who?(when subject is plural)   — olemea.
wasp(red and brown) — io.                                   widow      — gobu.
water        — e.                                           widower    — dohaea;
water spout, trough — e bido.                                               — gobeli.
waterfall    — eavu.                                        width       — votove.
watermelon — meleani.                                       wife        — mahina.
way over there — uoke.                                      wild boar — tolele.
we two(inclusive) — naiti.                                  wild dog    — tobalu.
we(exclusive) — no.                                         wind        — hebulu.
we(inclusive) — nahi.                                       wing tips   — atugu.
what?        — ono.                                         with him/her/it — avuti.
what for, why? — osioho.                                    woman, wife — keate.
what?(Kagi dialect) — onovade.                              womb        — tobu.
when?        — vaesuvela.                                   wooden club — sideka.
When someone dies, teach each other how to wail(sound       wooden shield — mihisi.
             of tears). — ene.                              wooden tongs(for handling hot rocks) — kavi.
where?       — beve;                                        workman, someone under your influence, follower,
             — oleve.                                                   disciple — esemu.
white        — taete.                                       woven breastplate — mimisa.
white person — vate tobate.                                 woven mat — ava.
whiteness of the eye — sugu.                                woven mat for sleeping — geda.

                                                     Y - y
yam           — lovi.                                       young boy — moia.
yam stick(for yam to grow up) — sonana.                     young girl — maia.
yam storehouse — valahu.                                    young man of marriageable age — gala.
yard, village clearing — ologo.                             young person — isahete.
yellow(color) — bevate.                                     young woman, female initiate — mabia.
yes           — ito.                                        younger sibling — hoho.
yesterday, tomorrow — nivu.                                 your         — a.
you           — a.


                                            Total number of entries: 1601




38                                   English — Mountain Koiali

								
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