VOCABULARY 1

					 소리로 배우는
VOCABULARY 1


  소리클럽 지음
www.soriclub.com
차           례


Prologue


Unit 1. Health
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Review Exercise
Additional Topics in Health


Unit 2. Environment
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Review Exercise
Additional Topics in Environment


Unit 3. Biology
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Review Exercise
Additional Topics in Biology


Unit 4. Chemistry
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Review Exercise
Additional Topics in Chemistry
Unit 5. Physics
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Review Exercise
Additional Topics in Physics


Unit 6. Genetics
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Review Exercise
Additional Topics in Genetics


Unit 7. Earth Science
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Review Exercise
Additional Topics in Earth Science


Unit 8. Computer Science
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Review Exercise
Additional Topics in Earth Science


Epilogue
|Prologue|




이 책은 우리나라의 영어 학습 환경이 서구와 다르기 때문에 영어 교재나 어휘 교재 역시 우리 나라 실정과
우리나라 영어 학습자의 요구에 맞게 만들어져야 한다는 간단하지만 교재 제작자들이 쉽게 잊어버리는 입장에서
출발한다. 이 책에서 말하는 내용들은 알고 보면 "콜롬버스의 달캴"처럼 간단하다. 그러나 이렇게 간단한 사실도
책상앞에서 어느날 갑자기 만들어진 것은 아니며 나름의 실험과 실제 강의등 무수한 시행착오를 거치며 나름대로
내린 사색과 실험의 결론이다. 특히 이 방법은 이미 영어가 급한 사람들, 특히 대입 수능을 앞둔 고3 학생들과
토익, 토플시험을 봐야 하는 직장인들을 대상으로 무수한 검증 과정속에서 그 효과를 입증한 바 있다. 많은
학습자들이 어휘가 그렇게 쉽게 습득되는 것에 스스로 신기해하며 놀라워 했다. 그러나 사실 신기한 것은 아무
것 도 없다. 단지 언어의 속성에 맞게 과학적으로 언어 공부를 하는 것일 뿐이다. 오히려 놀라운 것은 우리가
얼마나 비과학적이고 한심한 수준에서 외국어 교육을 해 왔는가 하는 것이다.


이 교재는 영ㆍ미국에서 만들어진 어휘 교재들은 우리나라에서 적용할 때 부딪히는 한계와 한국에서 만들어진
교재의 단점을 극복하는 방향에서 만들어졌다. 그래서 이 책은 무엇을, 어떤 방법으로 시도하려 하는가를
이해하고 "무작정 따라하기"를 시도한다면 더욱 재미있고 효과적인 영어 공부가 되리라 확신한다.




Ⅰ. 이론이 있는 영어 학습의 시작!
- 이 책을 구성하는 세 가지 원리


1. 소리와 문자의 결합
언어는 한마디로 소리와 문자가 함께 어우러진 도구이다. 그 중에서도 소리의 도구이다. 그런데 이상하게도
우리는 소리 없는 언어에 너무 오래 익숙해져 있다.
쉽게 말해 소리 영어란 새로운 단어와 표현을 배우는데 (말)소리와 단어를 연결해서 배우는 것이다. 언어의 죽은
소리와 리듬을 부활시켜 문자와 함께 놀게 하는 것이다. 단순히 그 단어의 발음만 익히는 것이 아니라 주변
단어와 연결하고 개념들과 결합하여 소리의 덩어리로 내용을 기억하고, 소리를 활용하는 것이다.
영ㆍ미국에서 나온 외국어용 단어, 어휘등의 수입 원서들이 합리적이고 체계적인데도 한국 사람들에게 잘 맞지
않는 이유중 하나가 소리 영어의 측면을 간과하고 있기 때문이다. 다시 말하면 한국 사람들이 평소 듣기와
말하기에 충분히 익숙하지 않은 상태에서 어휘집을 활용하고 있다는 점을 외국인 교재 편집자가 알 리 없는
것이다. 한국 사람이 한국어 어휘를 늘리는 데 말 소리가 크게 중요하지 않다고 생각하는 것과 같다. 모국어
어휘를 늘리는 데 문자 교재만 있어도 충분하다. 왜냐하면 모국어에서는 소리 환경이 기본적 요소로 이미 자리
잡고 있어 소리가 언어 습득의 중요 요소로 부각되지 않기 때문이다. 그러나 외국어를 소리영어로 사용하지 않는
한국 언어 환경 조건에서는 소리와 결합해서 언어를 습득하는 것은 중요한 의미를 갖는다.
이 책은 모든 문장과 표현을 원어민 발음으로 읽었다. 소리가 있는 어휘 습득을 시작하기 위해서이다. 스펠링을
떠오르기 전에 발음과 의미 있는 표현들을 소리로, 리듬과 음악으로 먼저 떠올리게 하는 것이 이 책의 목표중
하나이다. 새로운 단어와 표현을 배우는데 눈이나 손으로 외우는 것보다 귀와 입술로 익히는 것이 얼마나 쉽고
효과적인지를 경험하고 훈련해 보는 것이 이 책이 추구하고자 하는 학습법이다. 새로운 단어와 표현을 배울 때
눈과 손뿐만아니라 귀와 입을 함께 활용하는 것이 얼마나 편한지를 독자들은 경험하게 될 것이다. 그리고 귀로
외우는 훈련을 하면 할수록 리스닝 훈련이 자연스럽게 되어 가는 것도 느끼게 될 것이다.


2. 소리를 통한 반복
두 번째 원리는 언어는 반복을 통해 습득된다는 간단한 진리를 활용하는 것이다. 그 중에서도 이 책이 강조하는
것은 "소리"를 통한 반복 학습이다. 보고 읽는 것보다 소리 반복 학습의 속도가 더 빠르고 오래 기억됨을
경험하게 될 것이다. 또한, 소리로 익힌 단어들은 실제 회화나 대화에서 바로 쓰고 들을 수 있다는 사실에
놀라게 될 것이다. 배우는 과정이 다르면 같은 단어를 알고 활용하는 데도 다른 결과가 나온다는 사실을 알게 될
것이다. 문자로 배운 단어는 개념은 똑같이 이해하고 있어도 듣고 말하는 영어로 바로 연결하기 어렵다.
그러나 언어를 처음부터 소리 영어로 배우면 소리 영어로 쉽게 사용하고 들을 수 있다는 것도 이해하게 될
것이다. 언어 습득에 있어 신비로운 소리의 영역을 빼먹고 외국어 교육을 해 온 사람들이 소리의 영역을 경험한
후 놀라워한다. 그러나 언어는 원래부터 소리와 문자의 조합이며 그 중에서도 소리가 기본이다. 소리클럽의
작업은 특별한 것이 아니라 문자만으로 배운 영어 학습을 소리를 활용하는 영어 학습으로 정상화시키는 것일
뿐이다. 다만 지극히 상식에 속하는 이야기를 신비로운 이론처럼 애기해야 하는 우리의 언어학과 연어 교육
현실이 한심할 뿐이다.


3. Guide Word Approach
이 교재에서 인용한 글들은 나름대로 전문적이고 학술적인 내용이다. 글에 나오는 어휘들 도 일상적이고 흔하게
접하는 어휘와는 약간 거리가 있다. 그래서 보다 쉽게 많이 쓰이는 어휘를 Drill 1에서 Guideword 개념으로
도입하고, 이후 Drill 2,3은 Guideword 중심으로 구성하였다. 때로는 지문에 나오는 어휘를 학습하는데 그
어휘가 가지는 협의의 의미를 다양한 동의어와 접하도록 하면서 한 단어가 가지는 여러 가지 의미를 숙지하도록
하였다.




Ⅱ. 어떻게 공부해야 하나?

1. 이 책의 구성
이 교재는 어휘뿐 아니라 소리영어 이론에서 주장했던 듣기와 결합된 읽기 방식을 취하고 있어 단순한 어휘
교재라기보다는 사실상 듣기+독해+어휘 습득이 동시에 이루어지는 종합적 소리영어 교재이다. 특히 자연계
전공용의 다양한 소리 영어 교재가 부족한 국내 영어 교재 시장의 갈증을 해소할 목적으로 만들어졌다. 단순
어휘 교재가 아니라 듣기와 Academic English의 기초 개념을 형성하는 데도 좋은 기본 교재 역할을 할 수
있다고 본다.
그러므로 반드시 "무작정 따라하기"에 나와 있는 학습방법에 따라 그대로 따라 하면 듣기, 독해의 리듬, 어휘를
동시에 잡는 방법을 스스로 터득하게 될 것이다. 무작정 따라하기에서는 어휘 습득에 초점을 맞추면서도 듣기
능력, 소리를 통한 독해의 리듬 감각, 어휘 세 가지를 동시에 고려하는 학습방법을 제시했으므로 그대로
진행한다면 반드시 가장 짧은 시간에 가장 빠른 영어 습득이 가능하다고 확신한다.
이 교재는 총 8 Unit로 구성되어 있으며, 각각의 Unit은 또 4개의 Chapter로 이루어져 있다. 한 Chapter안에는
최근의 전문 분야와 관련된 다양한 paragraph가 나오는데, 이 글을 중심으로, 글 내용을 간략하게 소개하는
Preview가 있고, paragraph에서 나오는 어휘를 Drill1에서 Drill4까지 연습하게 되어 있는데, 좀 더 쉽게
일상적으로 접하는 어휘(Guideword)와 연관시켜 어휘를 풍부하게 하고자 한다.


2. 무작정 따라 하면 된다.
Tape 구성은, 본문에서 학습할 새로운 단어들을 먼저 듣게 하고 본문을 들은 후 Drill 2에서는 동의어군을 2회씩
반복하고 Drill 3은 동의어군을 속하지 않는 단어를 끼워 고르는 연습을 하도록 하였다. 그리고 총 32개의
Chapter이므로 하루에 1 Chapter씩 연습하고 복습다면 두 달여만에 2,300개 정도의 중고급용 필수 어휘를
습득하게 되어 있다. 어휘 습득뿐만아니라 소리 식별 단계의 듣기 훈련도 함께 진행되므로 반드시 단계별로
제시하는 학습 방법을 그대로 진행해야 듣기, 독해, 어휘의 세 마리 토끼를 한꺼번에 잡을 수 있다.


* 영어 원문 번역은 소리 클럽 홈페이지(www.soriclub.com)를 참조하십시오.


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1단계
1. 우선 한 Chapter를 본문을 읽지 않고 Tape를 통해 1회 들어 본다. 듣기를 먼저 하는 이유는 "문자 아닌
소리"로 새 단어를 배우는 훈련을 하기 위해서다.
2. 본문을 정독하고 개념을 이해한 후 전체 Chapter를 들어본다.
3. 못 들은 내용을 염두해 보고 text를 보면서 들어 본다.                                                  Step 2 과정을 통해 잘 듣지
4. 본문과 Drill 2,3 을 별개로 해서 연습해도 좋다. 들으면서 자기 목소리로 처음에는 짧은 분량을 하다가 점점
길게, 빠르게 큰 소리로 여러 번 반복한다.
5. 연습 문제를 풀어 보며 다시 전체 내용 반복해서 듣고 따라 해 본다.


2단계
반복 학습-소리 영어의 장점은 반복을 잘 하는데 있다. 복습 방법은 대단히 간단하면서도 쉽다. 이런 소리영어
반복의 특징은 반복 듣기 과정이 차곡차곡 쌓이면서 소리로, 리듬으로 어휘들이 저절로 머리에 저장되게 된다는
것이다.
1. 매일 새로운 장을 공부하고 동시에 이전에 공부한 내용을 일주일 분량 단위로 들으면서 자기 목소리로 따라
발음한다.
2. 전 과정이 끝나면 하루에 테이프 한 개씩 처음부터 끝까지 반복해 듣는다. 이 과정을 거친 후에도 바로
새로운 공부를 하지 말고 반복해서 테이프를 돌아가면 2주 정도 들으면 모든 내용과 단어가 자기 것으로
소화된다.
3. 뜻이 기억나지 않는 단어는 그 장의 연관된 이야기나 그림을 먼저 떠올리며 내용을 연상하면서 추적해 본다.
프레젠테이션을 스스로 한 번 해 본 사람이라면 반드시 단어가 기억나게 될 것이다.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Unit 1

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Health


Chapter 1




-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


The use and abuse of various drugs and narcotics, and the problems that result from the spread of these
harmful substances, has gained increased attention in recent years. The first two passages in this unit deal
with the various forms of addictive substances, including what is perhaps the most deadly of them, cocaine.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


insidious, compound, extract, urge, irresistible, seductive, ecstatic, engender, overwhelming, craving, dose,
access


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


If our most serious drug problem is with alcohol-affecting the lives of more people than all other drugs
combined-then cocaine is our most insidious. Cocaine is a complex alkaloidcompound that is extracted
from coca leaves. Once a person has used cocaine, the urge to use it again is almost irresistible. It is a
seductive drug that brings on pleasurable, overwhelmingly ecstatic experiences. Despite engendering
feelings of overwhelming ecstasy, however, cocaine never produces satisfaction. When we eat a meal, our
hunger disappears and our appetite is satisfied. With cocaine, however, the feeling of satisfaction never
comes-only the desire for more. The user is left with an overpowering craving to experience the joy of
cocaine over and over again, which leads to tolerance and an ever-increasing dose. Laboratory research
has shown that animals prefer cocaine to food, water, and sex. If given free access to it, they continually
take the drug until they overdose and die. Ken Liska, in his book drugs and the Human Body, describes a
study in which monkeys pressed a bar 12, 800 times to get a dose of cocaine.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
마약을 통틀어서 그 중 알코올이 우리에게 가장 심각하고 더 많은 사람들에게 영향을 끼치는 약물이라면
코캐인은 그 중 가장 교활한 마약이다. 코캐인은 코카 잎사귀에서 추출한 복잡한 알카로이드 혼합물이다. 사람이
한번 코캐인을 복용한다면 다시 하고픈 강한 충동을 거의 억제 할수 없다. 이 매혹적인 마약은 압도적이고
황홀한 경험을 제공한다. 이렇게 발생되는 압도적인 기분에도 불구하고 코캐인은 만족감을 전혀 주지 못한다.
우리가 식사할 때는 시장기가 없어지고 식욕이 만족돼지만 코캐인에 경우 만족감은 커녕 더 복용하고 싶은
욕구만 커진다. 코캐인 사용자들은 결국 코캐인만 줄 수 있는 즐거움 때문에 자신도 억제할 수 없는 갈망만 더
커진다. 이것 때문에 약에 대한 내성과 약분량만 계속 커진다. 연구 결과에 의하면 실험 동물들은 음식,                                                                     물,
섹스 보다 코캐인을 더 선호하게 된다. 만약 코캐인이 접근 하기 쉬어진다면 실험 동들은 과다복용으로 인하여
죽을 때까지 복용한다. '마약과 인체'의 저자 Ken Liska에 위하면 실험 대상인 원숭이가 코캐인을 다시 복용하기
위해서 약을 공급해주는 장치를 12, 800번을 눌렀다고 한다.


[ Glossary ]
alkaloid : alkal(i) + oid Any of various organic compounds normally with basic chemical properties and
usually containing at least one nitrogen atom in a heterocyclic ring,                          occurring chiefly in many vascular
plants and some fungi. Many alkaloids, such as nicotine,                            quinine,   cocaine, and morphine,   are known
for their poisonous or medicinal attributes.
cocain: French cocaine, from coca, coca, from Spanish A colorless or white crystalline alkaloid,
C17H21NO4, extracted from coca leaves, sometimes used in medicine as a local anesthetic especially for
the eyes, nose, or throat and widely used as an illicit drug for its euphoric and stimulating effects.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
Insidiousㆍ
Compoundㆍ
Extractㆍ
Urgeㆍ
Irresistibleㆍ
Seductiveㆍ
Ecstaticㆍ
Engenderㆍ
Overwhelmingㆍ
Cravingㆍ
Doseㆍ
Accessㆍ




ㆍtempting
ㆍpull
ㆍdrive
ㆍMixture
ㆍoverpowering
ㆍexalted
ㆍquietly damaging
ㆍdesire
ㆍbring about
ㆍamount
ㆍadmission
ㆍuncontrollable




[ Answer ] : insidious-quietly
damagingcompound-mixtureextract-pullurge-driveirresistible-uncontrollableseductive-temptingecsta
tic-exaltedengender-bring
aboutoverwhelming-overpoweringcraving-desiredose-amountaccess-admission




Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


1. quietly damaging
guileful,     treacherous,          tricky, sneaky,            insidious


2. mixture
amalgam,         composite, grounds,                alloy,     compound


3. pull
extricate, pluck,           derive, extirpate,             extract


4. drive
goad,      yearning,        yen,     hankering,        urge


5. overpowering
invincible,      unconquerable,            irrepressible, compelling,                 irresistible


6. tempting
alluring,     enticing,       tantalizing,       bewitching,         seductive


7. exalted
rapturous, ebullient,              overjoyed,        elated, ecstatic


8. bring about
cause, give rise to, effect,                 generate, engender


9. uncontrollable
staggering,        crushing,        devastating, awesome,                  overwhelming


10. desire
thirst,     hunger, longing,            want, craving


11. amount
dosage, portion,             quota, ration,          dose


12. admission
passageway, admittance, entree,                         ingress, access
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.     Quietly Damaging (조용하게 손해가 나는)
Guileful (교활한,      음험한), Treacherous (배반, 믿을수 없는), Tricky (교묘하다), Insidious (교활한,
잠행성의)


2.     Mixture (혼합물)
Amalgam (혼합물), Composite (혼합물,         합성물),   Grounds (섞인), Alloy (합금), Compound (혼합물,
합성물)


3.     Pull (빼낸다)
Extricate (어떤 상황에서 빼낸다),         Pluck (끌어내다), Derive (끌어내다,     ..나온다), Extirpate (적출하다),
Extract (끌어내다, 추출물)


4.     Drive (열망)
Goad (무엇으로 인하여 사람을 자극을 하게한다), Yearning (열망),                  Yen (열망),   Hankering (갈망,   열망),
Urge (충동, 갈망)


5.     Overpowering (압도적인,      이길 수 없는)
Invincible (무적,     이길 수 없는),   Unconquerable (정복할 수 없는,      이길 수 없는), Irrepressible (억제할 수
없는),    Compelling (어쩔 수 없는),     Irresistible (어쩔 수 없이 좋은)


6.     Tempting (유혹하는)
Alluring (매혹적인),      Enticing (유혹적인), Tantalizing (유혹적인),   Bewitching (마술 같은,    매혹, 매력적인),
Seductive (매력, 유혹적인)


7.     Exalted (기뻐 날뛰는)
Rapturous (열광적인, 기뻐서 어쩔 줄 모르는),             Ebullient (감정의 격발, 격분), Overjoyed (기쁨에 넘친,
미칠 듯 기쁜), Elated (의기양양),          Ecstatic (황홀한)


8. Bring About (야기한다)
Cause(뭐로 인해서 행동이 일으켜지는) ,             Give Rise To (일으켜진다),    Effect (뭐로 인해서 영향이 생긴다),
Generate(만들어 낸다),        Engender (생기게 한다)




9.     Uncontrollable (조종할 수 없는)
Staggering(압도,      경이적인) Crushing (압도적인), Devastating(압도적인), Awesome (장엄한),
Overwhelming (저항할 수 없는)


10.       Desire (무엇을 희망한다)
Thirst(갈망), Hunger(갈망, 열망), Longing (무엇을 동경하는),                     Want(뭐를 원하는),        Craving (뭐를
갈망하는)


11.       Amount (량)
Dosage(투약 량),          Portion(얼마만큼),       Quota (할당량), Ration(정량), Dose (량)


12.       Admission (입장)
Passageway(입구),         Admittance(입장),      Entree (입장), Ingress(입장,     입구),    Access (접근)




Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[   Guidewords]
quietly damaging, mixture, pull, drive, overpowering, tempting, exalted, bring about, uncontrollable, desire,
amount, admission


1.________________
thirst, elated,    longing, want, craving
________________


2.________________
goad,      yearning,   ration, hankering,    urge
________________
3.________________
rapturous, ebullient,      overjoyed,   bewitching,   ecstatic
________________
4.________________
cause, give rise to,        derive,    generate, engender
________________


5.________________
invincible,     unconquerable,        treacherous, compelling,    irresistible
________________


6.________________
yen,    admittance, entree,           ingress, access
________________


7.________________
extricate, pluck, effect, extirpate,           extract
________________


8.________________
amalgam,       passageway, grounds,          alloy,   compound
________________


9.________________
alluring,     enticing,    tantalizing,   crushing,   seductive
________________


10.________________
guileful,   hunger,       tricky, sneaky,    insidious
________________


11.________________
staggering, irrepressible, devastating, awesome, overwhelming
________________


12.________________
dosage, portion, quota, composite, dose
________________
[ Answer ]      : (Guideword, Different Word)
1.     desire, elated
2.     drive, ration
3.     exalted, bewitching
4.    bring out, derive
5.    overpowering, treacherous
6.    admission, yen
7.    pull, effect
8.    mixture, passageway
9.    tempting, crushing
10.   quietly damaging-hunger
11.   uncontrollable-irrepressible
12. amount-composite




Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1.Electrophorus device used to generate static electric charges.
a. bring about       c. pluck    b. effect   d. engender      (8)


2.In a dose of less than 50 mg, it can cause respiratory failure and general paralysis.
a. dosage      b. longing       c. portion   d. quota   (11)


3.An alloy is formed at the surface, the resulting product being known as sherardized iron.
a. mixture     b. amalgam c. composite           d. access      (2)


4.Seward declared that there would exist "an irrepressible conflict" until the United States became either all
slave or all free.
a. hankering     b. invincible      c. unconquerable      d. irrepressible (5)


5.Ever since he was very young, Montoya had an urge to bring freedom to his suffering people.
a. drive     b. goad        c. compound       d. yen    (4)




6.A fission reactor consists basically of a mass of fissionable material usually encased in shielding and
provided with devices to regulate the rate of fission and an exchange system to extract the heat energy
produced.
a. pull    b. extricate     c. bring about      d. extirpate    (3)
7.The force and character of the royal pair was, however, concentrated in the alluring   and ambitious
queen.
a. tempting     d. tantalizing    c. seductive   d. compelling (6)


8.Almost everywhere the coyote appeared as a sharp, tricky hero, in adventures having to do with beasts
and men and magic things.
a. guileful    b. treacherous c. sneaky d. thirst          (1)


9.Research has shown that nicotine increases the flow of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain,
creating pleasurable feelings and a craving to keep in the bloodstream levels of nicotine that will maintain
these feelings.
a. desire     b. thirst   c. amount        d. hunger     (10)


10.George was a member of the South Carolina legislature and served in the U.S. House of Representatives,
where he quickly became noted as an ebullient debater.
a. exalted       b. enticing      c. rapturous   d. elated (7)


11.When any portion of the territory reached a population of 60,000 or more, it could apply for admission to
the Union as a state according to conditions laid down in the ordinance.
a. grounds      b. passageway c. admittance          d. access    (12)


12.He also extended Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire, not out of generosity but to
increase his income from taxes in order to meetstaggeringexpenses.
a. awesome       b. uncontrollable     c. crushing     d. overwhelming   (9)




[ Answer ] :
1. c   2. b    3. d   4. a 5. c    6. c   7. d    8. d    9. c   10. b 11. a 12. a




Chapter 2
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


This passage talks about how the body reacts to cocaine, and highlights the damages that this destructive
drug inflicts on the human body.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


initial,   stimulant,        constriction,        dilation,      tremendous,          sniff,   symptom,   nutrition,   paranoia,
euphoria,       intolerable,        literally


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


The initial effects of cocaine are similar to any central nervous system stimulant: constriction of the blood
vessels,dilation of the pupils, and increase in heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure, and body
temperature. Users normally lose their appetite and have tremendous difficulty sleeping. When the drug is
sniffed, the severe vasoconstriction that occurs can damage the nasal septum and mucosa. Those who
snort cocaine often have a runny nose. Frequent users suffer a large number of other symptoms, including
irritability, weight loss, poor nutrition, depression, and paranoia.
The mental depression that follows the euphoric high is so intolerable that the user helplessly returns to the
drug. In addition to all this, cocaine forces the heart to beat rapidly while slowing the flow of blood to it. This
can result in a lack of synchronism between heartbeat and pulse, called fibrillation, in which the heart
literally quivers just like Jell-O. The resulting muscle tissue damage can be severe leading to heart attack
or sudden cardiac death.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
코캐인 복용후 나타나는 시초의 효과는 중추 신경계에 있는 흥분제들의 작용과 비슷하다. 복용후 나타나는
효과들은 혈관을 압축하고 동공 팽창과 심장 박동수 증가, 혈압 및 호흡 그리고 체온의 증가가 있다. 코캐인
사용자들은 보통                 입맛이 떨어지고 수면섭취를 하는데 대단한 어려움이 있다. 코캐인이 코로 복용되면서 생기는
것은 비중격과 점막을 파괴하는 코 혈관 수축이다. 이로 인하여 코캐인 사용자들은 보통 콧물이 많이 나온다.
자주 코캐인을 복용하는 중독자들은 성급함, 체중 감소, 영양 결핍, 우울증, 망상증 등 더 많은 징후가 나타난다.
마약에 대한 도취감 이 후 나타나는 우울증세는 중독자를 너무나도 견딜 수 없게 만들어서 어쩔 수 없이
코캐인을 다시 복용하게 만든다.                               그리고 코캐인은 급격한 심장 박동수의 증가를 초래하고 그러는 동안 심장으로
흐르는 혈액의 속도를 느리게 한다. 이로 인하여 심장과 맥박의 일치함이 저하될 수 있다. 이것을 흔히
심장질환에 의한 섬유성 연축이라고 하고 그 증세는 심장을 젤리처럼 흔들리게 한다. 섬유성 연축으로 인하여
근육 조직의 파괴로 이어지고 또 나아가서는 심장마비와 심장질환으로 인한 갑작스런 죽음을 맞이할 수 있다.


[   Glossary]
blood vessel : Anatomy. Any tube in the body through which blood flows; an artery, vein, or capillary.
Vasoconstriction : Physiology.     A narrow of the lumen or interior space of the blood vessels, causing a
decrease in blood flow.
Nasal septum       : Physiology.   The structure that divides the nasal cavities, formed of bone and cartilage
and covered with a mucous membrane.
Mucosa : Histology.      An epithelial membrane that produces mucus at its free border.
Filtration :   Physiology.   The spontaneous contraction of muscle fibers resulting in uncoordinated muscular
activity.
Jell-O : A trademark used for a gelatin dessert.




Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.




initialㆍ
stimulantㆍ
constrictionㆍ
dilationㆍ
tremendousㆍ
sniffㆍ
symptomㆍ
nutritionㆍ
paranoiaㆍ
euphoriaㆍ
intolerableㆍ
literallyㆍ
ㆍcompression
ㆍhigh spirits
ㆍwidening
ㆍhuge
ㆍopening
ㆍexcitant
ㆍword for word
ㆍbreathe in
ㆍsign
ㆍanxiety
ㆍunbearable
ㆍbalanced diet




[ Answer ] :
initial-openingstimulant-excitantconstriction-compressiondilation-wideningtremendous-hugesniff-br
eathe insymptom-signnutrition-balanced dietparanoia-anxietyeuphoria-high
spiritsintolerable-unbearableliterally-word by word




Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


13. opening
original,   primary,   inaugural,   commencing,   initial
14. excitant
jolt,   upper,       prod, energizer,            stimulant


15. compression
contraction,        stenosis,       bottleneck, clamping,                constriction


16. widening
expansion,        distention,        enlargement, swelling,                dilation


17. huge
enormous,         gigantic,       colossal, titanic,           tremendous,


18. breathe in
sniffle,    snuff,      snuffle,     inhale,      sniff


19. sign
indication,       prodrome,         manifestation,          tip-off,       symptom


20. balanced diet
nourishment,          sustenance,          subsistence, alimentation,                 nutrition


21. anxiety
apprehension,           fear, suspicion,           distrust, paranoia


22. high spirits
glee, elation,          ecstasy,       rapture, euphoria


23. unbearable
unacceptable, unendurable,                    insufferable, excruciating,                intolerable


24. word for word
faithfully,     verbatim,        precisely, exactly, literally
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13.      Opening (서두)
Original(최초의), primary(첫번째), Inaugural(개시의, 취임시), Commencing(개시하다), Initial (시초의)


14.      Excitant (흥분제
Jolt(쇼크, 흥분), Upper(각성제), Prod(자극하는), Energizer(정신 활성 부여제), Stimulant(흥분제)


15.       Compression (압축)
Contraction(수축). Stenosis (협착증), Bottleneck(좁은 통로), Clamping(조이는), Constriction (수축)


16.       Widening (확장)
Expansion(커지는, 팽창), Distention(팽창), Enlargement(커지는), Swelling(붓는), Dilation (팽창)


17.       Huge (아주큰)
Enormous(엄청나게 큰)), Gigantic(거인같이 큰), Colossal(거대한), Titanic(거대한), Tremendous (큰)


18.       Breath in (코로 숨을 들이키다)
Sniffle(코로 훌쩍거린다), Snuff(코로 들이쉬다), Snuffle (코로 냄새를 맡다), Inhale(코로 들이키다), Sniff (코로
들이쉬다)


19.       Sign (징후)
Indication (징후), Prodrome(전징), Manifestation (징후), Tip-off (예상), Symptom (증세)


20.       Balanced Diet (조절된 영양식)
Nourishment (영양물), Sustenance(영양분), Subsistence(생존에 필요한), Alimentation(영양), Nutrition (영양)


21.       Anxiety (불안)
Apprehension(불안), Fear(불안해하는), Suspicion(의심하는), Distrust(의심하는), Paranoia(망상증)


22.       High Spirits (기분 좋음)
Glee (기뻐 날뜀), Elation(의기 양양), Ecstasy (황홀경), Rapture (미칠듯 기쁜), Euphoria (행복감)


23.       Unbearable (참기 어려운)
Unacceptable (마음에 들지 않는), Unendurable (참을수없는), Insufferable (참을수없는), Excruciating (견딜 수
없는), Intolerable (견딜 수 없는)
24.       Word for word (문자대로)
Faithfully(정확하게), Verbatim (말대로), Precisely (정확하게), Exactly (똑같이), Literally (말 그대로)




Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[   Guidewords]
opening,     excitant, compression,        widening,     huge, breathe in, sign, balanced diet, anxiety,   high
spirits,    unbearable, word for word


1.________________
constriction,    suspicion,    stenosis, bottleneck, clamping
________________


2.________________
widening,     expansion,     distention,   jolt,   swelling
________________


3.________________
opening,     original,   primary,    gigantic, commencing
________________


4.________________
huge,      enormous,     verbatim,   colossal,     titanic
________________


5.________________
balanced diet, snuff,       sustenance,     subsistence, alimentation
________________
6.________________
word for word,     faithfully, unendurable,        precisely, exactly
________________


7.________________
sign,   enlargement, prodrome,         manifestation,        tip-off
________________
8.________________
high spirits,   nourishment,    elation,   ecstasy, rapture
________________


9.________________
breathe in,     sniffle, contraction,   snuffle,   inhale
________________


10.________________
anxiety, apprehension,       fear, indication,     distrust
________________


11.________________
excitant, glee,     upper,   prod,   energizer
________________


12.________________
unbearable, unacceptable,         inaugural,   insufferable, excruciating
________________




[ Answer ] : (key word, different word)
1.    compression, suspicion
2.    widening, jolt
3.    opening, gigantic
4.    huge, verbatim
5.    balanced diet, stuff
6.    word by word, unendurable
7.    sign, enlargement
8.    high spirits, nourishment
9.    breathe in, contraction
10. anxiety, indication
11. excitant, glee
12.   unbearable, insufferable




Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1.His shape and limbs were indeed exactly proportioned, but so large that they denoted the strength rather
of a ploughman than any other.
a. faithfully    b. verbatim c. precisely       d. excruciatingly (24)


2.I had been the narrowest and most intolerable person living. For nothing can be more intolerable than
circumscribed peculiarity, in one from whom a pure and suitable activity might be required.
a. unbearable      b. colossal c. unacceptable            d. insufferable (23)


3.He tried to breathe in deeply, but found that he couldn't; there was just too little oxygen left in the chamber.
a. sniffle    b. distrust c. snuffle      d. inhale      (18)


4.The volatile oil expressed from the seeds is a stimulant and a carminative.
a. excitant     b. clamping     c. jolt   d. energizer (14)


5.Prolonged stimulation of the thyroid by thyroid-stimulating hormone results in an abnormal enlargement
of the gland, known as goiter, a condition which has been largely eradicated by the widespread usage of
iodized salt.
a. widening       b. expansion c. distention           d. bottleneck (16)


6.Overexposure to the sun is the primary cause of the common skin cancers, and the popularity of tanning
since the 1930s lies behind the rise in skin cancer rates.
a. opening      b. original c. inaugural      d. unbearable (13)


7.He knew she was there by the rapture and the terror that seized on his heart.
a. paranoia       b. glee   c. elation    d. ecstasy (22)


8.Armor is said to have been one of the first to notice the tremendous waste in the slaughtering of hogs and
to take advantage of the resale value of waste products.
a. huge      b. enormous    c. titanic    d. initial    (17)


9.The female has mammary glands, which secrete milk for the nourishment of the young after birth.
a. dilation     b. sustenance c. alimentation           d. nutrition    (20)


10.This expansion or contraction actuates a control on a furnace, cooling system, or piece of machinery.
a. sign       b. compression       c. stenosis        d. constriction    (15)
11.It is a symptom of many disorders, including various pulmonary and heart diseases and many congenital
heart defects.
a. indication       b. prodrome          c. swelling        d. manifestation (19)


12.The northern counties were placed under martial law, and many people were hanged on mere suspicion
of disaffection.
a. anxiety      b. apprehension c. paranoia                     d. subsistence (21)




[ Answer ] :
1. d     2. b      3. b      4. b      5. d      6. d      7. a        8. d        9. a       10. a   11. c   12. d




Chapter 3


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


Both AIDS and cancer are deadly diseases. They also have a number of side-effects that patients who
suffer from these diseases must deal with. This passage discusses some of these disorders and how doctors
can combat them.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


chronic, tumor, threatening, syndrome, characterize, dramatic, superficially, starvation, refractory,
intervention, erosion, treatment


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


Patients with chronic diseases such as AIDS or cancer (particularly those with tumors                                of the pancreas,
stomach, colon, and lung) often experience a life-threatening muscle wasting                                 syndrome knower as
cachexia. Cachexia is characterized by a dramatic loss of triglycerides                             from adipose tissue and proteins
from skeletal muscle. Although it superficially resembles                            starvation, it is refractory to nutritional
intervention. Loss of skeletal muscle mass results in lowered mobility and, hence, a poorer quality of life
for the patient, while erosion of respiratory                    muscle eventually leads to death from pneumonia. Cachexia is
associated with reduced survival time irrespective of tumor mass or the presence of metastases, and it
also interferes with cancer therapy. Knowledge of the molecular pathways leading to cachexia is required
if an effective       treatment is to be developed.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
에이즈나 암과 같은 만성병에 시달리는 환자들, 특히 암환자인 경우 종양이 췌장이나 위 그리고 결장 및 폐에
번진 환자들은 생명을 위협하는 근육 소모 증후군인 악액질, 또는 카켁시아를 여러 번 경험 했을 것이다.
카켁시아는 대체로 지방조직과 골격근의 단백질에 있는 중성지방의 급격한 감소로 생기는 병이다. 표면적으로는
굶주려 생기는 병처럼 보이지만 실제로 다루기 힘든 영양 중재로 인한 것이다. 골격근의 감소는 결국에는 환자의
일상 생활까지 저하시키는 기동력 감소로 발전된다. 그 와중에도 호흡근까지 침식해서 결국에는 폐렴으로 인하여
죽기까지 한다.
카켁시아는 종양이나 전이양상과 관계없이 생존기간을 단축시키며 또한, 암 치료를 방해한다. 효과적인 치료를
위해서는 카켁시아로 이어지는 분자의 경로를 알아야 할 필요가 있다.




[   Glossary]


cachexia :       Medicine. A profound and marked state of poor health and malnutrition, usually associated
with a serious disease such as cancer.
triglyceride : Organic Chemistry. Any of a number of naturally occurring lipids formed when three fatty
acids replace the three hydrogen atoms in the hydroxyl groups of glycerol, representing the chief
constitution of fats and oils, including the fat cells in the human body.
adiopose tissue : Histology.    A type of connective tissue that contains significant deposits of fat.
metastasis : Pathology. The spreading of a diseases from one oxygen or part to another that is not directly
connected with the first organ or part; this may be due to the transfer of microorganisms or to the transfer of
cells.




Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.




chronicㆍ
tumorㆍ
threateningㆍ
syndromeㆍ
characterizeㆍ
dramaticㆍ
superficiallyㆍ starvationㆍ
refractoryㆍ
interventionㆍ
erosionㆍ
treatmentㆍ
ㆍfrightening
ㆍdescribe
ㆍhabitual
ㆍgrowth
ㆍmedical care
ㆍdisease
ㆍinterposition
ㆍwearing away
ㆍspectacular
ㆍnot profoundly
ㆍhunger
ㆍstubborn




[ Answer ] :
chronic-habitualtumor-growththreatening-frighteningsyndrome-diseasecharacterize-describedramat
ic-spectacularsuperficially-not
profoundlystarvation-hungerrefractory-stubbornintervention-interpositionerosion-wearing
awaytreatment-medical care




Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


25. habitual
inveterate, incessant, intermittent, periodic,     chronic


26. growth
tissue mass,    neoplasm, carcinoma,    sarcoma, tumor


27. frightening
intimidating,   menacing,   scary, terrorizing,   threatening


28. disease
group of symptoms, affliction,    malady,   disorder, syndrome


29. describe
represent, portray, depict, specify, characterize


30. spectacular
striking,      histrionic,      stagy,      theatrical,       dramatic


31. not profoundly
shallowly,       frivolously,       cursorily,       sketchily,       superficially


32. hunger
fast, famine,          dearth,      privation,       starvation


33. stubborn
recalcitrant, fractious,              obstinate,       unruly,      refractory


34. interposition
arbitration,       intercession,         mediation,        negotiation,         intervention


35. wearing away
attrition,     abrasion,        corrosion,        eating away, erosion


36. medical care
remedy, cure, therapy, medication,                          treatment
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
25.      Habitua (끊임었는)
Inveterate(만성적인), Incessant (쉴새 없는), Intermittent (때때로 중단되는), Periodic (주기적인), Chronic
(만성적인)


26.      Growth (종양)
Tissue mass (생물 조직 덩어리), Neoplasm (종양), Carcinoma(암종), Sarcoma (육종), Tumor (종양)


27.      Frightening (불안을 주는)
Intimidating (위협적인), Menacing(위협적인), Scary(무섭게), Terrorizing (위협하다), Threatening (위협적인)


28.      Disease (병)
Group of symptoms (징후 무리) , Affliction(심신의 고통), Malady(질병), Disorder (병), Syndrome (증후군)


29.      Describe (설명한다)
Represent(묘사하다), Portray(묘사하다), Depict (묘사하다), Specify (자세히 열거하다), Characterize (특성을
나타내다)


30.       Spectacular (호화스러운)
Striking(인상적인), Historic(역사적인), Stagy(연극과 같은), Theatrical(연극적인), Dramatic (극적인)


31.       Not Profoundly(깊지 않게)
Shallowly(천박한), Frivolously(사소한), Cursorily(피상적인), Sketchily(단편적인), Superficially (천박)


32.       Hunger(배고프다)
Fast(단식하다), Famine (배고픔), Dearth(결핍), Privation(결핍), Starvation (아사)


33.       Stubborn (완고한)
Recalcitrant(완강히 반항하는), Fractious(까다로운), Obstinate(난치의), Unruly(다루기 힘든), Refractory(난치의)


34.       Interposition(중재)
Arbitration(중재), Intercession(중재), Mediation(중재), Negotiation(협상), Intervention(중재)


35.       Wearing away (풍화작용)
Attrition(마손), Abrasion(침식), Corrosion(녹슬다), Eating away(부식되다), Erosion(부식,침식)


36.       Medical care(치료)
Remedy(치료), Cure(치료), Therapy(치료), Medication(약물치료), Treatment (치료)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[   Guidewords]
habitual,     growth,   frightening,   disease, describe, spectacular, not profoundly,      hunger,   stubborn, ,
interposition,    corrosion,   medical care
1.________________
Characterize, represent, portray, menacing, specify
________________
2.________________
wearing away, affliction, abrasion, corrosion, eating away
________________
3.________________
not profoundly, shallowly, frivolously, depict, sketchily
________________
4.________________
frightening, fractious, stagy, scary, terrorizing
________________
5.________________
disease, group of symptoms, intercession, malady, disorder
________________
6.________________
medical care, carcinoma, cure, therapy, medication
________________
7.________________
growth, tissue mass, neoplasm, famine, sarcoma
________________
8.________________
habitual, inveterate, incessant, cursorily, periodic
________________
9.________________
hunger, fast, attrition, dearth, privation
________________


10.________________
stubborn, recalcitrant, intermittent, obstinate, unruly
________________


11.________________
interposition, arbitration, remedy, mediation, negotiation
________________


12.________________
spectacular, striking, histrionic, intimidating, theatrical
________________




[ Answer ] :
1.    describe, menacing
2.    wearing away, affliction
3.    not profoundly, depict
4.    frightening, fraction and stagy
5.    disease, intercession
6.    medical care, carcinoma
7.    growth, famine
8.    habitual, cursorily
9.    hunger, attrition
10. stubborn, intermittent
11.   interposition, remedy
12. spectacular, intimidating




Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1.At first the devoted cares of Isoude seemed to meet with great success; but after a while these flattering
appearances vanished, and, in spite of all her care, the malady grew more serious day by day.
a. disease     b. threatening   c. syndrome        d. affliction (28)


2.Artaxerxes III puts down the unruly satraps and centralized and strengthened the empire.
a. recalcitrant   b. terrorizing    c. fractious     d. obstinate       (33)


3.I persist in thinking your cousin is very lucky to have a chronic malady; so long as he doesn't die of it. It's
much better than the snuff-boxes.
a. habitual    b. inveterate c. intermittent       d. stubborn (25)


4.They represent more than half of known fossils from the Cambrian period.
a. describe     b. cure c. depict    d. specify (29)
5.Under no circumstances should any liquid or medication be forced down the throat of an unconscious
person.
a. corrosion       b. remedy c. therapy          d. treatment (36)


6.The male rose-breasted grosbeak (Zamelodia ludoviciana) is striking with its white bill and summer
plumage of black and white accented by a rose-red breast.
a. spectacular      b. terrorizing     c. stagy      d. dramatic (30)


7.Acromegaly is usually caused by a tumor of the pituitary.
a. growth      b. disorder    c. neoplasm       d. sarcoma        (26)


8.The ensuing civil war resulted in severe famine and dislocation as refugees fled the region.
a. hunger      b. privation   c. dearth      d. starvation (32)


9.Initially, the melodrama dealt in such superficially exciting materials as the gothic castle with its
mysterious lord for a villain, but gradually the characters and settings moved closer to the realities of
contemporary life.
a. theatrically     b. shallowly     c. frivolously        d. sketchily   (31)


10.In his later years he was constantly called on to speak at labor-union conventions and to serve on strike
arbitration boards.
a. interposition    b. intercession       c. carcinoma          d. intervention (34)


11.Their large, bulging, roughly concentric shapes converging in a black, seemingly endless hole in the
center give them a menacing quality.
a. frightening     b. periodic   c. intimidating       d. scary (27)


12.The finished product is not sticky like raw rubber, does not harden with cold or soften much except with
great heat, is elastic, springing back into shape when deformed instead of remaining deformed as
unvulcanized rubber does, is highly resistant to abrasion and to gasoline and most chemicals, and is a good
insulator against electricity and heat.
a. wearing away       b. mediation          c. attrition     d. erosion    (35)




[ Answer ] :
1. b   2. b 3. d       4. b 5. a     6. b    7. b   8. c     9. a 10. c    11. b 12. b
Chapter 4


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview
The human body has a number of mechanisms that it uses to deal with harmful infections, and the immune
system is an important part of this defense mechanism. Although no one is really sure how this mechanism
words, this passage briefly discusses some of the theories that scientists have on how a person's immune
system functions.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


principle, residue, elegant, address, precursor , secrete, encounter, divergence, intact, depot, prime,
functional
Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


Your body can 'remember' specific diseases and, decades later, protect you from reinfection. This principle
has been known for centuries, but immunologists are still struggling with the cellular mechanisms that
underlie its maintenance. Is this long-term immune 'memory' due to the formation of a special class of
long-lived memory cells, or to occasional 'reminders' to the immune system from residual antigens ― the
invading agents that induced the response in the first place. Maruyama and colleagues describe their use of
an elegant genetic system to address the question. They suggest that B cells, the class of immune cell that
makes antibodies, can persist as memory cells for long periods of time after immunization, even in the total
absence of specific stimulation by antigen.
To explain immune memory, Burnet and Talmage proposed that rare antigen-specific B-lymphocytes,
which are precursors of antibody secreting cells, expand clonally when they encounter antigen. This clonal
expansion results in an enlarged pool of antigen-specific B cells that produces a faster, larger response
the next time the antigen is encountered ― that is, they carry a memory of the original immunization.
However, there was then a divergence of ideas about how the expanded pool of cells could persist, and this
divide of opinion remains.
One line of thought proposes that intermittent re-stimulation of the memory B-cell population by specific
or cross-reactive antigen is required. In the late 1960s it was discovered that intact protein antigen could
exist in lymphoid tissues for months after immunization, in the form of antigen-antibody complexes on
so-called follicular dendritic cells. These immune complexes were thought to be an antigen depot for the
continual stimulation of clonally expanded B cells and for helper T cells, which aid in priming the
antigen-specific B cells to produce antibodies. In support of this view, cell-transfer experiments showed
that functional B-cell memory declines rapidly with a half-life of around 3 weeks in the absence of antigen.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
인체는 특정한 질환을 기억할 수 있고 나중에는 재감염을 방지해주기도 한다. 이 원리는 오랜 세월동안 알고
있었지만 면역학자들은 세포의 유지 보수의 기초라 할 수 있는 세포의 메커니즘에 대해서 아직도 분투하고 있다.
이 면역 기억 세포는 장기간 생존한 특수 기억 세포에서 비롯된 것인가 또는 처음 질환을 유발하고 남은
항원에서 가끔 면역 시스템에게 상기 시키는 것인가 ?                                                 마루야마와 그의 동료들은 이에 대한 해석을 그들만의
훌륭한 유전자 시스템으로 설명한다. 그들이 제안하기를 'B 세포'라고 불리는 면역 세포가 항체를 만들고 면역
기억 세포처럼 면역이 끝나고 나서도 장기간 살아 남을 수 있다고 한다. 심지어는 항원이 없는 경우에도
생존한다고 한다.
Burnet과 Talmage의하면 면역 기억 이론은 희기한 항원이자 면역 비세포의 전조인 'B 림프구'가 다른 항원을
접촉할 때 클론으로 인하여 확대한다고 설명한다. 이 클론 확대의 결과는 특수한 항원에 의한 B세포의 성장이다.
또한 이러한B세포는 첫 면역을 기억을 지니면서 신속하고 많은 숫자로 항원에게 대체할 수 있다고 한다. 그러나
이렇게 커진 세포들의 잔존하는 이론은 아직도 의견 등의 차이가 난다.
한 이론에 의하면 항원에서 비롯되고 때때로 중단되는 자극은 기억 B 세포 인구에게 필요하다고 한다. 1960년대
말, 손상되지 않은 항원 단백질 면역이 끝난 후에도 림프구의 조직에서 모낭수 지상 세포라고 불리는
항원-항체복합체의 형태로 몇 개월간 생존이 가능하다는 것을 발견했다. 이러한 면역복합체는 클론에 의하여
커진 B세포의 자극체와 보조 T 세포의 항원 저장소로 알려져 있다. 참고로 보조 T 세포는 B 세포의 항체 생산을
유발하는 기폭제 역할을 한다. 이 이론을 기반으로 세포 이동 실험 결과, 기능성 기억 B 세포의 수명이 항원이
없는 상황에서 보통의 반인 3주로 급격히 감퇴했다.




[   Glossary]
reinfection : Medicine. a second infection by the same pathogenic agent, occurring either during the primary
infection or after recovery
immunologist : Immunology. a scientist who studies the processes and substances associated with the
resistance of humans and higher animals to infections and diseases
cellular : Biology. of or relating to cells; consisting of cells
immune : describing an organism that resists and overcomes an infection or disease
antigen : Immunology. a substance that causes the formation of an antibody or elicits a cellular response
antibody : Immunology. a protein, produced as a result of the introduction of an antigen, that has the ability
to combine with the antigen that caused its production. Also, IMMUNE BODY
B-lymphocyte : Immunology. a type of cell found in blood, tissues, and lymph that originates from the bone
marrow and becomes transformed through antigenic stimulation, becoming either a memory cell or a
plasma cell that forms antibodies against a given antigen
lympho     a combining form indicating a relationship to lymph, lymphoidal tissue, lymphatics, or
lymphocytes, as in lymphography
follicle : Biology. a small, narrow cavity or sac in an organ or tissue, as those on the skin containing hair
roots, or those in the ovaries containing developing eggs.         Immunology. see LYMPHOID FOLLICLE
dendrite : Neurology. a branchlike extension of the cytoplasm of a neuron; composing most of the neuron's
receptive surface, dendrites resemble axons in structure but generally extend into treelike processes,
especially in multipolar neurons. Also, DENDRON
half-life : in a living system or ecosystem, the time required for half of a radioactive substance, such as a
radioactive tracer, to disintegrate by radioactive decay or to be eliminated by natural processes




Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.




Principleㆍ
Residueㆍ
Elegantㆍ
Addressㆍ
precursorㆍ
secreteㆍ
encounterㆍ
divergenceㆍ
intactㆍ
depotㆍ
primeㆍ
functionalㆍ




ㆍseparation
ㆍpredecessor
ㆍstandard
ㆍfine
ㆍhandle
ㆍemit
ㆍmeet
ㆍworking
ㆍwhole
ㆍrest
ㆍstorehouse
ㆍready




[ Answer ] :
principle-standardresidue-restelegant-fineaddress-handleprecursor-predecessorsecrete-emitenco
unter-meetdivergence-separationintact-wholedepot-storehouseprime-readyfunctional-working


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions
The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


37. standard
basis, criterion, precept, canon, principle


38. rest
leftovers, dregs, remainder, remnant, residue
39. fine
graceful, luxurious, grand, posh, elegant


40. handle
deal with, undertake, focus on, engage in, address


41. predecessor
harbinger, herald, vanguard, antecedent, precursor


42. emit
discharge, excrete, ooze, exude, secrete


43. meet
come face to face, chance upon, face, bump into, encounter


44. separation
split, fork, branching, digression, divergence
45. whole
undamaged, unbroken, sound, unimpaired, unharmed, intact


46. storehouse
repository, station, armory, magazine, depot


47. ready
break in, groom, train, coach, prime


48. working
operative, serviceable, performing, useful, functional
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
37. Standard (기준)
Basis(원리), Criterion(지각), Percept(지각), Canon(기준), Principle (원리)


38. Rest (나머지)
Leftovers (남은 것들), Dregs(찌꺼지 들), Remainder (잔여), Remnant (잔여), Residue (잔여)


39. Fine (훌륭한)
Graceful (우아함), Luxurious (사치스러운), Grand (웅장한), Posh (호화스런), Elegant (우아한)
40. Handle (다루다)
Deal with (처리하다), Undertake (책임을 맡다), Focus on (한곳에 집중하다), Engage in (착수하다), Address
(제기하다)


41. Predecessor (전 적임자, 선구자)
Harbinger(선구자), Herald (선구자), Vanguard(선구자), Antecedent (선조), Precursor(선구자)


42. Emit (방출하다)
Discharge(배출하다), Excrete(분비하다), Ooze(새어 나오다), Exude (스며 나오다) , Secrete(분비하다)


43. Meet (만나다)
Come face to face (얼굴을 맞대고), Chance upon (우연히 마주치다), Face(마주치다), Bump into(우연히
마주치다), Encounter(마주치다)


44. Separation (갈라지다)
Split(갈라지다), Fork(갈라진 곳), Branching (분기), Digression(탈선하다), Divergence (분기)
45. Whole(결여된 부분이 없는 전체를)
Undamaged (안부서진), Unbroken (부서지지 않은), Sound (건제한), Unimpaired (손상되지 않은), Unharmed
(상처 없는), Intact(손상되지 않은)


46. Storehouse (저장소)
Repository(수납장소), Station (정착지), Armory (탄약 창고), Magazine (군수품 창고), Depot (저장소)


47. Ready (준비된)
Break in (길들이다), Groom (손질하다), Train (훈련), Coach (감독), Prime (제일 준비된 상태)


48. Working (작용하는)
Operative (작용하는), Serviceable (실용적인), Performing (실행하는), Useful (쓸모 있는), Functional (작동하는)




Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.




[   Guidewords]
standard, rest, fine, handle, predecessor, emit, meet, separation, whole, storehouse, ready, working


1.________________
come face to face, chance upon, excrete, bump into, encounter
________________


2.________________
deal with, coach, focus on, groom, address
________________
3.________________
harbinger, criterion, vanguard, antecedent, precursor
________________


4.________________
graceful, unimpaired, grand, posh, elegant
________________


5.________________
operative, luxurious, performing, useful, functional
________________


6.________________
discharge, engage in, ooze, exude, secrete
________________


7.________________
split, remnant, branching, digression, divergence
________________


8.________________
leftovers, dregs, remainder, herald, residue
________________
9.________________
undamaged, unbroken, sound, serviceable, unharmed, intact
________________


10.________________
basis, armory, precept, canon, principle
________________


11.________________
repository, station, fork, magazine, depot
________________


12.________________
prep, ready, face, train, undertake, prime
________________
[ Answer ] :
1.    meet, excrete
2.    handle, coach and groom
3.    predecessor, criterion
4.    fine, unimpaired
5.    working, luxurious
6.    emit, engage in
7.    separation, remnant
8.    rest, herald
9.    whole, serviceable
10. standard, armory
11. storehouse, fork
12.   prepare, undertake




Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1.Centers to train educators have been established in Cambodia, India, South Korea, Liberia, Thailand, and
Turkey, and fundamental-education centers have been set up in Latin America and in the Middle East.
a. engage in    b. prepare      c. groom d. coach (47)


2.Traditionally associated with luxurious apartment houses, it is now the location of many high-rise
commercial buildings.
a. fine     b. graceful      c. working     d. elegant     (39)


3.The importance of promises in commercial and industrial society produced a new criterion, and generally
a promise is now enforceable only if it is made in exchange for consideration, i.e., a payment, for some
action, or for another promise.
a. standard    b. basis      c. precept     d. rest    (37)


4.All five members died, the last three overwhelmed by a blizzard when only a few miles from their depot.
a. storehouse     b. station      c. armory     d. fork       (46)


5.There is also divergence on the dates assigned to Thorfinn's expedition.
a. harbinger    b. separation     c. branching        d. digression    (44)


6.Aging is cumulative changes in an organism, organ, tissue, or cell leading to a decrease in functional
capacity.
a. working     b. operative      c. sound      d. serviceable        (48)


7.The orphan drug law offers tax breaks and a seven-year monopoly on drug sales to induce companies to
undertake the development and manufacturing of such drugs, which otherwise might not be profitable
because of the small potential market.
a. emit    b. handle      c. deal with    d. address (40)


8.These so-called uricotelic organisms thus excrete uric acid as the major end-product of the metabolism
of all nitrogen-containing compounds.
a. discharge    b. ooze     c. exude     d. engage in (42)


9.The common, worldwide, deepwater cuttlefish, genus Spirula, is considered a "living fossil" because it
possesses a remnant of the external shell of the ancient cephalopods.
a. dregs    b. canon c. remainder         d. residue (38)


10.Many times have I gone from Allan Bank in Grasmere vale, where we were then residing, to the top of the
Raise-gap as it is called, so late as two o'clock in the morning, to meet the carrier bringing the newspaper
from Keswick.
a. come face to face       b. focus on    c. chance upon       d. encounter (43)
11.In the environment, nitric oxide is a precursor of smog and acid rain.
a. herald     b. principle     c. vanguard      d. antecedent       (41)


12.Because of his piety and prudence, the gods allowed him to return unharmed to Pylos after the war.
a. undamaged        b. unbroken c. posh            d. intact (45)




[ Answer ] :
1. a   2. c 3. d    4. d     5. a   6. c 7. a   8. d   9. b 10. b 11. d       12. c


Review Exercise




Reading Instructions
All the words from this unit are found in the exercise below. Each sentence contains one word in bold type
from all the drills in this unit. Select the word from the choices below that can replace the word in the bold
type. (The word numbers from all the Drills in the unit are in parentheses. These will help if you need to look
back.)


1.Another difficulty lay in the invincible disbelief of the peasant that a landowner's object could be anything
else than a desire to squeeze all he could out of them. (5)
a. unconquerable       b. irresistible     c. functional     d. overpowering


2.When precautions like these are taken on behalf of the people in general against the malignant influence
supposed to be exercised by strangers, it is no wonder that special measures are adopted to protect the
king from the same insidious danger.
a. guileful    b. treacherous c. tricky         d. longing    (1)


3.Fushun's enormous open-pit coal mine, which has been in operation since about the 12th cent., is now
highly mechanized.
a. awesome       b. huge     c. gigantic    d. tremendous       (17)


4.Geopolitical theorists stress that natural political boundaries and access to important waterways are vital
to a nation's survival.
a. admission     b. energizer c. passageway            d. ingress      (12)


5.Because carbon monoxide is attracted to the hemoglobin about 210 times as strongly as is oxygen, it takes
the place of oxygen in the blood, causing oxygen starvation throughout the body.
a. famine    b. dearth    c. privation     d. enlargement (31)


6.The city was virtually undamaged in World War II and has retained numerous historic buildings, including a
14th-century town hall, half-timbered houses, and student taverns.
a. whole     b. refractory   c. unimpaired        d. intact (45)


7.The pain is believed to be associated with constriction followed by dilation of blood vessels leading to and
within the brain.
a. compression       b. contraction      c. portion d. stenosis        (15)


8.Local therapy includes application of a chemical such as silver nitrate to produce a soft crust, reduce the
threat of infection, and relieve the pain.
a. remedy     b. cure    c. medication      d. intercession (36)


9.Like the talisman and the charm, the amulet is believed to be the source of an impersonal force that is an
inherent property of the object rather than the manifestation of a deity working through that object.
a. sign    b. indication c. prodrome         d. symptom        (19)


10.Harriet Van Horne had the requisite sadism, paranoia and taste for violence.
a. anxiety    b. apprehension c. suspicion           d. distrust      (21)


11.To put the charm in operation he makes a paste of red ochre and fish oil, inserts in it the eye of a cod and
a small piece of the flesh of a corpse, and having rolled the compound into a ball sticks it on the top of the
bone.
a. amalgam        b. ration c. grounds       d. alloy    (2)


12.Aluminum brass (not exceeding 3% aluminum) has greater resistance to corrosion than ordinary brass.
a. intervention     b. attrition    c. abrasion    d. erosion (35)


13.As for the smart lady, at first she positively trembled before the storm. But strange to say, the more
numerous and violent the terms of abuse became, the more amiable she looked, and the more seductive the
smiles she lavished on the terrible assistant.
a. staggering     b. alluring      c. enticing   d. tantalizing (6)


14.By means of a coordinate system one can specify any point with respect to a chosen origin.
a. describe     b. represent c. bring about          d. characterize (29)


15.Miller may write about revelers self-woven into a human hooked rug, because his ecstasy is solemn.
a. glee     b. elation c. rapture        d. expansion (23)


16.Mealybug is common name for certain unarmored scale insects that exude a granular white secretion,
giving them a mealy appearance. (42)
a. excrete        b. discharge       c. address    d. ooze


17.These ends can only be realized through conscientious regulation of exercise, rest, diet, and periodic
medical and dental examinations. (25)
a. habitual        b. inveterate c. unacceptable          d. chronic


18.It was originally obtained from wood ashes or from the residue left in pots after certain plants, e.g., kelp,
were burned in them.
a. leftovers        b. sustenance      c. remainder d. remnant (38)


19.It is an elegant resort and a small commercial port as well as an important naval air base and the site of a
naval school.
a. graceful        b. luxurious    c. stubborn     d. grand (39)


20.Formerly the separation was made by the gravity method, allowing the cream to rise to the top of a pan
and then skimming it off. (44)
a. split       b. branching       c. armory    d. digression




[ Answer ] :
1. c    2. d      3. a   4. b   5. d 6. b     7. c 8. d   9. b 10. a   11. b 12. a 13. a 14. c   15. d   16. c 17. c
18. b      19.c     20.c




Additional Topics in Health


Preventive Medicine
Preventive medicine is the branch of medicine dealing with the prevention of disease and the maintenance
of good health practices. Until recently preventive medicine was largely the domain of the U.S. Public Health
Service or state and local health departments, but it has become an important consideration of health
maintenance organizations, private practitioners, and other health care providers. Preventive medicine
encompasses such activities as research into causes of disease vaccination against those diseases for
which the causes are known, e.g., poliomyelitis, influenza, and measles; studies of environmental deterrents
to health; and instruction in public health and hygiene.


Vaccination
means of producing immunity against pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, by the introduction of live,
killed, or altered antigens that stimulate the body to produce antibodies against more dangerous forms.
Vaccination was used in ancient times in China, India, and Persia, and was introduced in the West in 1796 by
Edward Jenner.
Jenner demonstrated that rubbing or scraping the cowpox virus (the term vaccine comes from the Latin
vacca, cow) into the skin produced only a local lesion but was sufficient to stimulate the production of
antibodies that would defend the body against the more virulent smallpox.
Vaccination has eradicated smallpox worldwide and prevents such diseases as cholera, rabies, and typhoid
fever. Vaccines work with the immune systems ability to recognize and destroy foreign proteins antigens)
that it determines are non-self. Scientists are using this same principle to help the body recognize antigens
peculiar to cancer cells. It is also applied in an experimental birth control vaccine that tricks the immune
system into believing that human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), a hormone secreted by a developing
fertilized egg, is foreign, thus inactivating it and inducing menstruation even if fertilization has occurred.
Vaccines are also used to control animal pests by conferring temporary infertility.
Vaccination programs have been notably successful in the United States. For example, in 1998 the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention reported only one case of poliomyelitis, one of diphtheria, 34 of tetanus,
and 89 of measles. Despite the availability of vaccines, many thousands of people in the United States still
die each year from vaccine-preventable diseases such as hepatitis and influenza.
Immunization against 10 diseases is recommended for children: diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), and pertussis
(whooping cough , given together as DTP; poliomyelitis ; hepatitis B (HBV); measles, mumps, and rubella,
given together as MMR; Haemophilus influenza b (Hib); and chicken pox. Researchers are working to
develop a single-dose vaccine that would simplify vaccine administration. Immunization against diseases
such as yellow fever may be necessary before traveling to some countries.




Immunity
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms.
Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
Mammals are protected by a variety of preventive mechanisms, some of them nonspecific (e.g., barriers,
such as the skin), others highly specific (e.g., the response of antibodies).
Nonspecific Defenses
Nonspecific defenses include physical and chemical barriers, the inflammatory response, and interferons.
Physical barriers include the intact skin and mucous membranes.
These barriers are aided by various antimicrobial chemicals in tissue and fluids. An example of such a
substance is lysozyme, an enzyme present in tears that destroys the cell membranes of certain bacteria.

Unit 2

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Environment


Chapter 1



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


The passage in this unit deal with the effect of pollutants on the environment, and specifically, the effect of
petroleum pollution in our ecosystem. In combating this spread of toxic compounds, microorganisms that
can metabolize hydrocarbons-the building blocks of petroleum and its by-products-have proven to be an
especially effective weapon but not without exceptions.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


ubiquitous, distribution, degradation, appropriate, effectively, decontaminate, pollutant, condense,
substitute, resistant, commercial, enhance


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


Studies on the environmental fate of petroleum have demonstrated the nearly ubiquitous distribution of
microorganisms that can metabolize hydrocarbons. The rates of degradation depend upon the
concentrations of such microbes and upon the environmental characteristics of an oil-contaminated
ecosystem. Given the appropriate environmental conditions, microorganisms effectively decontaminate, by
their biodegradative metabolism, environments that have received petroleum pollutants.
Higher-molecular-weight compounds, especially those with multiple condensed ring structures and with
highly branched or substituted compounds, are relatively resistant to microbial attack. Despite the fact that
a genetically engineered hydrocarbon degrader was the first organism ever patented and that seed cultures
are produced by various commercial firms, enhanced biodegradation as a result of seeding generally has
not been shown to be effective.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
화석 원유가 끼치는 환경의 운명을 연구한 결과 증면된것은 어디에서나 배포되는 초미생물질이 탄화수소로
물진대사 한다는 것이다. 환경의 파괴 속도는 이러한 미생물들의 집중성과 기름으로 얼룩진 생태계의 특징등에
좌우된다. 만약 알맞은 커디션이 주어진다면 효율적으로 초미생물질들의 특징인 생물 분해성 물질대사로 석유로
오염된 환경을 제거 할수있다. 복합식 환형 그리고 복잡한 사슬이나 다른 화합물이 대신 대체된 구조를 가진
고분자 화합물량은 미생물의 공격에 상대적으로 잘 저항한다. 유전학적으로 만들어진 탄화수소 격하 물질은
미생물로는 첫번째로 특허를 받았고 다른 기업들에게 똑같은 기술을 심어주었지만 이렇게 강화한 기술들이
효율적이지 못하다.
석유계탄화수소(유류)의 거동에 관한 연구결과 탄화수소를 분해할 수 있는 미생물이 자연계에 산재해 있다는
것이 입증되어 왔다. 분해속도는 탄화수소 분해 미생물의 수와 유류로 오염된 생태계의 환경적 특성에 따라
달라진다. 적절한 환경조건이 주어진다면 미생물은 석유계 오염물질이 유입된 환경을 효과적으로 복원할 수 있다.
특히 미생물에 의한 생물학적 분해가 상대적으로 어려운 다중결합구조 화합물 및 가지형 또는 치환형 화합물질
같은 고분자 화합물질도 효과적으로 제거할 수 있다. 유전공학적으로 생산된 탄화수소
분해미생물(환경분야에서는 흔히 미생물제제라고 함)이 미생물 중 처음으로 특허를 획득했고 여러 회사에서
미생물제제(혹은 식종물질)가 생산되고 있음에도 불구하고 일반적으로 이러한 미생물제제의 첨가(식종)가
오염물질의 분해를 촉진시키지는 못하는 것으로 알려져 있다.


[   Glossary]
microorganism : a living thing which on its own is too small to see without a microscope
hydrocarbon : a chemical combination of hydrogen and carbon, such as in oil or petrol
microbe : a very small living thing, esp. one which causes disease, and which is too small to see without a
microscope
ecosystem. : the plants, animals and people living in an area together with their surroundings, such as earth
and weather, considered as a system of relationships
metabolism : all the chemical processes in your body, esp. those that cause food to be used for energy and
growth
molecule : the smallest unit into which a substance can be divided without chemical change, usually a group
of two or more atoms
molecular-weight : the sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in a molecule
culture : microorganisms or parts of organisms grown for scientific purposes, or the breeding and keeping
of particular living things in order to get the substances they produce
biodegradation : The degradation, or destruction of, a chemical substance or substances by biological
means (such as through microorganisms using it as a nutrient).
Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.




Ubiquitousㆍ
Distributionㆍ
Degradationㆍ
Appropriateㆍ
Effectivelyㆍ
Decontaminateㆍ
Pollutantㆍ
Condenseㆍ
Substituteㆍ
Resistantㆍ
Commercialㆍ
Enhanceㆍ




ㆍbetterㆍspreading
ㆍproductively
ㆍclean
ㆍfar and wide
ㆍtoxic waste
ㆍfill in for
ㆍconcentrate
ㆍdecomposition
ㆍstanding up against
ㆍproper
ㆍmoney-making




[ Answer ] : ubiquitous- far and
widedistribution-spreadingdegradation-decompositionappropriate-propereffectively-productivelydeco
ntaminated-cleanpollutant-toxic and wastecondense-concentratesubstitute-fill in
forresistant-standing up againstcommercial-money-makingenhance-better




Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


1. far and wide
everywhere, widespread, universal, omnipresent, ubiquitous


2. spreading
rationing, scattering, dispersion, apportionment, distribution


3. decomposition
resolution, dissolution, diffraction, disintegration, degradation


4. proper
suitable, apposite, apt, pertinent, appropriate


5. productively
forcefully, competently, constructively, efficaciously, effectively


6. clean
purify, sterilize, sanitize, disinfect, decontaminate
7. toxic waste
toxin, contaminant, scum, filth, pollutant


8. concentrate
consolidate, digest, summarize, synopsize, condense


9. fill in for
alternate, replace, supplant, surrogate, substitute


10. standing up against
defiant, resistive, insubordinate, repellent, resistant


11. money-making
business, merchandising, mercantile, mercenary, commercial,


12. better
aggrandize, strengthen, intensify, heighten, enhance


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.      far and wide(널리, 도처에)/everywhere(어디든지, 도처에)/widespread(널리 퍼진,
보급된)/universal(보편적인, 일반적인; 전세계의, 만유의; 만능의, 박식한)/omnipresent(편재하는, 동시에
어디에나 존재하는) /ubiquitous([동시에] 도처에 존재하는, 편재하는, 편재적인)


2.      spreading(퍼짐; 확대)/rationing(정액, 정량, 배급)/scattering(흩뿌리기, 살포)/dispersion(산란; 분산;
분포)/apportionment(배분, 분배, 할당)/distribution(분배)


3.      decomposition(분해; 부패)/resolution(결의, 결의안; 결의, 결심; 해결)/dissolution(용해; 분해; 분리; 해산;
파멸; 죽음)/diffraction(회절)/disintegration(분해, 붕괴, 분열)/degradation(저하; 격하(格下))


4.      proper(적당한, 알맞은, 어울리는; 예의바른; 고유의) /suitable(적당한, 적절한, 타당한;
적격의)/apposite(적절한; 적합한)/apt(적절한; 영리한; ~하기 쉬운)/pertinent (적절한;
관련있는)/appropriate(적절한; 타당한; 특유의)


5.      productively(생산적으로)/forcefully(힘하게; 원기왕성하게) /competently(유능하게; 충분히; 정당하게)
/constructively(건설적으로, 해석상으로) /efficaciously(유효하게)/effectively (효율적으로)
6.        clean(깨끗이 하다)/purify(정화하다)/sterilize(살균(멸균)하다, 소독하다; [땅]을 불모화하다) /sanitize(…을
위생적으로 하다)/disinfect(…을 소독하다, 살균하다)/decontaminate (…을 정화하다, 소독하다)


7.        toxic waste(유해쓰레기) / toxin (독소)/ contaminant (오염물) / scum (찌꺼기, 부스러기)/ filth (오물, 불결한
것; 불결) / pollutant (오염물)


8.        concentrate(집중하다)/consolidate(공고하게 하다, 강화하다; 합병하다)/digest(요약하다 ; 소화하다;
이해하다)/summarize(요약하다)/synopsize(요약하다)/condense(압축하다; 요약하다; 액화하다)


9.        fill in for(대리하다) /alternate(번갈아 일어나다, 교대하다) /replace(대신하다)/supplant((남)의 자리에
들어앉다, [지위·직]을 빼앗다) /surrogate(…에게 대리를 시키다; 법률 …의 대리를 하다) /substitute(치환하다;
대리(대신)하다, 대용하다)


10.       standing up against (…에 저항하는)/defiant(반항적인, 도전적인; 교만한) /resistive(저항성의; 저항력이
있는) /insubordinate(순종하지 않는, 반항하는; 낮지 않은) /repellent(방수의; 반발하는, 격퇴하는; 불쾌한)
/resistant(저항의)


11.       money-making(돈벌이가 되는)/business(사업; 직업, 일, 업무, 실무, 사무; 매매, 거래 ;
주요관심사)/merchandising (상인의)/mercantile(상업의; 상인의) (/mercenary (돈을 위한; 고용된) /commercial
(상업의)


12.       better(…을 더 좋게 하다, 개량하다, 개선하다) /aggrandize([범위]를 크게 하다, 확대하다; …을 과장하다)
/strengthen(…을 강하게 하다; …을 격려하다) /intensify(…을 강하게 하다) /heighten(…을 높이다; …을
증가시키다; 강조하다) /enhance (정도)를 올리다, 강화하다; [가치·가격 따위]를 올리다, 인상하다)




Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.
[   Guidewords]
far and wide, spreading, decomposition, proper, productively, clean, toxic waste, concentrate, fill in for,
standing up against, money-making, better


1.________________
everywhere, widespread, universal, constructively, ubiquitous
________________


2.________________
filth, scattering, dispersion, apportionment, distribution
________________


3.________________
rationing, dissolution, diffraction, disintegration, degradation
________________


4.________________
suitable, apposite, apt, pertinent, omnipresent
________________


5.________________
forcefully, competently, defiant, efficaciously, effectively
________________


6.________________
purify, sterilize, sanitize, disinfect, decontaminate
________________


7.________________
toxin, contaminant, scum, mercenary, pollutant
________________


8.________________
consolidate, digest, summarize, synopsize, condense
________________


9.________________
alternate, replace, supplant, aggrandize, substitute
________________
10.________________
appropriate, resistive, insubordinate, repellent, resistant
________________


11.________________
business, merchandising, mercantile, resolution, commercial
________________


12.________________
surrogate, strengthen, intensify, heighten, enhance
________________




[ Answer ] :
1.    far and wide, constructively
2.    spreading, filth
3.    decomposition, rationing
4.    proper, omnipresent
5.    productively, defiant
6.    clean, all words are synonymous
7.    toxic waste, mercenary
8.    concentrate, all words are synonymous
9.    fill in for, aggrandize
10. standing up against, appropriate
11.   money-making, resolution
12.   better, surrogate




Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1.Accidents, such as train derailments or crashes involving tanker trucks transporting toxic wastes or oil
spills from ships, can also release large quantities of these dangerous chemicals into the environment.
a. toxin b. contaminant         c. diffraction   d. filth (7)
2.Many high blood pressure patients lack proper treatment.
a. suitable         b. apt        c. appropriate      d. insubordinate      (4)


3.The decomposition of organic matter by biological action has been taking place in nature since life first
appeared on our planet.
a. resolution       b. dissolution      c. scum     d. disintegration     e. dispersion (3)


4.In order to operate a manufacturing plant productively, some emission of pollutants into the surrounding
environment is inevitable.
a. constructively        b. competently         c. effectively d. defiantly (5)


5.No one knows yet how frequently these strains are spreading.
a. scattering         b. dispersing          c. mercenary    d. distributing (2)


6.Fans come from far and wide for the Shania experience.
a. everywhere         b. widespread           c. omnipresent      d. insubordinate (1)


7.The association promotes a way of life, not causes; a harmony in living, not political faiths; a bilateral
loyalty, not commercial or social projects.
a. business          b. ubiquitous           c. merchandising          d. mercenary (11)


8.The primitive mind seems to conceive of holiness as a sort of dangerous virus, which a prudent man will
shun as far as possible, and of which, if he should chance to be infected by it, he will carefully disinfect
himself by some form of ceremonial purification.
a. purify        b. sterilize      c. enhance         d. decontaminate (6)


9.The old school headteacher remembered him as an insubordinate child.
a.resistive        b. apt       c. defiant      d. resistant (10)


10.Further, when the name of the deceased happens to be that of some common object, such as an animal,
or plant, or fire, or water, it is sometimes considered necessary to drop that word in ordinary speech and
replace it by another.
a. fill in for    b. supplant      c. substitute     d. digest (9)


11.The fiber cells that strengthen and protect the phloem ducts are a source of such textile fibers as hemp,
flax, and jute; various barks supply tannin, cork (see cork oak), dyes, flavorings (e.g., cinnamon), and drugs
(e.g., quinine).
a. enhance         b. surrogate c. better          d. intensify (12)
12.If you condense a liquid you make it thicker by removing some of the water.
a. concentrate           b. consolidate           c. sanitize       (8)


[ Answer ] :
1. c    2. d    3. e    4. d     5. c    6. d    7. b 8. c        9. b 10. d 11. b            12. c




Chapter 2


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


Here, we look at what can be done to deal with hydrocarbon pollution. The author points out that the gap
between the theoretical knowledge of hydrocarbons and the organisms that break them down, and the
practical application of this knowledge, would have to be bridged before microorganisms can be employed
to deal with pollution.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


persist, environment, modification, fertilization, removal, treatment, parameter, undertake, translation,
specifically, refine, sludge


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


Also, even though some anaerobes have now been demonstrated to be capable of hydrocarbon metabolism,
hydrocarbons persist indefinitely in anoxic environments. Environmental modification, on the other hand,
such as that achieved by aeration or fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus. has been shown to enhance
biodegradative removal of hydrocarbons.
Having considered the various factors that influence the rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation, we are left
with the question of what to do when environmental oil contamination occurs in order to minimize its
persistence and thus its long-term effects. Clearly, treatment methods should enhance rather than inhibit
the natural rates of oil biodegradation. In some cases, it is possible to modify environmental parameters to
enhance rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation, but such methods are rarely undertaken. The translation of
our scientific knowledge of hydrocarbon biodegradation into practical applications remains a major
challenge. Specifically designed organisms are needed to degrade toxic aromatic components of refinery
waste streams before environmental treatment. Specially designed reactors with specific microbial
populations are also needed if oily sludges are to be degraded by biological means, either aerobically or
anaerobically, in contained, environmentally safe reactors.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
또한 미생물들이 탄화수소를 물진대사를 할 수 있는 능력이 있다는 것을 여실히 증명했지만 탄화수소는 공기가
부족한 환경에도 일정치 않게 생존 한다는 것이다. 하지만 질소 및 인광성 물질들로 인하여 발생한 다산화와
탄산가스 포화 상태에서 이루어진 환경 변경에서도 탄화수소를 생물적으로 제거 시킨다.
미생물로 인한 탄화수소 생물분해의                                  비율을 여러 요소들로 고려 해보았지만 결국에는 석유로 인한 환경오염
발생시 어떻게 피해를 줄이고 그 후유증에 대해서는 어떻게 대체 해야할지는 모른다. 의심할 여지 없이 탄화수소
처리 방식은 탄화수소의 격하 속도를 억제하는 것 보다 더 빨리 강화 시킬 수 있다. 이런                                             경우는 드물지만
탄화수소의 격하 속도를 높이기 위해서 환경 파라미터를 변경 할 수도 있다. 아직도 우리가 가지고 있는 이
지식을 응용할 수 있게 기술로 번역하는 게 가장 큰 관문이다. 더더욱 필요한 것은 더 명확하게 디자인된
유기체로 환경친화적으로 처리하기 이전 생기는 유독가스를 생물적으로 처리하는 것이다. 기름기있는 찌꺼기를
생물학적으로 처리하려면 특별히 만들어진 반응기와 특수 미생물질의 인구가 절실히 필요하다. 그 처리방식이
산소가 있는 환경이거나 없는 환경이든 상관 없이 안전하고도 친환경적인 반응기에서 이루어져야 한다.
또한 일부 혐기성미생물의 탄화수소 분해능력이 입증되고 있음에도 불구하고 혐기성조건하에서의 탄화수소
분해는 용이하지 않다. 다시 말해, 공기공급 혹은 질소, 인 등의 영양물질공급 같은 환경조건의 조절이
탄화수소의 분해를 촉진시키는 것으로 알려져 왔다. 탄화수소분해속도에 영향을 미치는 여러 인자를 고려해
보았음에도 불구하고 유류오염이 일어났을 경우 유류(탄화수소)의 분해를 극대화하기 위하여 무엇을 해야 할지
그리고 유류의 장기적인 영향이 무엇인지에 대한 의문이 남겨져 있다. 분명히, 처리방법(공법)은 유류의
분해속도를 자연상태에서 보다 향상시켜야만 한다. 때때로 탄화수소 분해속도를 촉진시키기 위하여 환경조건들을
조절하는 것이 가능하나 이러한 방법은 거의 시행되지 않고 있다. 탄화수소에 대한 우리의 과학적 지식을 실제
현장에 적용하는 것이 주요 도전과제로 남아 있다. 석유정제과정에서 부산물로 생산되는 독성 방향족 화합물이
환경으로 배출되기 이전에 처리하기 위하여 유전공학적으로 개발된 미생물(미생물제제)이 필요하다. 또한
유류정제과정에서 배출되는 슬러지(오일슬러지)를 생물학적으로(호기성 혹은 혐기성) 처리하기 위해서
미생물제제를 이용한 밀폐형이며 환경적으로 안전한 반응조가 필요하기도 하다.
[   Glossary]
anaerobe : A microorganism that either does not require oxygen or actually cannot live in the presence of
oyxgen.
anoxic : Lack of oxygen. An adjective usually used to describe a microbial habitat
aeration :   To add air or oxygen into a liquid.
phosphorus. : a widely occurring nonmetallic element having the symbol P, it is an essential element of the
human diet and is the main component of bones and teeth
population : any group of organisms of the same species living in a specific geographic area
aerobic : requiring atmospheric oxygen to live.
anaerobic : not needing or without oxygen




Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.




Persistㆍ
Environmentㆍ
Modificationㆍ
Fertilizationㆍ
Removalㆍ
Treatmentㆍ
Parameterㆍ
Undertakeㆍ
Translationㆍ
Specificallyㆍ
Refineㆍ
Sludgeㆍ




ㆍenrichment
ㆍsurroundings
ㆍkeep up
ㆍslime
ㆍchange
ㆍtaking out
ㆍhandling
ㆍinterpretation
ㆍdividing line
ㆍenter into
ㆍclearly
ㆍpurify




[ Answer ] : persist-keep
upenvironment-surroundingsmodification-changefertilization-enrichmentremoval-taking
outtreatment-handlingparameter-dividing lineundertake-enter
intotranslation-interpretationspecifically-clearlyrefine-purifysludge-slime


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


13. keep up
persevere, continue, be steadfast, survive, persist


14. surroundings
ambience, circumstances, environs, milieu, environment,


15. change
adjustment, alteration, revise, modulation, modification
16. enrichment
fecundation, impregnation, insemination, compost, fertilization


17. taking out
erosion, elimination, oust, uprooting, removal


18. handling
dealing, management, processing, conduct, treatment


19. dividing line
boundary, delimitation, demarcation, border line, parameter


20. enter into
set about, take on, attempt, tackle, undertake


21. interpretation
transformation, rendering, conversion, transfiguration, translation


22. clearly
definitely, precisely, distinctively, uniquely, specifically


23. purify
strain, filter, clarify, distill, refine


24. slime
gook, guck, gunk, muck, sludge


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13.      keep up (…을 계속하다, 유지하다)/persevere(굴하지 않고 꾸준히 하다, 끝까지 해내다; [설 따위를]
고집하다) /continue(계속하다; 존속하다; 머무르다, 체재(체류)하다)/be steadfast(확고하게 하다, 불변하다,
꿋꿋하다) /survive (/persist (지속하다, 존속하다, 살아남다; 주장하다), 관철하다, 고집하다)


14.      surroundings(주변환경)/ambience (둘러싸고 있는 것, 환경) /circumstances(주변)/environs (환경)/milieu
(주위, 환경)/environment (환경)


15.      change (변화)/adjustment (조정, 정비, 조절; 적응) /alteration (교호(交互), 교대, 교체; 하나씩 거름)
/revise(수정[판], 개정) /modulation (조정, 조절, 가감; 음악 전조; 변화, 억양) /modification (변이; 변경, 수정;
가감, 조절, 완화)


16.   enrichment (부유) /fecundation (수태(수정)) /impregnation (수정; 포화, 충만; 주입) /insemination
(씨뿌리기, 파종) /compost ([특히] 혼합 비료, 퇴비(堆肥);합성물, 혼합물) /fertilization ([땅을]기름지게 함;
풍부하게 함)


17.   taking out (떠나다, 출발하다; …을 데리고 나가다) /erosion(부식, 침식)/elimination(제거, 삭제, 제외, 배제,
배출) /oust(몰수: 내쫒음) /uprooting(근절; 박멸)/removal (제거; 이동, 이전; 면직, 해임, 파면)


18.   handling(취급, 조종, 운용, 처리) /dealing(관계, 교제; 거래; [남에 대한] 행동, 처사, 대우)
/management(처리, 조치, 취급; 경영, 관리, 지배, 제어) /processing(가공 처리) /conduct(행위, 품행, 행실,
거동; 경영, 관리, 처리) /treatment(처리[법], 처치; 치료; 치료법; 처우, 대우; 취급방법)


19.   dividing line(경계선)/boundary(경계; 한계, 범위) /delimitation(구획, 경계)/demarcation(구별, 구분)
/border line(경계선)/parameter(매개 변수)


20.   enter into(…에 참가하다; …을 하다; …을 시작하다) /set about(…에 착수하다, 시작하다) /take on((일
따위)를 떠맡다.) /attempt(…을 시도(기도)하다, 꾀하다, 기획하다; …을 습격하다, 탈취하려고 하다) /tackle(에
달려들다, 달라붙다;…을 붙잡다, …을 쥐다) /undertake (…을 떠맡다, 맡다; …의 책임(의무)을 지다, …을
약속하다; …을 보증하다, 단언하다; …에 착수하다, 나서다


21.   interpretation(해석; 판단; 연출, 연주; 통역) /transformation(변형, 변화, 변질, 변용; 전이, 전환)
/rendering(표현, 묘사; 연출, 연주; 번역) /conversion(전환, 변환, 변화; 개조) /transfiguration(변형,
변모)/translation (해석, 설명; 번역)


22.   clearly(명료하게, 분명하게, 의심 없이) /definitely(명확히; 분명히, 확실히) /precisely(정확히, 정밀하게,
명확히) /distinctively(구별하게)/uniquely(독특하게; 유일하게)/specifically(특별히)


23.   purify(물질적으로) …에서 더러움을 제거하다, …을 정화(순화)하다) /strain(…을 팽팽하게 하다,
잡아당기다; 과로하게 하다; …을 여과하다; [고체]를 걸러내다)/filter(…을 여과하다; 침투하다) /clarify([생각·문제
따위]를 명백히 하다; [액체·기체 따위]를 투명하게 하다, 맑게 하다)/distill(…을 증류(蒸溜)하다; 증류하여 …을
만들다) /refine (…에서 불순물을 없애다, 정제하다, 정련하다)
24.   slime(진흙, 곤죽, 연니(軟泥)) /gook(진흙, 오물, 때, 찌꺼기; 점액) /guck(미끈미끈(질척)한 진흙)
/gunk(미끈미끈(질척)한 진흙) /muck(오물, 먼지; 쓰레기)/sludge (슬러지; 연한 진흙, 침전물; 곤죽이 된 폐수)
Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.




[   Guidewords]
keep up, surroundings, change, enrichment, taking out, handling, dividing line, enter into, interpretation,
clearly, purify, slime


1.________________
persevere, continue, be steadfast, clarify, persist
________________


2.________________
ambience, muck, environs, milieu, environment
________________


3.________________
adjustment, demarcation, revise, modulation, modification
________________


4.________________
fecundation, impregnation, alteration, compost, fertilization
________________




5.________________
erosion, elimination, circumstances, uprooting, removal
________________


6.________________
dealing, management, insemination, conduct, treatment
________________
7.________________
boundary, delimitation, oust, border line, parameter
________________


8.________________
set about, take on, survive, tackle, undertake
________________


9.________________
transformation, rendering, conversion, precisely, translation
________________


10.________________
definitely, processing, distinctively, uniquely, specifically
________________


11.________________
strain, filter, attempt, distill, refine
________________


12.________________
gook, guck, gunk, transfiguration, sludge
________________


[ Answer ] :
1.    keep up, clarify
2.    surroundings, muck
3.    change, demarcation
4.    enrichment, alteration
5.    taking out, circumstances
6.    handling, insemination
7.    dividing line, oust
8.    enter into, survive
9.    interpretation, precisely
10. clearly, processing
11.   purify, attempt
12. slime, transfiguration
Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1.The Center for Land Use Interpretation is a research organization involved in exploring, examining, and
understanding land and landscape issues.
a. rendering      b. translation     c. elimination (21)


2.I told them it was a real pleasure to see such a well-mannered child and to keep up the good work.
a. persevere       b. be steadfast        c. clarify   d. survive (13)


3.The dying breath of a rare and massive star blasts apart its surroundings in an image released this week
from the Hubble Space Telescope.
a. circumstances        b. milieu         c. ambience        d. conversion    (14)


4.A jargon-laden, legalistic style does not clearly convey important information.
a. definitely    b. distinctively     c. erosion          d. specifically   (22)


5.The act or process of initiating biological reproduction by insemination or pollination.
a. impregnation         b. fertilization      c. treatment     (16)


6.There's a dividing line, call it what you may. It separates the whites from the blacks each day.
a. boundary       b. delimitation    c. environment         d. parameter (19)


7.The digestive system is a group of organs functioning in digestion and assimilation of food and elimination
of wastes.
a. taking out       b. fertilization c. ousting         d. removal (17)


8.Wolverton, a former NASA research scientist, analyzes 50 houseplants that can purify and revitalize the air
we breathe. (23)
a. strain       b. filter    c. distill       d. keep up


9.Measures in the forestry and agricultural sectors are an important component of a comprehensive
approach to address climate change.
a. adjustment         b. revise      c. demarcation           d. modulation (15)
10.Often the bark in the area of the slime flux separates from the tree bole and gives a hollow sound when
tapped.
a. guck         b. processing             c. gunk          d. sludge (24)


11.Consequently, we are not in a position to responsibly enter into any new distribution agreements at this
time. We can only hope you will understand.
a. undertake             b. keep up          c. take on         d. tackle (20)


12.They got some fairly rough treatment from the policeman in the local station.
a. adjustment            b. handling        c. dealing         d. conduct (18)




[ Answer ] :
1. c     2. c     3. d    4. c    5. c    6. c     7. b    8. d 9. c        10. b 11. b 12. a




Chapter 3

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


The extent of pollution also varies with the type of environment in which the pollution is present. Different
environments call for different measures to combat pollutants, and this passage briefly looks at a range of
different environments and ecologies the effects of such disturbances in different settings.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


globe, equitability , attribute, speculation, diversity, predictable, disturbance, regulation, constancy,
problematical, embrace, heterogeneity


Listening Instruction 2
Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


Increasing attention to regional and global environmental issues has led to several attempts to extend
ecological thinking to larger scales. Many of these rely on existing community level measures.
Species richness and species equitability are two important attributes that measure the organization of
communities. Previous speculation that high diversity implies high stability seems largely unfounded,
although the latitudinal increase in diversity toward the tropics may reflect the relative stability of these
environments. However, a range of other factors change with latitude and may contribute to this pattern,
including available energy, shortage of nutrients and the degree and predictability of disturbance. Similarly,
the frequency of disturbance may account for the very different communities that we can observe between
the land and the oceans. According to one view, two different ecologies apply the first in which regulation
comes from the internal organization of the community, and the second from the constancy of the abiotic
environment.
Measures of diversity have been used to detect community change under stress, although their application
is problematical. An ecology that attempts to embrace the landscape and the larger regional and global
scales is being developed, although most quantification has centered around measuring spatial
heterogeneity connectivity and the frequency of disturbance.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
지역과 전 세계적인 환경 문제에 대한 증가하는 관심 때문에 생태학적인 생각을 대규모로 확대 하려는 시도가 몇
번 있었다. 이러한 시도는 지금 군서 수준에 의지하고 있는 상황이다. 군서의 조직을 측량하는데 중요한
요인들은           종의 풍족함과 종의 균등성이다. 종의 다양성이 높은 안정성이라는 예전의 추측은 전혀 근거가 없지만
열대 지방에 경우 종의 다양성이 안정성과 관계가 있는 것으로 비춰진다. 그러나 다른 원인들도 위도와 함께
바뀌고 입수할 수 있는                      에너지원, 불충분한 영양섭취, 그리고 방해요인들에 대한 감지 등이 패턴에 기여할 수도
있다. 비슷하게도 확연하게 다른 군서 사이에서도 빈번한 소란은 중용한 의치를 점한다. 한 이론에 위하면
첫째로 바다나 육지의 군서 질서는 군서안에 있는 조직에서 비롯되고 둘째로 안전한 비생물적인 환경에서
비롯됐다고한다.
군서의 문제점들을 감지하기 위해서 종의 다양성을 사용했으나 아직도 이 방식이 확실치가 않다. 조경과 지역
그리고 범세계적으로 포용할 수 있는 생태계를 계발 중이지만 대부분 다양성을 볼 때 이종의 공간 관계 측량과
방해요인들의 빈번성등에 중점을 두고 있다.
국지적 및 전 세계적인 환경문제에 대한 관심이 증가함에 따라 생태학적 사고를 대규모로 확대하려는 몇몇
시도가 있어 왔다. 이러한 시도들 중 대부분은 기존의 군서수준 측정치에 의존하는 상황이다. 종의 풍족함 및
종의 균등성은 군서조직을 측정하는 2가지 중요한 속성이다. 종의 다양성이 위도가 증가함에 따라 증가하는
사실은 이들 환경의 상대적인 안정성을 반영할 수도 있지만 종 다양성이 종의 안정성을 의미한다는 과거의
사고는 대체적으로 근거가 없는 것으로 생각된다. 하지만 이용가능한 에너지원의 량, 영양물질의 결핍, 혼란의
정도 및 예측가능성 등 다른 다양한 영향인자들이 이러한 패턴에 영향을 줄 수도 있다. 육지와 바다사이에서
발견되는 군서가 매우 다르게 나타나는 것도 이러한 혼란의 빈도로 설명할 수 있다. 한 이론에 따르면 육지와
바다라는 두가지 생태계의 질서가 첫번째는 군서의 내부조직으로부터, 두번째는 무생물학적 환경의 불변성에서
비롯된다고 한다.
종 다양성 측정은 적용성에 문제가 있음에도 불구하고 혼란상태에 있는 종을 감지하기 위하여 사용되어 왔다.
대부분의 정량화 작업이 공간적 이질성의 연결성 및 혼란의 빈도를 측정하는데 집중되어 왔음에도 불구하고 조경
및 범세계적인 규모를 포용하기 위한 시도가 생태계에 진행중이다.




[   Glossary]
ecological : 1. of or relating to the environment or to the science of ecology    2. relating to the prudent use or
beneficial management of natural resources and the natural environment
community : a naturally occurring aggregation of organisms belonging to a number of different species,
occupying a common habitat and interacting with each other within this area
abiotic : of or relating to nonliving things; independent of life or living organisms




Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.




Globeㆍ
equitabilityㆍ
attributeㆍ
speculationㆍ
diversityㆍ
predictableㆍ
disturbanceㆍ
regulationㆍ
constancyㆍ
problematicalㆍ
embraceㆍ
heterogeneityㆍ
ㆍdissimilarity
ㆍquality
ㆍworld
ㆍevenhandedness
ㆍthinking
ㆍtake in
ㆍdifference
ㆍsteadfastness
ㆍupset
ㆍlaw
ㆍable to know in advance
ㆍquestionable




[ Answer ] :
globe-worldequitability-even-handednessattribute-qualityspeculation-thinkingdiversity-differencepr
edictable-able to know in
advancedisturbance-upsetregulation-lawconstancy-steadfastnessproblematical-questionableembrace
-take inheterogeneity-dissimilarity




Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


25. world
planet, orb, sphere, earth, globe
26. evenhandedness
fairness, impartiality, justice, equity, equitability


27. quality
characteristic, trait, feature, quirk, attribute


28. thinking
deliberation, cogitation, reflection, rumination, speculation


29. difference
multiplicity, medley, multifariousness, variety, diversity


30. able to know in advance
conjecturable, surmisable, presumable, foreseeable, predictable


31. upset
disruption, commotion, turmoil, perturbation, disturbance


32. law
stipulation, directive, ordinance, statute, regulation,


33. steadfastness
stability, fixedness, immutability, consistency, constancy


34. questionable
debatable, dubious, disputable, knotty, problematical


35. take in
embody, incorporate, include, comprehend, embrace


36. dissimilarity
incongruity, contrariety, disparateness, motley, heterogeneity
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
25.      world(세계: 지구; 인류)/planet(천문 행성) /orb(천체; 구(球), 구체; 원) /sphere(구, 천체, 하늘, 범위, 영역;
사회적 지위, 계급) /earth(지구)/globe (지구)


26.      evenhandedness(공평한, 공명 정대한) /fairness(공정, 공명정대) /impartiality(공평, 치우치지 않음)
/justice(정의; 공정, 공명정대; 공평; 정당) /equity(공평, 공정; 정의) /equitability(공평, 공정)


27.   quality(질(質); [본래의]성질; 품질; 특질, 특성, 특색)/characteristic(특질, 특징)/trait([성격 따위의] 특성,
특징, 특색) /feature(특징, 특색; 요점; [산천의] 지세, 지형; 용모) /quirk (버릇, 기벽(奇癖); 기행, 변덕; 발뺌, 구실,
핑계) /attribute (속성, 특질; 부속물, 표상)


28.   thinking(생각하기, 사색, 사고, 의견) /deliberation(숙고, 숙려; 신중함, 꼼꼼함) /cogitation(사고(思考),
숙고, 명상; 생각; 고안) /reflection(숙고, 심사, 반성; 반사, 반향, 반영) /rumination(심사(深思), 숙고)
/speculation (고찰; 심사숙고, 사색; 추측; 사기)


29.   difference (차이, 상이; 견해 차이, 불화) /multiplicity (다수; 다양성, 복잡성) /medley(뒤죽박죽, 뒤범벅,
잡동사니; 메들리) /multifariousness(여러 종류, 다양함)/variety(다종, 다양 [성], 부동 (不同), 변화; 어긋남,
불일치) /diversity(변화; 다양[성]; 차이, 부동(不同))


30.   able to know in advance(미리알 수 있는)/conjecturable(추측할 수 있는)/surmisable(추측할 수 있는,
짐작되는)/presumable(가정(추정)할 수 있는)/foreseeable(미리 알 수 있는)/predictable(예언(예보)할 수 있는)


31.   upset(전복; 전락; 불화, 싸움) /disruption(분쇄; 붕괴(분열)시키기; 붕괴, 분열) /commotion(격동, 동요;
소동, 폭동) /turmoil([마음의] 혼란, 동요; 소란)/perturbation(당황, [마음의] 동요, 불안) /disturbance (불안, 혼란;
동란; 소요; 당황, 불안, 근심)


32.   law(법칙, 법규) /stipulation(계약, 약정; 계약 조건, 계약 조항) /directive(지령, 지시; 군사 작전 명령)
/ordinance(규칙; 포고; 명령; 법령, 법규) /statute(법률 법령, 법규; 정관) /regulation (단속, 제한; 조절; 조정)


33.   steadfastness(확고, 불변, 부동)/stability(안정, 고정, 부동(不動), 불변; 착실) /fixedness(고정; 불변)
/immutability(불변[성]) /consistency(양립함, 일관성; 견고함 ; 농도, 밀도) /constancy (불변, 항구성; 충실, 절개;
불변성)
34.   questionable(의심스러운, 미심쩍은; 의문인, 수상한) /debatable(논쟁의 여지가 있는, 이론(異論)이 있는;
논쟁중의) /dubious(의심하는; 모호한, 분명치 않은) /disputable (논의되어야 할, 논쟁의 여지가 있는, 의심스러운)
/knotty (매듭이 있는; 얽힌, 곤란한) /problematical (문제의, 의문의, 의심스러운; 결정하기 어려운, 미정의)


35.   take in (…을 포함하다; …을 받아들이다; [손님]을 맞아들이다) /embody(…을 통합하다; (사상 따위)를
구체적으로 나타내다) /incorporate(조직체 따위 속에) …을 넣다; …을 가입시키다) /include(…을 포함하다,
함유하다; …을 포함시키다, 계산에 넣다) /comprehend(…을 포함하다, 포괄하다;사물의 의미·성질)을 이해하다,
알다, 파악하다) /embrace(…을 포용하다, 포함하다; …을 껴안다; [사상 따위]를 받아들이다; [기회]를 포착하다)
36.       dissimilarity(닮지 않음, 부동(不同), 상이) /incongruity(부적당, 부조화, 불일치; 불일치점)
/contrariety(반대; 불일치; 모순) /disparateness(이종(異種), 공통점이 없음; 부등(不等))/motley(잡다한 색깔의
배합; 잡동사니) /heterogeneity (이종(異種), 이질, 이종 혼성, 불균질(不均質); 이성분(異成分))


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[   Guidewords]
world, evenhandedness, quality, thinking, difference, able to know in advance, upset, law, steadfastness,
questionable, take in, dissimilarity


1.________________
planet, orb, medley, earth, globe
________________


2.________________
fairness, impartiality, cogitation, equity, equitability
________________
3.________________
characteristic, justice, trait, feature, attribute
________________


4.________________
deliberation, commotion, reflection, rumination, speculation
________________


5.________________
multiplicity, motley, multifariousness, variety, diversity
________________
6.________________
conjecturable, surmisable, presumable, knotty, predictable
________________


7.________________
disruption, stipulation, turmoil, fixedness, disturbance
________________


8.________________
sphere, directive, ordinance, statute, regulation
________________


9.________________
stability, quirk, immutability, consistency, constancy
________________


10.________________
debatable, dubious, disputable, foreseeable, problematical
________________


11.________________
embody, incorporate, include, comprehend, embrace
________________


12.________________
incongruity, contrariety, disparateness, perturbation, heterogeneity
________________
[ Answer ] :
1.    world, medley
2.    even-handedness, cogitation
3.    quality, justice
4.    thinking, commotion
5.    difference, motley
6.    able to know in advance, knotty
7.    upset, stipulation and fixedness
8.    law, sphere
9.    steadfastness, quirk
10.   questionable, foreseeable
11. take in, motley
12.   dissimilarity, perturbation




Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)
1.As the Web continues to explode in size, caching becomes increasingly important. With caching comes the
problem of cache consistency.
a. disturbance    b. steadfastness      c. immutability     d. constancy (33)


2.This U.S.Geological Survey site shows how chemists and geologists use analytical chemistry to: determine
the age of the Earth.
a. planet     b. orb     c. sphere    d. reflection (25)


3.Scientists embrace food biotechnology, but some food companies run for cover.
a. take in    b. attribute     c. incorporate    d. embrace (35)


4.To understand how coevolution shapes interactions within communities, researchers must distinguish
between traits that have coevolved and those that were already present in ancestors before the interspecific
interaction began.
a. quality    b. constancy      c. characteristics       d. attributes (27)


5.In practice a disputable restriction has been applied to that principle to the effect that the "good risks" do
not have to pay for the "bad risks", since equity and equality are two different concepts.
a. foreseeable         b. debatable     c. problematical (34)
6.Forest Renewal B.C. must take account of the issue of regional equitability and must satisfy itself and this
Legislature that its program is one that does, on an equitable basis, return to the regions the wealth that
those regions generate.
a. justice    b. feature     c. evenhandedness     d. impartiality (36)


7.A rainbow of color, flavor and texture are the enhancing attributes that make this wonderful variety of fruit
the perfect gift for family and friends.
a. difference      b. contrariety      c. multiplicity      d. medley     (29)


8.Amidst the financial turmoil, the Malaysian Government adopted a comprehensive and forward-looking
policy approach.
a. upset     b. commotion c. evenhandedness          d. perturbation (31)
9.If the signature key holder generates signature keys, the certification authority shall reliably establish
whether the signature key holder uses suitable technical components, pursuant to the Digital Signature Act
and this Ordinance, for storage and use of the private signature key.
a. stipulation    b. fixedness c. statute     d. regulation (32)


10.Luzi's later verse, with its dramatic dialogues and ruminations on change, was typified by the collection
Nel magma.
a. deliberation     b. cogitation    c. speculation   d. fairness (28)


11.Pattern dystrophy of the retina (PDR) represents a clinically defined subgroup within photoreceptor
dystrophies. Lesions predominate in the central fundus and exhibit considerable phenotypic heterogeneity.
a. disruption     b. dissimilarity   c. contrariety d. disparateness (36)


12.The extent to which any of this means anything in the practical world is conjecturable.
a. surmisable     b. predictable     c. knotty (30)




[ Answer ] : 1.a 2.d 3.b 4.b 5.a 6.b 7.b 8.c 9.b 10.d 11.a 12.c
Chapter 4



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


The last passage of this unit further discusses the presence of pollutants in different environments. Specially,
different ways to deal with various types of toxic chemicals in different soil layers are presented.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


penetrate, pore, saturate, dissolve, conventional, implement, sorb, unfavorable, partition, inefficient ,
indigenous, reside


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


Many contaminants of concern are present in surface soils; others have penetrated into the vadose zones
below the surface where the soil pores are oiled partly with water and partly with air. Frequently,
contaminants have penetrated farther into the saturated zones where the pores are filled with water and
where the major aquifers containing the groundwater supplies occur. Fluids that are lighter than water, such
as gasoline, tend to mound and spread on the surface of groundwater and from there dissolve; fluids that
are denser than water, such as                  trichloroethylene (TCE), tend to sink to the bottom of the aquifer.
Conventional above-ground treatment systems are difficult to implement because the contaminants are
usually sorbed strongly to the soils. Cleanup procedures often employ leaching with water so that chemicals
can dissolve and be taken to the surface for such treatment. Because of unfavorable partitioning between
the soil and water phases, such procedures are generally inefficient and slow. This has caused many to
consider in-situ biological treatment as an alternative approach. Here,indigenous or introduced
microorganisms would be encouraged to grow in the subterranean environment where the contaminants
reside, and thus would have better access to the sorbed as well as dissolved contaminants.


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
지금 염려되는 각종 오염물질 중 다수가 토양에 침투해있다. 이 중 부분적으로 기름지고 부분적으로 공기가 있는
토양의 열린 부분인 'Vadose Zones'까지 침투했고 번번하게도 토양이 물에 적신 지역까지 요염물질이 침투히고
있는 상황이다. 이 토양 지역은 지하수를 간직한 대수층이다. 석유처럼 물보다 가벼운 이물질이 뭉쳐서 지하수에
퍼진고 나중에는 물과 같이 용해된다. 또한 물보다 무거운 이물질인 트리클로로에틸렌은 대수층 바닥 부분에
가라 앉는다. 이와같이 대부분의 오염물질이 토양에 흡수 되있기 때문에 전형적인 오염처리 방식은 사용하기에
문제가 있다. 오염물질을 분해하고 표면에 나올수 있게끔 물을 걸러내는 처리 방식을 자주 사용한다. 하지만
이러한 처리방식은 토양과 물의 조화 때문에 느리고 비효율적이다.이러한 경우 때문에 인접조직에 침입이 없이
원래의 부위에 한정되어 있는 인시투 처리방식을 고려하고 있다. 여기서는 오염물질이 생존하고 있는 지하
환경에 거기서 만들어지거나 다른 환경에서 만들어진 초미생물질을 자라게하는것이다. 그러므로 물을 흡입한
토양과 석회된 오염물질에 쉽게 접근 할수가있다.
오염물질 중 많은 부분이 지표토양에 존재하고 있다. 지표토양 외에 지표면 하부 불포화대(vadose zone)까지
오염물질이 침투하여 토양 공극이 일부 물 및 공기와 함께 유류로 채워져 있기도 하다. 때때로, 토양공극이 물로
채워져 있는 포화층과 주요 대수층(음용지하수를 포함한)까지 오염물질이 침투하기도 한다. 물보다 가벼운 유체는
예를 들어 가솔린의 경우는 지하수 표면에 엉겨 붙어 확산, 용해된다.
물보다 무거운 유체는 예를 들어                  트라이클로로에틸렌의 경우 대수층의 바닥에 가라앉는다. 대부분의 오염물질이
토양에 강하게 흡착되어 있어 전형적인 현장처리시스템(내가 만든 용어이며 일반적으로 통용되는 용어는 없음.
오염된 토양 또는 지하수를 굴착 또는 펌핑하여 현장에서 처리하는 방식)은 적용하기 어렵다. 종종 물로
오염물질을 용해시킨 후 지표로 펌핑하여 처리하는 세척공정이 적용되기도 한다. 토양과 물 사이의 오염물질
분배가 용이하지 않기 때문에 이러한 공정은 일반적으로 비효율적이며 처리속도가 느리다. 이러한 단점의
대안으로서 생물학적 지중처리가 고려되어 왔다. 이 공정에서는 오염물질이 존재하고 있는 지하환경내
토착미생물 또는 인공식종 미생물의 성장을 촉진시켜 흡착된 오염물질 뿐만 아니라 용존성 오염물질까지도
처리가 가능해졌다.


[   Glossary]
vadose zone : Hydrology. the area immediately below the ground surface in which the interstices are filled
with water at a pressure less than the pressure of the atmosphere, and air at atmospheric pressure. Also,
UNSATURATED ZONE, ZONE OF AERATION, ZONE OF SUSPENDED WATER
aquifer : Hydrology. a permeable body of rock or other geologic structure that contains and conducts
economically significant quantities of groundwater to supply wells and springs
trichloroethylene : Organic Chemistry. ClCH=CCl2, a nonflammable, toxic, colorless, photoreactive liquid;
slightly soluble in water and miscible with common organic solvents; boils at 86.7°C and freezes at -85°C;
used in organic synthesis, dry cleaning, and textile processing, and as a solvent and fumigant
leaching : Chemical Engineering. the process of separating a soluble substance from a solid by washing or
by the percolation of water or other liquid through the substance, as in coffee-making.       Geochemistry.
specifically, the natural or artificial removal of soluble substances from rock, ore, or layers of soil by the
action of percolating substances. Also, LIXIVIATION
Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
Penetrateㆍ
Poreㆍ
Saturateㆍ
Dissolveㆍ
Conventionalㆍ
Implementㆍ
Sorbㆍ
Unfavorableㆍ
Partitionㆍ
inefficientㆍ
indigenousㆍ
resideㆍ




ㆍstart
ㆍtake up
ㆍnative
ㆍgo through
ㆍwall off
ㆍan opening
ㆍmelt
ㆍcustomary
ㆍwasteful
ㆍdisadvantageous
ㆍlive
ㆍsoak
 [ Answer ] : penetrate-go throughpore-an
openingsaturate-soakdissolve-meltconventional-customaryimplement-startsorb-take
upunfavorable-disadvantageouspartition-wall offinefficient-wastefulindigenous-nativereside-live
Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


37. go through
pierce, puncture, infiltrate, bore through, penetrate


38. an opening
center, rivet, stoma, stigma, pore


39. soak
imbue, drench, suffuse, souse, saturate


40. melt
break up, diffuse, liquefy, deliquesce, dissolve


41. customary
traditional, established, orthodox, schematic, conventional


42. start
fulfill, perform, accomplish, execute, implement


43. take up
fasten, affix, adsorb, attach, sorb


44. disadvantageous
adverse, untoward, inopportune, inadvisable, unfavorable


45. wall off
segregate, screen, subdivide, section, partition
46. wasteful
deficient, unfit, inapt, ineffective, inefficient


47. native
inherent, innate, aboriginal, endemic, indigenous


48. live
dwell, shack, inhabit, populate, reside
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
37.      go through (관통하다; 통과하다)/pierce(…을 꿰뚫다, 관통하다; [구멍]을 뚫다; …에 돌입하다) /puncture
(…에 구멍을 뚫다;…을 찌르다) /infiltrate (액체 따위)를 스며들게 하다, 침투시키다) /bore through ([우물·구멍]을
파다, 파내다; …을 밀고 나아가다) /penetrate (빛·소리·탄환 따위가)…을 관통하다, 꿰뚫다, 투과하다; …의
내부로 들어가다 …의 내부로 스며들다)


38.      an opening(틈, 깨진 틈,구멍; 개시, 시작; 기회) /center (중심; 본원(本源)) /rivet (리벳, 대갈못; …을
움직이지 않도록 단단히 고정시키다) /stoma (식물 기공(氣孔); [곤충 따위의] 기공) /stigma (동물 기공(氣孔);
오명) /pore ([암석 따위의] 공극)


39.      soak (잠기다, 젖다; 흠뻑 젖다; 스며들다, 스미다, 스며나오다) /imbue([습기·염료 따위를]…에 스며들게
하다; …을 물들이다, 더럽히다; [사상·감정 등을] …에게 불어넣다, 고취하다) /drench (…을 흠뻑 젖게 하다, 물에
담그다) /suffuse ([액체·빛·색 따위가] …을 채우다, 가득하게 하다, 뒤덮다) /souse(…을 물[따위]에
담그다(처넣다); …을 흠뻑 적시다) /saturate (…을 포화시키다;…을 담그다, 흠뻑 적시다)


40.      melt ([액체에] 녹이다, 용해시키다) /break up (…을 분리하다, 세분하다; …을 해산하다; [배 따위]를
해체하다) /diffuse ([빛·열·냄새 따위]를 발산하다, 방산(放散)하다; 퍼지다, 흩뿌려지다; 확산하다) /liquefy (…을
액화(용해)시키다)/deliquesce (녹다, 용해하다) /dissolve (…을 [액체에] 녹이다, 용해시키다)


41.      customary (습관적인, 관례의, 통례의; 법률 관례에 의한, 관습[법]상의) /traditional (전설의, 구비의;
전통적인, 전승(傳承)의; 전래의) /established (확립된, 기정의; 상비의, 상용(常傭)의) /orthodox (정통의,
정설(正說)의; 일반적으로) 정통의; 전통적인) /schematic (대요의; 도식의) /conventional (전통적인; 인습에
사로잡힌, 항간의 통례적인, 관습적인; 형식적인, 틀에 박힌; 독창성이 없는)
42.      start/fulfill/perform(/accomplish([일·계획 따위]를 다하다, 이룩하다, 성취하다, 실행하다 ; 시간)이
경과하다; 만료되다)/execute(계획·명령·일 따위)를 실행하다; [예술품]을 제작(창작)하다; [곡]을 연주하다; [계약]을
이행하다) /implement ([요구·조건·부족 따위]를 충족시키다; 수행하다; …에 도구를 공급하다)
43.       take up([액체 따위]를 흡수하다; [시간·장소 따위]를 잡다, 차지하다) /fasten(고착(정착)하다; [문]을 잠그다,
걸다; [사람·동물 따위]를 가두어넣다; /affix (…을 첨부하다, [우표 따위]를 붙이다)/adsorb (흡착하다)/attach (…을
붙이다, 첨부하다; …을 배속시키다; …을 첨가하다) /sorb (흡수하다)


44.       disadvantageous(불리한, 불편한, 형편이 좋지 않은)/adverse (반대의, 역의, 적대적인; 불리한; 불운한;
반대쪽의) /untoward (탐탁치 않은; 적당치 않은, 바람직스럽지 못한; 불리한; 다루기 어려운) /inopportune
(계제가 나쁜, 때(형편)가 좋지 않은, 시기를 놓친) /inadvisable (권할 수 없는, 상책이 아닌, 현명치 못한)
/unfavorable (형편이 나쁜, 불리한, 순조롭지 않은, 알맞지(적합하지)않은; 거꾸로의 ; 호의가 없는, 불친절한)


45.       wall off(…을 칸막이 하다, 차단하다) /segregate(…을 나누다, 분리하다, 격리하다; …을 [인종]차별하다)
/screen(…을 가리다 ; 보호하다; ; …을 촬영하다; 전기·자기의 간섭)을 차단하다) /subdivide(…을 다시 나누다,
세분하다)/section(…을 분할하다, 구분하다; …의 단면도를 그리다) /partition (…을 분할하다, 분배하다)


46.       wasteful(낭비의, 헛된, 비경제적인; 낭비하는, 사치스러운; 파괴적인) /deficient([요소·특성이] 결핍되어
있는; 부족된; 불충분한) /unfit(걸맞지 않은, 부적당한; [육체적·정신적으로] 부적당한, 완전치
못한)/inapt(부적절한; 솜씨없는)/ineffective(효과가 없는; 무능(무력)한)/inefficient (비능률적인; 무능한)


47.       native(본국의; 타고난 ; 천연의)/inherent(타고난, 고유의, 본래부터 갖추고 있는, 선천적인) /innate(타고난;
선천적인)/aboriginal(원시의, 원생(原生)의; [특히 민족·동식물이] 토착의)/endemic(어떤 지방[의 사람들] 특유의,
고유의)/indigenous (토착의; 타고난)


48.       live(살아있다;생존하다)/dwell(살다,거주하다)/shack(동서(同棲)하다;살다) /inhabit(~에 살다, 거주하다)
/populate(~에 살다, 거주하다)/reside ([물건·성질 따위가] 갖추어져 있다, 존재하다.)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[   Guidewords]
go through, an opening, soak, melt, customary, start, take up, disadvantageous, wall off, wasteful, native,
live,


1.________________
pierce, puncture, infiltrate, bore through, penetrate
________________


2.________________
center, rivet, stoma, screen, pore
________________


3.________________
imbue, drench, suffuse, shack, saturate
________________


4.________________
break up, diffuse, liquefy, affix, dissolve
________________


5.________________
traditional, established, orthodox, deficient, conventional
________________


6.________________
fulfill, perform, accomplish, deliquesce, implement
________________


7.________________
fasten, souse, adsorb, attach, sorb
________________
8.________________
adverse, schematic, inopportune, inadvisable, unfavorable
________________


9.________________
segregate, subdivide, section, stigma, partition
________________


10.________________
innate, unfit, inapt, ineffective, inefficient
________________


11.________________
inherent, untoward, aboriginal, endemic, indigenous
________________


12.________________
dwell, execute, inhabit, populate, reside
________________


[ Answer ] :
1.    go through, all words are synonymous
2.    an opening, screen
3.    soak, shack
4.    melt. affix
5.    customary, deficient
6.    start, deliquesce
7.    take up, souse
8.    disadvantageous, schematic
9.    wall off, stigma
10.   wasteful, innate
11.   native, untoward
12.   live, execute




Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1.During the 50's and 60's, when racism was prevalent throughout the United States, blacks were
segregated from whites by means of both laws and common practices.
a. screened         b. subdivided           c. walled off     d. centered (45)


2.You must go through a lot of red tape to get a visa.
a. execute        b. puncture        c. bore through          d. penetrate (37)


3.This prototype informatics system is designed to use dynamic, specimen-based data for mapped
visualization of species distributions and geographic centers of diversity for vascular plants endemic to
Texas.
a. native    b. inherent c. unfit      d. indigenous (47)


4.These symptoms are due to an opening in the bone overlying one of the inner ear balance canals.
a. rivet     b. stoma        c. pore         d. partition (38)


5.You must fulfill your service commitment at an approved practice located in a designated health
professional shortage area (HPSA) of greatest shortage.
a. accomplish        b. perform        c. penetrate         d. implement (42)


6.Each capsule will adsorb 3 grams of saturated fat.
a. take up        b. affix      c. attach       d. start (43)


7.This exception permits gifts given in connection with the receipt of personal              hospitality
provided by a superior that are customary to the occasion.
a. traditional       b. orthodox       c. unfit      d. schematic (41)


8.Storms soak central Plains, often causing great deal of corp damage.
a. imbue         b. drench       c. souse        d. diffuse (39)


9.Green light for road improvements turned on at an inopportune time.
a. disadvantageous           b. adverse          c. inadvisable       d. conventional (44)


10.Massive black holes dwell in most galaxies, according to hubble census.
a. inhabit       b. reside       c. break up        d. populate (48)


11.you will discover that it takes time for the aluminum to melt.
a. break up        b. liquefy       c. deliquesce           d. saturate (40)
12.To the modern mind ingrained with scientific principles and prejudices, the method of geometry seems
utterly inapt and unfitted for the presentation of philosophical truth.
a. wasteful         b. ineffective       c. established        d. inefficient (46)


[ Answer ] :
1. d 2. a        3.c 4. d   5. c 6. d 7. c         8. b 9. c   10. c    11. c    12. c




Review Exercise


Reading Instructions
All the words from this unit are found in the exercise below. Each sentence contains one word in bold type
from all the drills in this unit. Select the word from the choices below that can replace the word in the bold
type. (The word numbers from all the Drills in the unit are in parentheses. These will help if you need to look
back.)


1.Wickedness and death are omnipresent realities in our world which mock all effort to find meaning and
purpose in life.
a. far and wide          b. conventional            c. everywhere         d. ubiquitous   (1)


2.A coarse mixture (e.g., sand mixed with sugar) is usually not thought of as a dispersion.
a. distribution        b. scattering            c. spreading       d. stoma      (2)


3.Since then much pertinent information has been collected that have been of use in studying the chemical
composition of the universe, but the origin of cosmic rays remains a mystery.
a. proper            b. suitable          c. apposite          d. knotty (4)


4.The calcium caseinates form an insoluble white curd when acidified by hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid,
or when milk is soured by bacterial contaminants.
a. toxins          b. scum           c. filth       d. cogitation (7)


5.By the late 1850s the screw propeller was conceded to be superior to paddlewheels, and the steamship
began to supplant the sailing ship.
a. fill in for      b. replace           c. sanitize      d. substitute    (9)


6.Organisms that must obtain "prefabricated" organic compounds from their environment are heterotrophic,
and these include the fungi, some other plants, and animals.
a. surroundings         b. circumstances          c. milieu       d. sphere (14)


7.Through the gastrointestinal tract (gut), the swallowing, digestion, and assimilation of food and the
elimination of waste products are accomplished.
a. taking out      b. uprooting         c. modulation        d. removal (17)


8.We learn the behavior of measuring-rods and clocks and also of freely-moving material points with
reference to K' simply by mathematical transformation.
a. rendering         b. insemination         c. conversion         d. translation (21)


9.Many creatures are distinctively marked or colored so that they blend with sand, water, snow, or specific
vegetation, depending on their natural habitat.
a. specifically       b. uniquely         c. clearly       d. traditionally (22)


10.Face covering or device used to protect the wearer from injurious gases and other noxious materials by
filtering and purifying inhaled air.
a. purifying       b. straining      c. persisting         d. distilling (23)


11.Although their impartiality makes them less than exciting, the plays were remarkably successful.
a. evenhandedness            b. quirk       c. equity       d. equitability (26)


12.After much deliberation, she resolved to inform her aunt Western where her cousin was, and accordingly
she wrote a letter.
a. equity      b. cogitation        c. rumination          d. speculation (28)


13.The elimination of a single species or the disruption of the permanently frozen subsoil (permafrost) may
severely damage this fragile ecosystem.
a. medley         b. upset     c. commotion            d. turmoil (31)


14.This was possible on the basis of the law of the constancy of the velocity of light.
a. steadfastness        b. stability        c. disturbance         d. immutability (33)


15.Several hundred hymns embody a stern Calvinism assuaged with a gentleness and sympathy.
a. embrace         b. incorporate         c. comprehend           d. attach (35)


16.Malignant cells are invasive, i.e., they infiltrate surrounding normal tissue; later, malignant cells
metastasize, i.e., spread via blood and the lymph system to other sites.
a. penetrate       b. puncture         c. bore through        d. soak (37)
17.It was so named by the alchemists because it dissolves gold and platinum, the "royal" metals, which do
not dissolve in nitric or hydrochloric acid alone.
a. melt          b. liquefy        c. deliquesce       d. take up (40)


18.In order to accomplish the characteristic jumping form of forward locomotion, the large, powerful,
muscular foot is bent backward beneath the shell and then straightened.
a. fulfill    b. perform      c. live       d. execute      (42)


19.Griseofulvin, a modified form of penicillin, is effective against scalp infection but is ineffective against foot
fungi.
a. fit       b. apt    c. innate        d. efficient (46)


20.Many rays are bottom dwellers, lying like rugs on the seafloor; others inhabit the upper waters.
a. dwell in       b. populate       c. reside     d. accomplish (48)




[ Answer ] :
1. b 2. d       3. d   4. d 5. c    6. d   7. c 8. b     9. d 10. c 11. b 12. a 13. a 14. c   15. d   16. d 17. d 18.
c   19. c 20. d




Additional Topics in Environment




Hydrology
Hydrology is study of water and its properties, including its distribution and movement in and through the
land areas of the earth. The hydrologic cycle consists of the passage of water from the oceans into the
atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration (or evapotranspiration), onto the lands, over and under the
lands as runoff and infiltration, and back to the oceans.
Hydrology is principally concerned with the part of the cycle after the precipitation of water onto the land
and before its return to the oceans; thus meteorology and oceanography are closely related to hydrology.
Hydrologists study the cycle by measuring such variables as the amount and intensity of precipitation, the
amount of water stored as snow or in glaciers, the advance and retreat of glaciers, the rate of flow in
streams, and the soil-water balance. Hydrology also includes the study of the amount and flow of
groundwater. Though the flow of water cannot be seen under the surface, hydrologists can deduce the flow
by understanding the characteristics, including permeability, of the soil and bedrock; how water behaves
near other sources of water, such as rivers and oceans; and fluid flow models based on water movements on
the earths surface. Hydrology is also important to the study of water pollution, especially of groundwater
and other potable water supplies. Knowledge of hydrology is extensively used to determine the movement
and extent of contamination from landfills, mine runoff, and other potentially contaminated sites to surface
and subsurface water.


Water Supply
Process or activity by which water is provided for some use, (e.g., to a home, factory, or business.) The term
may also refer to the supply of water provided in this way.


In the United States, the average residential daily water supply demand is 100 gal (380 liters) per person,
although it can go as high as 500 gal (1900 liters) per person. The stringency of the requirements that a
supply of water must meet depends on the use to be made of it. For example, water used to wash
semiconductor material from which transistors are made must be extraordinarily pure. The more usual
requirements, however, are that water be free enough of harmful bacteria, chemicals, and other
contamination to be drinkable; free of substances that make its taste or appearance unpleasant; and if the
water is to be used for washing, free of salts of calcium and magnesium that will interfere with the action of
soap.
The basic source of water is rainfall, which collects in rivers and lakes, under the ground, and in artificial
reservoirs. Water from under the ground is called groundwater and is tapped by means of Wells. Most often
water must be raised from a well by pumping. In some cases a well will draw water from a permeable rock
layer called an aquifer in which the water is under pressure; such a well needs little or no pumping (see
artesian well. Water that collects in rivers, lakes, or reservoirs is called surface water.
Most large water supply systems draw surface water through special intake pipes or tunnels and transport it
to the area of use through canals, tunnels, or pipelines, which are known as mains or aqueducts. These feed
a system of smaller conduits or pipes that take the water to its place of use. The California Water Plan,
initiated in 1957, eventually entailed twenty dams, seven power plants, and more than 700 mi (1100 km) of
canals, tunnels, and pipelines to meet the needs of southern California residents-a total of more than five
billion cubic meters of water per year.
A complete water supply system is often known as a waterworks. Sometimes the term is specifically applied
to pumping stations, treatment stations, or storage facilities.
Storage facilities are provided to reserve extra water for use when demand is high and, when necessary, to
help maintain water pressure. Treatment stations are places in which water may be filtered to remove
suspended impurities, aerated to remove dissolved gases, or disinfected with chlorine, ozone, ultraviolet
light, or some other agent that kills harmful bacteria and microorganisms. Sometimes hard water is softened
through ion exchange, by which dissolved calcium and magnesium salts are replaced by sodium
salts, which do not interfere with soap. Salts of iodine and fluorine, which are considered helpful in
preventing goiter and tooth decay, are sometimes decay to water in which they are lacking.
Not all water supply systems are used to deliver drinking water. Systems used for purposes such as
irrigation and fire fighting operate in much the same way as systems for drinking water, but the water need
not meet such high standards of purity. In most municipal systems hydrants are connected to the drinking
water system except during periods of extreme water shortage. Because many cities draw water from the
same body into which they discharge sewage, proper sewage treatment has become increasingly essential
to the preservation of supplies of useful water.


Water Pollution
contamination of water resources by harmful wastes; see also sewerage, water supply, pollution, and
environmentalism.


Industrial Pollution
In the United States industry is the greatest source of pollution, accounting for more than half the volume of
all water pollution and for the most deadly pollutants. Some 370,000 manufacturing facilities use huge
quantities of freshwater to carry away wastes of many kinds. The waste-bearing water, or effluent, is
discharged into streams, lakes, or oceans, which in turn disperse the polluting substances. In its National
Water Quality Inventory, reported to Congress in 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded
that approximately 40% of the nations surveyed lakes, rivers, and estuaries were too polluted for such basic
uses as drinking supply, fishing, and swimming. The pollutants include grit, asbestos , phosphates and
nitrates, mercury, lead, caustic soda and other sodium compounds, sulfur and sulfuric acid, oils, and
petrochemicals.


In addition, numerous manufacturing plants pour off undiluted corrosives, poisons, and other noxious
byproducts. The construction industry discharges slurries of gypsum, cement, abrasives, metals, and
poisonous solvents. Another pervasive group of contaminants entering food chains is the polychlorinated
biphenyl (PCB) compounds, components of lubricants, plastic wrappers, and adhesives. In yet another
instance of pollution, hot water discharged by factories and power plants causes so-called thermal
pollution by increasing water temperatures. Such increases change the level of oxygen dissolved in a body
of water, thereby disrupting the waters ecological balance, killing off some plant and animal species while
encouraging the overgrowth of others.


Other Sources of Water Pollution
Towns and municipalities are also major sources of water pollution. In many public water systems, pollution
exceeds safe levels. One reason for this is that much groundwater has been contaminated by wastes
pumped underground for disposal or by seepage from surface water. When contamination reaches
underground water tables, it is difficult to correct and spreads over wide areas. In addition, many U.S.
communities untreated or only partially treated sewage into the waterways, threatening the health of their
own and neighboring populations.
Along with domestic wastes, sewage carries industrial contaminants and a growing tonnage of paper and
plastic refuse. Although thorough sewage treatment would destroy most disease-causing bacteria, the
problem of the spread of viruses and viral illness remains. Additionally, most sewage treatment does not
remove phosphorus compounds, contributed principally by detergents, which cause eutrophication of lakes
and ponds.
Rain drainage is another major polluting agent because it carries such substances as highway debris
(including oil and chemicals from automobile exhausts), sediments from highway and building construction,
and acids and radioactive wastes from mining operations into freshwater systems as well as into the ocean.
Also transported by rain runoff and by irrigation return-flow are animal wastes from farms and feedlots, a
widespread source of pollutants impairing rivers and streams and even some coastal waters. Pesticide and
fertilizer residues from farms also contribute to water pollution via rain drainage.


Ocean Pollution
Large and small craft significantly pollute both inland and coastal waters by dumping their untreated
sewage. Oil spilled accidentally or flushed from tankers and offshore rigs (900,000 metric tons annually)
sullies beaches and smothers bird, fish, and plant life. In 1989 in one of the worlds worst single instances of
water pollution, the Exxon Valdez spilled 11 million gallons of oil in Prince William Sound, Alaska, causing
great environmental destruction. In 1997, the 22 oil spills reported worldwide involved a total of 15 million
gallons (57 million liters) of oil. In addition to its direct damage to wildlife, oil takes up fat-soluble poisons
like DDT, allowing them to be concentrated in organisms that ingest the oil-contaminated water; thus such
poisons enter the food chains leading to sea mammals and people.




Both DDT, which has been banned in the United States since 1972, and PCBs are manufactured in many
parts of the world and are now widespread in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In addition, tarry oil residues
are encountered throughout the Atlantic, as are styrofoam and other plastic rubbish. Plastic bits litter
sections of the Pacific as far north as Amchitka Island near Alaska. Garbage, solid industrial wastes, and
sludge formed in sewage treatment, all commonly dumped into oceans, are other marine pollutants found
worldwide, especially along coastal areas.


Dangers of Water Pollution
Virtually all water pollutants are hazardous to humans as well as lesser species; sodium is implicated in
cardiovascular disease, nitrates in blood disorders. Mercury and lead can cause nervous disorders. Some
contaminants are carcinogens. DDT is toxic to humans and can alter chromosomes. PCBs cause liver and
nerve damage, skin eruptions, vomiting, fever, diarrhea, and fetal abnormalities. Along many shores,
shellfish can no longer be taken because of contamination by DDT, sewage, or industrial wastes.
Dysentery, salmonellosis, cryptosporidium, and hepatitis are among the maladies transmitted by sewage in
drinking and bathing water. In the United States, beaches along both coasts, riverbanks, and lake shores
have been ruined for bathers by industrial wastes, municipal sewage, and medical waste. Water pollution is
an even greater problem in the Third World, where millions of people obtain water for drinking and sanitation
from unprotected streams and ponds that are contaminated with human waste. This type of contamination
has been estimated to cause more than 3 million deaths annually from diarrhea in Third World countries,
most of them children.
Unit 3

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Biology


Chapter 1



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


Experiments are an important part of biology. This following passage discusses the process and results of a
famous experiment that attempted to gain insight into how protein is synthesized in a living cell.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


demonstrate, insight, eventually, replication, efficacy, incubate, tag, localize, accumulate, ensure, shear,
cling to


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


Sometimes, an experiment demonstrates such insight and depth of perception that it eventually becomes a
classic. Such an experiment was performed by Alfred D. Hershey and Martha Chase in 1952. In a single
procedure they cast doubt on a proposed mechanism of protein synthesis, gave insight to the replication of
viruses, drew attention to nucleic acids in biochemistry, and showed the efficacy of radioactive tracers in
microbiological research.
Hershey and Chase used two radioactive isotopes, sulfur35 (S35) and phosphorus32              (P32). By incubating
these isotopes with bacteriophages during the replication cycle, they obtained virions tagged with both
radioactive labels. The S35 localized in the protein capsid because it was a component of amino acids, and
the P32 accumulated in the nucleic acid of the genome as part of the phosphate ion.
The labeled viruses were then incubated with bacterial cells only long enough to ensure that viral replication
had begun. A blender was used to shear away any viral fragments clinging to the bacterial surface.
Two possibilities existed. If viral replication required that the whole virus enter the cell, both P32 and S35
tracers would be located in the bacterial cytoplasm. If, however, only the viral nucleic acid were necessary
for replication, then only the P32 would be found in the cytoplasm. The S35 would be located in separated
fragments of virus that had been sheared away.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
간혹 상당한 창의력을 필요로 하는 실험이 시간이 지나면서 고전적인 것으로 되는 경우가 있다. 1952년에
수행되었던 알프레드 허쉬와 마르타 체이스의 실험이 그 예로 들 수 있다. 단 한번의 실험을 통해 그들은 단백질
합성에 관한 기존의 가설에 의문을 던지고, 바이러스복제에 관한 새로운 가설을 제시하면서, 생화학분야에서
핵산에 대해 관심을 두었다. 그리고 미생물 연구분야에서 방사성 동위원소를 표지자로 이용하는 것이 매우
유용함을 보여주었다.
허쉬와 체이스는 S35와 P32라는 방사성 동위원소를 사용하였는데, 이들 동위원소가 들어있는 배지에서
복제시기에 있던 박테리오 파지를 배양하여, 그들은 두 가지 방사성 물질이 부착된 바이러스를 얻을 수 있었다.
S35는 아미노산의 구성물질이므로 캡시드 단백질에 위치하였고, P32는 인산 이온의 일부분으로써 게놈의
구성물질인 핵산의 일부분이 되었다.
방사성 동위원소가 부착된 바이러스는 다시 박테리아와 함께 배양함으로써, 바이러스 복제가 일어나도록
하였으며, 믹서기를 사용하여 박테리아의 표면에 바이러스 절편들이 붙어 있지 못하도록 하였다. 두가지
가능성이 존재하였다. 만약 바이러스 복제가 일어나기 위해서 바이러스 입자 전체가 세포안으로 들어가야 한다면,
P32와 S35 동위원소가 박테리아의 세포질 내부에 위치할 것이다. 그러나 만약 바이러스의 핵산만이 복제에
필요하다면, S35는 바이러스 절편에 위치하여 떨어져 나가고, P32만 세포질 내부에 존재할 것이다.


[   Glossary]
protein synthesis : Molecular Biology. A process by which a given sequence of mRNA information produces
a specific chain of amino acids to yield a protein.
nucleic acids : Biochemistry. A complex organic chain nucleotides of DNA or RNA; found in chromosomes,
mitochondria, bacteria and viruses, i.e., in virtually all living cells.
radioactive tracers : Necleonics. A substances that is doped with radioactive material and injected into a
physical or biological system so that its distribution can later be observed by radiation detection means.
Also RADIOTRACER.
Bacteriophages : Virology. Any virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium, producing transmissible
lysis or becoming lysogenic; usually species-specific. Also BACTERIAL VIRUS.
Virions : Virology. A complete viral practice, composed of the nucleoid and capsid.
Capsid : Virology. A protein coat or shell of icosahedral or helical symmetry surrounding the nucleic acid
genome or nucleoprotein core of the virton; a major structural feature of many virudes.
Cytoplasm :. Cell Biology. The cellar region within the plasma membrane, including the cytosol and the
organelles but excluding the nucleus.
Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.




demonstrateㆍ
insightㆍ
eventuallyㆍ
replicationㆍ
efficacyㆍ
incubateㆍ
tagㆍ
localizeㆍ
accumulateㆍ
ensureㆍ
shearㆍ
cling toㆍ




ㆍcopy
ㆍcapacity
ㆍbe attached to
ㆍshow
ㆍa deep inspection
ㆍfinally
ㆍpile up
ㆍsee to it
ㆍsit on eggs
ㆍmark
ㆍcut
ㆍplace
[ Answer ] : demonstrate-showinsight-a deep
inspectioneventually-finallyreplication-copyefficacy-capacityincubate-sit on
eggstag-marklocalize-placeaccumulation-pile upensure-see to itshear-cutcling to-be attached to




Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


1. show
illustrate, explain,    exhibit,     manifest, demonstrate


2. a deep inspection
introspection,     discernment,      sagacity, ken,   insight


3. finally
at last, at length,    ultimately,    lastly, eventually


4. copy
duplicate, ditto,     multiplication,    reproduction,     replication


5. capacity
effectiveness, competency,           potency, efficiency, efficacy
6. sit on eggs
brood,       hatch, cover, conceive, incubate


7. mark
label,    name, title, designate, tag
8. place
settle,     narrow,       limit,    locate,      localize


9. pile up
gather, accrete,            accrue,        amass, accumulate


10. see to it
secure, confirm,             assure, guarantee, ensure


11. cut
shave, clip, trim,             remove,        shear


12. be attached to
hang to,      adhere to,        stick to,      hold to,      cling to
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.      Show(보여주다)
Illustrate(예증하다), Explain(설명하다), Exhibit(전시하다), Manifest(명시하다), Demonstrate(논증하다)


2.      A deep inspection(깊은 사색)
Introspection(성찰), Discernment(식별), Sagacity(현명), Ken(이해), Insight(통찰력)


3.      Finally(마지막으로)
At last(결국), At length(결국), Ultimately(궁극적으로), Lastly(끝으로), Eventually(결과적으로)


4.      Copy(복사)
Duplicate(복제), Ditto(동의), Multiplication(증가), Reproduction(재생산), Replication(모사)


5.      Capacity(수용능력)
Effectiveness(효과), Competency(재능), Potency(능력), Efficiency(효율), Efficacy(유효성)
6.        Sit on eggs(알을 품다)
Brood(새가 알을 품다), Hatch(부화하다)), Cover(보호하다), Conceive(마음에 품다), Incubate(보육하다)


7.        Mark(표시하다)
Label(꼬리표를 붙이다), Name(이름을 붙이다), Title(제목을 붙이다), Designate(지시하다), Tag(딱지를 붙이다)


8.        Place(놓다)
Settle(정착하다), Narrow(한정하다), Limit(한정하다), Locate(지정하다), Localize(배치하다)


9.        Pile up(저축하다)
Gather(모으다), Accrete(함께 커지다), Accrue(덧붙여 생기다), Amass(축적하다), Accumulate(쌓아 올리다)


10.       See to it(확실하게 하다)
Secure(지키다), Confirm(확인하다), Assure(보증하다), Guarantee(확신하다), Ensure(확실하게 하다)


11.       Cut(자르다)
Shave(면도하다), Clip(잘라내다), Trim(손질하다), Remove(삭제하다), Shear(베다)


12.       Be attached to(~에 결부되어 있다)
Hang to(~에 충실하다), Adhere to(~에 부착하다) , Stick to(~에 붙어있는), Hold to(~에 붙어있다), Cling to(~에
매달려 있다)




Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.


Listening Instructions
In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.




[    Guidewords]
show,      a deep inspection, finally,   copy, capacity, brood,    mark, pile up,    see to it, cut,   be
attached to
1.________________
introspection,    discernment,        efficiency, ken,    insight
________________


2.________________
label,   name, trim,      designate, tag
________________


3.________________
illustrate, explain,     exhibit,     lastly, demonstrate
________________


4.________________
brood,     hold to,   cover, conceive,      incubate
________________


5.________________
at last, at length,    ultimately,     manifest, eventually
________________


6.________________
effectiveness,    competency,         potency, ditto, efficacy
________________


7.________________
duplicate, sagacity,      multiplication,    reproduction, replication
________________


8.________________
hang to,    adhere to,    stick to,    assure, cling to
________________


9.________________
shave, clip, accrue,        remove,      shear
________________
10.________________
gather, accrete,       hatch, amass, accumulate
________________
11.________________
settle,   narrow,    limit,   title,   localize
________________


12.________________
secure, confirm,       locate, guarantee, ensure
________________


[ Answer ] :
1-a deep inspection, efficiency
2-mark, trim
3-show, lastly
4-sit on eggs, hold to
5-finally, manifest
6-capacity, ditto
7-copy, sagacity
8-be attached to, assure
9-cut, accrue
10-pile up, hatch
11-place, title
12-see to it, locate


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)
1.New test site may ultimately reduce water costs.
a. manifestly      b. at length    c. lastly      d. eventually (3)


2.When conducting due diligence, our analysis provides an Auditor's Insight into the business
accomplishments of companies operating in the water industry.
a. introspection     b. reproduction        c. discernment d. sagacity      (2)
3.Students enrolled in the calculus sequence courses Math 75,76,77 and 81 at CSUF are expected to have
basic competency in Mathematica.
a. capacity     b. effectiveness       c. replication   d. potency    (5)
4.It is very important to know that DNA replication is not a passive and spontaneous process.
a. copy         b. duplicate        c. ditto     d. insight     (4)


5.Let me trim your nails.
a. cut     b. clip      c. trim d. amass          (11)


6.Do not incubate eggs that are excessively misshapen.
a. brood         b. settle c. hatch d. conceive                   (6)


7.An internal FDA committee then reviews the clinical data, proposed labeling, and manufacturing protocols
that ensure a consistent product, and the results of the agency's own confirmatory tests of the vaccine's
components and the final product.
a. see to it       b. accumulate c. assure                   d. guarantee     (10)


8.We propose to designate approximately 5.5 million hectares (ha) (13.5 million acres (ac)) of critical habitat
in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah, mostly on federal lands.
a. mark         b. label        c. cover       d. tag     (7)


9.Animation can illustrate how a fertilizer or other chemical would move through the soil and possibly into
groundwater.
a. show         b. explain c. demonstrate                d. locate      (1)


10.MRI can localize "hidden" breast cancers when undetected with mammography.
b. limit        b. shave        c. narrow       d. locate          (8)


11.The importance of ensuring that patients adhere to difficult medication regimens was the focus of an
all-day session at this year's Institute on Psychiatric Services in New Orleans in October.
b. be attached to           b. exhibit         c. stick to      d. cling to    (12)


12.How does a worker accrue benefits under a pension plan?
a. pile up        b. gather        c. amass        d. hatch       (9)




[ Answer ] :
1. a     2. b    3. c    4. d    5. d 6. b       7. b 8. c      9. d 10. b 11. b      12. d

Chapter 2
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


Ecology is the branch of biology that deals with large systems that involving living organisms as well as the
environments that they live in. This following passage discusses how an ecosystem is formed and organized.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.Listening
Instruction 1
The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


theoretical,       observation,          adopt, component,               property, hierarchy, separate,   derive from,
constrain, equivocal,              perturb,       fundamental


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


Ecology deals with the higher levels of biological organization, including the individual, the population, the
community and the ecosystem. This requires data to be collected over a range of scales. Most theoretical
ecology makes use of models, effectively a sequence of linked hypotheses that can be tested by observation
or experimentation. Different approaches are adopted at different levels reductionist ecology suggest that
ecological processes can be understood from a study of the component parts of systems, most especially
populations. Holistic ecology suggests there are properties of ecosystems that are not apparent from
considering only their components, and that ecosystems show a high degree of regulation and integration.
Finally, hierarchy theory groups the components of a system into functional units, separated at different
levels according to process rates. According to this view, the regulation of the system is derived from the
constraining influence of the higher levels.
Stability is briefly presented as a unifying concept in ecological theory. Two types of stability are identified
inertial stability and adjustment stability, though the evidence for each at the population or community level
is equivocal, due in part to the practical difficulties of measuring stability at an appropriate scale. Stress,
and the use of perturbation experiments are fundamental to much biology, and can tell us much about the
functioning of ecological systems.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
생태학은 고차원적인 생물학적 구성, 즉 개인, 개체, 군집 그리고 생태계와 관련이 있다. 이를 위해서 여러
방면으로의 자료 수집이 필요하다. 대다수의 이론적 생태학은 관찰과 실험을 통하여 확인될 수 있는 연속적으로
이어진 가설을 모델로 이용한다. 단계가 다를 때마다 다른 방식들도 채택된다. 환원주의적 생태학은 생태계의
구성 요소 그 중 개체를 연구한다면 생태의 과정을 이해할 수 있다고 주장한다. 전체론을 펼치는 생태학은 구성
요소들만 고려한다면 보이지않는 생태계의 특징이 있고 또한, 생태계는 강한 규제와 융합성을 나타낸다고
주장한다. 마지막으로 계급론자들은 생태계의 구성요소를 기능적 단일체로 주장하고 과정 속도에 따라서 각기
다른 단계로 나뉘어진다고 주장한다. 이 이론에 의하면 생태계의 규정은 상위등급에서 비롯되는 강제적인
영향이라고 볼 수 있다.
생태계의 안정성은 모든 이론들의 통일된 개념이다. 안정성은 두 가지로 나눌 수 있는데                                       하나는 관성법이고
다른것은 적응법이다. 하지만              안정성을 적당한 스케일에서 측량하는 것이 어려운 만큼 개체와 군집 단계에서의
증거로는 뚜렷하지 않다. 생물학의 기초라고 할 수 있는 응력과 섭동실험은 우리에게 생태의 기능에 대해서 더
가르쳐 줄 것이다.




[   Glossary]
reductionist : Science. The theory that complex phenomena are best explained in terms of their simplest
elements.
Holistic : Science. The belief that complex systems may be understood only when viewed in their entirely.




Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.




Theoreticalㆍ
Observationㆍ
Adoptㆍ
Componentㆍ
Propertyㆍ
Hierarchyㆍ
Separateㆍ
derive fromㆍ
constrainㆍ
equivocalㆍ
perturbㆍ
fundamentalㆍ




ㆍcome from
ㆍbased on theory
ㆍchoose
ㆍupset greatly
ㆍelement
ㆍdistinction
ㆍa patient look
ㆍan order of rank
ㆍdivide
ㆍshut in
ㆍunclear
ㆍbasic




[ Answer ] : theoretical-based on theoryobservation-a patient
lookadopt-choosecomponent-elementproperty-distinctionhierarchy-an order of
rankseparate-dividederive from-come fromconstrain-shut inequivocal-unclearperturb-upset
greatlyfundamental-basic




Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
13. based on theory
conjectural,        hypothetical,         speculative, postulated,                theoretical


14. a patient look
watching,        viewing,       perception,         attention,       observation


15. choose
take up,      appropriate, espouse,                 opt, adopt


16. element
constituent, factor,             ingredient,        module,       component


17. distinction
effects, goods, assets, trademark,                         property


18. an order of rank
power structure, strata, caste system, pecking order,                                  hierarchy


19. divide
break off, sever, sequester,                   disengage, separate


20. come from
stem from,        spring from, originate,               emanate, derive from


21. shut in
incarcerate, constrict,              constringe,         encumber, constrain


22. unclear
indefinite,      evasive, ambivalent, ambiguous,                        equivocal


23. upset greatly
agitate, distress, disconcert, unsettle,                         perturb


24. basic
rudimentary,         underlying, cardinal,               primal,      fundamental
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13.      Based on theory(이론에 의하면)
Conjectural(추측에 의한), Hypothetical(가설상의), Speculative(사색적인), Postulated(가정에 의한),
Theoretical(가공의)


14.   A patient look(끈기 있게 보기)
Watching(관찰), Viewing(바라보기), Perception(지각), Attention(주목), Observation(관찰)


15.   Choose(선택하다)
Take up(채택하다), Appropriate(적합하다), Espouse(신봉하다), Opt(채택하다), Adopt(채용하다)


16.   Element(요소)
Constituent(구성요소), Factor(요소), Ingredient(원료),
Module(측정기준), Component(구성성분)


17.   Distinction(식별)
Effects(개인 자산), Goods(소유물), Assets(유동자산), Trademark(상표권), property(재산)


18.   An order of rank(신분)
Power structure(지위), Strata(계층), Caste system(인도의 세습적 계급), Packing order(집단서열),
Hierarchy(계층)


19.   Divide(나누다)
Break off(쪼개다), Sever(분리하다), Sequester(격리하다), Disengage(유리시키다), Separate(가르다)


20.   Come from(~서 오다)
Stem from(유래하다), Spring from(발생하다), Originate(~서 생기다), Emanate(소문, 생각등이 ~서 나오다),
Derive from(파생하다)


21.   Shut in(을 둘러싸다)
Incarcerate(투옥하다), Constrict(단단히 죄다), Constringe(압착하다), Encumber(방해하다),
Constrain(강요하다)




22.   Unclear(명확하지 않은)
Indefinite(막연한), Evasive(책임 회피의), Ambivalent(마음이 불안정한), Ambiguous(애매한), Equivocal(분명치
않은)


23.   Upset greatly(신경을 어지럽히다)
Agitate( 휘젓다), Distress(괴롭히다), Disconcert(남을 혼란시키다), Unsettle(위의 상태를 나쁘게 하다),
Perturb(사람의 마음을 당황하게 하다)


24.       Basic(기초의)
Rudimentary(근본의), underlying(잠재적인), Cardinal(으뜸의), Primal(제일의), Fundamental(토대를 이루는)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[   Guidewords]
based on theory, a patient look,       choose,    element, distinction,   an order of rank,   divide, come from,
shut in,    unclear,   upset greatly, basic,


1.________________
encumber, appropriate, espouse, opt, adopt
________________


2.________________
agitate, emanate, disconcert, unsettle, perturb
________________


3.________________
conjectural,    hypothetical,   speculative, cardinal,     theoretical
________________
4.________________
break off, sever,      sequester,    distress, separate
________________


5.________________
watching,     viewing,   assets,    attention,   observation
________________
6.________________
stem from,    spring from, originate,      take up, derive from
________________


7.________________
rudimentary,    underlying, ambivalent, primal,        fundamental
________________


8.________________
constituent, perception,     ingredient,    module,    component
________________


9.________________
incarcerate, constrict,    constringe,     disengage, constrain
________________


10.________________
effects, goods,      strata, trademark, property
________________


11.________________
power structure, factor, caste system, pecking order,             hierarchy
________________


12.________________
indefinite,   evasive, postulated, ambiguous,         equivocal
________________


[ Answer ]
1-choose, encumber
2-upset greatly, emanate
3-based on theory, cardinal
4-divide, distress
5-a patient look, assets
6-come from, take up
7-basic, ambivalent
8-element, perception
9-shut in, disengage
10-distinctive, strata
11-an order of rank, factor
12-unclear, postulated


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1.Only with reliable, sustained observations and the resulting analyses of the world's oceans can we
advance such understanding and predict potential future changes.
a. attention      b. watching       c. distinction   d. viewing (14)


2.The huge potential of genetically improved plants outweighs hypothetical risks.
a. conjectural     b. speculative    c. postulate     d. unclear       (13)


3.I wish all the components of my stereo system were working at the same time.
a. elements        b. constituents      c. ingredients       d. effects        (16)


4.Brand names of major corporations are considered the exclusive property of that firm, and the firm holds
all the legal rights to that particular brand name and its products bearing that name.
a. goods       b. assets      c. trademarks    d. attention    (17)


5.An old tactic in warfare is the doctrine of divide and conquer, where a strong adversary is first reduced to
small parts, which then can be overcome more easily.
a. disengage      b. adopt      c. break off   d. sequester (19)


6.MIT researchers created rudimentary atom Laser.
a. basic       b. evasive       c. cardinal    d. fundamental           (24)
7.The purpose of bail is to constrict the movement of a suspect involved in a crime, before the indictment
and the trial can properly begin. a. shut in         b. incarcerate            c. constringe   d. sever   (21)


8.The program tested in North Carolina is easy and cheap enough that the National Institutes of Health
hopes schools throughout America will quickly adopt it.
a. choose        b. take up      c. espouse      d. divide      (15)
9.In the Middle Ages, a distinct and rigid hierarchy existed that separated the rulers from the ruled.
a. an order of rank        b. power structure        c. strata      d. distinction   (18)


10.Does heat emanate beyond the thresholds?
a. come from       b. stem from      c. separate     d. derive from (20)


11.Equivocal responses often occur in rodent carcinogenicity studies.
a. unclear       b. theoretical      c. ambivalent        d. ambiguous       (22)


12.Studies show that peppers can greatly agitate ulcers in elderly patients.
a. spring from       b. upset greatly       c. distress     d. perturb       (23)




[ Answer ] :
1. c   2. d    3. d 4. d   5. b   6. b   7. d 8. d 9. d     10. c   11. b 12. a
Chapter 3


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


An ecosystem is a fragile environment that can easily be affected by outside influences. This passage offers
a clear illustration of how DDT, a pesticide, affects an ecosystem, and how our understanding of such
processes can help us preserve our environment.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


intricate, spare, plague, devour, predatory, devastate,                                       gobble, corpse, genuine,   concerned,
mistreatment, compensate for


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


Still another famous incident drives home the intricate relationships within our ecosystems. Some years ago,
large quantities of DDT were used by the World Health Organization in a program of mosquito control in
Borneo. Soon the local people, spared a mosquito plague, began to suffer a plague of caterpillars, which
devoured the thatched roofs of their houses, causing them to fall in. The habits of the caterpillars limited
their exposure to DDT, but predatory wasps that had formerly controlled the caterpillars were devastated.
Further spraying was done indoors to get rid of houseflies. The local gecko lizards, which previously had
controlled the flies, continued to gobble their corpses                         now full of DDT. As a result, the geckos were
poisoned, and the dying geckos were caught and eaten by house cats. The cats received massive doses of
DDT, which had been concentrated as it passed from fly to gecko to cat, and the cats died. This led to
another plague, now of rats. They not only devoured the people's food but also threatened them with yet
another plague this time the genuine article, bubonic plague. The government of Borneo became so
concerned that cats were parachuted into the area in an attempt to restore the balance."
These are only three of many examples of our misunderstanding and mistreatment of the environment. Every
thing we do to the environment will in one way or another affect other living things around us. Every time a
factory dumps chemicals, a power plant burns coal, a corporation builds a new resort, or hunters overkill a
13 species of animal, a chain reaction is started that may have harmful, long-range consequences. The
more we try to understand, control, and compensate for those consequences before they are set in motion,
the more harmoniously we will be able to live on this delicately balanced "tiny spaceship."
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
아직도 하나의 유명한 사건이 생태계의 복잡한 관계를 이해하게 한다. 몇 년 전 세계보건기구의 기획으로
보루네오의 모기를 죽이기 위해서 DDT라는 살충제가 대량으로 이용됐다. 보루네오 주민들은 모기로부터 구제가
됐지만 송충이와 같은 유충으로부터 피해를 입게됐다. 유충들은 풀로 만들어진 집 지붕을 먹어 치웠고 이로
인하여 유충들은 집 안 까지 들어왔다. 거기다 더해서 유충들의 생활 습관이 DDT로부터의 피해를 줄일 수
있는데다 유충을 억제 할 수 있는 천적인 말벌까지 DDT로부터 막대한 피해를 입었다.
나중에는 파리를 없애기 위해서 집안까지 DDT를 살포했다. 하지만 파리를 자연적으로 억제할 수 있는 지역 토종
도마뱀붙이가 살포 후 DDT로 오염된 파리 시체를 먹기 시작했다. 결국에는 도마뱀붙이는 독이 번져서 죽어가고
있었고 이 죽어가는 도마뱀들을 집 고양이들이 잡아서 먹었다. 고양이들도 도마뱀과 같이 많은 분량의 DDT로
오염됐다. 결국 DDT는 파리서 도마뱀 그리고 고양이들로 이어지면서 점점 더 농축되면서 사망 요인이 됐다.
이제는 쥐 까지 이 사슬이 이어졌다. 문제는 쥐들이 사람들의 음식까지 먹지만 더 심각한 것은                                                       페스트라는
심각한 전염병 까지 유발할 수 있다. 보루네오 정부는 이 사태를 심각하게 받아들이고 균형을 복원하기 위해서
이 특정 지역에다 고양이까지 공수했다.
이 세가지 들은 수많은 잘못된 이해와 환경파괴중 일부분일 뿐이다. 우리가 자연에다 무엇을 해도 우리 주변에
있는 다른 생물들에게 이래저래 영향을 미칠 것이다. 공장이 화학 폐수를 버린다거나 석탄을 태우는 발전소가
있고 회사가 새로운 휴양지를 만든다면 그리고 사냥꾼이 필요이상으로                                                          동물들을 죽인다고 한다면 이 모든
것들이 연쇄 반응을 일으켜서 치명적이고 오랜 세월동안 돌이킬 수 없는 결과가 나올 것이다. 이러한 결과가
나오기도 전에 우리가 이해하고 통제하고 또 보상한다면 섬세하게 균형이 잡힌 이 작은 지구 안에서 화목하게
살수 있을 것이다.


[   Glossary]
DDT : Organic chemistry. (ClC6H4)sCHCl3, colorless needles or white to slightly off-white powder,
insoluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol; melts at 108oC ; used as an insecticide and pesticide.
Bubonic plague : Medicine. The most common form of plague, characterized by an abrupt onset of fever,
chills, weakness, and headache followed by pain, tenderness, and buboes associated with a marked
hemorrhagic tendency.
Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.




Intricateㆍ
Spareㆍ
Plagueㆍ
Devourㆍ
Predatoryㆍ
Devastateㆍ
Gobbleㆍ
Corpseㆍ
Genuineㆍ
Concernedㆍ
Mistreatmentㆍ
Compensate forㆍ




ㆍa dead body
ㆍdesolate
ㆍepidemic
ㆍtangled
ㆍlet go
ㆍeat greedily
ㆍmake up for
ㆍeating
ㆍeat hastily
ㆍreal
ㆍwrong treatment
ㆍuneasy
[ Answer ] : intricate-tangledspare-let goplague-epidemicdevour-eat
greedilypredatory-eatingdevastate-desolategobble-eat hastilycorpse-a dead
bodygenuine-realconcerned-uneasymistreatment-wrong treatmentcompensate for-make up for




Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions
The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


25. tangled
knotty,     labyrinthine,    convoluted,      tortuous,   intricate


26. let go
excuse, pardon,         exempt, release, spare


27. epidemic
pandemic,         scourge,   Black Death,      pestilence, plague


28. eat greedily
gorge,      gulp,   raven,   pig,    devour


29. eating
carnivorous,        bloodthirsty, rapacious,      vulturous, predatory


30. desolate
despoil,     ravage, demolish,        raze, ransack, devastate


31. eat hastily
bolt,     wolf,   cram, stuff, gobble


32. a dead body
cadaver, carcass, stiff,            remains, corpse
33. real
true, actual,         literal,     unfeigned,        genuine


34. uneasy
anxious,       troubled,       ill-at-ease,          disquieted, concerned


35. wrong treatment
maltreatment,          manhandling,           abuse,       disrespect,        mistreatment


36. make up for
offset, requite, reimburse,                  atone for, compensate for
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
25.      Tangled(매듭 등이 뒤얽힌)
Knotty(혼란 된), Labyrinthine(미로의), Convoluted(나선상의), Tortuous(솔직하지 못한), Intricate(복잡한,
난해한)


26.      Let go(해방하다)
Excuse(면제하다), Pardon(용서하다), Exempt(면해주다), Release(석방하다), Spare(용서하다)


27.      Epidemic(병이 유행성인)
Pandemic(병이 전 지역에 걸치는), Scourge(사회악), Black Death(흑사병), Pestilence(전염병), Plague(악성
전염병 페스트)


28.      Eat greedily(욕심 내어 먹다)
Gorge(구역질), Gulp(급히 삼키다), Raven(게걸스럽게 먹다), Pig(돼지처럼 먹다), Devour(먹어 치우다)


29.      Eating(식용의)
Carnivorous(육식성의), Bloodthirsty(피에 굶주린), Rapacious(육식하는), Venturous(모험적인),
Predatory(포식성의)


30.      Desolate(황폐한)
Despoil(재산을 빼앗다), Ravage(약탈), Demolish(파괴하다), Raze(집 등을 부수다), Ransack(샅샅이 뒤지다),
Devastate(국토 등을 황폐화시키다)


31.      Eat hastily(급하게 먹다)
Bolt(급히 삼키다), Wolf(걸신들린 듯이 먹다), Cram(꽉 채우다), Stuff(채우다), Gobble(통째로 삼키다)
32.       A dead body(시체)
Cadaver(시체), Carcass(동물의 시체), Stiff(시체), Remains(유골), Corpse(송장)


33.       Real(진실의)
True(진실한), Actual(사실적인), Literal(문자 그대로인), Unfeigned(거짓 없는), Genuine(순수한)


34.       Uneasy(편하지 않은)
Anxious(근심하는), Troubled(마음이 어수선한), Ill-at-ease(거북한), Disquieted(걱정스러운),
Concerned(염려스러운)


35.       Wrong treatment(잘못된 대우)
Maltreatment(학대), Manhandling(거칠게 다룸), Abuse(악용), Disrespect(실례), mistreatment(혹사)


36.       Make up for(보상하다)
Offset(~로 메우다), Requite(보답하다), Reimburse(변상하다), Atone for(벌충하다), Compensate for(손실결점을
배상하다)




Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[   Guidewords]
Tangled,     let go, epidemic,    eat greedily,   eating, desolate, eat hastily,   a dead body, real, true,
uneasy,      wrong treatment,    make up for


1.________________
anxious,     troubled,   ill-at-ease,   unfeigned, concerned
________________


2.________________
excuse, stuff,       exempt,     release, spare
________________


3.________________
cadaver, carcass, stiff,          remains, corpse
________________


4.________________
pandemic,       abuse, Black Death,         pestilence,   plague
________________


5.________________
knotty,    labyrinthine,      convoluted,    disquieted, intricate
________________


6.________________
gorge,     gulp,   demolish,     pig,     devour
________________


7.________________
bolt,   wolf,   cram, raven,       gobble
________________


8.________________
true, actual,      literal,   tortuous,     genuine
________________


9.________________
carnivorous,       bloodthirsty, rapacious,        vulturous, predatory
________________


10.________________
despoil,    ravage, offset, raze, ransack, devastate
________________


11.________________
pardon,     requite,    reimburse, atone for, compensate for
________________
12.________________
maltreatment,     manhandling,      scourge,   disrespect, mistreatment
________________


[ Answer ] :
1-uneasy, unfeigned
2-let go, stuff
3-a dead body, all words are synonymous
4-epidemic, abuse
5-tangled, disquieted
6-eat greedily, demolish
7-eat hastily, raven
8-real, tortuous
9-eating, all word are synonymous
10-desolate, offset
11-make up for, pardon
12-wrong treatment, scourge


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1.The judge pardoned the prisoner with only a few words of warning.
a. excused      b. let go     c. spared   d. wolfed (26)


2.The bottom of the ocean is a desolate landscape resembling that of the surface of the moon, torn apart and
weathered by millions of years of tectonic disturbance.
a. raven       b. despoiled     c. ravaged     d. devastated (30)


3.The rotted carcass was thrown back because crewmen feared it would contaminate their catch.
a. pestilence      b. dead body       c. cadaver     d. corpse     (32)


4.The unsanitary conditions and the primitive state of medicine in the early part of the 19th century led to a
plague of deadly diseases.
a. epidemic       b. stiff    c. pandemic      d. scourge   (27)
5.He may become an unfeigned believer in Jesus Christ.
a. concerned          b. real      c. true       d. genuine     (33)


6.The Fund is used to reimburse underground storage tank owners for eligible spill cleanup costs incurred
after October 1, 1993.
a. pardon         b. raze       c. atone for        d. compensate for (36)


7.Will black holes devour the universe?
a. release        b. eat greedily         c. gorge      d. gulp    (28)


8.Believe your child, because children rarely lie about sexual abuse.
a. maltreatment         b. manhandling           c. remains       d. disrespect      (35)


9.This is the text-only version of the intricate web site.
a. knotty        b. carnivorous        c. convoluted          d. labyrinthine       (25)


10.No matter what their color is, what their political, economic, or social philosophy is, as long as their aims
and objectives are in the direction of destroying the vulturous system that has been sucking the blood of
black people in this country, they're all right with me".
a. rapacious         b. carnivorous          c. predatory       d. labyrinthine      (29)


11.An amoeba that has been isolated for a long period of time, when released, will gobble up any living
matter it encounters.
a. eat hastily      b. wolf up      c. release        d. cram itself with     (31)


12.The disquieted masses, when not appeared properly by those in power, will rise up and rebel against
oppression.
a. uneasy        b. literal     c. anxious     d. troubled     (34)




[ Answer ] :
1. d 2. d      3. a 4. c      5. d 6. b      7. d    8. c    9. b 10. a     11. d    12. c
Chapter 4

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


The eye is a vital and complex structure in a human body. This passage discusses how the various
components of the eye work together to produce the image that we see and process in our brain.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


aperture,       inaccessible, pertain,               inverse, prevailing,             involuntary,   close-by,   aberration,
negligible,       spherical, deviation,              mitigate


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


There is one aperture stop in the eye, the pupil. Looking at an eye, we see it imaged by the cornea. This
entrance pupil is about 10% larger than the actual pupil, but because the latter is ordinarily inaccessible, the
pupillary measurements are always those pertaining to the eyes entrance pupil. Since the pupil functions as
an aperture stop, one might expect its diameter to have a strong inverse relation to the prevailing light level.
The pupillary area can change by a factor of perhaps 10, but the range of light levels to which the eye can be
exposed and within which it can function reasonably well is actually at least 1 million to one. The adaptation
to light is accomplished largely at the level of the retina, and there have often been speculations that the
pupil's major function is to provide depth of focus. Indeed there is an involuntary contraction of the iris when
attention is directed to close-by targets.
If the eye had no aberrations, the size of the pupil would give a clue to the minimum image quality: diffraction
would then provide the limit. Actually the aberrations of the eye are small enough to be negligible when the
pupil diameter remains below 2.5 or 3 mm. In young eyes and low light, the pupil can be as large as 8 mm,
and then the eye is certainly not diffraction limited. There would be major spherical aberration if the cornea,
which is the principal refractive surface and provides more than two-thirds of the total optical power of the
eye, were perfectly spherical. Its deviation from sphericity, while welcome in this context, does however
become significant in contact lens fitting.
The chromatic aberration of the real eye is very close to that of the reduced eye (i.e., that of a single surface
separating air from water). Since in practice it is mitigated greatly by the limited acceptance curve of the
eye as a function of wavelength, ordinarily it is not of great consequence. The greater availability of more
intense monochromatic sources of light in a great range of wavelengths may, however, introduce situations
of manifest chromatic aberration.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
눈에는 조리개 역할을 하는 구멍인 동공이 있다. 눈을 들여다 보면, 각막에 비춰진 동공을 볼 수 있다. 이렇게
보게 되는 동공은 실제 동공의 크기 보다 10% 정도 크다, 그렇지만 보통 실제의 동공을 만질 수 없으므로
동공의 크기를 측정할 때는 눈에 보이는 동공을 이용하게 된다. 동공은 조리개의 역할을 하므로, 그것의 직경과
보통의 조도 사이에는 매우 강한 역관계가 성립한다고 예상할 수도 있다. 동공의 범위는 보통 10단위로 바뀌지만,
눈이 받게 되는 그리고 그것이 가장 효과적으로 기능할 수 있는 조도의 범위는 실제로는 적어도 백만분의 일에
이른다. 빛의 적응은 대개 망막의 범위 내에서 이루어지지만, 동공의 주요 기능이 초점의 깊이를 알려주는
것이라고 추측하기도 한다. 바로 옆에 있는 목표물을 집중해서 보면, 홍채는 무조건적으로 수축하게 된다.
눈에 이상이 없는 경우라면, 동공의 크기는 최소한의 상의 특성까지 파악하는 단서를 제공할 수 있다. 회절(빛이
장애물로 인해 차단되었을 때) 되었을 때는 제한을 받기도 한다. 사실 동공의 직경이 2.5 내지 3 mm를 넘지
않는다면, 눈의 이상 정도는 대수롭지 않게 여겨도 될 정도로 큰 영향을 미치지 않는다. 보통의 눈을 가진
사람이 빛을 적게 받는 경우에 동공의 크기는 8mm 정도가 되며, 눈은 어떤 회절 현상에도 방해 받지 않는다.
주요 굴절면이며, 시력의 3분의 2 이상을 제공하는 각막이 완전히 둥근 모양을 띠고 있다면, 동공의 굴곡에 큰
이상이 있을 수 있다. 이 글 상에서는 긍정적으로 생각하는 곡선의 굴곡은 콘택트 렌즈 착용에 중요한 영향을
끼친다.
실눈의 염색체 이상은 감수 분열된 눈과 매우 관련이 깊다. 이를 태면 1차원 상에서 물과 공기가 분리되어
보이는 것과 같다. 그러나 사실상, 이것은 파장의 기능을 하는, 눈의 제한적 굴곡 수용에 의해 극도로 약화되므로,
보통 큰 영향을 미치지 않는다. 그러나, 큰 파장 범위 내에서의 더욱 강력한 빛의 단색체적 요인들은 더 큰
영향력을 지녀 염색체 이상의 문제들을 야기할 수 있다.


[   Glossary]
Pupil      : Anatomy. The opening in the center of the iris that controls the amount of light entering the eye.
Retina      : Anatomy. The inner lining of the eye, which receives images formed by the lens and transmits them
through the optic nerve to the brain.
Diffraction : Optics. The bending of lighting as it passes an obstruction.
Chromatic aberration : Optics. A detect in a lens that causes it to focus the various colors in a beam of light
at various points, thus producing a spectrum.
Monochromatic : Optics. Relating to or describing one color or hue.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.




Apertureㆍ
Inaccessibleㆍ
Pertainㆍ
Inverseㆍ
Prevailingㆍ
Involuntaryㆍ
close-byㆍ
aberrationㆍ
negligibleㆍ
sphericalㆍ
deviationㆍ
mitigateㆍ




ㆍvariation
ㆍbackward
ㆍgeneral
ㆍunapproachable
ㆍtouch on
ㆍsoften
ㆍunwilling
ㆍnearby
ㆍirregularity
ㆍunimportant
ㆍhole
ㆍround


 [ Answer ] : aperture-holeinaccessible-unapproachablepertain-touch
oninverse-backwardprevailing-generalinvoluntary-unwillingclose-by-nearbyaberration-irregularityn
egligible-unimportantspherical-rounddeviation-variationmitigate-soften


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


37. hole
slot,     orifice, cleft, chasm,     aperture


38. unapproachable
unattainable, unobtainable,         unreachable, unprocurable,           inaccessible


39. touch on
apply,     relate,   bear on,   refer, pertain


40. backward
converse,      inverted, opposite, reverse,         inverse


41. general
rampant, reigning,         dominant,    predominant,        prevailing


42. unwilling
compulsory,      unintentional,    coerced, reluctant, involuntary


43. close
nearby, neighboring,         juxtaposed, adjoining,         close-by


44. irregularity
eccentricity,    oddity,    peculiarity,   abnormality, aberration
45. unimportant
piddling,     nominal,   paltry,   trifling,   negligible
46. round
globular,       orbicular,       oval,     elliptical,     spherical


47. variation
anomaly,        depravity, perversion,               degeneracy, deviation


48. soften
moderate, palliate, temper, allay,                       mitigate
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
37. hole (구멍)
slot(홈,      가늘고 긴 구멍); 동전 넣는 구멍), orifice(구멍) , cleft (갈라진 틈; 쪼개진 조각),                                           chasm (틈) ,
aperture (간극)


38. unapproachable (접근할 수 없는)
unattainable(달성할 수 없는), unobtainable(획득할 수 없는),                                          unreachable(도달할 수 없는),
unprocurable(획득 할 수 없는; 얻을 수 없는), inaccessible (접근할 수 없는)


39. touch on (접촉하다)
apply(적용하다 ((to)); 신청하다 ((to, for)); 의뢰하다 ((to, for)), relate (말하다 ((to, with));                                   사이의 [관련]를
설명하다 [나타내다]),                   bear on(지탱하다, <비용을> 부담하다; <아이를> 낳다, 출산하다 ; <꽃을> 피우다,
<열매를> 맺다, <열매가> 열리다; <이자를> 낳다; <검사 시험 등에> 견디다; ...할 수 있다(be capable
of), ...하기에 알맞다(be fit for), ...할 만하다; ... 할 필요가 있다; 밀다(push); 몰다(drive)), refer (<                                        을
에게> 알아보도록 하다, 조회하다; <서적 등을> 참조하게 하다 ; <사실 등에> 주목하게 하다(direct
attention) ((to)); <사건 문제 등을 맡기다, 위탁[부탁]하다, 회부하다 ((to)); a bill to a committee 의안을
위원회에 회부하다 ; <이유 원인 기원 등을>                                             에 돌리다, 귀착시키다,                  의 탓으로 하다(attribute) ((to));
<어떤 종류 장소 시대 등에> 속하는 것으로 하다 ((to))),                                                pertain (속하다, 부속하다 ((to)); 적합하다, 어울리다,
알맞다 ((to)); 관계하다, 관련하다 ((to)))


40. backward (뒤쪽의; 후진하는)
converse (역; 반대),              inverted(역의; 반대의), opposite(반대의),                              reverse, inverse (반대의; 역의)


41. general (일반적인)
rampant(광폭한; 유행하는; 만연하는),                               reigning (군림하는; 널리 유행하는), dominant(지배하는),
predominant(우세한; 현저한),                       prevailing (세력있는; 널리 유행하는)
42. unwilling (마음에 내키지 않는)
compulsory(강제적인),        unintentional(고의가 아닌; 무심코),           coerced(강제적인),        reluctant(마음에 내키지
않는),      involuntary(본의 아닌; 무의식중의)


43. close (가까운)
nearby(가까운), neighboring(인접한),           juxtaposed(병렬한),       adjoining (인접한),     close-by(가까운; 인접한)


44. irregularity(불규칙; 반칙)
eccentricity(남다름; 기행), oddity(괴상함; 괴벽), peculiarity(특유, 독특; 이상한 점), abnormality(이상),
aberration(탈선; 정신이상)


45. unimportant (중요하지 않은)
piddling( 구어    사소한, 시시한),         nominal(이름만의, 명목[명의]상의; 아주 적은, 근소한(slight)), paltry(<금액
등이> 얼마 안 되는(petty); 하찮은, 보잘것없는, 무가치한),                        trifling (사소한),   negligible (소홀한)


46. round (원형의; 둥그스름한)
globular(구형의, 구의, 구표면의),            orbicular(공 모양의, 둥근, 원형의; 고리 모양의), oval (달걀 모양의;
타원형의, 장원형의),           elliptical (타원형의), spherical (구형의)


47. variation (변화(change), 변동; 변화량[정도]; 변종, 이형(異形);                   생물    변이)
anomaly(변칙, 예외, 이례; 변태; 예외적인 것[사람]; 생물                       이형(異形)), depravity(타락, 부패; 악행, 비행,
부패 행위), perversion(곡해, 왜곡, 남용, 악용, 오용; 악화; 타락),                      degeneracy(퇴화, 퇴보; 타락),       deviation
(탈선, 일탈 (행위) ((from));
(자침(磁針)의) 자차(自差); 편향;             생물 통계       편차;    항해 항로 변경;          광학 (광선의) 굴곡, 편향)


48. soften (부드럽게 하다)
moderate(완화하다), palliate(<병 통증 등을> 일시적으로 완화시키다;                            <잘못 등을> 변명하다, 꾸며대다;
참작하다)       temper(완화하다, 부드럽게 하다, 진정시키다, 조절하다, 경감하다) , allay(<흥분 화 등을>
진정시키다(calm);
<고통 슬픔 등을> 완화하다, 가볍게 하다),                     mitigate (완화하다)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[   Guidewords]
hole,   unapproachable, touch on,          backward,        widespread, unwilling,   nearby, irregularity,
unimportant,     round,   variation,     soften,


1.________________
chasm,      depravity, perversion,       degeneracy,        deviation
________________


2.________________
slot,   orifice, cleft, abnormality,       aperture
________________


3.________________
apply, allay,    bear on,    refer,    pertain
________________


4.________________
moderate, palliate, temper,           relate,    mitigate
________________


5.________________
converse,     adjacent,   opposite,     reverse, inverse
________________


6.________________
neighboring,     unattainable,   juxtaposed, adjoining,          close-by
________________


7.________________
eccentricity,   oddity,   peculiarity,    anomaly,      aberration
________________


8.________________
globular,    orbicular,   reluctant, elliptical, spherical
________________


9.________________
rampant, reigning,        dominant,      predominant,        prevailing
________________


10.________________
oval,     unobtainable,    unreachable, unprocurable, inaccessible
________________


11.________________
spontaneous,      unintentional,     coerced, inverted, involuntary
________________


12.________________
piddling,    nominal,     paltry,   trifling,   negligible
________________


[ Answer ] :
1-variation, chasm
2-hole, abnormality
3-touch on, allay
4-soften, relate
5-backward, adjacent
6-nearby, unattainable
7-irregularity, anomaly
8-round, reluctant
9-general, all words are synonymous
10-unappraochable, oval
11-unwilling, inverted
12-unimportant, all words are synonymous
Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)
1.The harmful radiation emitted by nuclear fuel is palliated by the lead shielding of the reactor.
a. moderated      b. applied        c. tempered        d. mitigated   (48)


2.The LHC mechanical aperture is limited by collimators in order to localize the beam losses into a specific
section, the beam cleaning section.
a. hole    b. cleft     c. chasm        d. variation (37)


3.Only one transaction, rather than two separate transactions, is required to purchase and receive the
reverse mortgage financing -- reducing the closing costs and origination period.
a. converse      b. backward        c. inverted   d. unprocurable (40)


4.The investigations were shocked at the extreme depravity of the people who could have committed such a
heinous crime.
a. perversion      b. orifice       c. degeneracy         d. deviation      (47)


5.Terrestrial animals eventually emerged to become the dominant form of life on our planet.
a. widespread         b. rampant       c. reigning       d. opposite (41)


6.They shall appoint all committees and perform all other duties that pertain to the direction of the section.
a. apply   b. soften       c. relate      d. refer (39)


7.That is the idea underlying drug diversion, drug courts, and coerced abstinence programs.
a. unwilling     b. unintentional       c. reluctant      d. prevailing     (42)


8.This is a paltry sum to pay for such a masterpiece.
a. unimportant        b. piddling      c. spontaneous         d. trifling    (45)


9.Experimenting with juxtaposed objects, he sought to recreate the motion of the body.
a. adjacent      b. unreachable         c. adjoining        d. close-by (43)
10.The goal of distributing the wealth through all levels of society is noble but often unattainable.
a. unapproachable               b. unobtainable       c. nearby            d. inaccessible (38)


11.The aberration of light was discovered in 1727 by the astronomer James Bradley, based on an observed
seasonal displacement in the apparent positions of stars, especially for stars in the direction perpendicular
to the orbital plane of the Earth.
a. irregularity         b. eccentricity          c. oddity      d. slot (44)


12.The law of gravity, and the length of time that it takes planets to take their stable form, ensure that most
of them are spherical in their shape.
a. globular        b. oval       c. elliptical     d. nominal       (46)


[ Answer ] :
1. b     2. d    3. d    4. b     5. d    6. b      7. d     8. c     9. b     10. c     11. d 12. d




Review Exercise

Reading Instructions
All the words from this unit are found in the exercise below. Each sentence contains one word in bold type
from all the drills in this unit. Select the word from the choices below that can replace the word in the bold
type. (The word numbers from all the Drills in the unit are in parentheses. These will help if you need to look
back.)


1.In physiological biophysics, physical mechanisms have been used to explain such biological processes as
the transmission of nerve impulses, the muscle contraction mechanism, and the visual mechanism.
a. show         b. illustrate       c. exhibit       d. allay   (1)


2.Quality and treatment were enormously dependent upon the experience and sagacity of the individual
iron-worker.
a. introspection          b. discernment           c. replication           d. insight   (2)
3.Unlike epinephrine, to which it is chemically similar, ephedrine is slow to take effect and of mild potency
and long duration.
a. capacity      b. ditto       c. effectiveness      d. efficiency      (5)


4.There is also evidence that auxins are affected by gravity, i.e., they accumulate in the lower portions of the
plant organs.
a. shave      b. accrete        c. accrue    d. amass     (9)


5.So-called double blind experiments, where neither the doctor nor the patient knows whether the given
medication is the experimental drug or the placebo, are often done to assure unbiased, statistically reliable
results.
a. secure       b. confirm       c. guarantee       d. designate       (10)


6.Much theoretical analysis of the basic physical properties of sub-atomic particles have been carried out
by scientists, yet there is little concrete empirical evidence for their existence or behavior.
a. conjectural      b. hypothetical      c. rudimentary         d. speculative        (13)


7.Small Houses: Their Economic Design and Construction (1922) include a method of house planning on a
module basis and model tenement housing.
a. element       b. attention       c. ingredient     d. component        (16)


8.To allow smooth shifting from one gear to another, a clutch is provided to disengage the engine from the
transmission.
a. espouse       b. break off       c. sequester       d. separate (18)


9.This girl was regarded with an unfavorable eye by all the competitors, honest Dinmont only excepted; the
rest conceived they should find in her a formidable competitor; whose claims might at least encumber and
diminish their chance of succession.
a. incarcerate       b. constrict      c. constringe         d. emanate (21)


10.By this extended definition all written and spoken languages are codes. While these are sufficient and
actually quite efficient in transmission of information, they are at times ambiguous and are highly inefficient
for telecommunications.
a. unclear       b. ambivalent       c. appropriate       d. equivocal         (22)


11.Not a speck of dust is visible: it is clear that there are at least two housemaids and a parlormaid
downstairs, and a housekeeper upstairs who does not let them spare elbow-grease.
a. excuse       b. gobble       c. exempt       d. release      (26)
12.Archbishop of Mainz, according to tradition, was devoured by mice.
a. pardon        b. gorged         c. gulped down         d. eaten greedily     (27)


13.The predatory nature of the Tasmanian Devil makes it a dangerous creature to try to handle.
a. carnivorous         b. rapacious      c. vulturous       d. knotty (28)


14.It's often easy to confuse the metaphorical meaning of a word with it's literal meaning, which may be very
different.
a. real      b. pandemic           c. unfeigned     d. genuine      (33)


15.Quick-growing crop has been sown between seasons of regular planting to make use of temporary
idleness of the soil or to compensate for the failure of a main crop.
a. make up for         b. atone for       c. make up for        d. demolish    (36)


16.It is the volcanic region near Vesuvius, where the whole country is cleft with chasms, from which
sulphurous flames arise, while the ground is shaken with pent-up vapors, and mysterious sounds issue
from the bowels of the earth.
a. slots       b. clefts     c. strata      d. apertures     (37)


17.Envy, jealousy and revenge are the reigning motives.
a. widespread          b. rampant        c. dominant       d. prevailing     (41)


18.The involuntary inhalation of tobacco smoke by a person, especially a nonsmoker, who occupies an area
with smokers or a smoker. It is called passive inhalation.
a. unwilling       b. unintentional       c. reluctant      d. converse       (42)


19.As such a facsimile has also a bibliographical interest, variations in spelling, even a few trifling errors or
omissions, have been strictly followed.
a. unimportant         b. piddling       c. oval    d. paltry    (46)


20.The worm winters created by the El Nino effect is an Anomaly resulting from shifting ocean currents, the
source of which is still under debate among scientists and meteorologists.
a. variation       b. depravity        c. soften       d. degeneracy (47)




[ Answer ] :
1. d 2. c      3. b 4. a    5 .d     6. c 7. b 8. a      9. d 10. c 11. b 12. a 13. d 14. b 15. d   16. c   17. a 18.
d 19. c        20. c
Additional Topics in Biology



Carbon Cycle


In biology, the exchange of carbon between living organisms and the nonliving environment. Inorganic
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is converted by plants into simple carbohydrates, which are then used to
produce more complex substances. Animals eat the plants and are then eaten by other animals. When
these life forms die, they decay, breaking down into, among many other things, carbon dioxide, which
returns to the atmosphere. Plants and animals also release carbon dioxide during respiration. Animals and
some microorganisms require the carbon-containing substances from plants in order to produce energy
and as a source of materials for many of their own biochemical reactions; this cycle is vital to them. The
process of incorporating carbon dioxide into the molecules of living matter is called fixation. Nearly all
carbon dioxide fixation is accomplished by means of photosynthesis, in which green plants form
carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water, using the energy of sunlight to drive the chemical reactions
involved. Green plants use carbohydrates to build the other organic molecules that make up their cells, such
as cellulose, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids. Some of these compounds require the incorporation of
nitrogen (see nitrogen cycle).   When carbohydrates are oxidized in cells they release the energy stored in
their chemical bonds, and some of that energy is also used by the cell to drive other reactions. In the
process of oxidation, or respiration, oxygen from the atmosphere (or from water) is combined with portions
of the carbohydrate molecule, producing carbon dioxide and water, the compounds from which the
carbohydrates were originally formed.      However, not all of the carbon atoms incorporated by the plant can
be returned to the atmosphere by its own respiration; some remain fixed in the organic materials that
organic up its cells. When the plant dies, its tissues are consumed by bacteria and other microorganisms, a
process called decay. These microorganisms break down the organic molecules of the plant and use them
for their own cell-building and energy needs; by their respiration more of the carbon is returned to the
atmosphere. The carbon-containing molecules that an animal derives from consuming other organisms are
reorganized to build its own cells or oxidized for energy by respiration, releasing carbon dioxide and water.
When the animal dies it too is decayed by microorganisms, resulting in the return of more carbon to the
atmosphere. Carbon-containing molecules in wood (or other dry, slow-decaying organic materials) may
be oxidized by burning, or combustion, also producing carbon dioxide and water. Under conditions
prevailing on earth at certain times, green plants have decayed only partially and have been transformed
into fossil fuels-coal, peat, and oil. These materials are made of organic compounds formed by the plants;
when burned, they too restore carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.




Photosynthesis
Process in which green plants utilize the energy of sunlight to manufacture carbohydrates from carbon
dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll. Some of the plants that lack chlorophyll, (e.g., the fungi),
secure their nutrients from organic material, as do animals, and a few bacteria manufacture their own
carbohydrates with hydrogen and energy obtained from inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen sulfide) in a
process called chemosynthesis. However, the vast majority of plants contain
chlorophyll-concentrated, in the higher land plants, in the leaves.


In these plants water is absorbed by the roots and carried to the leaves by the xylem, and carbon dioxide is
obtained from air that enters the leaves through the stomata and diffuses to the cells containing chlorophyll.
The green pigment chlorophyll is uniquely capable of converting the active energy of light into a latent form
that can be stored (in food) and used when needed.


The Photosynthetic Process
The initial process in photosynthesis is the decomposition of water (H2O) into oxygen, which is released, and
hydrogen; direct light is required for this process. The hydrogen and the carbon and oxygen of carbon
dioxide (CO2) are then converted into a series of increasingly complex compounds that result finally in a
stable organic compound, glucose (C6H12O6), and water. This phase of photosynthesis utilizes stored
energy and therefore can proceed in the dark. The simplified equation used to represent this overall process
is 6CO2+12H2O+energy=C6H12O6+6O2+6H2O. In general, the results of this process are the reverse of
those in respiration, in which carbohydrates are oxidized to release energy, with the production of carbon
dioxide and water.
The intermediary reactions before glucose is formed involve several enzymes, which react with the
coenzyme ATP. Studies using radioactive carbon have indicated that among the intermediate products are
three-carbon molecules from which acids and amino acids, as well as glucose, are derived. This suggests
that fats and proteins are also products of photosynthesis. The main product, glucose, is the fundamental
building block of carbohydrates (e.g., sugars, starches, and cellulose). The water-soluble sugars (e.g.,
sucrose and maltose) are used for immediate energy. The insoluble starches are stored as tiny granules in
various parts of the plant ―chiefly the leaves, roots (including tubers), and fruits― and can be broken down
again when energy is needed. Cellulose is used to build the rigid cell walls that are the principal supporting
structure of plants.


Importance of Photosynthesis
Animals and plants both synthesize fats and proteins from carbohydrates; thus glucose is a basic energy
source for all living organisms. The oxygen released (with water vapor, in transpiration) as a photosynthetic
byproduct, principally of phytoplankton, provides most of the atmospheric oxygen vital to respiration in
plants and animals, and animals in turn produce carbon dioxide necessary to plants. Photosynthesis can
therefore be considered the ultimate source of life for nearly all plants and animals by providing the source
of energy that drives all their metabolic processes.
Chlorophyll
Green pigment that gives most plants their color and enables them to carry on the process of photosynthesis.
Chemically, chlorophyll has several similar forms, each containing a complex ring structure and a long
hydrocarbon tail. The molecular structure of the chlorophylls is similar to that of the heme portion of
hemoglobin, except that the latter contains iron in place of magnesium.      Within the photosynthetic cells of
plants the chlorophyll is in the hloroplasts-small, roundish, dense protoplasmic bodies that contain the
grana, or disks, where the chlorophyll molecules are located. Chlorophyll absorbs light in the red and
blue-violet portions of the visible spectrum; the green portion is not absorbed and, reflected, gives
chlorophyll its characteristic color.   Chlorophyll tends to mask the presence of colors in plants from other
substances, such as the carotenoids. When the amount of chlorophyll decreases, the other colors become
apparent. This effect can be seen most dramatically every autumn when the leaves of trees turn color.
Unit 4
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chemistry



Chapter 1

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


Water has a number of unique chemical and physical properties. The following passage discusses some of
these characteristics of water that enable life on this planet to survive and thrive.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


furnish      ,    adjacent ,         interface ,        sticky ,       tension ,        latent ,    fusion ,   buffer ,   universal ,
effortless ,        terrestrial ,       shallow


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


Important interactions occur because of the electron sharing.                                 The oxygen atom tends to draw the
electrons furnished by the hydrogen atoms closer to its nucleus, creating an electrical separation and a
polar molecule.          The polar nature results in the hydrogen end (which has a positive charge) attracting the
oxygen end (with a negative charge) of other adjacent water molecules.                                 This forms Hydrogen Bonds
between adjacent water molecules.                     These bonds are weak compared to the electron sharing bonds (6% as
strong) and are easily broken and reformed.
The hydrogen bonding and polarity of water molecules is responsible for many of the unique characteristics
and physical properties of water.
If water was not polar, it would be a gas at room temperature and have an extremely low freezing point,
making life impossible. At the air-water interface, the sticky polar nature of water allows it to form a 'skin'
over the water surface, strong enough to support small objects. This phenomenon is known as surface
tension, and water has the highest surface tension of all common liquids. Water has a great capacity to hold
heat energy, with the highest heat of vaporization of most common substances (thus a high boiling point ―
allowing it to be liquid on the surface of the relatively warm Earth).                        When water evaporates, it absorbs
considerable amounts of heat. Water has a high latent heat of fusion; when ice is formed, considerable
amounts of heat energy is released.                   Water therefore acts as a buffer against temperature changes and
keeps the earths climate from rapidly fluctuating. When water freezes, it becomes less dense― hence ice
floats (a lucky thing as if it were not so, the oceans would be frozen solid)
Possibly most important for the chemical processes of life― water is a universal solvent.                         It has the ability to
dissolve more substances than any other liquid (due, once again, to its polar characteristics and hydrogen
bonding).       When dissolved in water, salts turn into their ions (Sodium chloride, table salt, NaCl becomes
Na+     and Cl-.)         This allows for many free radicals to be available to the chemistry of life. Water is very
dense, some 800 times denser than air. The density allows large and small organisms to float along
effortlessly for long periods of time (compared to land, where terrestrial organisms must fight gravity with
each step in order to move around.) Water absorbs light rays very quickly (important to photosynthetic life,
which is only possible where light penetrates, and all light is absorbed by 600 feet beneath the surface of the
oceans)
Water absorbs light differentially.                The red end of the light spectrum is absorbed in shallow water while the
blues and greens penetrate the deepest (important for plants because different plants use different parts of
the light spectrum for photosynthesis, and the differential absorption can determine the vertical distribution
of marine plants).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
중요한 상호 작용은 전자를 공유하면서 일어난다. 산소 원자는 핵 근처의                                                          수소원자가 공급한 전자를 끌어
당기다는 경향이 있다. 이것으로 인하여 전기 분리와 극성분자를 유발한다. 결국 극성의 본질은 양전하를 띤
수소가 인접한 물 분자의 음전하를 띤 산소를 끌어 당기게 한다. 이것으로 인접한 물의 분자들 사이에 인하여
수소결합이 생긴다. 이 결합은 전자 공유 결합보다 (결합세기가 약 6% ) 약하고 쉽게 깨지고 재형성된다.
물 분자의 수소결합과 극성은 물의 독특한 특성과 물리적인 성질을 유도한다.
만약 물의 극성이 없다면, 실온에서 물이 수증기로 변할 것이고 빙점 또한 아주 낮아져 생명이 살수 없게 된다.
공기-물 사이의 계면에는 들러붙는 물의 극성 때문에 물의 표면에 작은 물건도 지탱할 수 있는 표피(skin)가
생긴다. 이런 현상은 표면 장력이라고 하며, 물은 모든 일반 액체중에서 표면장력이 가장 강한다. 물은 대용량의
열에너지를 지탱할 수 있는 능력을 가지고 있다. 또한 물은 일반 물질의 가장 높은 증기열을 가지고 있다(높은
끊는점 때문에, 물은 대체로 따뜻한 지구 표면에서도 액체 형태로 남을 수 있다). 물이 증발할 때, 상당한 양의
열을 흡수한다. 물은 높은 용융 잠열이 있다. 얼음이 만들어질 때 상당한 양의 열을 방출한다. 그래서 물은
급격한 온도 변화와 지구 기후의 변동에 대한 완충 역할을 한다. 물이 액체에서 고체로 변할 때, 저밀도로
변하기 때문에 얼음은 물에 뜬다. 다행인 것은 이런 작용이 아니었다면 바다도 얼음으로 변했을 것이다. 생명의
중요한 화학 과정에서, 물은 널리 존재하는 용매라는 사실이다.
극성의 특징과 수소 결합 때문에 물은 다른 액체들보다도 더 많은 물질을 용해할 수 있다. 소금은 물에 용해되면
이온으로 변한다. 이런 과정은 자유라디칼이 생명체에 이용할 수 있게 한다. 물은 공기보다 약 800배나 높은
고밀도이다. 물의 밀도는 지구상의 크고 작은 유기체가 장시간 자유로이 떠다닐 수 있게 만든다. 반면 육지에
서식하는 유기체는 한 발짝 움직이기 위해서 중력을 이겨야 한다. 물은 광선을 매우 빨리 흡수한다. 살기
위해서는 빛이 절실히 필요한 광합성 생명체에게는 아주 중요하다. 물은 바다 표면부터600피트 아래까지 빛을
흡수한다.
물은 빛을 제각기 다르게 흡수한다. 스팩트럼의 빨간색은 얕은 물에서 흡수하고 파란색과 초록색은 가장 깊은
물에서 흡수한다. 식물들에게 아주 중요한 이유가 식물마다 광합성을 위해서 서로 다른 빛을 사용한다. 서로
상이한 빛의 흡수 방식에 따라, 해양 식물들의 수직배포가 달라진다.


[   Glossary]
Polar molecule : Physical chemistry. A molecule in which a pair of opposite charges of equal magnitude are
permanently separated at a specific distance from each other.
Surface tension   : Fluid Mechanics. The stretching force required to form a liquid film.
Free radical : Chemistry. A usually short-lived, highly reactive molecular fragment that contains one or
unpaired electrons.
Photosynthesis : Biochemistry. The fundamental chemical process in which green plants utilize the energy
of sunlight or other light convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates, with the green pigment
chlorophyll acting as the energy converter.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
furnishㆍ
adjacentㆍ
interfaceㆍ
stickyㆍ
tensionㆍ
latentㆍ
fusionㆍ
bufferㆍ
universalㆍ
effortlessㆍ
terrestrialㆍ
shallowㆍ
ㆍconnection
ㆍsupply
ㆍstress
ㆍall-inclusive
ㆍeasy
ㆍearthly
ㆍgluey
ㆍskin-absorber
ㆍshock absorber
ㆍnext to
ㆍhidden to
ㆍunion




[ Answer ] : furnish-supplyadjacent-next
tointerface-connectionsticky-glueytension-stresslatent-hiddenfusion-unionbuffer-shock
absorberuniversal- all-inclusiveeffortless-easyterrestrial-earthlyshallow- skin-deep




Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions
The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


1. supply
equip ,      provide ,   stock ,   outfit ,   furnish
2. next to
alongside ,      bordering ,   abutting ,     contiguous ,   adjacent
3. connection
intersection ,         link ,      bridge ,       synapse ,          interface


4. gluey
gummy ,         adhesive ,          pasty ,       viscous ,        sticky


5. stress
tightness ,        tautness ,         strain ,       stiffness ,       tension


6. hidden
dormant ,         quiescent ,          potential ,        slumbering ,          latent


7. union
amalgamation ,            coalescence ,            melding ,         blend ,       fusion


8. shock absorber
bumper ,         cushion ,         pad ,      buffer


9. all-inclusive
pandemic ,          general ,        comprehensive ,              catholic ,        universal


10. easy
simple ,       facile ,      duck soup ,           no sweat ,         effortless


11. earthly
worldly ,       terrene ,        tellurian ,        mundane ,          terrestrial


12. skin-deep
slight ,      surface ,         lacking depth ,          superficial ,         shallow
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.      Supply (공급하다)
Equip(장비를 갖추다), Provide(제공하다), Stock(상품을 갖추다), Outfit(공급하다), Furnish(마련해 주다)


2.      Next to(~옆에)
Alongside(~곁에), Bordering(~에 접하는), Abutting(인접한), Contiguous(~와 접촉하고 있는), Adjacent(근접한)


3.      Connection(이음)
Intersection(교차점), Link(고리), Bridge(다리), Synapse(신경세포의 연접부), Interface(접촉면)


4.    Gluey(아교의)
Gummy(진득진득한), Adhesive(점착성의), Pasty(풀 같은), Viscous(점착력이 있는), Sticky(찐득찐득한)


5.    Stress(강조)
Tightness(견고), Tautness(긴장), Strain(긴장), Stiffness(경직), Tension(긴장)


6.    Hidden(숨겨진)
Dormant(활발치 못한), Quiescent(조용한), Potential(가능성 있는), Slumbering(졸고 있는), Latent(잠재성의)


7.    Union(연합)
Amalgamation(융합체), Coalescence(합체), Melding(합병), Blend(혼합), Fusion(융해)


8.    Shock Absorber(완충기)
Bumper(충격 완화 장치), Cushion(완충물), Pad(보호구), Buffer(완충제)


9.    All-inclusive(전부를 포함하는)
Pandemic(전 지역에 걸치는), General(전반적인), Comprehensive(포괄적인), Catholic(보편적인),
Universal(보편적인)


10.   Easy(쉬운)
Simple(단순한), Facile(손쉬운), Duck soup(식은 죽 먹기),No sweat(수월하게), Effortless(노력이 필요 없는)


11.   Earthly(지상의)
Worldly(세속의), Terrene(이승의), Tellurian(지구의), Mundane(현세의), Terrestrial(지구상의)


12.   Skin-deep(피상적인)
Slight(얼마 안 되는), Surface(외양뿐인), Lacking depth(깊이 없는), Superficial(외관상의), Shallow(얕은)
Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[   Guidewords]
supply ,      next to ,      connection ,       gluey ,      stress ,     hidden ,     union ,   shock absorber ,
all-inclusive ,      easy ,       earthly ,      skin-deep ,


1.________________
tightness ,      tautness ,      strain ,      stiffness ,     tension
________________


2.________________
simple ,      comprehensive ,             duck soup ,     no sweat ,      effortless
________________


3.________________
worldly ,     terrene ,       tellurian ,      facile ,    terrestrial
________________


4.________________
amalgamation ,        coalescence ,           melding ,       cushion ,     fusion
________________


5.________________
intersection ,      link ,     outfit ,     synapse ,        interface
________________


6.________________
equip ,     provide ,        stock ,      bridge ,      furnish
________________


7.________________
bumper ,       blend ,   pad ,      buffer
________________


8.________________
gummy ,        contiguous ,      pasty ,     viscous ,   sticky
________________


9.________________
dormant ,       adhesive ,     potential ,     slumbering ,       latent
________________


10.________________
pandemic ,       general ,     quiescent ,      catholic ,    universal
________________


11.________________
slight ,    surface ,    lacking depth ,       mundane ,         shallow
________________


12.________________
alongside ,      bordering ,      abutting ,     superficial ,     adjacent
________________


[ Answer ] :
1-stress, all words are synonymous
2-easy, comprehensive
3-earthly, facile
4-union, cushion
5-connection, outfit
6-supply, bridge
7-shock absorber, blend
8-gluey, contiguous
9-hidden, adhesive
10-all-inclusive, quiescent
11-skin-deep, mundane
12-next to, superficial
Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1.Snail is name commonly used for a gastropod mollusk with a shell. Included in the thousands of species
are terrestrial, freshwater, and marine forms.
a. terrene      b. potential     c. tellurian     d. mundane (11)


2.Contiguous landmasses are divided by various types of faults, where much of the volcanic activity on the
earth takes place.
a. alongside       b. bordering        c. hidden       d. adjacent (2)


3.Since the gravitational force is experienced by all matter in the universe, from the largest galaxies down to
the smallest particles, it is often called universal gravitation.
a. pandemic        b. general       c. comprehensive               d. earthly (9)


4.Le Chatelier's principle is evident in chemical systems, as in the common-ion effect and in buffer
solutions.
a. fusion     b. bumper        c. cushion        d. pad (8)


5.One of the current frontiers in the study of elementary particles concerns the interface between that
discipline and cosmology.
a. connection        b. stress     c. link       d. bridge (3)


6.Analogous to hibernation is aestivation, a dormant period of escape from heat and drought.
a. hidden       b. quiescent       c. sticky       d. latent (6)


7.The use of adhesive postage stamps was advocated by Sir Rowland Hill; it was adopted in Great Britain in
1839.
a. abutting      b. gluey      c. gummy          d. viscous (4)


8.Heartburn does not indicate heart malfunction but results from nervous tension or overindulgence in food
or drink.
a. tightness       b. tautness       c. strain     d. union (5)


9.Besides the vertical septa separating the individual muscles, transverse septa are given off both on the
volar and dorsal surfaces of the forearm, separating the deep from the superficial layers of muscles.
a. pasty       b. slight    c. lacking depth        d. shallow (12)
10.Teamsters Union was formed in 1903 by the amalgamation of the Team Drivers International Union and
the Teamsters National Union.
a. coalescence           b. stiffness c. melding              d. blend (7)


11.In ancient history, the knight was a noble of the second class who in military service had to furnish his
own mount and equipment.
a. supply          b. provide         c. stock        d. synapse         (1)


12.The law of simple multiple proportions can be regarded as an extension of the early law of definite
composition, which states that the proportions by weight of the elements present in any pure compound are
always the same.
a. facile        b. duck soup           c. catholic         d. effortless (10)


[ Answer ] :
1. b     2. c 3. d        4. a 5. b        6. c    7. a 8. d       9. a 10. b 11. d 12. c




Chapter 2

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


Both farmers who release pesticides into the air and scientists who track their movement need to know
about how different conditions in the air affect the spreading of these particles. The following passage
outlines some of the different factors that affect the entry and movement of pesticides in the air.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1
The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


indirect,      intensity, duration,            disperse,        homogeneous,            compartment, criterion,   potential,   critical,
fluctuation,       instability, elucidate
Listening Instruction 2
Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


The photodegradation and transformation of pesticides in the atmosphere can occur by direct and indirect
photochemical reactions. The degree of degradation depends on both the influence of environmental
variables and the mode of transport, whilst meteorological conditions such as light intensity, duration of
sunshine and spectral distribution of the incident light (especially the short wavelength cut-off edge)
govern the degradation processes. Rate and mechanism may also be influenced by the physical state of the
chemical which might be mono-molecularly dispersed in the troposphere, adsorbed or absorbed on
aerosols or exist as a homogeneous aerosol. These variables are further superimposed on the rate of
removal from the troposphere to other environmental compartments by dry deposition, absorption and
solution in water, and washout by rain.
A comprehensive OECD Monograph gives the criteria to estimate if an organic molecule has the potential to
be degraded photochemically, either indirectly or directly, in the air. In indirect photolysis degradation of
the pesticide occurs by reaction with photolytically generatedradicals.
Organic pollutants, including pesticides, are either released into or, by volatilization, diffuse into the lowest
part of the atmosphere in direct contact with the surface, the planetary boundary layer (PBL). This plays a
critical role in the vertical movement and horizontal distribution of airborne pesticides and is subject to
diurnal fluctuations in height and stability. Movement from this layer into the upper atmosphere, leading to
potential widespread regional and world-wide distribution, can occur through instabilities in the PBL. Once
in the upper atmosphere the global wind circulation patterns, including the westerlies, NE and SE trade
winds and the polar fronts promote regional transport of pesticides. Local transport will take place in a
matter of minutes, regional transport in hours or days, intrahemisphere transport in months and
interhemisphere transport may take a year. In general terms the factors which govern entry of pesticides
into the atmosphere have been elucidated.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
대기에서 살충제의 광분해나 변형은 직·간접적인 광화학 반응에 의해 일어난다. 분해 정도는 환경 변수나 이동
방법에 의해 영향을 받는다. 이런 상황에서도 빛의 강도나 햇빛의 지속 시간 또는 스팩트럼의 배포와 같은
기상의 조건들이 분해 과정을 지배한다. 이런 분해 과정의 반응속도(Rate)와 매커니즘은 화학물의 물리적 상태에
영향을 받을 수 있는데, 대류권에서 단분자로 분산되어 있느냐, 에어로졸에 흡착이나 흡수되어 있느냐, 균질한
에어로졸로 존재하느냐에 따라 달라진다. 이런 변수들은 Dry deposition, 물의 흡수와 용해, 비에 의한
쓰러냄(Washout)으로 인해 대류권로부터 다른 환경 구획까지 제거 속도에 영향을 미친다. 포괄적인 OECD의
보고서 (모노그라프)는 유기물 분자가 공기에서 직·간접적으로 광화학적인 분해될 수 있는 가능성 여부를
추정하는 기준을 준다. 간접적인 농약의 광분해 현상은 광분해적으로 발생된 라디칼과의 반응으로 생긴다.
농약을 포함한 유기 오염물들은 지구표면과 접촉하고 있는 가장 가까운 곳인 대기경계층(PBL)에서 증발현상에
의해 방출되거나, 확산된다. 이것은 공중에 떠있는 농약의 수직 이동과 수평 배포에 큰 영향을 주고 높이와
안정성 면에서 날마다 변동(diurnal                fluctuation)   영향을 미친다. 대기경계층의 불안정성으로 인하여 높은
대기권으로 진입, 광역적이거나 전세계적으로 분포될 수 있다. 상위 대기권에 진입을 한다면 편서풍,
북동무역풍이나 남동무역풍 그리고 극전선도 포함되는 전세계적인 풍향 순환 패턴이 농약의 지역적 운반을
촉진한다. 지역적인 거리의 운반은 일분도 채 안 걸리고 광역적인 운반은 몇 시간에서 몇 일이 걸린다. 그리고
반구안에서의 수송시간은 몇 달, 반구 밖에서는 일년이 소요된다. 대체로 대기권으로 농약의 출입을 지배하는
요소들은 규명되었다.


[   Glossary]
Photodegradation : Physical Chemistry. Any process in which radiant energy decomposes a substance.
photochemical reactions : Physical Chemistry. A chemical change brought about by the interaction of the
molecules of a substance with light
troposphere : Meteorology. The part of the atmosphere where weather conditions exist and nearly all could
formations occur
photolysis : Physical Chemistry. The decomposition of a substance into simpler units as a result of its
absorbing light




Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
Indirectㆍ
Intensityㆍ
Durationㆍ
Disperseㆍ
Homogeneousㆍ
Compartmentㆍ
Criterionㆍ
Potentialㆍ
Criticalㆍ
Fluctuationㆍ
Instabilityㆍ
Elucidateㆍ
ㆍbreak up
ㆍguideline
ㆍroundabout
ㆍcell
ㆍcapability
ㆍforce
ㆍthe same
ㆍimportant
ㆍunstableness
ㆍmake clear
ㆍrise and fall
ㆍcontinuation




[ Answer ] : indirect-roundaboutintensity-forceduration-continuationdisperse-break
uphomogeneous-the
samecompartment-cellcriterion-guidelinepotential-capabilitycritical-importantfluctuation-rise and
fallinstability-unstablenesselucidate-make clear




Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
13. roundabout
circuitous,   deviating, sidelong,   oblique,   indirect


14. force
magnitude,    strength, power,   severity, intensity
15. continuation
period,      span,      term,      stretch, duration


16. break up
disband,       dissipate,       scatter,       strew, disperse


17. the same
alike,     kindred,       uniform,       consistent,        homogeneous


18. cell
cubicle,      room,       stall,    booth,      compartment


19. guideline
measure, barometer, gauge,                       yardstick, criterion


20. capability
untapped ability, capacity, makings, possibility,                             potential


21. important
crucial,      decisive, pivotal,           grave, critical


22. rise and fall
oscillation,      vacillation,       waver, shift, fluctuation


23. unstableness
unsteadiness, shakiness, fickleness,                        imbalance,         instability


24. make clear
spell out,      clarify,     illuminate,       interpret, elucidate
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13.      Roundabout(멀리 돌아가는)
Circuitous(우회로의), Deviating(빗나가는), Sidelong(옆으로 향한), Oblique(간접적인), Indirect(우회하는)
14.      Force(힘)
Magnitude(크기), Strength(세기), Power(능력), Severity(강도), Intensity(강도)


15.      Continuation(연속)
Period(기간), Span(기간), Term(기간), Stretch(연속), Duration(지속)
16.   Break up(해체하다)
Disband(해산하다), Dissipate(분산시키다), Scatter(뿌리다), Strew(흩뿌리다), Disperse(헤어지게 하다)


17.   The same(~과 같은)
Alike(마찬가지로), Kindred(유사한), Uniform(일정한), Consistent(일치하는), Homogeneous(동종의)


18.   Cell(독실)
Cubicle(침실), Room(방), Stall(노점), Booth(노점), Compartment(객실)


19.   Guideline(지침)
Measure(도량법), Barometer(기압계), gauge(표준치수), Yardstick(표준), Criterion(규범)


20.   Capability(능력)
Untapped ability(개발되지 않은 능력), Capacity(수용 능력), Makings(소질), Possibility(가능성), Potential(잠재
능력)


21.   Important(중요한)
Crucial(결정적인), Decisive(중추적인), Pivotal(주축의), Grave(중대한), Critical(중요한)


22.   Rise and fall(오르락 내리락)
Oscillation(진동), Vacillation(동요), Waver(동요), Shift(변동), Fluctuation(변동)


23.   Unstableness(안정성 없는)
Unsteadiness(불안정), Shakiness(동요), Fickleness(변덕), Imbalance(불균형), Instability(불안정)


24.   Make clear(명료하게 하다)
Spell out(명료하게 설명하다), Clarify(상세하게 말하다), Illuminate(명백히 하다), Interpret(해명하다),
Elucidate(명료히 하다)
Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[   Guidewords]
roundabout,     force, continuation,           break up, the same,     cell,   guideline, capability,   important, rise
and fall,   unstableness, make clear


1.________________
period,     span,    term,     strength,   duration
________________


2.________________
magnitude,     imbalance, power,           severity,   intensity
________________


3.________________
unsteadiness, shakiness, fickleness,              waver, instability
________________


4.________________
circuitous,    deviating,      decisive,   oblique,    indirect
________________


5.________________
cubicle,    room,     stall,   stretch, compartment
________________


6.________________
alike,    kindred,    uniform,     sidelong,    homogeneous
________________


7.________________
spell out,     strew, illuminate,    interpret, elucidate
________________


8.________________
crucial,     consistent, pivotal,     grave, critical
________________


9.________________
oscillation,    vacillation,   possibility,   shift,   fluctuation
________________


10.________________
untapped ability, capacity, makings, gauge, potential
________________


11.________________
measure, barometer, booth,             yardstick, criterion
________________


12.________________
disband,      dissipate,   scatter, clarify,     disperse
________________


[ Answer ] :
1-continuation, all words are synonymous
2-force, imbalance
3-unstability, waver
4-roundabout, all words are synonymous
5-cell, stretch
6-the same, sidelong
7-make clear, strew
8-important, consistent
9-rise and fall, possibility
10-capability, gauge
11-guideline, booth
12-break up, clarify
Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1.A criterion for any spray is that it does not injure the plant itself and that it is as specific as possible for the
pest involved, i.e., that it inflict minimal damage to beneficial insects and to wildlife.
a. guideline     b. term        c. gauge       d. yardstick (19)


2.There are printing works, food processing, engineering, and other light industries, developed under a
government program undertaken to disperse London's population and industry to surrounding counties.
a. measure       b. break up      c. disband       d. dissipate (16)


3.Domestication of wild animal species was a crucial achievement in the prehistoric transition of human
civilization from hunting-and-gathering to agriculture.
a. important       b. decisive      c. grave       d. consistent (21)


4.Illustration is any type of picture or decoration used in conjunction with a text to embellish its appearance
or to clarify its meaning.
a. make clear       b. illuminate      c. interpret       d. disperse (24)


5.Energy, in physics, is the ability or capacity to do work or to produce change.
a. booth       b. capability      c. possibility      d. potential (20)


6.Some diseases are passed on by direct or indirect contact with infected persons or with their excretions.
a. circuitous      b. deviating       c. oblique       d. the same (13)


7.Counterpoint is in music, the art of combining melodies each of which is independent though forming part
of a homogeneous texture.
a. alike     b. kindred        c. uniform      d. roundabout     (17)


8.An arc is characterized by a high current, low voltage, and indefinite duration.
a. continuation       b. severity      c. period       d. span (15)


9.The oxygen tent is composed of a clear plastic sheet suspended over the bed and tucked beneath the
mattress to provide an almost airtight compartment.
a. cubicle      b. room        c. stretch   d. stall (18)


10.Chaos theory is a set of ideas that attempts to reveal structure in aperiodic, unpredictable dynamic
systems such as cloud formation or the fluctuation of biological populations.
a. oscillation          b. vacillation          c. makings            d. rise and fall (22)


11.It is this unsteadiness of purpose that has been to a large extent responsible for the apparent lagging of
the authorities in cases not involving immediate danger to the general health.
a. unstableness             b. shakiness             c. fickleness           d. untapped ability (23)


12.The strength of a chemical reaction is often determined by the potency of the catalyst and the
concentration of the reactions.
a. force         b. magnitude             c. guideline           d. intensity (14)




[ Answer ] : 1.b 2.a 3.d 4.d 5.a 6.d 7.d 8.b 9.c 10.c 11.d 12.c




Chapter 3

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


Although oil and water rarely mix, there are some situation when they do. In the following passing, the
different properties of water and oily substances, and the way they mix and separate, are briefly discussed.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


coalesce ,         mesh,        porous ,       repellent , density , buoyant                  , vacuum,   placement ,   perforate ,
prevent,       viscosity ,      drastic


Listening Instruction 2
Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.
We have the situation of separation of either oily droplets from the water (de-oiling), or draining of
emulsified water from a chocolate mousse type of water-in-oil emulsion. In both cases we are talking
about separation, or settling and coalescing of droplets.
The droplet diameter is squared and therefore has considerable influence on the rate of separation. It is
important to increase the droplet size. In practical separator engineering this is done by coalescing devices
such as oleophilic meshes, porous media, coalescence plates, etc. Applying oscillating electrostatic fields
and heat to enhance collisions between droplets, adding surfactants to lower the oil-water interfacial
tension destabilizes the natural emulsifiers and lowers the electrostatic repellent forces between the
droplets.
The rate of separation is also increased if we can increase the density difference of the phases. This might
be done by adding buoyant gas bubbles to the oil droplets or heavy particles to water droplets in
w/o-emulsions (chocolate mousse). The application of gas bubble flotation is widely used in the industry
and one method for creating gas bubbles is to apply a vacuum above a saturated liquid. This process named
vacuum flotation forms gas bubbles in the dispersed oil droplets and can be very effective in clearing out oily
water. It is believed that part of the reported efficiency of the MSRC oil-water separator is due to this
process because of the separators placement at the suction side of the oil cargo pump.
The opposite process that of adding heavy particles to an emulsion to adhere to the water droplet and
enhance the water droplet separation rate is more rare. This process also has the ability to perforate the
rigid interfacial films that are formed when emulsions are weathered, and form channels to drain the water
phase from the rigid oily film matrix. The principal author has separated heavy emulsion by adding
de-emulsifiers and sand in the size of 24 mm with good efficiency. When using this process care must be
taken to find the right chemical to prevent the formation of a new waste in the form of oily sand.
Finally the rate of separation of droplets can be increased by lowering the viscosity of the continuous phase.
When the continuous phase is water, little can be done. However in the case of a w/o-emulsion, heating the
oil phase will generally lower the viscosity drastically. In the standard heater treatment units used by the
petroleum industry to break and separate heavy w/o-emulsions, applying heat both enhances the chemical
activity and increases the settling rate by lowering the continuous phase viscosity.
Continuous heating of a large volume of recovered oil spill can be both difficult and expensive.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
작은 기름 방울을 물에서 분리하거나 초콜렛 무스와 같은 유상액에서 유화물을 분리한 경험이 있을 것이다. 이
두가지 경우에, 액체의 분리나 침강 그리고 유착(coalesing)에 관한 것이다.
방울 직경은 정사각형으로 만들어져서, 분리 속도에 상당한 영향을 미친다. 방울 크기를 증가하는 것은 매우
중요하다. 실제 분리 정제하는 공학분야에서, 친유성 망사(oleophilic meshes)나 공극 매체(porous media)
그리고 coalescence plates와 같은 장비로 크기를 증가시킨다. 방물사이에 충돌을 강화하기 위해 진동하는
정전기장과 열을 적용하면서, 여기에 물과 기름의 계면 사이의 팽창력을 감소시키는 계면활성제를 첨가하는 것은
방울 사이의 자연 유화액을 불안정하게 시키고, 방울사이에 정전기 척력을 낮추게 한다.
각 상(Phase)의 밀도 차이를 증가시킨다면 분리속도를 증가시킬 수 있다. 기름 방울에다 부력이 있는 가스
거품을 더한다거나 유상액 안에 있는 물방울에다 무거운 입자(heavy particle)를 첨가한다면 밀도 차이를 증가
시킬 수 있다. 부력이 있는 가스 거품을 첨가하는 방식은 널리 사용되고 있으며, 부력이 있는 가스 거품을
만드는 방식은 포화된 액체 윗면에 진공 상태를 적용하는 방법이다. 이 방식은 분산된 기름 방울안에 진공
상태인 가스 거품을 만들어낸다. 그리고 이 방식은 기름으로 얼룩진 물을 정화하는데 매우 유용하다. 'MSRC
물/기름 분리기' 효율성의 일부는 이런 공정 때문이며, 이런 공정은 기름 저장 펌프의 흡입실 측면에 있는
분리기의 배치 때문이다.
이와 반대 방식인 무거운 입자를 유상액에 첨가하여 분리 속도를 증가시키는 방식은 거의 사용하지 않고 있다.
이 공정 또한 유상액이 자연적으로 건조 되었을 때, 생기는 단단한 계면의 막을 뚫을 수 있는 기능이 있다. 또한
단단한 기름 막 모형에서 물이 빠지는 단계 시기에 경로를 형성하기도 한다. 이 이론의 창시자는 무거운
유상액을 비유상액과 모래를 첨부해서 24mm의 크기이내의 높은 효율성으로 분리했다. 여기서 주의할 점은
기름기 모래의 형태로 생길 수 있는 쓰레기가 나오는 것을 방지하기 위해서는 적절한 화학약품을 찾아야 한다는
것이다.
마지막으로, 연속 상에서의 점성(viscosity)을 낮음으로서 (기름)방울 분리 속도를 높일 수 있다. 만약 연속 상이
물일때, 적용할 수 있는 공정은 거의 없다. W/o 유상액의 경우에, 열을 가하는 것만으로도 점성을 확연하게 줄일
수 있다. 석유 산업에서 사용하고 있는 표준 가열 처리기는 가열로 중 유상액(Heavy emulsion)의 결합을 끈고
분리한다. 열을 이용함으로써 화학 활동을 강화하고 가라앉는 속도를 높임으로써 연속 상에서의 점성을 낮게
한다. 기름을 분리하기 위한 지속적인 가열은 어렵고 비용이 많이 든다.


[   Glossary]
emulsion : Chemistry. Any stable mixture of two or more immiscible liquids where one liquid is dispersed in
the other.
Electrostatic field : Electricity. An electric field with constant intensity, such as that produced by stationary
charges.
Surfactant : Material Science. Any surface-active agent or substance that modifies the nature of surfaces.
Continuous phase : Chemistry. The major component in a mixture or solution, within which the major
component is contained.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
coalesceㆍ
meshㆍ
porousㆍ
repellentㆍ
densityㆍ
buoyantㆍ
vacuumㆍ
placementㆍ
perforateㆍ
preventㆍ
viscosityㆍ
drasticㆍ




ㆍholey
ㆍcome together
ㆍnet
ㆍfloaty
ㆍconcentration
ㆍstickiness
ㆍdistasteful
ㆍemptiness
ㆍlocation
ㆍinterfere
ㆍextreme
ㆍpierce


 [ Answer ] : coalesce-come
togethermesh-netporous-holeyrepellent-distastefuldensity-concentrationbuoyant-floatyvacuum-em
ptinessplacement-locationperforate-pierceprevent-interfereviscosity-stickinessdrastic-extreme
Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
25. come together
merge,       fuse,    weld,      cohere, coalesce


26. net
web,      plexus ,       grid ,    lattice ,     mesh


27. holey
poriferous,          pervious,     absorbent,       penetrable,       porous


28. distasteful
obnoxious,       repugnant ,         impermeable ,          repulsive ,   repellent


29. concentration
thickness,       compactness,           crowdedness ,        denseness , density


30. floaty
light,    weightless ,         bouncy,        animated ,    buoyant


31. emptiness
void ,    nothingness ,           blankness ,      vacuity , vacuum


32. location
situating ,     position ,        putting ,     standing,      placement


33. pierce
bore,     puncture ,          punch ,    prick , perforate
34. interfere
obstruct ,        hinder ,        preclude ,         avert ,       prevent


35. stickiness
cohesiveness,             tackiness ,          adhesion ,         gumminess ,          viscosity


36. extreme
outlandish,         radical ,        dire ,      immoderate ,          drastic
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
25.      Come together(모이다)
Merge(합병시키다), Fuse(용해시키다), Weld(용접하다), Cohere(응집하다), Coalesce(합체하다)


26.      Net(그물)
Web(망), Plexus(망), Grid(격자), Lattice(격자 모양의 것), Mesh(그물코)


27.      Holey(구멍이 뚫린)
Poriferous(작은 구멍이 있는), Pervious(침투시키는), Absorbent(흡수성의), Penetrable(관통할 수 있는),
Porous(구멍투성이의)


28.      Distasteful(싫은)
Obnoxious(아주 싫은), Repugnant(반항하는), Impermeable(불침투성의), Repulsive(반발하는),
Repellent(반발하는)


29.      Concentration(집중)
Thickness(밀집), Compactness(압축), Crowdedness(만원), Denseness(밀도), Density(밀도)


30.      Floaty(뜨기 쉬운),
Light(가벼운), Weightless(무게가 없는), Bouncy(탄력성 있는), Animated(생기 있는), Buoyant(쾌활한)


31.      Emptiness(공백)
Void(공간), Nothingness(무), Blankness(공허함), Vacuity(진공), Vacuum(진공)


32.      Location(지역)
Situation(처지), Position(지위), Putting(격식), Standing(신분), Placement(배치)
33.       Pierce(구멍을 내다)
Bore(꿰뚫다), Puncture(찌르기), Punch(관통하다), Prick(뚫다), Perforate(바늘구멍을 송송내다)


34.       Interfere(방해하다)
Obstruct(훼방 놓다), Hinder(지연시키다), Preclude(가로막다), Avert(회피하다), Prevent(예비하다)


35.       Stickiness(끈적거림)
Cohesiveness(점착성), Tackiness(고정), Adhesion,(접합) Gumminess(아교), Viscosity(점성)


36.       Extreme(극단적인)
Outlandish(이국풍의), Radical(과격한), Dire(끔찍한), Immoderate(과도한), Drastic(강렬한)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[   Guidewords]
come together,     net,     holey,   distasteful,     concentration,   floaty,   emptiness,   location, pierce,
interfere ,    stickiness , extreme


1.________________
obstruct ,     hinder ,     avert    ,     cohere ,    prevent
________________


2.________________
bore,      puncture ,      punch ,       prick , perforate
________________


3.________________
thickness,      lattice,     crowdedness ,       denseness , density
________________
4.________________
web,     plexus ,     grid ,       adhesion ,     mesh
________________


5.________________
light,   weightless ,         bouncy,     repugnant ,      buoyant
________________


6.________________
merge,    fuse,     weld,     preclude,     coalesce
________________


7.________________
void ,   nothingness ,             compactness,        vacuity , vacuum
________________
8.________________
outlandish ,      radical ,        animated ,    immoderate , drastic
________________


9.________________
cohesiveness,         tackiness ,         position ,      gumminess ,   viscosity
________________


10.________________
obnoxious,        penetrable ,         impermeable ,       repulsive , repellent
________________


11.________________
situating ,    blankness       ,     putting ,    standing,     placement
________________


12.________________
poriferous,       pervious,        absorbent,     dire,     porous
________________


[ Answer ] :
1-interfere, cohere
2-pierce, all words are synonymous
3-concentration, lattice
4-net, adhesion
5-floaty, repugnant
6-come together, preclude
7-emptiness, compactness
8-extreme, animated
9-stickiness, position
10-distasteful, penetrable
11-location, blackness
12-holely, dire


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1.It was originally used in diesel engines because of diesel fuel's greater viscosity and the need to overcome
the high pressure of the compressed air in the cylinders.
a. cohesiveness       b. tackiness c    . adhesion       d. crowdedness (35)


2.Was it not a bright thought that made things cohere with this bitumen, fastest of cements?
a. come together       b. merge        c. weld      d. interfere (25)


3.The regularly arranged walls of cork cells are impregnated with a waxy material, called suberin, that is
almost impermeable to water or gases.
a. pervious      b. obnoxious       c. repugnant       d. repellent (28)


4.The seed is peculiarly adapted to dispersal by water because the large pod holding the nut is buoyant and
impervious to moisture.
a. light    b. weightless       c. repulsive       d. bouncy (30)


5.They also puncture the wax caps of honey cells causing honey leakage and making the punctured comb
honey unmarketable.
a. pierce       b. punch    c. perforate         d. extreme (33)


6.Something in the intricate, never quite penetrable fiber of the heroine sends her in the end back to her
husband for the sake of her stepdaughter.
a. poriferous      b. distasteful      c. absorbent       d. porous (27)
7.For a fluid at rest the difference in pressure between two points in it depends only upon the density of the
fluid and the difference in depth between the two points.
a. concentration        b. thickness       c. compactness            d. emptiness (29)


8.These rakers, which are attached to the inside of the gill arches, form a fine mesh that serves as a strainer.
a. net      b. web      c. floaty      d. grid (26)


9.He smiled at them as if he were going to speak, but there was a weak blankness in his eyes.
a. emptiness         b. stickiness     c. nothingness       d. vacuity (31)


10.As long as we could hold our position the enemy was limited in supplies of food, men and munitions of war
to what they had on hand.
a. vacuum        b. location        c. standing       d. placement (32)


11.Great crustal disturbances that marked the close of the Paleozoic and the beginning of the Mesozoic eras
brought about drastic changes in the topography of North America.
a. outlandish        b. radical      c. immoderate        d. prick    (36)


12.They are commonly used to prevent rejection by a recipient's body of an organ transplanted from a donor.
a. interfere      b. obstruct        c. coalesce       d. hinder (34)


[ Answer ] :
1. d 2. d      3. a 4. c   5. d 6. b     7. d 8. c     9. b 10. a     11. d 12. c
Chapter 4

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


Reproductive health is a topic of frequent discussion. In the following passage, some of the environmental
factors that lead to the decline in male reproductive health is outlined. The author also shares his opinions
on the current state of research and discussion on this topic.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


enormous,           invariably ,        postulate ,         circumstantial ,           circumspect , introductory ,   fertility,
plausible ,      highlight ,        straightforward , infertile ,                heterogeneous




Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


The topics of adverse changes in human male reproductive health (fall in sperm counts, increase in the
incidence of testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and hypospadias) and that of 'environmental estrogens', have
attracted enormous scientific, public and governmental attention over the past 6 or so years. Though the
two topics have invariably been linked together in a postulated cause and effect manner, there is only
circumstantial evidence to support such a relationship. Whilst such 'absence of data' should not be
interpreted as proof that such a causal relationship does not exist, it should also make us circumspect in
dealing with this issue and cause us to use scientific rather than emotional criteria when judging or
'weighing' the relevant data. From these introductory remarks it should be clear already to the reader that I
will be unable to offer any proof that environmental estrogens either do or do not affect human male fertility.
Whilst this may be less than ideal, it should not cause us to lose sight of three important facts.
First, adverse trends in male reproductive health have occurred over the past 50 years, although the extent
of this change and whether it is truly world-wide are more debatable.
Second, a biologically plausible case can be made for environmental estrogens inducing adverse changes in
male reproductive health, although plausibility does not tell us anything about likelihood.
Third, there is no doubt that human exposure to environmental estrogens has altered considerably in the
past 50 years, although we do not have accurate measures of how great this change has been nor what
relative impact it has had on 'total estrogen exposure' of the individual. This chapter will attempt to
summarize our current understanding on each of these points and in doing so will hopefully highlight the
strengths and weaknesses of the arguments which relate these three topics one to another.
There are no simple straightforward means of assessing fertility in the male based on measurement of
sperm numbers, motility, morphology etc. Insofar as we understand the causes of infertility in men, one
thing is clear there are multiple causes and the infertile male population are therefore a heterogeneous
group. This means that assumptions about commonality of aetiology in individuals who present with the
same semen analysis (e.g. oligozoospermia) cannot be made. Therefore, in considering male infertility in
relation to exposure to environmental estrogens, it is appropriate to take a very broad view rather than to
simply focus on one aspect such as sperm counts, important though this may be.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
남성 생식기의 낮은 정자 수, 고환암 발생 수 폭등, 잠복 고환이나 요도 하열과 같은 역변화 (Adverse Change)
와 환경 에스트로젠 사이의 주제는 이 6년 이상이나 과학계와 공공기관 그리고 정부 차원의 비상한 관심을
끌었다. 이 두 화제는 일관되게 그럴듯한 원인과 결과로 연결되어 있다. 이런 관계에 대해서 뒷받침하는 정황적
증거만 존재한다. 한편 자료가 없는 경우라도 아무런 관계가 없다는 증거로 해석이 되면 안 된다. 또한 우리가
신중하게 이 문제를 다루어야 하고 또한 감정적인 기준보다 과학적인 기준으로 관련 정보들을 판단해야 한다. 이
서론으로부터 환경 에스트로젠이 남성 생식 능력에 영향이 있는지 없는지의 증거는 필자가 제공 못한다는 것을
독자들은 이미 알았을 것이다. 이런 현실이 이상적이지는 못하지만 여기서 중요한 세가지 사실을 지나쳐서는 안
된다.
우선, 남성 생식기의 역추세 (Adverse trend)는 이미 50년전부터 시작되었다. 그러나 이 변화 범위와
전세계적으로 그런지에 대한 여부는 아직도 논쟁의 여지가 있다.
두 번째로 남성 생식기의 역추세 유도하는 환경 에스트로겐이 생물학적으로 생긴 것 같은 경우이지만, 그런
그럴듯함의 가능성은 우리에게                              아무것도 말해주지 않는다.
세 번째로 지난 50년간 환경 에스토로젠에 대한 인간의 노출이 상당히 많이 변경됐다는 사실에 의심할 여지가
없지만, 우리는 이 변화가 어떻게 바뀌었는가를 잴 수 있는(계량화할 수 있는) 정확한 치수가 없다. 또한
개개인에게 에스트로젠 노출이 어떠한 영향을 주었는지도 모른다. 이 장에서는 각 요점에 대한 현시점에서 알고
있는 지식을 요약하고 그럼으로 인해서 각 요점과 연관되는 주장의 장점과 단점을 강조할 것이다.
정자 수 측량, 운동수 검사, 형태학과 같은 실험 방식을 근거로 간단하고도 확실하게 남성 번식률을 평가 할 수
있는 방법은 없다. 왜 남성 불모가 생기는지를 이해하면서 한가지 명확한 것은 남서 볼모 증세는 다수의
원인들이 있고 불모 증세를 가지고 있는 남성 인구는 이질적인 그룹이란 것이다. 이 의미는 같은 정자분석을
나타내는 개개인의 정자 일반 원인론 가설은 나타날 수 없다는 것이다. 결론은 남성 불모 증세에 환경
에스트로젠이 미치는 영향을 연구할 때는 정자수 측량 방법과 같은 한 연구 결과만 보지말고 더 넓은 시각에서
바라봐야 할 것이다.


[   Glossary]
cryptorchidism    : Medicine. A developmental abnormality in which the testes fail to descend normally into
the scrotum and remain in the abdomen.
Hypospadias : Medicine. An office caused by a defect in the wall of the urethra.
Estrogen : Endocrinology. Any of a family of steroid hormones that regulate and sustain female sexual
development and reproductive function.
Motility : Physiology. The capacity for spontaneous movement.
Morphology : Biology. The study of the form and structure of organisms, especially their external form.
etiology : Science. Any cause or study of causes.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
Enormousㆍ
invariablyㆍ
postulateㆍ
circumstantialㆍ
circumspectㆍ
introductoryㆍ
fertilityㆍ
plausibleㆍ
highlightㆍ
straightforwardㆍ
infertileㆍ
heterogeneousㆍ




ㆍunvaryingly
ㆍbig
ㆍbeginning
ㆍcareful
ㆍassume
ㆍhonest
ㆍincidental
ㆍunderline
ㆍunfruitful
ㆍdifferent
ㆍrichness
ㆍbelievable




[ Answer ] :
enormous-biginvariably-unvaryinglypostulate-assumecircumstantial-incidentalcircumspect-carefulin
troductory-beginningfertility-richnessplausible-believablehighlight-underlinestraightforward-honesti
nfertile-unfruitfulheterogeneous-different


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


37. big
giant ,      immense ,    mammoth ,       astronomical ,     enormous


38. unvarying
unchanging ,       constant ,    consistent ,      unwavering ,   invariably


39. assume
suppose ,       guess ,    theorize ,    hypothesize ,     postulate


40. incidental
extrinsic ,     secondary ,     inferred ,    contingent ,    circumstantial
41. careful
mindful ,      chary ,    cautious,     wary ,    circumspect


42. beginning
starting ,     preliminary ,    prefatory ,      preparatory , introductory
43. richness
fruitfulness ,        profuseness ,           prolificacy ,           fecundity ,       fertility


44. believable
credible ,        reasonable ,          probable ,          possible ,        plausible


45. underline
stress ,       accentuate ,          punctuate ,            spotlight ,      highlight


46. honest
frank ,      candid ,        forthright ,         up-front        ,     straightforward


47. unfruitful
barren ,        sterile ,      unproductive ,            depleted , infertile


48. different
dissimilar ,        incongruous,            disparate ,         unrelated ,         heterogeneous
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
37.      Big(큰)
Giant(거대한), Immense(헤아릴 수 없는), Mammoth(터무니없이 큰), Astronomical(수양거리등이 엄청난),
Enormous(막대한)


38.      Unvaryingly(언제나)
Unchangingly(변함없이), Constantly(끊임없이), Consistently(일관성있게), Unwaveringly(동요하지 않는),
Invariably(일정 불면하게)


39.      Assume(가정하다)
Suppose(추정하다), Guess(추측하다), Theorize(학설을 세우다), Hypothesize(가설하다), Postulate(간주하다)
40.       Incidental(부수적인)
Extrinsic(고유의 것이 아닌), Secondary(제 2의), Inferred(, Contingent(~에 의존적인), Circumstantial(중요하지
않은,이차적인)


41.       Careful(주의 깊은)
Mindful(신경을 쓰는), Chary(세심한), Cautious(신중한), Wary(경계하고있는), Circumspect(용의 주도한)


42.       Beginning(개시)
Starting(출발점), Preliminary(예비의), Prefatory(서두의), Preparatory(~의 예비인), Introductory(소개의)


43.       Richness(풍부)
Fruitfulness(풍요), Profuseness(과다), Prolificacy(다산,다작), Fecundity(비옥), Fertility(땅의 비옥도)


44.       Believable(믿을 수 있는)
Credible(신용할 수 있는), Reasonable(이치에 맞는), Probable(가망이 있는), Possible(일어남직한),
Plausible(논의진술이야기 등이 그럴듯한)


45.       Underline(밑줄을 긋다)
Stress(강조하다), Accentuate(역설하다), Punctuate(구두점을 찍다), Spotlight(각광을 받게 하다), Highlight(눈에
띄게 하다)


46.       Honest(정직한)
Frank(솔직한), Candid(숨김없는), Forthright(입바른), Up-front(터놓고 말하는), Straightforward(부정 없는)


47.       Unfruitful(헛된)
Barren(무익한), Sterile(메마른), Unproductive(비생산적인), Depleted(불모의), Infertile(흉작의)


48.       Different(다른)
Dissimilar(닮지 않은), Incongruous(조화되지 않은), Disparate(본질적으로 다른), Unrelated(관련이 없는),
Heterogeneous(이질적인)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[   Guidewords]
big ,     unvarying,        assume ,      incidental ,        careful ,     beginning ,    richness ,   believable ,
underline ,      honest ,     unfruitful ,      different ,


1.________________
giant ,      disparate ,     mammoth ,          astronomical ,       enormous
________________


2.________________
suppose ,        punctuate     ,    theorize ,      hypothesize ,          postulate
________________


3.________________
mindful ,      chary ,      cautious,       contingent,        circumspect
________________


4.________________
starting ,     preliminary ,       wary ,      preparatory ,       introductory
________________


5.________________
fruitfulness ,     profuseness ,          up-front ,      fecundity ,        fertility
________________


6.________________
unchanging ,        constant ,      consistent ,       immense ,           invariably
________________


7.________________
extrinsic ,      secondary ,       inferred ,      unwavering ,           circumstantial
________________


8.________________
frank ,      candid ,      forthright ,      prolificacy ,      straightforward
________________


9.________________
stress ,     accentuate ,     guess ,      spotlight , highlight
________________


10.________________
barren ,       reasonable ,   unproductive ,      depleted , infertile
________________


11.________________
dissimilar ,     incongruous,     sterile ,    unrelated ,     heterogeneous
________________


12.________________
credible ,      prefatory ,   probable ,      possible ,     plausible
________________


[ Answer ] :
1-big, disparate
2-assume, punctuate
3-careful, contingent
4-beginning, wary
5-richness, up-front
6-unvaryingly, immensely
7-incidental, unwavering
8-honest, prolificacy
9-underline, guess
10-unfruitful, reasonable
11-different, sterile
12-believable, prefatory


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)
1.If females, which mate only once, mate with a sterile male, the eggs fail to hatch. Blowflies are classified in
the phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta, order Diptera, family Calliphoridae.
a. forthright      b. barren       c. unproductive       d. infertile (47)


2.It forms an azeotrope (constant-boiling mixture) that has the composition 68% nitric acid and 32% water
and that boils at 120.5 °C.
a. unvarying      b. unchanging        c. incidental      d. consistent (38)


3.A contingent theory involved with the theory of black holes is the existence of anti-matter particles in our
universe.
a. invariable     b. incidental      c. contingent      d. circumstantial (40)


4.Fire ants, one of the most numerous breeds, are large, rugged, solid-red animals, noted for hardiness
and prolificacy.
a. richness      b. fruitfulness      c. highlight     d. profuseness (43)


5.Recent flyby spacecraft have accumulated extensive physical data, allowing geophysicists to theorize, by
analogy to geophysical earth studies, about the underlying structures, atmospheres, and magnetospheres
of other planets and satellites in the solar system.
a. assume        b. suppose        c. underline      d. postulate (39)


6.The composition of a group may be heterogenous with reference to the age of the members or the type of
problem.
a. dissimilar      b. depleted       c. incongruous       d. disparate (48)


7.Like donkeys, they are of a cautious and temperamental disposition and require expert handling to
perform well.
a. careful      b. mindful       c. chary    d. unwavering (41)


8.The delicate foliated details make plausible an original in metalwork.
a. circumspect       b. credible       c. reasonable      d. probable (44)


9.Cornstarch is material made by pulverizing the ground, dried residue of corn grains after preparatory
soaking and the removal of the embryo and the outer covering.
a. preliminary      b. prefatory       c. secondary      d. introductory (42)
10.During the cold war, the nuclear strategies of the United States and the USSR ranged from
straightforward deterrence to the threat of massive retaliation during the early 1950s, to limited forward
deployment in the late 1950s, to various forms of flexible response in the 1960s.
a. honest        b. frank        c. possible     d. candid (46)


11.Antonio was a leading exponent of the neoclassical school whose influence on the art of his time was
enormous.
a. big       b. immense          c. giant    d. unvarying (37)


12.King's inability to play guitar and sing simultaneously led him to use the guitar to punctuate his songs,
relying heavily on his left hand to achieve rich, textural tones with dramatic vibrato.
a. underline         b. stress      c. accentuate       d. theorize (45)


[ Answer ] :
1. a     2. c 3. a    4. c   5. c 6. b      7. d 8. a   9. c 10. c       11. d 12.d




Review Exercise

Reading Instructions
All the words from this unit are found in the exercise below. Each sentence contains one word in bold type
from all the drills in this unit. Select the word from the choices below that can replace the word in the bold
type. (The word numbers from all the Drills in the unit are in parentheses. These will help if you need to look
back.)


1.By the best standards it should have a fusion point higher than 1,600°C.
a. connection         b. coalescence           c. melding     d. blend (7)


2.Romney's best portraits are ranked among the finest of the English school. His portraits of women are
facile and charming, those of men more studied and impressive
a. easy        b. simple      c. effortless        d. superficial (10)


3.The conspiracy can be proved by circumstantial evidence.
a. extrinsic         b. inferred     c. contingent       d. circumspect (40)
4.Due to the porous soil and rapid evaporation, much of its course is underground except during the short
wet season.
a. holey      b. distasteful     c. poriferous          d. penetrable (27)


5.Purbeck is filled with the clays of the Hampshire Basin, and is therefore largely infertile.
a. disparate       b. barren       c. sterile     d. unproductive (47)


6.Photo-surveillance satellites provide photographs of enemy military activities, e.g., the deployment of
intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).
a. supply      b. equip       c. furnish     d. link    (1)


7.Genesee valley is noted for its fertility and beauty.
a. richness       b. profuseness           c. tackiness       d. prolificacy (44)


8.Both in his own novels and in his critical writing, Howells was a champion of realism in American literature.
a. consistent      b. crucial       c. decisive         d. grave (21)


9.Gozan is, in the Bible, fertile country bordering on the Habor, to which the Assyrians carried the Israelites.
a. alongside       b. abutting       c. mundane          d. contiguous (2)


10.Education is any process, either formal or informal, that shapes the potential of a maturing organism.
a. capability     b. criterion     c. makings          d. possibility (19)


11.Some are also used in the treatment of diabetes. Because sulfa drugs were first used to elucidate ways in
which substances can interfere with the metabolism of invading microorganisms, they are of historical
interest.
a. clarify    b. dissipate       c. illuminate         d. interpret (24)


12.Whirlwind is revolving mass of air resulting from local atmospheric instability, such as that caused by
intense heating of the ground by the sun on a hot summer day.
a. unstableness       b. fickleness          c. imbalance         d. vacillation (23)


13.Butiman can be in the from of a viscous oil to a brittle solid, including asphalt, tars, and natural mineral
waxes.
a. gluey      b. universal       c. gummy         d. adhesive (4)


14.When the Foot Resolution was introduced, the advocates of states' rights saw an opportunity to coalesce
with the interests of the West.
a. merge        b. disperse       c. weld        d. cohere (25)


15.Space capsules have air locks to enable astronauts to move between the pressurized cabin and the near
vacuum of space.
a. emptiness           b. void   c. blankness       d. stickiness    (31)


16.He is invariably the offspring of compromise after rival factions have deadlocked the convention.
a. incidental         b. unvarying     c. unchanging         d. constant (38)


17.The first Earth Day was organized in 1970 to promote the ideas of ecology, encourage respect for life on
earth, and highlight growing concern over pollution of the soil, air, and water.
a. underline          b. accentuate       c. postulate      d. punctuate (45)


18.The diamond, being largely water repellent, sticks to the grease, but the other minerals retain a film of
water, which prevents them from adhering to the grease.
a. obnoxious           b. repugnant       c. impermeable        d. absorbent (28)


19.The magnitude and intensity of an earthquake is determined by the use of scales, e.g., the Richter scale
and the Mercalli scale.
a. magnitude           b. continuation      c. strength       d. severity (14)


20.The term implies ordered placement of its openings and other features and thus seems inapplicable to a
wall without design.
a. location       b. position        c. gumminess         d. putting (32)


[ Answer ] :
1. a   2. d    3. d    4. b   5. a 6. d   7. c 8. a      9. c 10. b 11. b   12. d 13. b 14. b 15. d   16. a   17. c 18.
d 19. b       20. c
Additional Topics in Chemistry



Oxidation and Reduction
 Chemical reactions characterized by the dramatically or gain, respectively, of one or more electrons by an
atom or molecule. Originally the term oxidation was used to refer to a reaction in which oxygen combined
with an element or compound, e.g., the reaction of magnesium with oxygen to form magnesium oxide or the
combination of carbon monoxide with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. Similarly, reduction referred to a
decrease in the amount of oxygen in a substance or its complete removal, e.g., the reaction of cupric oxide
and hydrogen to form copper and water.


When an atom or molecule combines with oxygen, it tends to give up electrons to the oxygen in forming a
chemical bond. Similarly, when it loses oxygen, it tends to gain electrons. Such changes are now described
in terms of changes in the oxidation number, or oxidation state, of the atom or molecule (see valence). Thus
oxidation has come to be defined as a loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation number, while reduction
is defined as a gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation number, whether
or not oxygen itself is actually involved in the reaction.


In the formation of magnesium oxide from magnesium and oxygen, the magnesium atoms have lost two
electrons, or the oxidation number has increased from zero to +2. This is also true when magnesium reacts
with chlorine to form magnesium chloride. In solution, ferrous iron (oxidation number +2) may be oxidized to
ferric iron (oxidation number +3) by the loss of an electron. In the reduction of cupric oxide the oxidation
number of copper has changed from +2 to zero by the gain of two electrons. The two processes, oxidation
and reduction, occur simultaneously and in chemically equivalent quantities. In the formation of magnesium
chloride, for every magnesium atom oxidized by a loss of two electrons, two chlorine atoms are reduced by a
gain of one electron each.


Oxidation-reduction reactions, called also redox reactions, are most simply balanced in the form of
chemical equations by arranging the quantities of the substances involved so that the number of electrons
lost by one substance is equaled by the number gained by another substance. In such reactions, the
substance losing electrons (undergoing oxidation) is said to be an electron donor, or reductant, since its lost
electrons are given to and reduce the other substance. Conversely, the substance that is gaining electrons
(undergoing reduction) is said to be an electron acceptor, or oxidant.


Common reductants (substances readily oxidized) are the active metals, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide,
carbon, carbon monoxide, and sulfurous acid. Common oxidants (substances readily reduced) include the
halogens (especially fluorine and chlorine), oxygen, ozone, potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate,
nitric acid, and concentrated sulfuric acid. Some substances are capable of acting either as reductants or
as oxidants, e.g., hydrogen peroxide and nitrous acid.


The corrosion of metals is a naturally occurring redox reaction. Industrially, many redox reactions are of
great importance: combustion of fuels; electrolysis (oxidation occurs at the anode and reduction at the
cathode); and metallurgical processes in which free metals are obtained from their ores.




Electrolysis
passage of an electric current through a conducting solution or molten salt that is decomposed in the
process.


The Electrolytic Process
The electrolytic process requires that an electrolyte, an ionized solution or molten metallic salt, complete an
electric circuit between two electrodes. When the electrodes are connected to a source of direct current
one, called the cathode, becomes negatively (-) charged while the other, called the anode, becomes
positively (+) charged. The positive ions in the electrolyte will move toward the cathode and the negatively
charged ions toward the anode. This migration of ions through the electrolyte constitutes the electric
current in that part of the circuit. The migration of electrons into the anode, through the wiring and an
electric generator, and then back to the cathode constitutes the current in the external circuit.


For example, when electrodes are dipped into a solution of hydrogen chloride (a compound of hydrogen and
chlorine) and a current is passed through it, hydrogen gas bubbles off at the cathode and chlorine at the
anode. This occurs because hydrogen chloride dissociates (see dissociation) into hydrogen ions (hydrogen
atoms that have lost
an electron) and chloride ions (chlorine atoms that have gained an electron) when dissolved in water. When
the electrodes are connected to a source of direct current, the hydrogen ions are attracted to the cathode,
where they each gain an electron, becoming hydrogen atoms again. Hydrogen atoms pair off into hydrogen
molecules that bubble off as hydrogen gas. Similarly, chlorine ions are attracted to the anode, where they
each give up an electron, become chlorine atoms, join in pairs, and bubble off as chlorine gas.


Commercial Applications of Electrolysis
Various substances are prepared commercially by electrolysis, e.g., chlorine by the electrolysis of a solution
of common salt; hydrogen by the electrolysis of water; heavy water (deuterium oxide) for use in nuclear
reactors, also by electrolysis of water. A metal such as aluminum is refined by electrolysis. A solution of
aluminum oxide in a molten mineral decomposes into pure aluminum at the cathode and into oxygen at the
anode. In these examples the electrodes are inert.


Electroplating
In electroplating, the plating metal is generally the anode, and the object to be plated is the cathode. A
solution of a salt of the plating metal is the electrolyte. The plating metal is deposited on the cathode, and the
anode replenishes the supply of positive ions, thus gradually being dissolved. Electrotype printing plates,
silverware, and chrome automobile trim are plated by electrolysis.


The English scientist Michael Faraday discovered that the amount of a material deposited on an electrode is
proportional to the amount of electricity used. The ratio of the amount of material deposited in grams to the
amount of electricity used is the electrochemical equivalent of the material. Actual electric consumption
may be as high as four times the theoretical consumption because of such factors as heat loss and
undesirable side reactions.


Electric Cells
An electric cell is an electrolytic system in which a chemical reaction causes a current to flow in an external
circuit; it essentially reverses electrolysis. A battery is a single electric cell (or two or more such cells linked
together for additional power) used as a source of electrical energy. Metal corrosion can take place by
electrolysis in an unintentionally created electric cell. The Italian physicist Alessandro Volta discovered the
principle of the electric cell (see voltaic cell) in 1800. Within a few weeks William Nicholson and Sir Anthony
Carlisle, English scientists, performed the first electrolysis, breaking water down into oxygen and hydrogen.
Unit 5

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Physics



Chapter 1

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


One of the characteristics of insects that has led to their success on this planet is their ability. In the
passage below, some of the ways that we can use our knowledge of insect flight mechanisms are discussed.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


hover,      manoeuvre, precision,                 gap, transmit, surveillance, advance, structure, collaborate,
intrigue,      aspect, applicable


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


Insects are the world's smallest and in many respects most perfect flying machines. Many can hover, fly
slowly and maneuver with great precision. They can navigate through narrow gaps and around complex
spaces, constantly receiving detailed information about their surroundings but keeping it to themselves.
How useful it might be, in surveillance, industrial fault location and so on, if we could build little machines
with similar capabilities to detect and transmit information to us.
Advances in our understanding of insect aerodynamics, energetics and structural mechanics have brought
this objective within reach. Collaborative research between engineers and specialists in insect flight is
under way in at least three countries to develop micro-air-vehicles (MAVs) capable of this kind of
investigatory flight in enclosed situations. Charles Ellington, of the Zoology Department, University of
Cambridge, has published an intriguing account of the aspects of insect flight most applicable to MAV
development, predicting how such a machine might best be designed.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
곤충은 생물체중에서 가장 작고, 가장 완벽한 비행 능력이 있는 것으로 알려져 있다. 많은 곤충들은 공중에서
정지를 할 수 있을 뿐만 아니라 천천히 속도로 날 수도 있다. 또한 매우 정밀한 기동력을 가지고도 있다.
곤충은 복잡한 공간과 좁은 틈 사이로 비행하는 사이에 지속적으로 주변 환경의 세밀한 정보를 받고 이 정보를
자신만이 간직하는 기능을 가지고 있다. 만약 우리가 곤충의 기능을 가지고 우리에게 정보를 송신할 수 있는
기계를 만든다면, 산업 단지와 같은 장소에서 탐지 및 정보 수집 용도로 용이하게 쓰여질 것이다.
곤충의 공기역학(空氣力學), 원동력 및 구조 메커니즘에 대한 규명 진보가 이것을 가능하게 했다. 적어도 곤충
비행 연구의 기술자들과 전문가들간의 공동연구는 작은 공간에서도 정찰 비행 기능이 있는 미세 비행체(MAVs)에
대한 연구가 진행중이다. 캠브리지 대학교 동물학과 교수인 Charles Ellington은 MAV 개발에 적용 할 수 있는
곤충 비행 관점에 대하여 출판했다. 또한 이 기계가 어떤 식으로 디자인이 가장 알맞게 되어야 하는지도 예측이
포함되어 있다.




[ Glossary ]
aerodynamics : Fluid Mechanics. The study of gases in motion and the forces that affect this motion.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
Hoverㆍ
Maneuverㆍ
Precisionㆍ
Gapㆍ
Transmitㆍ
Surveillanceㆍ
Advanceㆍ
Structureㆍ
Collaborateㆍ
Intrigueㆍ
Aspectㆍ
Applicableㆍ
ㆍhole
ㆍfly
ㆍaccuracy
ㆍsend
ㆍbuilding
ㆍclose observation
ㆍmove
ㆍfitting
ㆍimprovement
ㆍwork together
ㆍview
ㆍexcite




[ Answer ] : hover-fly maneuver -moveprecision-accuracygap-holetransmit-sendsurveillance-close
observationadvance-improvementstructure-buildingcollaborate-work
togetherintrigue-exciteaspect-viewapplicable-fitting


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


1. fly
flit,    hang around,   fluctuate,   waver,    hover


2. move
deploy,     operate,    pilot, steer, maneuver


3. accuracy
correctness,     exactness, rectitude,        meticulousness,   precision
4. hole
breach,       hiatus, interim,           lacuna,       gap


5. send
carry,     convey, communicate, channelize,                          transmit


6. close observation
oversight,       watch,       inspection,        supervision,         surveillance


7. improvement
furtherance,         promotion,         progression,         betterment, advance


8. building
edifice,      formation,       organization,          arrangement, structure


9. work together
team up, cooperate, collude,                     coauthor, collaborate


10. excite
fascinate,       interest, pique,           scheme, intrigue


11. view
scene, vista, phase,                facet, aspect


12. fitting
apropos,        germane, relevant, apposite, applicable
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.      Fly(날다)
Flit(휙 날다), Hang around(돌아다니다), Fluctuate(불규칙적으로 움직이다), Waver(펄럭거리다), Hover(~의 위를
날다)


2.      Move(움직이다)
Deploy(배치하다), Operate(작동하다), Pilot(인도하다), Steer(조정하다), Maneuver(조종하다)
3.        Accuracy(정확성)
Correctness(교정), Exactness(정확성), Rectitude(공정), Meticulousness(정확성), Precision(명료함)


4.        Hole(틈)
Breach(갈라진 틈), Hiatus(틈), Interim(짬), Lacuna(누락), Gap(틈)


5.        Send(보내다)
Carry(나르다), Convey(옮기다), Communicate(전염시키다), Channelize(전달하다), Transmit(보내다)


6.        Close observation(깊은 관찰력)
Oversight(감시), Watch(인지), Inspection(면밀한 조사), Supervision(감독), Surveillance(사찰)


7.        Improvement(개선)
Furtherance(촉진), Promotion(추진), Progression(증진), Betterment(향상), Advance(진보)


8.        Building(건물)
Edifice(큰건물), Formation(조성물), Organization(구조), Arrangement(설비), Structure(구성)


9.        Work together(협동하여 일하다)
Team up(협력하다), Cooperate(협조하다), Collude(미리 짜고 일하다), Coauthor(공저하다),
Collaborate(합작하다)


10.       Excite(자극하다)
Fascinate(매혹하다), Interest(관심을 끌다), Pique(자극하다), Scheme(끌어들여 모의하다), Intrigue(호기심을
돋구다)


11.       View(조망)
Scene(경관), Vista(전망), Phase(관점), Facet(양상), Aspect(양상)


12.       Fitting(어울리는)
Apropos(알맞은), Germane(적절한), Relevant(적절한), Apposite(알맞은), Applicable(타당한)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[
    Guidewords ]
fly,    move, accuracy,      hole,     send, close observation,    improvement,   building,   work together,
excite, view, fitting,


1. ________________
oversight,    watch,     inspection,    hiatus,    surveillance
________________


2. ________________
deploy,    waver, pilot,     steer, maneuver
________________


3. ________________
breach,     rectitude,   interim,    lacuna,      gap
________________


4. ________________
correctness,       exactness, facet,      meticulousness,    precision
________________


5. ________________
flit,   hang around,     fluctuate, pique,     hover
________________


6. ________________
apropos,     germane, relevant, collude,            applicable
________________


7. ________________
fascinate,    interest, apposite, scheme, intrigue
________________
8. ________________
team up,     cooperate, channelize,        coauthor,    collaborate
________________


9. ________________
carry,     convey, communicate,        operate, transmit
________________


10. ________________
furtherance,    supervision,     progression,    betterment,    advance
________________


11. ________________
scene, vista, phase, arrangement, aspect
________________


12. ________________
edifice,    formation,     organization,   promotion,   structure
________________


[ Answer ] : 1-close observation, hiatus2-move, waver3-hole, rectitude4-accuracy, facet5-fly,
pique6-fitting, collude7-excite, apposite8-work together, channelize9-send, operate10-improvement,
supervision11-view, arrangement12-building, promotion


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1. He was the most consummate politician in his family and a master of intrigue.
a. fascinate     b. view     c. interest   d. pique (10)


2. No psychologist can expect to go further than this, no poet to hit on words more apposite and more
harmoniously combined so as to make this little mystery of the soul palpable.
a. germane      b. relevant      c. applicable   d. coauthor (12)




3. The adults feed on nectar and hover above flowers like bees.
a. hang around        b. fluctuate      c. waver     d. move (1)


4. The high level of precision required in the manufacture of ball bearings is ensured by special machinery
where high speeds are maintained and friction is reduced.
a. accuracy       b. correctness        c. hiatus    d. exactness (3)


5. At various stages in the operation are inspection devices that reject substandard products and adjust the
machinery to correct any malfunction.
a. close observation         b. improvement      c. supervision        d. surveillance (6)


6. In order to operate certain type of heavy industrial equipment, a special permit must be obtained first from
the proper authorities.
a. deploy      b. pilot     c. flit   d. maneuver (2)


7. As the study of humans in their collective aspect, sociology is concerned with all group activities.
a. scene       b. vista c. scheme        d. facet (11)


8. Noise is any signal that does not convey useful information.
a. steer    b. send       c. communicate        d. channelize (5)


9. Physical geology includes mineralogy, the study of the chemical composition and structure of minerals.
a. formation      b. organization      c. arrangement           d. betterment (8)


10. The 1964 discovery of the omega-minus particle, which filled a gap in this ordering, brought the theory
wide acceptance and led to Gell-Mann's being awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize for Physics.
a. rectitude    b. hole      c. breach      d. lacuna (4)


11. Gibberellic acid, is noted for its promotion of stem growth.
a. oversight      b. furtherance        c. progression      d. advance (7)


12. Nash also introduced the concept of bargaining, in which two or more players collude to produce a
situation where failure to collude would make each of them worse off.
a. excite      b. team up       c. cooperate     d. collaborate (9)


[ Answer ] : 1. b 2. d       3. d 4. c 5. b 6. c         7. c   8. a   9. d 10. a 11. a 12. a


Chapter 2
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


Studying the way insects fly gives us insights into different ways to achieve various means of flight, such as
hovering and maneuvering in mid-air. In this passage, some of the ways insects achieve flight as well as the
difficulties in adopting these mechanisms for our use are discussed.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


rotary, stationary, viable,                 lateral,     oscillate, deform,             initiate, asymmetric,   amplitude, tilt,
mimic,      expenditure


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


In technology, the rotary
airfoils of helicopters are the traditional solution to slow, maneuverable flight and stationary hovering, but at
the insect/MAV scale flapping is a viable alternative. Both systems operate by accelerating a mass of air,
predominantly downwards to support the weight, but with a smaller backward, forward or lateral component
to generate forward, backward or sideways thrust as needed. To achieve this, insects oscillate and twist
their wings, and typically vary the direction of the air flow by altering the angle between the plane of the wing
stroke and the horizontal: the greater the angle, the faster the flight. The wings themselves deform
semi-automatically, optimizing aerodynamic forces during the cycle.
Flight stability is maintained, and maneuvers initiated, by finely controlling the details of the stroke. An
asymmetric change in amplitude, or in the timing of twisting of the wings on one side of the body, can initiate
a turn. An upward or downward shift of the line of action of the mean aero-dynamic force can tilt the insect
forward or backward, so altering the stroke-plane and in turn the speed.
Mimicking all these Features in tiny vehicles presents many challenges: light enough materials; a miniature
power plant; sophisticated controls; a finely controllable mechanism to flap and twist the wings at
appropriate frequencies; and wings of appropriate, shape, size and flexibility to maximize lift for minimum
energy expenditure.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
기술면에서, 헬리콥터 날개꼴(aerofoil)은 저속의 정밀 조종과 공중 정지를 해결하는 전형적인 방식이다. 그러나
곤충/ MAV 규모의 경우 상하 방향의 회전운동은 생존 수단이다. 이 두 방식은 대량의 공기를 가속해서
움직이는데 대체로 무게를 지탱하기 위해서 하향으로 가속한다. 그러나 후방, 전방, 측면의 작은 구성 요소가
전방, 후방, 옆 방향 추진력을 만든다. 이를 이루기 위해서는, 곤충은 날개를 진동하고 비틀면서 전형적으로
풍력의 방향을 표면 날개의 회전 운동과 수평면의 각도를 바꾼다. 각도가 높을수록 비행 속도가 빨라진다. 회전
중 공력을 최적화하면서 날개들은 반(半)자동적으로 변형된다.
세밀한 날개 회전을 정교하게 제어함으로써, 비행 안정성이 유지되고 기동성이 개시 된다.                                               방향 변화는
진폭이나 날개의 비트는 시간의 비대칭적 변경에서 시작한다. 평균 공력의 행동선(action line) 상하 변경이
곤충을 앞뒤로 기울게 한다. 그래서 회전 수평의 변경이 속도와 상관이 있다.
작은 기계안에 이 모든 기능의 모방은 아직까지 어려운 점이 많다. 어려운 점들은 1) 가벼운 재료; 2) 소형
전력기; 3) 알맞은 속도로 날개의 회전을 세밀하게 조종할 수 있는 능력; 4) 에너지 소비 최소화하면서 기체(氣體)
상승을 극대화할 수 있는 적절한 날개의 형태, 크기 및 유연성등이다.




[ Glossary ]
airfoil : Aviation. A body, part, or surface designed to provide a useful reaction on itself, such as lift or thrust,
when in motion through the air.
frequency : Physics. The number of cycles or events per unit time, commonly having units of sec-1 (hertz).


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
Rotaryㆍ
Stationaryㆍ
Viableㆍ
Lateralㆍ
Oscillateㆍ
Deformㆍ
Initiateㆍ
Asymmetricㆍ
Amplitudeㆍ
Tiltㆍ
Mimicㆍ
Expenditureㆍ
ㆍable to live
ㆍbegin
ㆍwanting proportion
ㆍsidelong
ㆍturning
ㆍstanding still
ㆍswing
ㆍchange shape
ㆍvastness
ㆍlearning
ㆍmirror
ㆍspending




[ Answer ] : rotary-turningstationary-standing stillviable-able to
livelateral-sidelongoscillate-swingdeform-change shapeinitiate-beginasymmetric-wanting
proportionamplitude-vastnesstilt-leaningmimic-mirrorexpenditure-spending


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
13. turning
rolling,   spinning,   twirling,     revolving,   rotary


14. standing still
unmoving,     immobile,    static,     inert, stationary
15. able to live
doable,      feasible, practicable,              workable, viable


16. sidelong
side,     flanking,        edgewise, horizontal,              lateral


17. swing
seesaw, vacillate, vary, vibrate, oscillate


18. change shape
contort,      distort, wring, disfigure,                 deform


19. begin
commence,           kick off, inaugurate, launch,                   initiate


20. wanting proportion
disproportionate,           lopsided,       unbalanced, uneven, asymmetric


21. vastness
expanse, dimension,                bountifulness,         bounty,       amplitude


22. leaning
inclination,       list,    slant,    gradient, tilt


23. mirror
parrot, imitate, impersonate, copy, mimic


24. spending
expense, disbursement, remuneration,                           outgo,       expenditure
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13.      Turning(회전)
Rolling(회전), Spinning(급회전), Twirling(빙빙 돌리기), Revolving(순환), Rotary(회전)
14.      Standing still(똑바로 서있는)
Unmoving(움직이지 않는), Immobile(유동성이 없는), Static(정지된), Inert(자력으로 움직일 수 없는),
Stationary(변동이 없는)


15.      Able to live(자생력이 있는)
Doable(할 수 있는), Feasible(실행할 수 있는), Practicable(실행 가능한), Workable(운용 가능한), Viable(살아
갈 수 있는)


16.   Sidelong(비스듬한)
Side(옆으로 향한), Flanking(측면에 위치한), Edgewise(가장자리를 따라), Horizontal(가로의), Lateral(옆을 향한)


17.   Swing(흔들다)
Seesaw(위아래로 움직이다), Vacillate(흔들리다), Vary(변경하다), Vibrate(진동하다), Oscillate(변동하다)


18.   Change shape (외형을 바꾸다)
Contort(비틀다), Distort(찌그러뜨리다), Wring(압축하다), Disfigure(훼손하다), Deform(형체가 일그러지다)


19.   Begin(시작하다)
Commence(개시하다), Kick off(재개하다), Inaugurate(창시하다), Launch(시작하다), Initiate(개최하다)


20.   Wanting Proportion(비율에 결함이 있는)
Disproportionate(불균형인), Lopsided(한쪽으로 기울어진), Unbalanced(균형이 잡히지않은), Uneven(고르지
않은), Asymmetric(비대칭의)


21.   Vastness(광대함)
Expanse(확장), Dimension(범위), Bountifulness(광대한 범위), Bounty(광활), Amplitude(넓음)


22.   Leaning(기울기)
Inclination(경사도), List(경사), Slant(비탈), Gradient(각도), Tilt(기울어짐)


23.   Mirror(반영하다)
Parrot(되풀이하다), Imitate(모방하다), Impersonate(흉내내다), Copy(복사하다), Mimic(모방하다)
24.       Spending(소비)
Expense(지출), Disbursement(지불), Remuneration(지불), Outgo(지출), Expenditure(비용)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[
    Guidewords ]
turning,    standing still,   able to live, sidelong,    swing,   change shape,   begin, wanting proportion,
vastness, leaning,       mirror,   spending,


1. ________________
doable,     feasible, inert, workable,      viable
________________


2. ________________
expense, bounty, remuneration,           outgo, expenditure
________________


3. ________________
rolling,    spinning,   uneven,    revolving,   rotary
________________


4. ________________
contort,     distort, wring, vary, deform
________________


5. ________________
side,     practicable, edgewise,      horizontal,    lateral
________________
6. ________________
seesaw, vacillate, impersonate, vibrate, oscillate
________________


7. ________________
commence,       kick off, inaugurate, disfigure, initiate
________________


8. ________________
expanse, dimension,         bountifulness,      disbursement, amplitude
________________


9. ________________
parrot, imitate, slant, copy,           mimic
________________


10. ________________
disproportionate,      lopsided,      unbalanced, flanking, asymmetric
________________


11. ________________
inclination,   list,   launch, gradient, tilt
________________


12. ________________
unmoving,      immobile,    static,    twirling,   stationary
________________


[ Answer ] : 1-able to live, inert2-spending, bounty3-turning, uneven4-change shape, vary5-sidelong,
practicable6-swing, impersonate7-begin, disfigure8-vastness, disbursement9-mirror,
slant10-wanting proportion, flanking11-leaning, launch12-standing still, twirling


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)
1. An implant consists of a fluid-filled, malleable pouch that is designed to mimic to the look and feel of
natural breast tissue when inserted into a pocket created under the skin in a procedure called a
mammoplasty.
a. imitate   b. impersonate        c. copy       d. kick off (23)


2. Objects will remain static unless its own gravitational pull is affected, at which point it will move and gain
intertia.
a. standing still    b. unmoving         c. revolving   d. immobile (14)


3. Probably the notion was that the twirling of the spindle would twirl the corn-stalks and prevent them from
growing straight.
a. turning    b. rolling     c. rotary      d. stationary (13)


4. In biochemistry, D-'s symbol is used as a prefix to indicate the spatial configuration of certain organic
compounds with asymmetric carbon atoms.
a. disproportionate        b. list c. lopsided     d. uneven (20)


5. After surgery, it is necessary to wait until a negative sperm count is obtained before discarding other
means of contraception, because viable sperm cells are retained in the seminal vesicles and along the
various sperm ducts.
a. doable    b. immobile      c. feasible      d. practicable (15)


6. Since colonial days Native Americans have been used extensively as agricultural and industrial laborers,
mostly without adequate remuneration or political representation.
a. expense     b. disbursement           c. expenditure      d. expanse (24)


7. Sound waves are longitudinal, which means that the material particles transmitting the waves oscillate in
the direction of propagation.
a. deform    b. vacillate     c. vary      d. vibrate (17)


8. Cummins worked to break up railroad domination in politics and to inaugurate progressive policies in the
state.
a. commence         b. swing c. launch         d. initiate (19)


9. The extra genetic material is responsible for the physical characteristics of the syndrome: low muscle
tone, an upward slant to the eyes and epicanthal folds, a single crease across the palm, hyperflexibility of
the joints, and a displastic middle phalanx on the fifth finger.
a. leaning    b. gradient      c. edgewise        d. tilt (22)
10. Since prehistoric times the ear has been pierced for the insertion of the earring; certain primitive tribes
distort the lobe with plugs several inches in diameter or with heavy stones.
a. contort        b. begin        c. wring         d. disfigure (18)


11. The maximum displacement of the object from its central position of equilibrium is the amplitude of the
motion.
a. vastness         b. dimension            c. bounty         d. outgo (21)


12. The superior surface is triangular, bounded on either side by a lateral border which separates it from the
inferior surface, and behind by a posterior border, represented by a line joining the two ureters, which
intervenes between it and the fundus.
a. side       b. flanking        c. inert      d. horizontal (16)


[ Answer ] : 1. d 2. c           3. d 4. b        5. b 6. d 7. a           8. b 9. c          10. b 11. d 12. c




Chapter 3

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


In resent years, superconductors have become increasing valuable tools in both industry as well as for
scientists. The following passage briefly discusses the history of the development                                of superconductors as
well as some of their applications.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1
The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


phenomenon,           costly, deploy,            spark, flammable, benign,                     abundant, wane,     delve into,   brittle,
publicity,      robust


Listening Instruction 2
Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.
Superconductivity was discovered in Netherlands as far back as 1911. First discovered in mercury, this
phenomenon occurs in a number of metals. However, conventional superconductors must be chilled to a
few degrees above absolute zero (-459 F), requiring liquid helium which, liter for liter, is as costly as
champagne. As a result, utilities did not give serious consideration to the deployment of conventional
superconductors in grid applications. In the late 1980s, the discovery of a new family of ceramic
high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials sparked renewed utility interest in the field.
The new ceramic superconductors are capable of operating at 5 to 20 times higher temperatures, enabling
the use of liquid nitrogen as a coolant. A conventional industrial liquid that has been in widespread use for a
century, liquid nitrogen is non-flammable, environmentally benign, and abundantly available from the
atmosphere for a cost comparable to Kool-Aid.
Early excitement surrounding the discovery of ceramic HTS materials waned as materials scientists delved
into the difficulty of working with these inherently brittle ceramic materials. Over the past decade, out of the
spotlight of the early HTS publicity, scientists in government, university and industrial laboratories have
developed and refined techniques for turning these new materials into robust, flexible and
high-performance wire.
The results of these efforts are now at the stage where the best-performing HTS wire carries more than
100 times the current as a comparable cross-section of conventional copper wire, and is strong and
flexible enough to be wound into coils or stranded into cables.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
초전도(Superconductivity) 발견은 1911년 네덜랜드에서 발견되었다. 이 현상은 다른 금속에서도 발생되지만,
처음 수은에서 발견되었다. 그러나 전통적인 의미의 초전도체는 절대온도(-459F)보다 약간 높은 온도에서
냉각되어야 한다. 초전도체의 냉각을 위해서는 액화헬륨이 필요한데, 1 리터의 가격이 샴페인 1 리터의 가격만큼
고가이다. 그 결과로서,                       그리드 적용에 고전적인 초전도체 사용을 크게 고려하지 않았다. 한편, 80년말에,
새로운 종류의 세라믹 재질의 고온초전도(HTS) 발견이후 이 분야에 다시 이목을 집중시켰다. 새로운 이
초전도체는 5~20배 가량 더 높은 온도에서 작동할 수 있고, 액화질소를 냉각제로 이용할 수 있다. 전통적인
산업용 액체로 20세기동안 사용된 액화질소는 비인화성이면서도 환경 친화적이면서, 대기권에 질소가 풍부하여
그 비용은 Kool-Aid (Powder로 만든 주스)값에 견줄만하다.
처음 고온 초전도체 발견 되었을 때의 흥분은 점점 사라지기 시작했다. 그 이유는 (무기)재료 학자들이 부서지기
쉬운 내재적 성질을 세라믹 재료를 가지고 연구하기 힘들다는 것을 알았기 때문이다. 지난 십년이상, 고온
초전도체가 널리 알려진 시기의 집중을 제외하고, 정부, 대학교 및 산업 연구소의 여러 과학자들과 대학 그리고
사업 연구소들이 새로운 초전도체를 더 튼튼하고 신축성 있는 초능력 와이어로 발달시켜왔다.
이런 노력의 결과로, 초성능 고온초전도 와이어는 기존 구리선보다 100배이상의 전류를 전한다. 그리고 이
초성능 고온초전도 와이어는 코일로 뭉치게 하거나 케이블로 꼬을 수 있을 만큼 튼튼하면서도 신축성이 뛰어나다.




[ Glossary ]
Superconductivity   : Physics. A phenomenon shown by certain metals, alloys, and other compounds of
having negligible resistance to the flow of electric current at temperatures approaching absolute zero.
absolute zero : Thermodynamics. The zero point on a temperature scale of ideal gases, denoted by 0 K on
the Kelvin scale.
high-temperature superconductor : Solid-state Physics. A substance capable of achieving
superconductivity at temperatures at or above the liquid nitrogen temperature (77K).


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
Phenomenonㆍ
Costlyㆍ
Deployㆍ
Sparkㆍ
Flammableㆍ
Benignㆍ
Abundantㆍ
Waneㆍ
delve intoㆍ
brittleㆍ
publicityㆍ
robustㆍ




ㆍactivate
ㆍexpensive
ㆍplay
ㆍplentiful
ㆍburnable
ㆍwonder
ㆍdie out
ㆍharmless
ㆍnotice
ㆍstrong
ㆍexamine
ㆍbreakable




[ Answer ] :
phenomenon-wondercostly-expensivedeploy-playspark-activateflammable-burnablebenign-harmles
sabundant-plentifulwane-dine outdelve into-examinebrittle-breakablepublicity-noticerobust-strong


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


25. wonder
rarity, spectacle, marvel,             occurrence, phenomenon


26. expensive
precious,      exorbitant, dear,        steep, costly


27. play
spread,      station,     position,    distribute systematically, deploy
28. activate
ignite,    energize, propel, inspire,          spark
29. burnable
combustible,      incendiary, igneous,         inflammable,   flammable


30. harmless
innocuous,      slight,     curable,    inconsequential, benign


31. plentiful
bountiful,     copious,     profuse,     immeasurable, abundant
32. die out
ebb,     fade, dwindle,            abate,      wane


33. examine
inspect, scrutinize,             probe,      peruse, delve into


34. breakable
delicate, crisp,           fragile, frail,        brittle


35. notice
advertisement,          hype,      ballyhoo,        puffery,      publicity


36. strong
vigorous,       hardy, athletic,           sturdy, robust
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
25.      Wonder(불가사의)
Rarity(희귀한일), Spectacle(장관), Marvel(경이), Occurrence(불가사의), Phenomenon(특이현상)


26.      Expensive(비싼)
Precious(진귀한), Exorbitant(고가의), Dear(값비싼), Steep(터무니없이 비싼), Costly(사치스러운)


27.      Play(역할을 맡기다)
Spread(보급시키다) Station(~을 배치시키다), Position(위치를 정하다), Distribute systematically(체계적으로
분배하다), Deploy(배치하다)
28.       Activate(활성화하다)
Ignite(불타오르게 하다), Energize(활력을 불어넣다), Propel(추진시키다), Inspire(분발하게 하다), Spark(활기를
불어넣다)


29.       Burnable(불붙기 쉬운)
Combustible(가연성의), Incendiary(방화의), Igneous(불의), Inflammable(인화성의), Flammable(가연성의)


30.       Harmless(해가 되지 않는)
Innocuous(무독한), Slight(대수롭지 않은), Curable(치료가 가능한), inconsequential(사소한), Benign(친절한)


31.       Plentiful(넉넉한)
Bountiful(인심이 좋은), Copious(풍부한), Profuse(아낌없는), Immeasurable(무한한), Abundant(풍부한)


32.       Die out(불이 꺼지다)
Ebb(쇠퇴하다), Fade(바래다), Dwindle(희미해지다), Abate(완화하다), Wane(약해지다)


33.       Examine(검진하다)
Inspect(조사하다), Scrutinize(속속들이 알아보다), Probe(정밀 조사하다), Peruse(자세히 조사하다), Delve
into(탐구하다)


34.       Breakable(깨지기 쉬운)
Delicate(연약한), Crisp(파삭파삭한 ), Fragile(약한), Frail(허약한), Brittle(탄력성이 없어서 부러지기 쉬운)


35.       Notice(고시)
Advertisement(광고), Hype(판촉활동), Ballyhoo(떠들석한 선전), Puffery(과대선전), Publicity(홍보)


36.       Strong(강한)
Vigorous(활력에 넘친), Hardy(억센), Athletic(강건한), Sturdy(튼튼한), Robust(체력이 좋은)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions
In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.
[ Guidewords ]
wonder,      expensive, play, activate,        burnable, harmless,    plentiful,   die out, examine,   breakable,
notice,     strong


1. ________________
rarity, puffery, marvel, occurrence,             phenomenon
________________


2. ________________
combustible,     steep,     igneous,   inflammable,       flammable
________________


3. ________________
precious,     exorbitant, dear,      ballyhoo,     costly
________________


4. ________________
spread,     station,     peruse, distribute systematically, deploy
________________


5. ________________
ignite,   energize, propel, position,         spark
________________


6. ________________
delicate,    inconsequential,     fragile,   frail,   brittle
________________


7. ________________
innocuous,     slight,    curable,   incendiary,      benign
________________
8. ________________
vigorous,     hardy, athletic,     sturdy, robust
________________


9. ________________
ebb,      fade, inspire, abate,       wane
________________


10. ________________
advertisement,      hype, crisp,      spectacle,    publicity
________________


11. ________________
bountiful,    copious,   profuse,     immeasurable, abundant
________________


12. ________________
inspect, scrutinize,     probe,     dwindle,     delve into
________________
[ Answer ] : 1-wonder, puffery2-burnable, steep3-expensive, ballyhoo4-play, peruse5-activate,
position6-breakable, inconsequential7-harmless, incendiary8-strong, all words are synonymous9-die
out, inspire10-notice, crisp and spectacle11-plentiful, all words are synonymous12-examine, dwindle


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)
1. The danger of the proliferation of chemical and biological weapons is growing despite arms control
because they are relatively easy to manufacture and deploy.
a. play      c. spread   c. station     d. activate (27)


2. These two began presently to scrutinize the characters of the several young girls who lived in any of those
houses.
a. wane        b. examine      c. inspect     d. delve into (33)
3. It is brittle and crystalline at ordinary temperatures, but when heated to between 110°C and 150°C
 it becomes ductile and malleable. (34)
a. breakable     b. delicate     c. fragile    d. copious (34)
4. News of devastating defact in the Ardenne Forests was enough to propel the young man of Sorbonne into
enlisting in the army to fight for France.
a. ignite      b. energize c. inspire        d. position (28)


5. It favors the tory side and is written in a robust and unaffected style.
a. strong       b. vigorous     c. abundant       d. robust (36)


6. They are mixtures of readily combustible substances (e.g., gunpowder) that when set off (by ignition)
undergo rapid combustion.
a. incendiary       b. igneous        c. inflammable     d. steep (29)


7. The light is given off only while the stimulation continues; in this the phenomenon differs from
phosphorescence, in which light continues to be emitted after the excitation by other radiation has ceased.
a. rarity      b. marvel      c. occurrence       d. notice (25)


8. In modern times cautery is used only on small lesions(e.g., to close off a bleeding point in the nasal
mucous membrane or to eradicate a wart or other benign lesion).
a. harmless       b. innocuous        c. inconsequential        d. flammable (30)


9. By its nature a public utility is often a monopoly and as such is not prevented by competing companies
from charging exorbitant prices.
a. expensive       b. precious        c. burnable    d. steep (26)


10. The bands fade as the animal grows, and the adult is black.
a. spark       b. die out     c. dwindle     d. abate (32)


11. Daniles was in charge of the Democratic publicity bureau in the presidential campaigns of 1908 and 1912.
a. notice      b. hype      c. puffery     d. wonder (35)


12. Alpine plants is high-altitude representatives of various flowering plants (chiefly perennials) that
because of their dwarf habit, profuse blooming, and the preference of many for shady places are cultivated
in alpine and rock gardens.
a. plentiful     b. bountiful        c. immeasurable      d. curable (31)


[ Answer ] : 1. d 2. a        3. d    4. d 5. c     6. d 7. d    8. d 9. c   10. a   11. d   12. d

Chapter 4
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


In resent years, superconductors have become increasing valuable tools in both industry as well as for
scientists. The following passage briefly discusses the history of the development               of superconductors as
well as some of their applications.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


envision,       counterpart, cumulative,                 systematic, intrusive, susceptible, poise,   stride, outage,
shortcoming, unobtrusive, ancillary


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


The individual applications envisioned for superconductors each offer important advantages to electric
utilities relative to their conventional counterparts. Cumulatively and over time, as these new technologies
are deployed on a systematic basis, they could alter the design of utility systems in much more fundamental
ways. In combination, these revolutionary technologies promise to make grid operation more efficient, more
reliable, less environmentally intrusive, and susceptible to much more accurate control than ever before.
These new superconductor-based technologies are poised to hit their commercial stride as
the electricity industry enters a dramatic new phase. Over the next few years, utilities will
feel the spurs of competitive pressure as never before. The winners in this revolutionary new environment
will be those who focus, not on regulatory policy, but on well-conceived strategies to turn new technologies
to their competitive advantage. For some time, restructuring initiatives focused on extracting the benefits of
competition in the generating sector; the wires segment of the business was perceived as less susceptible
to innovation. Increasingly, however, as price spikes recur and occasional outages expose the
shortcomings of traditional grid technology, it is becoming apparent that utilities must find ways to expand
their system "bandwidth" to meet the needs of their customers. If the promise of a truly continental power
market is to be realized, an "electricity superhighway" featuring high-capacity, environmentally
unobtrusive transmission cables, ultra-responsive means to store, inject and redirect power exemplified by
D-SMES, and other ancillary equipment will be required. Not unlike optical fiber, superconductor-based
technologies may be the key enabler to allow this forecasted revolution to occur.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
초전도체를 위해서 계획한 적용 방법들은 전기이용에 있어 기존 자료보다 유리하다. 시간이 지날수록 이 새로운
기술이 체계적으로 사용된다면, 근본적인 전기설비 시스템을                                                       변경할 것이다. 더불어, 이런 혁신적인 첨단 기술은
그리드 조작에 효율적이고 안전하며 환경친화적이며, 정밀한 제어 면에서 이전보다 휠씬 뛰어나다.
전자산업이 역동적인 국면으로 들어감에 따라, 초전도체에 기반을 둔 첨단 기술들은                                                       사업화로 나갈 준비가
되어 있다. 몇 년 이후면, 사업체들은 이전에 전혀 느끼지 못한 압박감을 느낄 것이다. 이 혁명적인 신환경의
승리자는 규제와 정책 아닌 새로운 기술을 경쟁력으로 바꾸는 전략을 가진 자가 될 것이다.
일정 기간 동안, 경쟁이 주는 이득을 생성 영역으로부터 추출하는데 초점을 둔 재구성을 시작했다. 산업에서는
와이어 부분의 새 기술 혁신이 어려운 것으로 믿었다. 가격 변동이 재발하고 정전이 수시로 일어나면서 기존의
그리드 조작의 운명이 얼마 남지 않았다는 것을 보여준다. 기업체들은 고객의 요구를 충족시키기 위해서 시스템
영역을 확장할 방법을 찾아야 한다는 사실이 점점 더 명확해지고 있다. 진정한 대륙 전자 시장이 현실로 바뀌기
위해서는 높은 용량, 환경친화적 발신 케이블과 초전도 자기 에너지 저장 장치 (D-SMES) 위해서 증폭 전기를
방향 변경, 그리고 다른 보조 장치등이 필요할 것이다. 광섬유 케이블과는 다르게 초전도체에 기반을 둔 기술은
이 혁명적인 예견이 현실로 가능케 하는 열쇠가 될 것이다.


[
    Glossary ]
bandwidth : Telecommunications. The range or difference between the limiting frequencies of a continuous
band.
optical fiber : Optics. A transparent thread, such as fused silica, that transmits light; used in the technology
of fiber optics.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.




Envisionㆍ
Counterpartㆍ
Cumulativeㆍ
Systematicㆍ
Intrusiveㆍ
Susceptibleㆍ
Poiseㆍ
Strideㆍ
Outageㆍ
Shortcomingㆍ
Unobtrusiveㆍ
Ancillaryㆍ




ㆍorderly
ㆍimagine
ㆍinvasive
ㆍadditive
ㆍcapable
ㆍblackout
ㆍvis-a-vis
ㆍwalk
ㆍfault
ㆍaccessory
ㆍunnoticed
ㆍmake ready




[ Answer ] : envision-imaginecounterpart-
vis-a-viscumulative-additivesystematic-orderlyintrusive-invasivesusceptible-capablepoise-make
readystride-walkoutage-blackoutshortcoming-faultunobtrusive-unnoticedancillary-accessory
Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


37. imagine
picture, visualize,       ideate,     envisage, envision


38. vis-a-vis
opposite number,      similitude,       twin,   duplication,   counterpart


39. additive
aggregate, collective, total,           accumulative, cumulative


40. orderly
regulated, methodical,         arranged, organized, systematic


41. invasive
encroaching,     trespassing,         interfering,   meddlesome,    intrusive


42. capable
open to,    subject to,    fictile,    pliable, susceptible


43. make ready
prep,     prepare, set up, gear up, poise


44. walk
step, gait,     pace, headway, stride


45. blackout
brownout,      power failure, dim out,          suspension,    outage
46. fault
defect,      weakness, imperfection,                  foible,     shortcoming


47. unnoticed
modest,       inconspicuous,           low-key,          quiet, unobtrusive


48. accessory
adjunct,      adjuvant, auxiliary,             subsidiary, ancillary
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
37.      Imagine(상상하다)
Picture(공상하다), Visualize(마음속에 떠올리다), Ideate(관념화하다), Envisage(마음에 그리다),
Envision(상상하다)


38.      Vis-a-vis(동반자)
Opposite number(상대역), Similitude(유사함), Twin(쌍둥이), Duplication(복제), Counterpart(복사물)


39.      Additive(부가적인)
Aggregate(집합한), Collective(축적된), Total(총체적인), Accumulative(누적적인), Cumulative(누가하는)


40.      Orderly(순서대로)
Regulated(규칙적으로), Methodical(질서정연한), Arranged(정돈된), Organized(체계화된), Systematic(조직적인)


41.      Invasive(침입하는)
Encroaching(침략하는), Trespassing(침해하는), Interfering(간섭하는), Meddlesome(간섭을 좋아하는),
Intrusive(침식적인)


42.      Capable(~을 받기 쉬운)
Open to(~에 대상이다), Subject to(~에 지배를 받고 있는), Fictile(가소성의), Pliable(휘기 쉬운),
Susceptible(민감한)


43.      Make ready(준비시키다)
Prep(예습하다), Prepare(준비하다), Set up(시작하게 하다), Gear up(준비를 시키다), Poise(~의 자세를 취하다)
44.       Walk(걷기)
Step(걸음걸이), Gait(보조), Pace(보조), Headway(전진,진보), Stride(성큼성큼 걷다)


45.       Blackout(일시적인 기억상실)
Brownout(절전), Power(전기) failure(정전), Dim out(등화관제), Suspension(정학), Outage(정전)


46.       Fault(결함)
Defect(흠), Weakness(취약점), imperfection(불충분), Foible(결점), Shortcoming(불충분한 점)


47.       Unnoticed(눈치채지 못한)
Modest(적절한), inconspicuous(주목을 끌지 않는), Low-key(자제하는), Quiet(단조로운), Unobtrusive(방해가
될)


48.       Accessory(부속물)
Adjunct(부속물), Adjuvant(도움이 되는), Auxiliary(보조의), Subsidiary(보충하는),Ancillary(보조의)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[
    Guidewords ]
imagine,     vis-a-vis, additive,      orderly,    invasive, capable,       make ready, walk,   blackout,   fault,
unnoticed,     accessory,


1. ________________
encroaching,       trespassing,   interfering,    methodical,   intrusive
________________
2. ________________
open to,     subject to,     meddlesome,         pliable, susceptible
________________


3. ________________
prep,      ideate, set up,    gear up,    poise
________________


4. ________________
fictile,   inconspicuous,      low-key,        quiet,   unobtrusive
________________


5. ________________
opposite number,         similitude,   twin,    weakness, counterpart
________________


6. ________________
regulated, accumulative, arranged, organized, systematic
________________


7. ________________
picture, visualize,        prepare,    envisage, envision
________________


8. ________________
aggregate, collective, total,          auxiliary, cumulative
________________


9. ________________
defect, suspension,          imperfection,      foible, shortcoming
________________


10. ________________
adjunct,     adjuvant,     modest, subsidiary, ancillary
________________


11. ________________
step, gait,     pace, duplication,        stride
________________
12. ________________
brownout,     power failure, dim out,      headway, outage
________________


[ Answer ] : 1-invasive, methodical2-capable, meddlesome3-make ready, ideate4-unnoticed, fictile5-
vis-a-vis, weakness6-orderly, accumulative7-imagine, prepare8-additive, auxiliary9-fault,
suspension10-accessory, modest11-walk, duplication12-blackout, headway


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1. Radiation sickness may occur from exposure to a single massive emanation such as a nuclear explosion,
or it may occur after repeated large exposure or to even very small doses in a plant or laboratory, since
radiation effects are cumulative.
a. invasive     b. additive    c. aggregate      d. accumulative (39)


2. A shortcoming in many houses is the lack of a newspaper, and the thoughtful hostess who has the
morning paper sent up with each breakfast tray, or has one put at each place on the breakfast table,
deserves a halo.
a. defect     b. weakness      c. imperfection     d. dim out (46)


3. An international language is usually intended not to supplant existing mother tongues but to play a
secondary or auxiliary role as it furthers international communication.
a. accessory      b. adjunct    c. unnoticed      d. ancillary (48)


4. In the very young, the skeleton is composed largely of cartilage and is therefore pliable, reducing the
incidence of bone fracture and breakage in childhood.
a. capable      b. meddlesome     c. fictile   d. susceptible (42)


5. It is the national counterpart of the World Council of Churches.
a. opposite number       b. similitude    c. duplication    d. walk (38)


6. The stang was a pole supported by two stout lads, across which the rider was made to stride.
a. step     b. gait   c. pace d. set up (44)
7. Periodic law shows statement of a periodic recurrence of chemical and physical properties of the
elements when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
a. regulated     b. methodical         c. organized    d. collective (40)


8. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language will undoubtedly bear witness to completed
changes and new kinds of regional and social variation that we cannot now envision.
a. imagine     b. visualize        c. envision   d. set up (37)


9. Mildly alkaline mixture that is used medicinally as an antacid and laxative is a suspension of approximately
8% magnesium hydroxide in water.
a. blackout     b. brownout         c. outage    d. fault (45)


10. Batholith is enormous mass of intrusive igneous rock, that is, rock made of once-molten material that
has solidified below the earth's surface.
a. invasive    b. encroaching          c. systematic    d. trespassing (41)


11. The effect is due to change in pause and beat, a judicious attention to the number of syllables in his
words, with an unobtrusive employment of every degree of alliteration and of what may be called the
opposite of alliteration.
a. modest      b. foible    c. inconspicuous      d. quiet (47)


12. As a result of his private undertaking to prepare a geological map of England, the British government
became aware of the need for such mapping.
a. make ready       b. ideate c. gear up         d. poise (43)


[ Answer ] : 1. a   2. d    3. c    4. b   5. d 6. d 7. d   8. d 9. d 10. c 11. b 12. b




Review Exercise

Reading Instructions
All the words from this unit are found in the exercise below. Each sentence contains one word in bold type
from all the drills in this unit. Select the word from the choices below that can replace the word in the bold
type. (The word numbers from all the Drills in the unit are in parentheses. These will help if you need to look
back.)
1. In place of the usual harmonic progression, he developed a style in which chords are valued for their
individual sonorities rather than for their relations to one another, and dissonances are unprepared and
unresolved.
a. improvement        b. promotion       c. betterment            d. supervision (6)


2. The degree of ionization and the heights of the ionized layers fluctuate on a daily and a seasonal basis and
show latitudinal variations as well.
a. flit   b. deploy   c. waver      d. hover       (1)


3. The pressure gradient combined with the Coriolis effect, causes air to circulate about the core in a
clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and a counterclockwise direction in the Southern
Hemisphere.
a. leaning     b. inclination      c. expanse        d. tilt (22)


4. Even in the most artificial, such as sonnet 66, where almost the whole is composed of successive images
of the wrong way of the world, each comprised in a line and each beginning with "and," this accumulative
character is noticeable.
a. additive     b. aggregate       c. cumulative            d. hardy (37)


5. Among the Fandango birds(e.g., C. pareola), two or more males cooperate to perform a complex series of
acrobatics in order to attract female onlookers. (9)
a. communicate        b. collude     c. coauthor           d. collaborate (9)


6. In susceptible animals, primarily cattle, swine, and goats, brucellosis causes infertility and death. (42)
a. capable      b. meddlesome         c. fictile         d. pliable (42)


7. The term matter is used as a label according to one of the broadest criteria possible: whether an item
possesses mass while it is stationary.
a. unmoving       b. immobile       c. inert       d. rolling (14)


8. It is intended to allow the electorate to initiate legislation independently of the legislature. (19)
a. contort     b. distort    c. oscillate      d. disfigure (19)


9. Hydrogen sulfide is flammable; in an excess of air it burns to form sulfur dioxide and water, but if not
enough oxygen is present, it forms elemental sulfur and water.
a. unbalanced         b. burnable      c. combustible            d. incendiary (29)


10. Light-boned and fragile, shrews have mouse-like bodies and long, pointed snouts with tiny, sharp
teeth.
a. frail         b. benign        c. brittle     d. breakable (34)


11. In general, a longer antenna is used to transmit or receive signals of longer wavelength.
a. send      b. convey       c. channelize        d. maneuver (5)


12. The upper and lower crust zones deform by different mechanisms; the upper crust is brittle and deforms
by faulting while the lower crust is ductile and capable of flow.
a. change shape        b. contort        c. disfigure        d. impersonate (18)


13. Such a wheel resists changes in speed and helps steady the rotation of the shaft where a power source
such as a piston engine exerts an uneven torque on the shaft or where the load is intermittent, as in piston
pumps or punches.
a. disproportionate          b. flanking       c. lopsided      d. unbalanced (21)


14. As the young mature and begin to fly (though never especially well), the claws dwindle.
a. scrutinize      b. ebb      c. fade     d. abate (32)


15. His weakness lay in the very nature of his art.
a. brownout      b. defect       c. imperfection       d. shortcoming (46)


16. Most abundant and valuable of the cavallas is the crevalle, or common jack, C. hippos, found in dense
schools on both coasts of tropical America and as far north as Cape Cod and the Gulf of California.
a. plentiful     b. bountiful      c. igneous       d. profuse     (31)


17. It is subject to amendments of the first and second degree, like other main motions, and no amendment
that is not germane to it is in order.
a. fitting     b. relevant      c. twirling     d. apposite (12)


18. The replacement of one such word by another rarely raises grammatical difficulties or creates ancillary
linguistic problems.
a. accessory       b. adjunct       c. subsidiary        d. unobtrusive (48)


19. Pug is breed of sturdy, compact toy dog that became popular in England during the 19th cent.
a. strong      b. vigorous       c. robust      d. frail (36)


20. Red shift is, in astronomy, the systematic increase in the wavelength of all light received from a celestial
object.
a. organized       b. regulated       c. arranged          d. collective (40)
[ Answer ] : 1. d 2. b    3. c 4. d   5. a 6. b   7. d 8. c   9. a   10. b 11. d 12. d 13. b   14. a   15. a   16. c
17. c   18. b   19. d   20. d




Additional Topics in Physics

Radio
transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency range. The term is commonly
applied also to the equipment used, especially to the radio receiver.


Uses of Radio Waves
The prime purpose of radio is to convey information from one place to another through the intervening media
(i.e., air, space, nonconducting materials) without media. Besides being used for transmitting sound and
television signals, radio is used for the transmission of data in coded form. In the form of radar it is used also
for sending out signals and picking up their reflections from objects in their path.
Long-range radio signals enable astronauts to communicate with the earth from the moon and carry
information from space probes as they travel to distant planets (see space exploration).compass (or
direction finder), and radio time signals are widely used. Radio signals sent from global positioning satellites
can also be used by special receivers for a precise indication of position. Various remote-control devices,
including rocket and artificial satellite operations systems and automatic valves in pipelines, are activated
by radio signals. The development of the transistor and other microelectronic devices led to the
development of portable transmitters and receivers. Cellular and cordless telephones are actually radio
transceivers.
Many telephone calls routinely are relayed by radio rather than by wires; some are sent via radio to relay
satellites. Some celestial bodies and interstellar gases emit relatively strong radio waves that are observed
with radio telescopes composed of very sensitive receivers and large directional antennas.


Transmission and Reception of Radio Waves
For the propagation and interception of radio waves, a transmitter and receiver are employed. A radio wave
acts as a carrier of information-bearing signals; the information may be encoded directly on the wave by
periodically interrupting its transmission (as in dot-and-dash telegraphy) or impressed on it by a process
called modulation.
The actual information in a modulated signal is contained in its sidebands, or frequencies added to the
carrier wave, rather than in the carrier wave itself. The two most common types of modulation used in radio
are amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). Frequency modulation minimizes noise and
provides greater fidelity than amplitude modulation, which is the order method of broadcasting.


In its most common form, radio is used for the transmission of sounds (voice and music) and pictures
(television). The sounds and images are converted into electrical signals by a microphone (sounds) or video
camera (images), amplified, and used to modulate a carrier wave that has been generated by an oscillator
circuit in a transmitter. The modulated carrier is also amplified, then applied to an antenna that converts the
electrical signals to electromagnetic waves for radiation into space. Such waves radiate at the speed of light
and are transmitted not only by line of sight but also by deflection from the ionosphere.


Receiving antennas intercept part of this radiation, change it back to the form of electrical signals, and feed
it to a receiver. The most efficient and most common circuit for radio-frequency selection and amplification
used in radio receivers is the superheterodyne. In that system, incoming signals are mixed with a signal from
a local oscillator to produce intermediate frequencies (IF) that are equal to the arithmetical sum and
difference of the incoming and local frequencies. One of those frequencies is applied to an amplifier.
Because the IF amplifier operates at a single frequency, namely the intermediate frequency, it can be built
for optimum selectivity and gain. The tuning control on a radio receiver adjusts the local oscillator frequency.
If the incoming signals are above the threshold of sensitivity of the receiver and if the receiver is tuned to the
frequency of the signal, it will amplify the signal and feed it to circuits that demodulate it, i.e., separate the
signal wave itself from the carrier wave.


Development of Radio Technology
Radio is based on the studies of James Clerk Maxwell, who developed the mathematical theory of
electromagnetic waves, and Heinrich Hertz, who devised an apparatus for generating and detecting them.
Guglielmo Marconi, recognizing the possibility of using these waves for a wireless communication system,
gave a demonstration (1895) of the wireless telegraph, using Hertzs spark coil as a transmitter and Edouard
Branlys coherer (a radio detector in which the conductance between two conductors is improved by the
passage of a high-frequency current) as the first radio receiver. The effective operating distance of this
system increased as the equipment was improved, and in 1901, Marconi succeeded in sending the letter S
across the Atlantic Ocean using Morse code. In 1904, Sir John A. Fleming developed the first vacuum
electron tube, which was able to detect radio waves electronically. Two years later, Lee de Forest invented
the audion, a type of triode, or three-element tube, which not only detected radio waves but also amplified
them.The beginning of radio telephony-the transmission of music and speech-also began in 1906 with the
work of Reginald Fessiden and Ernst F. W. Alexanderson. However, it was not until Edwin H. Armstrong
patented (1913) the circuit for the regenerative receiver that long-range radio reception became
practicable. The major developments in radio initially were for ship-to-shore communications. Following
the establishment (1920) of station KDKA at Pittsburgh, Pa., the first commercial broadcasting station in the
United States, technical improvements in the industry increased, as did radio's popularity. Particularly in the
United States, the radio receiver became a standard household fixture. Subsequent research gave rise to
countless technical improvements and to such applications as radio facsimile, radar, and television.
Unit 6

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Genetics


Chapter 1

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


DNA has become an important tool in identifying people, and the passage in this unit discusses some of the
many applications that DNA analysis has found a variety of fields, including, but not limited to, criminal
investigations.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


forensic,      analyzes, identifying,              identical, current, procedure, sequence,   odds,   suit, release,
convict,      match


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


Forensic DNA analysis, or genetic fingerprinting, is a powerful new way of identifying people. This technique
analyzes different sections of cellular DNA to determine if two samples are likely to be from the same person.
The chance that two people have the same DNA, unless they are identical twins, is almost zero. Although
current laboratory procedures examine only a small part of the DNA sequence, the odds against two people
having the same pattern can be millions or even billions to one. DNA fingerprinting is now being used in
court as evidence in paternity suits, immigration cases, rape cases, and criminal investigations. It is even
being used to help win the release of prisoners years after their conviction. For example, a man convicted of
the rape and murder of a young child was released after nine years in prison when a recent test revealed
that his DNA did not match semen found at the crime scene.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
법의 DNA 분석 또는 유전자 지문 채취는 사람들을 식별하는데 쓰는 새롭고 강력한 방법이다.                                             세포 DNA의
다른 부분을 분석, 두 가지 샘플이 동일인의 것인지를 판단한다. 두 사람이 쌍둥이인 경우만 배제하면 같은
유전자를 지니고 있을 확률은 거의 없다. 현 실험 절차는 유전자 서열의 일부분만 검사하지만 두 사람이 동일한
세포를 가지고 있는 확률은 백만에서 많게는 일조분의 일이다. 유전자 감식은 친자 확인 소송, 이민 소송이나
강간 소송 그리고 형사 재판등에서 증거물로 사용된다. 또한 유전자 감식은 유죄 판결이 몇 년이 지난 죄수들의
석방까지 돕는다. 예를 들면 아동을 강간 치사한 혐의로 9년이나 투옥돼있던 남자를 석방하기도 했다. 범죄
현장에서 발견된 정자와 죄수의 유전자가 일치하지 않다는 시험 결과가 나중에 나왔기 때문이다.


[ Glossary ]
Genetic fingerprinting : Genetics. A comparison of the nucleotide sequences in samples of DNA to
determine if they are from the same individual or genetically identical individuals, as in criminal
investigations.
Cellular : Biology. Of or relating to cell; consisting of cells.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
Forensicㆍ
Analyzesㆍ
Identifyingㆍ
Identicalㆍ
Currentㆍ
Procedureㆍ
Sequenceㆍ
Oddsㆍ
Suitㆍ
Releaseㆍ
Convictㆍ
Matchㆍ




ㆍarguable
ㆍpick out
ㆍinvestigate
ㆍsame
ㆍpresent
ㆍcourse
ㆍline up
ㆍprobability
ㆍlawsuit
ㆍliberation
ㆍfind guilty
ㆍgo together




[ Answer ] : forensic-arguableanalyze-investigateidentifying-pick
outidentical-samecurrent-presentprocedure-coursesequence-lineupodds-probabilitysuit-lawsuitrel
ease-liberationconvict-find guiltymatch-go together


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


1. arguable
controversial, debatable, moot,      judicial,   forensic


2. pick out
distinguish,     earmark, equate, perceive,      identify


3. investigate
evaluate, dissect, break down,      assay, analyze
4. same
duplicate, corresponding,     indistinguishable,    analogous,   identical
5. present
contemporary, prevalent, up-to-date,                             modern, current


6. course
program,        approach, process,                maneuver, procedure


7. lineup
chain,     array, progression,               succession,         sequence


8. probability
chances, likelihood,              expectation,         prospect,        odds


9. lawsuit
court action,        trial,    litigation,     case,      suit


10. liberation
deliverance,         dismissal, acquittal, emancipation,                       release


11. find guilty
imprison,       condemn,          sentence, doom,              convict


12. go together
parallel, agree, correspond,                    fit,   match
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.      Arguable(논의의 여지가 있는)
Controversial(논쟁의), Debatable(논쟁할만한), moot(논쟁중인), Judicial(비판적인), Forensic(토론에 적합한)


2.      Pick out(뽑아내다)
Distinguish(식별하다), Earmark(식별하기위해 표시하다), Equate(동일시하다), Perceive(감지하다),
Identify(분간하다)


3.      Investigate(조사하다)
Evaluate(검토하다), Dissect(세밀히 조사하다), Break down(분류하다), Assay(분석하다), Analyze(분석하다)
4.      Same(같은)
Duplicate(복제한), Corresponding(동등한), Indistinguishable(구별이 가능하지 않은), Analogous(유사한),
Identical(닮은)
5.        Present(현재)
Contemporary(동시대의), Prevalent(유행하는), Up-to-date(최신의), Modern(현대의), Current(현재의)


6.        Course(과정)
Program(계획), Approach(접근), Process(과정), Maneuver(수단), Procedure(절차)


7.        Lineup(배열)
Chain(연쇄), Array(정렬), Progression(행렬), Succession(연속), Sequence(연속물)


8.        Probability(가망)
Chances(가능성), Likelihood(가능성), Expectation(기대), Prospects(가망), Odds(가망)


9.        Lawsuit(소송)
Court action(법적 소송), Trial(재판), Litigation(소송), Case(기소), Suit(민사소송)


10.       Liberation(석방)
Deliverance(해방), Dismissal(석방), Acquittal(무죄), Emancipation(해방), Release(석방)


11.       Find guilty(유죄로 판명되다)
Imprison(감금하다), Condemn(구속하다), Sentence(판결하다), Doom(판결을 내리가), Convict(유죄를 선고하다)


12.       Go together(함께 가다)
Parallel(일치하다), Agree(동의하다), Correspond(동등하다), Fit(조화하다), Match(대등하다)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions
In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[ Guidewords ]
arguable, pick out,        investigate,   same, present, course,   lineup,   probability,   lawsuit,   liberation,
find,     guilty,   go together
1. ________________
duplicate, modern,           indistinguishable,       analogous,      identical
________________


2. ________________
controversial, corresponding,             moot,      judicial,    forensic
________________


3. ________________
court action,     trial,    array,   case,    suit
________________


4. ________________
chain,      dismissal,     progression,      succession,         sequence
________________


5. ________________
distinguish,     earmark, agree, perceive,               identify
________________


6. ________________
program,       approach, process,         litigation,     procedure
________________


7. ________________
parallel,     dissect, correspond,        fit,    match
________________


8. ________________
chances, likelihood,          maneuver, prospect, odds
________________


9. ________________
imprison,      condemn,      sentence, equate, convict
________________


10. ________________
deliverance, expectation,            acquittal, emancipation,          release
________________


11. ________________
contemporary, prevalent, up-to-date, debatable,                  current
________________


12. ________________
evaluate, doom,        break down,     assay, analyze
________________
[ Answer ] : 1-same, modern2-arguable, corresponding3-lawsuit, array4-lineup, dismissal5-pick out,
agree6-course, litigation7-go together, dissect8-probability, maneuver9-find guilty,
equate10-liberation, expectation11-present, debatable12-pick out, doom


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1. The use of the vernacular as the language of religious drama was not brought about in England by any
process analogous to that observable in continental countries.
a. same      b. moot    c. corresponding      d. identical (4)


2. To analyze the movement further it will be necessary to look somewhat more closely at the nature of those
conditions and that character and to study in a little more detail the outside forces which were brought in
contact with them.
a. investigate     b. evaluate    c. assay     d. equate (3)


3. The more thoroughly and impartially this spirit is observed and extracted, the more will it be found to
consist in the subjection of all things to what may be called the romantic process of presenting them in an
atmosphere of poetical suggestion rather than as sharply defined and logically stated.
a. course     b. program     c. procedure       d. chain (6)


4. In the early 19th cent., negligence was distinguished as a separate tort, and it has come to supply a large
portion of tortious litigation.
a. lawsuit    b. expectation      c. trial   d. suit (9)


5. Since the different states of matter correspond to different amounts of energy of the molecules making up
the substance, energy in the form of heat must either be supplied to a substance or be removed from the
substance in order to change its state.
a. go together          b. parallel         c. earmark          d. match (12)


6. The attempts which have been made to identify the hero remain mere conjectures.
a. pick out        b. distinguish          c. dissect         d. perceive (2)


7. However, by late 1974, with independence for Angola and Mozambique under majority rule imminent,
South Africa, as one of the few remaining white-ruled nations of Africa, faced the prospect of further
isolation from the international community.
a. probability         b. chances           c. odds        d. succession (8)


8. Camilla devoted her life and work to the emotional and social emancipation of women and is considered to
be one of the most influential women critics.
a. case      b. liberation         c. deliverance           d. release (10)


9. The use of convict labor in the mines precipitated the state's first major labor disturbance, but not until
1936 was the convict-leasing system abolished.
a. imprison         b. condemn            c. sentence          d. break down (11)


10. As Albert Einstein demonstrated in his theory of relativity, when two observers are in relative motion,
they will necessarily arrange events in a somewhat different time sequence.
a. lineup       b. array c. progression                 d. approach (7)


11. The prevalent opinion on environmental pollution now is that industrial nations should respond with
material aid to developing countries who try to limit pollution.
a. present         b. contemporary              c. current        d. judicial      (5)


12. It omits controversial writings not important for their bearing upon literary history.
a. arguable          b. debatable          c. forensic         d. duplicate        (1)


[ Answer ] : 1. b 2. d           3. d 4. b        5. c 6. c        7. d 8. a       9. d 10. d 11. d   12. d

Chapter 2

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


This passage discusses how DNA analysis is actually done, including how DNA is extracted and analyzed.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


restriction,       fragment,        saliva,     recognize,         specific, strand,          distinct, lead to,   accuse,   repetitive,
amplify,      speck,


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


The most commonly used method to study DNA for court evidence is called restriction fragment                                  length
polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Special enzymes are used to cut up samples of DNA extracted from semen,
saliva, skin, hair roots, bone, or any other tissue that has cells with nuclei. These enzymes recognize
specific sequences of DNA and break the strand into pieces called restriction fragments. Using gel
electrophoresis, these fragments are sorted by size. Because the DNA break points are somewhat different
for every individual (except for identical twins), the electrophoresis produces distinct patterns. The gel,
which contains radioactive tags, is then exposed to a photographic film. This causes a fingerprint
resembling a supermarket bar code to appear on the developed film. Comparison of DNA fingerprints from
different individuals can lead to identification and conviction of a person accused of a crime.
If samples are too small to extract enough DNA for gel electrophoresis, forensic scientists can use a
technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This method uses a repetitive process that copies the
DNA over and over again, amplifying DNA from as few as 30 to 60 cells in a tiny speck of blood or a single
human hair. This is the test that allowed investigators to solve the World Trade Center bombing case by
matching DNA extracted from suspects saliva with DNA extracted from dried saliva from a licked envelope.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
유전자를 법정 증거물로 연구하기 위해서 가장 보편적인 방법은 RFLP(제한절편길이다형성) 분석이다. 특수
효소를 이용해서 핵이 있는 세포를 가지고 있는 정자, 타액, 뿌리털, 뼈와 다른 조직에서 나온 유전자를 잘라낸다.
이 특수 효소들은 특정 유전자 서열을 인식할 수 있고 이 가닥을 제한절편이라고 불리는 조각으로 분리한다.
그리고나서 겔 전기영동을 이용해서 이 조각들을 크기별로 나눈다. 유전자의 파열점은 일란성 쌍둥이만 빼고 각
사람들마다 다르기 때문에 전기열동은 제각기 다른 패턴을 배출한다. 그 다음 단계로 방사능 태그를 포함한 겔은
사진 필름에 노출된다. 이것으로 인해서 현상된 필름에 슈퍼마켓의 바코드처럼 생긴 유전자 지문이 나온다. 각기
다른 사람들의               유전자를 비교한 후 혐의가 있는 용의자의 신원 파악과 나중에는 구속으로 까지 이어진다.
만약 유전자의 크기가 겔 전기영동을 하기에는 부적합하다면 법의학자들은 PCR(중합연쇄반응)이라는 기술을
이용할 수 있다. 이 기술은 유전자를 연속으로 복제하는 방법이다. PCR은 털 한가닥이나 작은 피 한방울에서 30
~ 60 개의 세포로부터 DNA를 복제한다. 이 기술은 테러 용의자의 타액과 편지 봉투에 남은 타액을 비교해서
세계 무역 센터 폭탄 테러 사건을 해결하기도 했다.
[ Glossary ]
Polymorphism : Biology. The occurrence of different forms of individuals in a single species.
Restriction fragments : Molecular Biology. A series of DNA fragments that result from the cleavage of a
double-stranded molecule at specific sites by restriction enzymes.
Gel electrophoresis : Chemistry. An electrophoresis that is carried out in a silica.
Polymerase chain reaction : Biotechnology. A technique in which repeated cycles of DNA synthesis are
carried out to produce a large number of a specific DNA sequences.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
Restrictionㆍ
Fragmentㆍ
Salivaㆍ
Recognizeㆍ
Specificㆍ
Strandㆍ
Distinctㆍ
lead toㆍ
accuseㆍ
repetitiveㆍ
amplifyㆍ
speckㆍ
ㆍcharge
ㆍknow
ㆍrepetitious
ㆍlimitation
ㆍspit
ㆍclear
ㆍparticular
ㆍline
ㆍcause
ㆍenlarge
ㆍbit
ㆍpart




[ Answer ] :
restriction-limitationfragment-partsaliva-spitrecognize-knowspecific-particularstrand-linedistinct-
clearlead to-causeaccuse-chargerepetitive-repetitiousamplify-enlargespeck-bit


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


13. limitation
circumscription,       curb, confinement,      restraint,   restriction


14. part
fraction,    segment, chip, particle,         fragment


15. spit
sputum,     drool,     slobber, spittle, saliva
16. know
agnize,     discern,    realize, acknowledge,      recognize


17. particular
designated, express, distinctive, unequivocal,              specific


18. line
thread, fiber, string,       cord,   strand


19. clear
obvious,     clear-cut,     unambiguous,      defined,   distinct
20. cause
induce,      provoke, motivate,               breed, lead to


21. charge
blame,      indict,      implicate, prosecute, accuse


22. repetitious
redundant, tautological, recurring,                       wordy, repetitive


23. enlarge
intensify,      magnify, augment,               boost, amplify


24. bit
fleck,     iota, mite, jot,           speck
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13.       Limitation(한계)
Circumscription(제약), Curb(억제), Confinement(국한), Restraint(억제), Restriction(제한)


14.       Part(일부)
Fraction(작은 부분), Segment(단편), Chip(부분), Particle(작은 부분), Fragment(단편)


15.       Spit(침)
Sputum(가래), Drool(군침=Drivel), Slobber(군침), Spittle(타액), Saliva(침)
16.       Know(알다)
Agnize(인식하다 = Cognize), Discern(이해하다), Realize(인지하다), Acknowledge(인식하다),
Recognize(알아보다)


17.       Particular(현저한)
Designated(지정된), Express(명확한), Distinctive(뚜렷한), Unequivocal(분명한), Specific(명확한)


18.       Line(선)
Thread(실), Fiber(끈), String(실), Cord(끈), Strand(끈)


19.       Clear(명확한)
Obvious(명백한), Clear-cut(확실한), Unambiguous(정확한), Defined(분명한), Distinct(명료한)


20.       Cause(원인이 되다)
Induce(유발하다), Provoke(일으키다), Motivate(동기가 되다),
Breed(원인이 되다), Lead to(~를 주도하다)


21.       Charge(기소하다)
Blame(죄를 씌우다), Indict(고발하다), Implicate(고소하다), Prosecute(기소하다), Accuse(고발하다)


22.       Repetitious(장황한)
Redundant(장황한), Tautological(같은 말을 반복하는), Recurring(자꾸 반복되는), Wordy(장황한),
Repetitive(장황한)


23.       Enlarge(확대하다)
Intensify(증대하다), Magnify(확대하다), Augment(증대하다), Boost(증폭시키다), Amplify(증대하다)


24.       Bit(아주 작은 양)
Fleck(소량), Iota(소량), Mite(소량), Jot(극소량), Speck(미세한 것)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions
In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[ Guidewords ]
limitation,    part, spit,    know,   particular, line,   clear,   induce, charge, repetitious,   enlarge,   bit
1. ________________
blame,     indict,     implicate, provoke, accuse
________________


2. ________________
sputum,       drool,   slobber, curb, saliva
________________


3. ________________
thread, jot,      string, cord,    strand
________________


4. ________________
circumscription,        particle, confinement,    restraint, restriction
________________


5. ________________
designated, express, distinctive, tautological,           specific
________________


6. ________________
induce,    augment, motivate, breed,           lead to
________________


7. ________________
obvious,      clear-cut,     unequivocal,   defined, distinct
________________


8. ________________
place, prosecute, realize,         acknowledge,     recognize
________________
9. ________________
redundant,       unambiguous,     recurring,   wordy, repetitive
________________


10. ________________
intensify,   magnify,    discern,     boost, amplify
________________


11. ________________
fleck,    iota, mite, spittle,   speck
________________


12. ________________
fraction,    segment, chip, fiber,       fragment
________________


[ Answer ] : 1-charge, provoke2-spit, curb3-line, jot4-limitation, particle5-particular,
tautological6-cause, augment7-clear, unequivocal8-know, place and prosecute9-repetitious,
unambiguous10-enlarge, discern11-bit, spittle12-part, fiber


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1. I would not have complied with it. Mr. Tawney, one of the most efficient representatives of the cause of
special privilege as against public interest to be found in the House, was later, in conjunction with Senator
Hale and others, able to induce my successor to accept their view.
a. cause     b. provoke     c. place    d. breed (20)


2. The segment of the nephron of a vertebrate kidney that is situated between the proximal and distal
convoluted tubules.
a. curb      b. part    c. fraction    d. particle (14)


3. It is remarkable, as a symptom of the revival of public hope, that Mr. Malthus has assigned, in the later
editions of his work, an indefinite dominion to moral restraint over the principle of population.
a. limitation   b. sputum      c. confinement       d. restriction (13)
4. In many places it remains in modified form, and the country folk whose business is pastoral form a striking
and distinctive class.
a. particular        b. designated     c. unequivocal       d. redundant (17)


5. Frothy saliva is produced especially as a result of physical exertion or a pathological condition.
a. spit   b. chip      c. slobber     d. spittle (15)


6. saline- or silicone-filled prosthesis used after mastectomy as a part of the breast reconstruction
process or used cosmetically to augment small breasts.
a. enlarge      b. intensify       c. magnify     d. accuse (23)


7. All the rope that came to my attention in South America was three-strand hemp, a hard material, good for
standing rigging but not good for tackle or for use aboard canoes.
a. line   b. fleck      c. thread      d. string (18)


8. A democratic republic such as each of ours-an effort to realize in its full sense government by, of, and for
the people-represents the most gigantic of all possible social experiments, the one fraught with greatest
possibilities alike for good and for evil.
a. know      b. discern      c. cause       d. acknowledge (16)


9. Current research is directed toward spinal cord injuries, brain tumors, reattachment of severed limbs,
and the treatment of conditions generated by repetitive motions.
a. redundant         b. defined c. tautological         d. recurring (22)


10. This rather obvious truth seems to have been forgotten by some of the more zealous scientific historians,
who apparently hold that the worth of a historical book is directly in proportion to the impossibility of reading
it, save as a painful duty.
a. repetitious       b. unambiguous        c. defined     d. distinct (19)


11. I can't hear a bit of difference between most of them. (24)
a. mite     b. jot     c. speck      d. cord


12. An international tribunal was established to prosecute genocide cases in the aftermath of the slaughter
of more than 500,000 Tutsis in Rwanda in 1994.
a. charge       b. indict    c. motivate       d. accuse (21)


[ Answer ] : 1. c      2. a 3. b    4. d   5. b 6. d 7. b       8. c   9. b 10. a 11. d 12. c


Chapter 3
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


DNA is an extremely important component in organisms, and has a complex structure that enables it to
function properly. The following passage explains the basic structure of DNA, and how DNA is produced and
replicated in living cells.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


hereditary, direct, transfer,                  replicate, catalyze, progressive,              unwind,   template, complementary,
discontinue,        function,       synthesize


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


DNA is the hereditary molecule in all cells. It must direct its own replication during cell division as well as
direct the transfer of the genetic information it contains to RNA. Before a cell divides, the DNA molecules
replicate (that is, make exact copies of themselves) so that each daughter cell has DNA identical to the
parent cell. The replication of DNA is a complex process requiring a large number of enzymes. In this
process, enzymes catalyze the progressive unwinding of small segments of the DNA helix. Each strand
serves as a template or pattern for the synthesis of a new complementary strand of DNA by enzymes called
DNA polymerases. Replication is continuous on one strand, called the leading strand. It is discontinuous
(carried out in separate pieces that are later attached together) on the other, or lagging strand. Each of the
two daughter helices formed contain one original DNA strand and one newly made strand.
The genetic information for the cell is contained in the sequence of the bases A, T, C, and G in the DNA
molecule. Anything that alters the order of the sequence causes a change, or mutation, in the genes of the
cell. Cells have many enzyme systems that protect against alteration of the base sequence on DNA. For
example, the enzyme DNA polymerase I from the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli)                           is a complex
molecule having three active sites. One is for adding nucleotides to the growing DNA chain, and the other
two serve special proofreading                   functions. DNA polymerase I reads the DNA bases on the newly
synthesized chain, removes wrongly placed bases, and replaces them with the correct ones. It also can cut
out and replace DNA that has been altered by ultraviolet light or chemical mutagens.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DNA는 모든 세포 내에 존재하는 유전 물질이다. 자신이 갖고 있는 유전정보를 RNA에 전달할 뿐만 아니라 세포
분열시 복제를 자신이 감독해야 한다. 세포가 분열되기 전 유전자 세포는 딸 세포가 모세포와 동일한 유전자를
가지게 위해서 자신을 복제한다. 유전자 복제는 많은 효소가 필요한 복잡한 과정이다. 이 과정에서 효소는 DNA
나선의 작은 부분을 점차적으로 푸는것을 촉진시킨다. DNA 나선 각각의 가닥은 DNA 중합효소에 의해 새로운
상보적인 가닥을 만들기 위한 주형 또는 틀 역할을 담당한다. 유전자의 복제는 한 가닥에서는 연속적으로
이루어지며 이를 Leading strand (주도적인 가닥)이라 하며, 다른 쪽에서는 비연속적이다 (분리된 형체로
진행하다가 나중에는 합쳐짐). 이것을 Lagging strand (보조적인 가닥)이라고 한다. 두 딸나선마다 하나의 기존
유전자 가닥과 새롭게 형성된 유전자 가닥 하나를 가지고 있다. 세포의 유전 정보들은 DNA 내의 A, T, C, G
라는 염기서열에 포함되어 있다. 만약 이 순서가 무엇으로 인해서 변경된다면 세포내 유전자의 돌연변이를
야기시킨다. DNA의 순서 변경과 변화를 보호하기 위해서 세포는 많은 효소 체계를 가지고있다. 예를들면 대장균
바이러스 (E. Coli)에서 비롯된 DNA 중합요소 I 는 세 곳의 활동 장소가 있는 복잡한 분자다. 하나는 성장중인
DNA 사슬에 뉴클레티오드를 더하는 것이며 나머지 두 개는 교정하는 기능을 가지고 있다.                                            DNA 중합요소 I은
DNA의 새로 만들어진 DNA사슬을 읽으면서 틀린 부분을 교정하고 그리고 맞는 부분으로 교체한다. 돌연변이
유발 화학물질 또는 자외선으로 인해 변화된 DNA를 제거하고 교체한다.


[ Glossary ]
RNA : Biochemistry. a linear, usually single-stranded polymer of ribonucleotides, each containing the
sugar ribose in association with a phosphate group and one of four nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine,
cytosine, or uracil. RNA is found in all living cells
DNA : Biochemistry. a nucleic acid that constitutes the genetic material of all cellular organisms and the
DNA viruses; DNA replicates and controls through messenger RNA the inheritable characteristics of all
organisms. Also, DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID
daughter cell : Cell Biology. either of two cells that are produced from the mitotic division of a parent cell
enzyme : Enzymology. a protein molecule in a plant or animal that catalyzes specific metabolic reactions
without itself being permanently altered or destroyed
helix : a spiral or coiled structure; specific uses include: Anatomy. the curved fold that forms most of the
rim of the external ear
DNA polymerase : Enzymology. an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule. Also,
DNA-directed DNA polymerase, DNA nucleotidyltransferase
polymerase I : Biochemistry. one of three polymerases present in Escherichia coli, responsible for a number
of DNA functions, including the sequential removal of nucleotides from the 3' end of a chain and the binding
of nucleotides to the 5' end, the repair of DNA, and the removal of RNA primers
Escherichia coli (E. coli) : Bacteriology. a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic
bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, found among the normal flora of the intestinal tract of many
animals. Of important scientific value as a widely studied laboratory microorganism, its principal species is
the ubiquitous E. coli the predominant facultative organism of human and animal intestines. (Named for
Theodor Escherich, 1857-1911, German physician.)
nucleotide : Biochemistry. the hydrolysis product of a nucleic acid, consisting of a purine or pyrimidine base
combined with a ribose or deoxyribose sugar and with a phosphate group; a phosphate ester of a nucleoside
mutagen : Genetics. any chemical or physical agent that increases a mutation rate above the frequency of
the spontaneous rate


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
Hereditaryㆍ
Directㆍ
Transferㆍ
Replicateㆍ
Catalyzeㆍ
Progressiveㆍ
Unwindㆍ
Templateㆍ
Complementaryㆍ
Discontinueㆍ
Functionㆍ
Synthesizeㆍ




ㆍrole
ㆍactivate
ㆍgradual
ㆍperfecting
ㆍstop
ㆍtransmittal
ㆍassemble
ㆍinborn
ㆍmanage
ㆍreproduce
ㆍcast
ㆍuncoil
[ Answer ] :
hereditary-inborndirect-managetransfer-transmittalreplicate-reproducecatalyze-activateprogressive
-gradualunwind-uncoiltemplate-castcomplementary-perfectingdiscontinue-stopfunction-rolesynthe
size-assemble


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


25. inborn
inherited,     congenital, inbred, ancestral,        hereditary


26. manage
orchestrate,      guide, control,   quarterback, direct


27. transmittal
transferral, transposition,    repositioning,    relocation,      transfer


28. reproduce
duplicate, repeat,      clone, parallel,    replicate
29. activate
accelerate, incite, excite,     kindle,    catalyze


30. gradual
ongoing,     incremental, piecemeal,       by degrees,    progressive


31. uncoil
untwist,     disencumber,   untangle,     unravel,    unwind
32. cast
original,     prototype, model,                pattern,     template


33. perfecting
completing,         finishing,      filling,    culminating,         complementary


34. stop
knock off,       cease, terminate,              desist, discontinue


35. role
job,    task, occupation,             concern,        function


36. assemble
meld,      combine,        integrate,       conglomerate, synthesize
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
25.      Inborn(천성의)
Inherited(선천성의), Congenital(타고난), Ancestral(조상 대대로 내려오는), Hereditary(유전적인)


26.      Manage(감독하다)
Orchestrate(조정하다), Guide(지도하다), Control(통제하다), Quarterback(지휘하다), Direct(지도하다)


27.      Transmittal(전송)
Transferral(운송), Transposition(전달), Repositioning(전송), Relocation(운반), Transfer(운송)


28.      Reproduce(재생)
Duplicate(복제), Repeat(복제), Clone(복제), Parallel(유사), Replicate(재생)


29.      Activate(활성화하다)
Accelerate(활발하게 하다), Incite(촉진시키다), Excite(활동적으로 하다), Kindle(유발하다), Catalyze(반응을
미치다)


30.      Gradual(점차적인)
Ongoing(진행하고있는), Incremental(점증하는), Piecemeal(점차),By degrees(점차로), Progressive(점진적인)


31.      Uncoil(풀다)
Untwist(꼬인 것을 풀다), Disencumber(감긴 것을 풀다), Untangle(얽힌 것을 풀다), Unravel(풀다),
Unwind(풀다)
32.       Cast(주형)
Original(원형), Prototype(원형), Model(원형), Pattern(원형), Template(주형)


33.       Perfecting(완전하게 하는)
Completing(완성하는), Finishing(마무리하는), Filling(충만하게 하는), Culminating(완결시키는),
Complementary(보충하여 완전하게 하는)


34.       Stop(중지하다)
Knock off(중단하다), Cease(중지하다), Terminate(마치다), Desist(중지하다), Discontinue(중단하다)


35.       Role(역할)
Job(일), Task(볼일), Occupation(업무), Concern(용무), Function(직무)


36.       Assemble(모으다)
Meld(병합하다), Combine(종합하다), integrate(통합하다), Conglomerate(집합하다), Synthesize(통합하다)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.
[ Guidewords ]
inborn,     manage,   transmittal,      reproduce,   activate,   gradual,   uncoil,   cast,   perfecting,   stop,   role,
assemble


1. ________________
duplicate, repeat,      clone, control,      replicate
________________


2. ________________
completing,     finishing,   filling,   incremental, complementary
________________
3. ________________
meld,    combine,      terminate,    conglomerate, synthesize
________________


4. ________________
ongoing,     inbred,    piecemeal,     by degrees,    progressive
________________


5. ________________
accelerate, parallel,      excite,     kindle, catalyze
________________


6. ________________
transferral, task,      repositioning,    relocation,      transfer
________________


7. ________________
inherited,    congenital, culminating,         ancestral,    hereditary
________________


8. ________________
job,    pattern,    occupation,     concern,    function
________________


9. ________________
knock off,    cease, untangle,         desist, discontinue
________________
10. ________________
untwist,     disencumber,    incite,    unravel,   unwind
________________


11. ________________
original,    prototype, model,       transposition,     template
________________


12. ________________
orchestrate,       guide, integrate, quarterback, direct
________________
[ Answer ] : 1-reproduce, control2-perfecting, incremental3-assemble, terminate4-gradual,
inbred5-activate, parallel6-transmittal, task7-inborn, culminating8-role, pattern9-stop,
untangle10-uncoil, incite11-cast,, transposition12-manage, integrate


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1. Osmosis refers only to transfer of solvent.
a. transferral      b. role    c. transposition      d. relocation (27)


2. Dietary is any of a group of inorganic elements that are essential to humans and animals for normal body
function.
a. template      b. task      c. occupation     d. concern (35)


3. The structures of the culminating period are unique for the subtle proportionings and refinements of all
the members, which are integrated into a superbly adjusted whole.
a. perfecting      b. hereditary     c. completing       d. complementary (33)


4. Blood substitutes typically concentrate only on reproducing the function of hemoglobin, the molecule that
carries oxygen through the body, and do not attempt to replicate the blood's other functions.
a. activate    b. duplicate       c. repeat      d. parallel (28)


5. Hybrid vigor is achieved by crossing two inbred strains.
a. inborn     b. inherited       c. congenital      d. gradual (25)


6. The ratio of the weights of one element that combine with a given weight of another element in the
different compounds is a ratio of small whole numbers.
a. assemble       b. discontinue      c. meld      d. combine       (36)


7. As the study of life forms demonstrated similar or even identical processes occurring in widely divergent
species, it has taken the biochemist to unravel the underlying chemical basis for these phenomena.
a. uncoil     b. kindle       c. untwist   d. untangle (31)


8. The president now seemed to have mastered the art of employing incremental, rather than large-scale,
governmental action to effect change, leaving the Republicans, with their announced mandate for
fundamental change, to appear visionary and radical.
a. ongoing         b. piecemeal           c. progressive            d. ancestral (30)


9. The muscles atrophy quickly, causing weakness, paralysis, and eventual death, usually when the muscles
that control respiration fail.
a. manage          b. guide        c. reproduce            d. direct (26)


10. It is distinguished by its striking pattern of black or dark brown stripes alternating with white.
a. repositioning           b. original        c. prototype          d. model (32)


11. Copper-containing oxidases catalyze a variety of biological oxidations.
a. accelerate         b. incite       c. excite        d. orchestrate (29)


12. Some diseases are acute, producing severe symptoms that terminate after a short time, e.g.,
pneumonia; others are chronic disorders, e.g., arthritis, that last a long time; and still others return
periodically and are termed recurrent, e.g., malaria.
a. stop       b. knock off         c. desist        d. unwind (34)




[ Answer ] : 1. b 2. a            3. b 4. a 5. d 6. b              7. b 8. d 9. c             10. a   11. d 12. d


Chapter 4

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


Genetics has become vital not only in identifying criminals but in the field of medicine as well. Many diseases
are caused by defects in a person's genes, and understanding how genes actually work and the sort of
disorders that genetic defects cause are the topics of this last passage.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.
deteriorate , confuse,              cluster, onset, inexorable,                   apathy, protrude,   offspring ,   inherit,
inevitable, grimace, suppress


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


Huntington's disease : hereditary, acute disturbance of the central nervous system usually beginning in
middle age and characterized by involuntary muscular movements and progressive intellectual
deterioration; formerly called Huntington's chorea. The disease is sometimes confused with chorea or St.
Vitus's dance, which is not hereditary. It attacks the cells of the basal ganglia, clusters of nerve tissue deep
within the brain that govern coordination.
The onset is insidious and inexorably progressive; no treatment is known. Psychiatric disturbances range
from personality changes involving apathy and irritability to manic depressive or schizophreniform illness.
Motor manifestations include flicking movements of the extremities, a lilting gait, and motor impersistence
(inability to sustain a motor act such as tongue protrusion).
In 1993 the gene responsible for the disease was located; within that gene a small segment of code is, for
some reason, copied over and over. Genetic counseling is extremely important, since 50% of the offspring of
an affected parent inherit the gene, which inevitably leads to the disease.
chorea or St. Vitus's dance : acute disturbance of the central nervous system characterized by involuntary
muscular movements of the face and extremities. The disease, known also as Sydenham's chorea (not to be
confused with Huntington's disease, a hereditary disease of adults that is sometimes called Huntington's
chorea), is usually, but not always, a complication of rheumatic fever. Sydenham's chorea, a disease of
children, especially females, usually appears between the ages of 7 and 14. Facial grimacing and jerking
movements persist for 6 to 10 weeks and sometimes recur after months or even years. Eventually the
symptoms disappear. Although there is no specific treatment, sedatives and tranquilizers are helpful in
suppressing the involuntary movements. Technically, it is sometimes called chorea minor or juvenile chorea
to distinguish it from several less common choreas, chorea also being a general term for continuous,
involuntary jerking movements
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
헌팅톤 병은 유전적으로 내려오는 병이며 일반 적으로 중년 초기 때부터 중추신경계에 심한 방해 증세가
일어난다. 헌팅톤 무도병이라고 불러진 이 병의 특징은 무의식적인 근육 활동과 점진적 지능 악화 등이 있다.
간혹 이 병이 유전적으로는 전혀 무관한 무도병이나 St. Vitus's dance와 혼동됀다. 헌팅톤 병은 두뇌 깊숙히
무리지고 근육운동의 공동 작용을 총괄하는 신경조직인 대뇌기저핵의 세포를 공격한다.
이 병의 징후는 교활하고 냉혹하게 진보적이다. 알려진 치유방법은 없다. 심리적 방해 증세는 무관심과 성급한
성격변화에서 무관심과 성급함에서 더 나아가서는 조울병이나 정신분열형병이 발생한다. 운동 신경의 징후는
사지가 떨리고 경쾌한 걸음걸이 그리고 혀를 돌출을 할 수 없는 비지속적인 운동성이다.
1993년에는 헌팅톤 병의 원인을 제공하는 유전자가 발견됐다. 이 유전자 안에 있는 작은 부분이 어떤 일인지
지속적으로 반복 복제하고 있었다. 헌팅톤 병에 걸린 부모들의 자손들의 50%가 이 유전자를 물려받고 어쩔수
없이 헌팅톤 병으로 발전되는 만큼 유전상담은 아주 중요하다.
무도병이나 St. Vitus's dance는 중추신경계에 심한 방해 증세가 나타나고 특징은 사지 근육과 안면근의
무의식적 움직임이다. 시드넘 무도병이라고 알려진 병은 (여기서 성인들에게 발생하는 유전적 원인으로 발생하는
헌팅톤 병 (헌팅통 무도병)과 혼동하면 안 된다.) 자주는 아니지만 보통 류머티즘열로 인한 합병증이다. 시드넘
무도병은 7살에서 14살 사이에 있는 어린아이 중 특히 여성에게 발생한다. 증세는 얼굴이 일그러지고 경련
일어난다. 이 증세의 기간은 짧게는 6주에서 10주동안 지속되고 간혹 가다 몇 달 동안 더 나아가서는 몇년이
걸린다. 증세는 나중에 사라지기는 하지만 효과적인 치료 방법은 없다. 진정제나 신경안정제는 무의식적인 근육
활동을 억제하는데 도움이 된다. 기술적으로는 이 질병을 미성년 무도병 혹은 소년 무도병이라고 명칭된 이유는
흔하지않은 몇 무도병과 구분하기 위해서다. 그리고 Chorea (무도병)는 지속적이면서도 무의식적 근육 활동을
설명하는 개괄적인 용어로도 쓰여진다.


[ Glossary ]
basal ganglia : Anatomy. masses of cell bodies located deep in each cerebral hemisphere; includes the
caudate nucleus, puntamen and globus pallidus (together the lentiform nucleus), and the claustrum. These
nuclei participate in motor control. Also, CEREBRAL NUCLEI
Psychiatric : relating to or being a mental or emotional disorder
manic depressive : Psychology. relating to or affected by manic-depressive psychosis
manic-depressive psychosis : Psychology. a major affective disorder in which an individual alternates
between states of deep depression and extreme elation. Also, BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER
cf. schizophrenia : Psychology. a general term for a number of severe mental disorders involving disturbed
thought processes, withdrawal from reality, and various emotional and behavioral symptoms
extremity : Anatomy. a limb; an arm or leg, or sometimes specifically a hand or foot
motor : Physiology. of or relating to structures, such as muscles or nerves, that are involved in or cause
movement; sometimes refers to nerves that innervate glands
sedative : Pharmacology. any agent that calms and quiets nervous excitement in any part of the body,
including the brain
tranquilizer : Pharmacology. any drug or other substance that calms or soothes a person, such as an
antidepressant


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
deteriorateㆍ
confuseㆍ
clusterㆍ
onsetㆍ
inexorableㆍ
apathyㆍ
protrudeㆍ
offspringㆍ
inheritㆍ
inevitableㆍ
grimaceㆍ
suppressㆍ




ㆍindifference
ㆍmake a face
ㆍstick out
ㆍyoung
ㆍdecline
ㆍmix up
ㆍcome into
ㆍunchangeable
ㆍcollection
ㆍbeginning
ㆍunavoidable
ㆍput down




[ Answer ] : deteriorate-declineconfuse-mix
upcluster-collectiononset-beginninginexorable-unchangeableapathy-indifferenceprotrude-stick
outoffspring-younginherit-come intoinevitable-unavoidablegrimace-make a facesuppress-put into


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


37. decline
decay,     depreciate, degrade, degenerate, deteriorate


38. mix up
mystify,     bemuse, confound,       muddle,       confuse


39. collection
congregation,      assembly,     bunch,      clump,     cluster


40. beginning
outset, commencement, outbreak,                oncoming,       onset


41. unchangeable
unyielding,     inflexible,   unrelenting,     relentless, inexorable


42. indifference
disinterest,    impassivity, inattention,        lethargy, apathy


43. stick out
jut out,   project, extrude, stand out, protrude


44. young
descendants, posterity, progeny,              brood,     offspring


45. come into
step into,     take over, succeed to,        fall heir to,   inherit


46. unavoidable
inescapable,      irrevocable, unpreventable, predetermined,            inevitable


47. make a face
scowl,      frown,      glower, mug,             grimace


48. put down
quell,     squelch,       squash, subdue, suppress
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
37.      Decline(기울다)
Decay(쇠퇴하다), Depreciate(저하시키다), Degrade(저하시키다), Degenerate(퇴보하다),
Deteriorate(저하시키다)


38.      Mix up(뒤섞다)
Mystify(혼미하게 하다), Bemuse(멍하게 만들다), Confound(혼동하다), Muddle(뒤섞다), Confuse(혼란시키다)


39.      Collection(집합)
Congregation(집합), Assembly(집회), Bunch(덩어리), Clump(다발), Cluster(송이)


40.      Beginning(개시)
Outset(발단), Commencement(시작), Outbreak(최초), Oncoming(도래), Onset(착수)
41.      Unchangeable(변함없는)
Unyielding(바꾸지 않는), Inflexible(확고한), Unrelenting(확고부동한), Relentless(완고한), Inexorable(변경을
허락하지 않는)


42.      Indifference(태연)
Disinterest(무관심), Impassivity(태연함), Inattention(냉담), Lethargy(냉정함), Apathy(무관심)


43.      Stick out(돌출하다)
Jut out(돌출하다), Project(불쑥 나오다), Extrude(돌출하다), Stand out(튀어나오다), Protrude(튀어나오다)


44.      Young(자손)


Descendants(자손), posterity(후세), Progeny(계승자), Brood(후대), Offspring(자손)


45.      Come into(상속하다)
Step into(재산을 이어받다), Take over(계승하다), Succeed to(상속하다), Fall heir to(상속하다), Inherit(상속하다)


46.      Unavoidable(불가피한)
Inescapable(피할 수 없는), irrevocable(돌이킬 수 없는), Unpreventable(방지할 수 없는), Predetermined(미리
결정이 된), Inevitable(변경할 수 없는)


47.       Make a face(언짢은 낯을 하다)
Scowl(노려보다), Frown(찡그리다), Glower(찌푸린 얼굴을 하다), Mug(일부러 얼굴을 찡그리다),
Grimace(찡그리다)


48.       Put down(억누르다)
Quell(진정시키다), Squelch(억압하다), Squash(가라앉히다), Subdue(진압하다), Suppress(진압하다)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions
In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[ Guidewords ]
decline,     mix up,   collection,    beginning,    unchangeable,      indifference,   stick out,   young,   come into,
unavoidable,      make a face,       put down


1. ________________
unyielding,     inflexible,   unrelenting,   unpreventable, inexorable
________________


2. ________________
decay, take over, degrade,            degenerate,        deteriorate
________________


3. ________________
outset, commencement, outbreak, assembly,                     onset
________________


4. ________________
descendants, posterity, progeny, extrude, offspring
________________


5. ________________
scowl,     muddle,     glower, mug,      grimace
________________


6. ________________
mystify,     bemuse, confound,         depreciate, confuse
________________


7. ________________
step into,     subdue, succeed to,       fall heir to,    inherit
________________


8. ________________
disinterest,    impassivity, inattention,       brood,      apathy
________________
9. ________________
congregation,     lethargy, bunch,        clump,    cluster
________________


10. ________________
quell,     squelch,   squash, frown,      suppress
________________


11. ________________
inescapable,     irrevocable, relentless, predetermined,             inevitable
________________


12. ________________
jut out,    project, oncoming,     stand out,      protrude
________________


[ Answer ] : 1-unchangeable, unpreventable2-decline, take over3-beginning, assembly4-young,
extrude5-make a face, muddle6-mix up, depreciate7-come into, subdue8-indifference,
brood9-collection, lethargy10-put down, frown11-unavoidable, relentless12-stick out, oncoming


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1. His characters often fruitlessly attempt to deal with inescapable events, and the ghost of the Vietnam
conflict hovers over much of his fiction.
a. unavoidable        b. irrevocable     c. unpreventable       d. inexorable (46)


2. Outbreak of disease that affects a much greater number of people than is usual for the locality or that
spreads to regions where it is ordinarily not present.
a. clump     b. beginning     c. outset    d. commencement (40)


3. Afterward he waged relentless war against the U.S. army and became noted for his courage, integrity,
and military skill.
a. unchangeable         b. unavoidable    c. unyielding       d. inflexible (41)
4. We have here sufficiently queer samples of both sexes to give us a good Flemish laugh, and enough ugly
faces to justify our hopes of a beautiful grimace.
a. brood    b. scowl        c. frown     d. glower (47)


5. It is distinguished from hypochondria by the fact that its sufferers do not generally confuse their condition
with real, physical disease.
a. mix up      b. mystify     c. degenerate      d. muddle (38)


6. Only the jaw, the bases of the fins, and the tail protrude from this carapace, and the locomotion of these
fishes is necessarily peculiar.
a. stick out     b. come into c. jut out        d. extrude (43)


7. The drug possesses some anticonvulsant properties and is used to suppress some forms of epilepsy.
a. put down       b. quell     c. squelch      d. fall heir to (48)


8. They are very strong and durable, do not deteriorate when wholly in the ground, and are immune to the
attacks of boring insects.
a. decay       b. depreciate      c. degrade       d. bemuse (37)


9. A famous cluster of 2,500 galaxies, the Virgo cluster, lies in the constellation.
a. collection     b. congregation          c. onset    d. bunch (39)


10. Symptoms are high fever, apathy, and lack of appetite with resulting dehydration and loss of weight.
a. indifference      b. disinterest       c. impassivity     d. assembly (42)


11. In conventional breeding, progeny inherit genes for both desirable and undesirable traits from both
parents.
a. come into      b. take over         c. come into    d. stand out (45)


12. The narrative then focuses on the fortunes of Abraham and his immediate descendants Isaac and Jacob.
a. posterities     b. lethargy         c. progenies    d. offspring (44)




[ Answer ] : 1. d 2. a       3. b 4. a 5.c      6. b   7. d 8. d      9. c 10. d   11. d   12. b


Review Exercise
Reading Instructions
All the words from this unit are found in the exercise below. Each sentence contains one word in bold type
from all the drills in this unit. Select the word from the choices below that can replace the word in the bold
type. (The word numbers from all the Drills in the unit are in parentheses. These will help if you need to look
back.)


1. This road leads across several smaller heights, and winds down different vales in succession, so that it
was only by the accidental sound of a few German words that I was aware we had quitted Italy, and hence
the unwelcome shock alluded to in the two or three last lines of the latter sonnet.
a. chain     b. progression c. course        d. sequence       (7)


2. I cannot and would not hinder them from gathering, among other people, many fragments of the common
prejudices and errors which are current in the world.
a. present     b. contemporary        c. duplicate    d. prevalent (5)


3. A pay cut may save on overhand, but work quality will quickly degenerate until the cost overtakes any
advantages offered by the cut in costs.
a. decline    b. discontinue    c. depreciate      d. deteriorate (37)


4. There is no evidence that the best citizens are the offspring of congenial marriages, or that a conflict of
temperament is not a highly important part of what breeders call crossing.
a. apathy     b. descendants        c. posterity     d. progeny (44)


5. She was accepted as a rational and normal-or shall we say inevitable-sort of human being.
a. unavoidable      b. unpreventable       c. unrelenting      d. irrevocable (46)


6. When reprisals are taken against a power of equal strength, they may provoke war.
a. induce     b. assay    c. motivate      d. breed (20)


7. It is not always easy to properly perceive the intention of the author, especially when you are dealing with
this archaic branch of English.
a. distinguish     b. investigate     c. equate      d. identify (2)


8. Mr. Ludlow, towards the last, had been able to snatch a few weeks from his forensic triumphs, and,
crossing the ocean with extreme rapidity, spent a month with the two ladies in Paris, before taking his wife
home.
a. arguable      b. controversial     c. debatable      d. unavoidable (1)
9. They pay no attention that I could discern to the depredation.
a. realize     b. correspond       c. acknowledge          d. recognize (16)


10. They have put before us three distinct and incompatible views of Social-Democracy.
a. clear      b. obvious      c. unambiguous       d. recurring (19)


11. Congenital defects result from abnormal development of the fetal heart, commonly in the valves or septa.
a. inborn      b. inherited     c. tautological    d. inbred (25)


12. For declining to make what he well knows, in view of the actual attitude of juries (as shown in the
Tobacco Trust cases and in San Francisco in one or two of the cases brought against corrupt business men)
would have been the futile endeavor to imprison defendants whom we are actually able to fine.
a. condemn        b. correspond         c. sentence      d. convict (11)


13. Doctor Moreno gave me a fragment of the skin, and also bones and dung; they are now in the American
Museum of Natural History.
a. fraction     b. segment       c. chip    d. restraint    (14)


14. The despair of institutions, and the inexorable "you must be born again," with Mrs Poyser's stipulation,
"and born different," recurs in every generation.
a. unchangeable        b. unyielding       c. inflexible    d. inescapable (41)


15. Primary polycythemia, also called erythremia, or polycythemia vera, is a chronic, progressive disease,
most common in middle-aged men.
a. clone      b. gradual      c. incremental      d. by degrees (30)


16. Certain physical concepts are complementary. (32)
a. perfecting      b. completing        c. culminating      d. indistinguishable (32)


17. The vitality which places nourishment and children first, heaven and hell a somewhat remote second,
and the health of society as an organic whole nowhere, may muddle successfully through the comparatively
tribal stages of gregariousness.
a. inherit    b. mystify      c. bemuse     d. confuse (38)
18. The chronology of Judges is impossible to untangle, partly because of occasional failure to give the
length of time between the judges.
a. uncoil     b. wordy     c. untwist      d. disencumber (31)


19. Today, many hearing aids are customized to amplify only those noises (e.g., high frequency) that the
user has difficulty hearing.
a. enlarge      b. intensify    c. magnify     d. discern (23)


20. Almost all plants synthesize their own pigments.
a. assemble       b. desist     c. integrate    d. combine (36)


[ Answer ] : 1. c   2. c 3. b     4. a 5. c    6. d   7. b 8. d 9. b 10. d 11. c 12. b 13. d   14. d 15. a   16.d
17. a   18. b   19. d   20. b




Additional Topics in Genetics

Human Genome Project
International scientific effort to map all of the approximately 100,000 genes on the 23 human chromosomes
and, eventually, to sequence the 3 billion DNA base pairs that make up these genes. Begun in 1990, the
study goal is to understand the basis of genetic diseases and to gain insight into human evolution. The
project has identified genes for cystic fibrosis, neurofibromatosis, Huntingtons disease, and an inherited
form of breast fibros. Scheduled for completion in 2003, the project also will compare the human genome
(the full set of genes and traits) with those from the bacterium E. coli, a fruit fly, and a nematode worm, in
order to study genetic similarities among species. The project involves laboratories in the United States,
France, Great Britain, Germany, and Japan. It is financed in the United States by the National Institutes of
Health (and, to a lesser degree, by the Department of Energy) and in Great Britain by the Wellcome Trust of
London. A comparable project using new DNA (genetic material) sequencing machines was begun as a
private industry venture in the United States in 1998, with a stated goal of completion in three years.


Nucleic acid
Any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central
role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through
protein synthesis. In most organisms, nucleic acids occur in combination with proteins; the combined
substances are called nucleoproteins. Nucleic acid molecules are complex chains of varying length. The two
chief types of nucleic acids are DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which carries the hereditary information from
generation to generation, and RNA (ribonucleic acid), which delivers the instructions coded in this
information to the cells protein manufacturing sites. A substance that he called nuclein (now known as DNA)
was isolated by 1869 by Freidrich Miescher, but it was only in the last half of the 20th cent. that that research
revealed its significance as the material of which the gene is composed, and thus its function as the
chemical bearer of hereditary characteristics. RNA was first made by laboratory synthesis in 1955. In 1965
the nucleotide sequence of tRNA was determined, and in 1967 the synthesis of biologically active DNA was
achieved. The amount of RNA varies from cell to cell, but the amount of DNA is normally constant for all
typical cells of a given species of plant or animal, no matter what the size or function of that cell. The amount
doubles as the chromosomes replicate themselves before cell division takes place; in the ovum and sperm
the amount is half that in the body cells.


DNA
The chemical and physical properties of DNA suit it for both replication and transfer of information. Each
DNA molecule is a long two-stranded chain. The strands are made up of subunits called nucleotides, each
containing a sugar (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogenous bases, adenine, guanine,
thymine, and cytosine, denoted A, G, T, and C, respectively. A given strand contains nucleotides bearing
each of these four. The information carried by a given gene is coded in the sequence in which the
nucleotides bearing different bases occur along the strand. These nucleotide sequences determine the
sequences of amino acids in the polypeptide chain of the protein specified by that gene.


Between the genes, or coding loci, on the DNA of higher organisms, there are long portions of DNA, often
referred to as junk DNA, that code no proteins. Sometimes junk DNA occurs within a gene; when this occurs,
the coding portions are called exons and the noncoding (junk) portions are called introns. Junk DNA makes
up 97% of the DNA in the human genome. Little is known of its purpose.


In 1953 the molecular biologists J. D. Watson , an American, and F. H. Crick, an Englishman, proposed that
the two DNA strands were coiled in a double helix. In this model each nucleotide subunit along one strand is
bound to a nucleotide subunit on the other strand by hydrogen bonds between the base portions of the
nucleotides. The fact that adenine bonds only with thymine (A-T) and guanine bonds only with cytosine
(G-C) determines that the strands will be complementary, (i.e., that for every adenine on one strand there
will be a thymine on the other strand). It is the property of complementarity between strands that insures
that DNA can be replicated, (i.e., that identical copies can be made in order to be transmitted to the next
generation as in the diagram).


RNA and Protein Synthesis
In order to be expressed as protein, the genetic information must be carried to the protein-synthesizing
machinery of the cell, which is in the cells cytoplasm (see cell). One form of RNA mediates this process. RNA
is similar to DNA, but contains the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose and the base uracil (U) instead of
thymine. To initiate the process of information transfer, one strand of the double-stranded DNA chain
serves as template for the synthesis of a single strand of RNA that is complementary to the DNA strand (e.g.,
the DNA sequence AGTC . will specify an RNA sequence UCAG .). This process is called transcription and is
mediated by enzymes.
The newly synthesized RNA, called messenger RNA, or mRNA, moves quickly to bodies in the cytoplasm
called ribosomes, which are composed of two particles made of protein bound to ribosomal RNA, or rRNA.
Each ribosome is the site of synthesis of a polypeptide chain. Several ribosomes attach to a single mRNA so
that many polypeptide chains are synthesized from the same mRNA; each cluster of an mRNA and
ribosomes is called a polyribosome or polysome. The nucleotide sequence of the mRNA is translated into the
amino acid sequence of a protein by adaptor molecules composed of a third type of RNA called transfer RNA,
or tRNA. There are many different species of tRNA, with each species binding one of 20 amino acids.
In protein synthesis, a nucleotide sequence along the mRNA does not specify an amino acid directly; rather,
it specifies a particular species of tRNA. For example, in coding for the amino acid tyrosine, a nucleotide
sequence of mRNA is complementary to a portion of a tyrosine-tRNA molecule. As each specified tRNA
associates with its complementary space on the mRNA, the amino acid is added onto the lengthening
protein chain and the tRNA is released. When the protein chain is complete, it is released from the ribosome.


The particular sequence of amino acids in each polypeptide chain is determined by the genetic code.
Starting at one end of the mRNA strand, each 3-nucleotide sequence, or codon, specifies, via
complementary tRNA sequences, one amino acid, and the series of such codons in the mRNA specifies a
polypeptide chain. Although a vocabulary of 64 words, or specifications, is theoretically possible with 4
different nucleotides taken three at a time, there are only 20 amino acids to be specified. However, several
triplets may code for the same amino acid; for example UAU and UAC both code for the amino acid tyrosine.
In addition, there are some codons that do not code for amino acids but code for polypeptide chain initiation
and polypeptide chain termination. The code is also nonoverlapping; (i.e., a nucleotide in one codon is never
part of either adjacent codon). The code seems to be universal in all living organisms.


The determination of the mechanism of protein synthesis has increased understanding of many genetic
processes and permitted such developments as bioengineering. Some mutagens, or mutation-inducing
agents, cause the substitution of one nucleotide for another in an mRNA strand; other multiage cause
deletion or addition of nucleotides. Decoding, or reading, of such strands will be altered.


Mβ-galctosidase only when lactose is present. Induction has been linked to the activity at a so-called
opertor site on a chromosome. When the operator site is open. the genes it controls function freely; when it
is blocked, as by a repressor molecule, the genes it controls also do not function. etabolic regulation has
been studied to determine how the genes that control enzyme synthesis can be switched on and off when
certain substances are present. For example, in the process known as induction, bacteria synthesize the
enzyme.
Unit 7

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Earth Science


Chapter 1

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


The behavior of water when it freezes and thaws is a well known phenomenon. This process and some of its
effects on the environment as well as our daily lives are discussed in the following passage.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


alternate ,        thaw ,       unique ,        solidify ,       exert     ,     verify ,     shatter ,   wedge ,   pronounced ,
outcrop ,        heave ,        buckle


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


Alternate freezing and thawing is one of the most important processes of mechanical weathering. Water has
the unique property of expanding about 9 percent as it freezes. This increase in volume occurs because as
water solidifies, the water molecules arrange themselves into a very open crystalline structure. As a result,
when water freezes it expands and exerts a tremendous outward force. This can be verified by filling a
container with water and freezing it. If sufficient volume does not exist in the container, it will shatter.
In nature, water works its way into cracks or voids in rock and, upon freezing, expands and wedges the rock
apart. This process is appropriately called frost wedging. Frost wedging is most pronounced in mountainous
regions in the middle latitudes where a daily freeze-thaw cycle often exists. Here, sections of rock are
wedged loose and may tumble into large piles called talus slopes that often form at the base of steep rock
outcrops.
Frost wedging also causes great destruction to the highways in the northern United States, particularly in
the early spring when the freeze-thaw cycle is well established. Roadways acquire numerous potholes and
are occasionally heaved and buckled by this destructive force.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
결빙과 해동이 교대로 발생하는 것은 기계적 풍화작용의 중요한                                                             과정 중 하나다. 물이 얼때는 부피가 대략 9%
정도 팽창하는 독특한 특성이 있다. 물의 부피가 커지는 이유는                                                            고체화가 되면서 물 분자들이 틈이 매우 많은
결정 구조로 배열하기 때문이다. 이 결과 물은 결빙시에 팽창하고 외부로 굉장한 힘을 가한다. 용기에다 물을
붓고 얼리게 되면 이 현상을 확인 할 수 있다. 용기에 충분한 공간이 없다면 용기는 산산조각 날 것이다.
자연에서는 물이 암석의 공극이나 틈에 들어가서 얼면 암석을 갈라 놓는다.                                                            이 현상을   동결 쐐기 (frost
wedging)라고 한다. 동결 쐐기는 동결과 해동의 순환이 자주 일어나는 중위도에 위치한 산악지역에서 뚜렷하게
이루어진다. 여기서 암석들은 느슨하게 갈라져서 가파른 노두 밑부분에 만들어지는 애추 경사라는 돌더미에 굴러
떨어진다.
동결 쐐기는 또한 미국의 북부지방에 있는 고속도로에 큰 피해를 입힌다. 특히 동결과 해동의 순환이 만성한
이른 봄에 빈번하게 일어난다. 도로는 수없이 움푹 패이고 가끔씩 이 파괴력 있는 자연 현상으로 인해서 도로는
융기하고 뒤틀어 진다.


[ Glossary ]
mechanical weathering : Geology. The breakdown and fragmentation of rock as a result of natural physical
forces without chemical changes.
Crystalline : Crystallography. Relating to or having a crystal structure.
talus slopes : Geology. A steep, concave, downward sloping formation, formed by the accumulation of
coarse, angular rock debris at the base of a cliff or steep slope.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
alternateㆍ
thawㆍ
uniqueㆍ
solidifyㆍ
exertㆍ
verifyㆍ
shatterㆍ
wedgeㆍ
pronouncedㆍ
outcropㆍ
heaveㆍ
buckleㆍ




ㆍstrongly marked
ㆍraise
ㆍwarm
ㆍsingular
ㆍmake solid
ㆍevery other
ㆍauthenticate
ㆍbreak
ㆍforce apart
ㆍrock shelf
ㆍbend
ㆍput forth




[ Answer ] : alternate-every otherthaw-warmunique-singularsolidify-make solidexert-put
forthverify-authenticateshatter-breakwedge-force a apartpronounced-strongly markedoutcrop-rock
shelfheave-raisebuckle-bend


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


Listening Instructions
The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
1. every other
consecutive ,            sequential ,        successive ,          interchanged , alternate


2. warm
soften ,        defrost ,          unfreeze ,       unthaw ,         thaw


3. singular
atypical ,       exceptional ,          peculiar ,        unusual ,         unique


4. make solid
harden ,        stiffen ,      gel ,      congeal ,         solidify


5. put forth
wield ,      exercise ,         employ ,         struggle ,        exert


6. authenticate
corroborate ,            substantiate ,         validate ,       document ,           verify


7. break
fragment ,            fracture ,     smash ,         splinter ,       shatter


8. force apart
force in ,       squeeze in ,          cram ,       open ,        split ,     wedge


9. strongly marked
bold ,      conspicuous ,            outstanding ,          prominent ,           pronounced


10. rock shelf
mantel ,        protrusion ,         obtrusion ,         bedrock ,          outcrop


11. raise
hoist ,      lift ,     billow ,      surge ,       heave


12. bend
warp ,       crimp ,        bulge ,       crumple ,         buckle
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.       every other(하나 걸러)
consecutive(연속되는)/sequential(잇따라 일어나는)/successive(연속하는)/interchanged(번갈아 일어나게 하는)
/alternate(교대의)


2.    warm(따뜻하게 하다)
soften(온화하게 하다) / defrost(해동시키다) / unfreeze(녹이다)/ unthaw(녹이다) / thaw(녹이다)


3.    singular(두드러진)
atypical(별난) / exceptional(이례적인) / peculiar(특별한) /unusual(이례적인) / unique(특이한)


4.    make solid(고체로 만들다)
harden(단단하게 만들다) / stiffen(굳어지게 하다) / gel(경직시키다) /congeal(굳어지게 하다) / solidify(응고시키다)


5.    put forth(힘등을 발휘하다)
wield(영향등을 미치다) / exercise(영향을 미치다) / employ(영향력을 행사하다)/ struggle(어떤 상태로 하다) /
exert(영향등을 미치다)


6.    authenticate(인증하다)
corroborate(확증하다)./ substantiate(확인하다) / validate(입증하다) /document(입증하다) / verify(증명하다)


7.    break(깨다)
fragment(붕괴시키다) / fracture(부러뜨리다) / smash(부수다)/splinter(튀다) / shatter(흩어지다)


8.    force apart(분리시키다) - 강제로 밀어 넣어 분리시키다
squeeze in(밀어넣다)/cram(밀어넣다) /open(절개하다) / split(쪼개다) / wedge(쪼개다)


9.    strongly marked(뚜렷하게 드러나는)
bold(두드러진) / conspicuous(눈에 잘 띄는) / outstanding(눈에 띄는) /prominent(현저한) / pronounced(현저한)


10.   rock shelf(선반암)
mantel(맨틀)/ protrusion(돌출(부)) / obtrusion(돌출) /bedrock(기반암) / outcrop((지층·광맥 등의) 노출(부),)


11.   raise(올리다)
hoist(들어올리다) / lift(올리다) / billow(큰 파도가 솟아오르다) /surge(솟아오르다) / heave(융기하다)


12.   bend(구부리다)
warp(휘게하다) / crimp(구부려서 틀을 잡히게 하다) / bulge(부풀어오르다) /crumple(구기다) / buckle(구부리다)
Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[ Guidewords ]
every other ,           warm ,       singular ,    make solid ,      put forth ,   authenticate ,   break ,   force apart ,
strongly marked ,            rock shelf ,     raise ,     bend ,


1. ________________
fragment ,            obtrusion ,     smash ,      splinter ,     shatter
________________


2. ________________
bold ,       unusual ,             outstanding ,     prominent ,      pronounced
________________


3. ________________
hoist ,      lift ,     billow ,      squeeze in ,      heave
________________


4. ________________
soften ,       crimp ,       unfreeze ,      unthaw ,      thaw
________________


5. ________________
force in ,       validate ,        cram ,    open ,     split ,     wedge
________________


6. ________________
wield ,      congeal ,        employ ,       struggle ,     exert


________________
7. ________________
consecutive ,       sequential ,       conspicuous ,         interchanged , alternate
________________


8. ________________
warp ,       surge ,      bulge ,     crumple ,      buckle
________________


9. ________________
mantel ,     protrusion ,      fracture ,        bedrock ,     outcrop
________________


10. ________________
corroborate ,       substantiate ,       exercise ,     document ,        verify
________________


11. ________________
atypical ,    exceptional ,         peculiar ,     successive ,     unique
________________


12. ________________
harden ,      stiffen ,    gel ,      defrost ,     solidify
________________


[ Answer ] : 1-break, obtrusion2-strongly marked, prominent3-raise, squeeze in4-warm, crimp5-force
apart, validate6-put forth, all words are synonymous7-every other, conspicuous8-bend, surge9-rock
shelf, fracture10-authenticate, exercise11-singular, successive12-make solid, defrost


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1. Measurements of the masses of some of the visual binary stars have been used to verify the
mass-luminosity relation.
a. authenticate        b. substantiate      c. bend     d. validate (6)
2. A pulley is useful in raising heavy objects that can be otherwise moved with brute force.
a. hoist   b. lift   c. heave    d. force in (11)


3. Cassiopeia, in astronomy, is prominent northern constellation located almost directly opposite the Big
Dipper across the north celestial pole.
a. atypical     b. bold    c. conspicuous      d. outstanding (9)


4. Construction materials for buildings and roads are subject to weathering by water, carbon dioxide,
aerosol gases, freeze-thaw cycles, and salt.
a. warm     b. defrost    c. exert   d. unfreeze (2)


5. The fundamental theorem of arithmetic, the unique factorization theorem, asserts that any positive integer
a is a product (a = p1 · p2 · p3 · · · pn) of primes that are unique except for the order in which they are
listed.
a. atypical     b. interchanged       c. exceptional     d. unusual (3)


6. Foreign exchange is methods and instruments used to adjust the payment of debts between two nations
that employ different currency systems.
a. wield      b. exercise c. struggle     d. corroborate (5)


7. Because of their sequential arrangement and the relationship of their color values, these patterns create
optical sensations of rhythmically vibrating surfaces.
a. consecutive       b. successive      c. alternate     d. singular (1)


8. Freshly cut wood contains much moisture and tends to wrap and split as it dries.
a. crimp      b. bulge    c. surge    d. buckle   (12)
9. The rock crusher will fragment rock containing ore, to prepare for extraction of the metal.
a. fracture        b. smash          c. document          d. splinter (7)


10. Molten metal is poured into the cavity and allowed to solidify.
a. unthaw         b. harden          c. stiffen       d. congeal (4)


11. The new reactor will split atoms much more efficiently, reducing the cost and time needed to carry out
the experiment.
a. force apart        b. break       c. cram         d. wedge (8)


12. A line of spring will appear on clay outcrops where an impervious layer of rock, such as a clay deposit,
underlies a layer of saturated soil or rock.
a. shatter        b. rock shelf         c. protrusion           d. obtrusion (10)


[ Answer ] : 1. c         2. d      3. a      4. c      5. b      6. d     7. d      8. c      9. c 10. a 11. b 12. a




Chapter 2

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


Nothing in our world is permanent. In the passage below, some of the agents of this weathering process is
outlined, including both artificial as well as natural reasons for this continuous process.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1
The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


region ,       swell      ,    shrink ,       unmistakable ,             dilemma       ,      thermal ,   as to ,   burrow ,   blast ,
accomplishment ,              agent ,       debris


Listening Instruction 2
Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.
The daily cycle of temperature change is thought to weaken rocks, particularly in hot, dry regions where
daily variations may exceed 30 oC. Heating a rock causes expansion and cooling causes contraction.
Repeated swelling and shrinking of minerals with different expansion rates should logically exert some
stress on the rocks outer shell.
Although this process was once thought to be of major importance in the disintegration of rock, laboratory
experiments have not substantiated this. In one test, unweathered rocks were heated to temperatures much
higher than those normally experienced on the earths surface and then cooled. This procedure was
repeated many times to simulate hundreds of years of weathering, but the rocks showed little apparent
change.
Nevertheless, in desert areas pebbles do exhibit unmistakable evidence of shattering from what appears to
be temperature changes. A proposed solution to this dilemma suggests that rocks must first be weakened
by chemical weathering before they can be broken down by thermal activity. Further, this process may be
aided by the rapid cooling of a desert rainstorm. Additional data are needed before a definite answer can be
given as to the impact of temperature variation on rock disintegration.
Weathering is also accomplished by the activities of organisms, including plants, burrowing animals, and
man. Plant roots in search of minerals and water grow into fractures, and as the roots grow, they wedge the
rock apart. Burrowing animals further break down rock by moving fresh material to the surface, where
physical and chemical processes can more effectively attack it. Further, decayed organisms produce acids
which contribute to chemical weathering. Where rock has been blasted in search of minerals or for road
construction, the impact of man is quite noticeable, but on a worldwide scale, humans probably rank behind
burrowing animals in earth-moving accomplishments.
Although usually considered separately from mechanical weathering, the activities of the erosional agents
wind, running water, and glaciers are nonetheless important. For as these mobile agents move rock debris,
they relentlessly disintegrate the earth materials they carry.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
일간의 온도변화는 특히 하루의 온도 변화량이 30도를 웃도는 건조하고 뜨거운 지방에서 암석을 약화 시키는
요인이라고 생각된다. 암석을 가열하면 팽창하고 냉각하면 수축한다. 동일하지않은 팽창률을 가진 광물이 팽창과
수축을 반복하는 것은 논리적으로 암석의 껍질에 어느 정도의 압력을 미친다.
이 현상이 암석의 분해에 아주 중요한 역할을 한다고 생각 했었지만 이 이론을 입증하는 연구 결과는 없었다.
어느 한 실험에서 풍화되지 않은 암석을 지표상에서 경험할 수 없는 고온으로 가열 후 냉각했다. 이 실험 방식은
수 백년의 풍화 작용을 흉내내기 위해서 수없이 되풀이 되었지만 암석은 아주 작은 외부적인 변화만 보였다.
그럼에도 불구하고 사막 지역에 있는 자갈들은 온도 변화로 분해됐다는 사실을 틀림없이 보여준다. 이 딜레마에
대해 제안된 해결책은 열의 작용으로 암석이 부서지기 전에 화학적 풍화작용이 암석을 약화시켜야 한다는 것이다.
게다가 순식간에 온도를 냉각시키는 사막의 폭풍우가 아마도 이 과정에 도움을 준다는 것이다. 온도 변화가 암석
분해에 미치는 영향에 대한 답이 주어지기 전에는 추가 자료가 필요하다.
풍화작용은 식물과 천공 동물 그리고 인간 등이 포함된 생물체들의 활동에 위해서 이루어 지기도 한다.                                               식물은
광물과 물을 찾기 위해 뿌리를 내리면서 갈라진 틈 사이로 자라고 뿌리가 자라면서 암석을 갈라놓는다. 천공
동물들은 물리적, 화학적 작용들이 좀더 효율적으로 작용할 수 있도록 지표로 신선한 물질들을 이동시켜 암석을
붕괴시킨다. 더 나아가서는 부패된 생물들은 화학적 풍화작용을 도와줄 수 있는 산을 만들어낸다. 도로 건설이나
광물을 찾기 위해서 암석을 폭파하는 곳에서는 인간들의 영향이 눈에 띄게 현저하다. 하지만 세계적 스케일로
본다면 인간은 천공 동물보다 지구를 변화시키는 데에는 뒤쳐져 있을 것이다.
기계적 풍화작용과는 다른 작용으로 분리되지만 바람, 하천, 빙하 등의 침식 작용 또한 중요하다. 이 이동성
요인들이 암석 부스러기를 움직이는 동안에도 지속적으로 토양 재료들을 분해한다.


[ Glossary ]
disintegration : Geology. See Mechanical Weathering.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
regionㆍ
swellㆍ
shrinkㆍ
unmistakableㆍ
dilemmaㆍ
thermalㆍ
as toㆍ
burrowㆍ
blastㆍ
accomplishmentㆍ
agentㆍ
debrisㆍ




ㆍdraw back
ㆍplain
ㆍdifficulty
ㆍwarm
ㆍabout
ㆍdig
ㆍachievement
ㆍdoer
ㆍrubble
ㆍarea
ㆍballoon
ㆍblow up




[ Answer ] : region-areaswell-balloonshrink-draw
backunmistakable-plain]dilemma-difficultythermal-warmas to-aboutburrow-digblast-blow
upaccomplishment-achievementagent-doerdebris-rubble


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


13. area
territory ,   zone ,   locality , realm ,    region


14. balloon
inflate ,   puff up , billow ,   bloat , swell


15. draw back
cower , cringe , recoil , wince ,           shrink


16. plain
evident , definite ,    beyond question ,      patent , unmistakable


17. difficulty
predicament ,     quandary , plight ,       impasse , dilemma
18. warm
hot ,    heated , thermic , caloric , thermal


19. about
regarding , concerning , with reference to ,                          with regard to ,        as to


20. dig
excavate , tunnel ,            hollow out ,        furrow ,      burrow


21. blow up
explode ,       burst , detonate ,            raze , blast


22. achievement
attainment ,        fulfillment ,      feat , consummation ,               accomplishment


23. doer
actor , executor , functionary ,                   mover , agent


24. rubble
trash , rubbish , scraps , remains ,                       debris
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13.      area(지역)
territory(영역) / zone(구역) / locality(지방) / realm(영토) / region(영역)


14.      balloon(부풀다)
inflate(팽창시키다) / puff up(부풀어오르다) / billow(부풀어오르다) /bloat(부풀다) / swell(부풀리다)


15.      draw back(망설이다)
cower(위축하다) / cringe(위축되다) / recoil(주춤하다)/ wince(움츠리다) / shrink(줄어들다)


16.      plain(분명한)
evident(명백한) / definite(명확한) / beyond question(의심의 여지가 없는)/patent(명백한) /
unmistakable(틀림없는)


17.      difficulty(어려움)
predicament(곤경) / quandary(궁지) / plight(곤경) /impasse(곤혹) / dilemma(궁지)
18.       warm(따뜻한)
hot(더운) / heated(뜨거워진) / thermic(열에 의한) /caloric(열량의) / thermal(온도의)


19.       about(~에 관하여)
regarding(~에 관해서는) / concerning(~에 관하여) / with reference to(~에 관하여) / with regard to(~에 관하여) /
as to(~에 관해서)


20.       dig(파다)
excavate(파서 뚫다) / tunnel(지하도를 파다) / hollow out(파내다) / furrow(쟁기로 갈다) / burrow(구멍을 파다)


21.       blow up(폭발하다)
explode(폭발하다) / burst(터지다) / detonate(폭발하다) /raze(파괴하다) / blast(폭파하다)


22.       achievement(성과)
attainment(성취) / fulfillment(수행) / feat(위업) / consummation(공적) / accomplishment(완수)


23.       doer(행위자)
actor(실행자) / executor(집행자) / functionary(직원,공무원) /mover(발기인) / agent(행위자)


24.       rubble(바스러진 암석 조각)
trash (잡동사니)/ rubbish(쓰레기) / scraps(부스러기) /remains(잔해) / debris(파편)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions
In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[ Guidewords ]
area ,      balloon ,   draw back ,   plain ,   difficulty , warm ,   about , dig , blow up ,   achievement ,
doer ,      rubble


1. ________________
evident , definite ,      beyond question ,     regarding ,   unmistakable
________________


2. ________________
inflate ,    puff up , detonate ,     bloat , swell
________________


3. ________________
caloric , concerning ,        with reference to ,    with regard to , as to
________________


4. ________________
hot ,    heated , thermic , patent , thermal
________________


5. ________________
cower , cringe , recoil , billow,          shrink
________________


6. ________________
explode ,      burst , excavate ,     raze , blast
________________


7. ________________
predicament ,        quandary , realm ,     impasse ,    dilemma
________________


8. ________________
attainment ,      fulfillment , plight ,   consummation ,     accomplishment
________________
9. ________________
territory ,   zone , locality , scraps , region
________________


10. ________________
actor , feat , functionary ,           mover , agent
________________


11. ________________
trash , rubbish , executor,            remains , debris
________________


12. ________________
wince ,     tunnel ,    hollow out ,    furrow , burrow
________________


[ Answer ] : 1-plain, regarding2-balloon, detonate3-about, caloric4-warm, patent5-draw back,
billow6-blow up, excavate7-difficulty, realm8-achievement, plight9-area, scraps10-doer,
feat11-rubble, executor12-dig, wince


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)s


1. Fissures may be formed within pieces of metal during their manufacture when, while cooling from the
molten state, they shrink and tensile stresses arise.
a. cringe       b. balloon c. recoil        d. wince (15)


2. The first full statement of liberation and spiritual fulfillment through devotion to a personal god is found in
the Bhagavad-Gita.
a. achievement          b. attainment     c. accomplishment      d. rubble (22)


3. The failure to resolve the impasse has remained a major stumbling block in Russo-Japanese relations in
the second half of the 20th century.
a. predicament         b. quandary      c. plight   d. achievement   (17)
4. Cleavage is tendency of many minerals to split along definite smooth planar surfaces determined by their
crystal structure.
a. warm      b. plain         c. evident     d. patent (16)


5. Many RSIs develop when the sheaths that cover muscle tendons swell and press on nerves.
a. balloon       b. inflate      c. cower      d. bloat (14)


6. Archaeological expeditions have worked to excavate and preserve the area's numerous Egyptian
antiquities, which faced flooding from the reservoir of the Aswan High Dam.
a. dig     b. furrow      c. burrow         d. blast (20)


7. Avalanches, which are natural forms of erosion and often seasonal, are usually classified by their content
such as a debris or snow avalanche.
a. trash    b.   tunnel c. rubbish            d. remains (24)


8. In yet another instance of pollution, hot water discharged by factories and power plants causes so-called
thermal pollution by increasing water temperatures.
a. warm      b. heated          c. unmistakable       d. thermic (18)


9. Most modern forms of explosive will not detonate if pressure is applied to it.
a. blow up       b. explode        c. burst      d. hollow out   (21)


10. The zone included the Panama Canal and an area extending 5 mi (8.1 km) on each side.
a. area    b. realm      c. region         d. rubble (13)


11. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a colorless, syrupy liquid that is a strong oxidizing agent and, in water
solution, a weak acid. It is miscible with cold water and is soluble in alcohol and ether.
a. actor     b. feat     c. executor          d. functionary (23)


12. Weather is state of the atmosphere at a given time and place with regard to temperature, air pressure,
wind, humidity, cloudiness, and precipitation.
a. regarding      b. beyond question          c. with reference to d. with regard to (19)




[ Answer ] : 1. b 2. d         3. d   4. a 5. c     6. d    7. b 8. c   9. d 10. d 11. b   12. b
Chapter 3

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


The oceans are one of the most visible as well as important features of our planet. Some features and
characteristics of our oceans that make life possible on this planet, and the diversity of life that live within
them, are discussed in the passage below.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


hallmark ,       tranquil , treacherous ,              blessed , atmosphere                   , dominate , trench,    representative ,
extremely ,        microscopic , compose , asymmetrically


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


The oceans, the big blue, source of life, the hallmark of Earth.                              We hold the oceans within us, both
physically and mentally. Vast, blue, tranquil, and treacherous, the oceans are the signature of our planet.
The only planet in the solar system blessed with a liquid medium for life to evolve in.
The motions of the atmosphere, traced out by clouds, and the size of the oceans dominate the view of earth
from space.         So vast are the oceans, in fact, that they take up almost 71% of the entire surface of the globe
(139 million square miles). The oceans have an average depth of 12,230 feet (3730 m) and reach the
deepest point in the Mariana Trench of the northwester Pacific Ocean, at 36,204 feet (11,038m) below sea
level.    The ocean basins hold at vast quantity of water, over 285 million cubic miles of water (1185 million cu.
km.).     This vast quantity of water arose from the Earth's interior as it cooled.
The oceans are the largest repository of organisms on the planet, with representatives from all phylum's.
Life is extremely abundant in the sea, from the obvious large whales, fish, corals, shrimp, krill and seaweed,
to the microscopic bacteria floating freely in the seas. The bacteria is so abundant that just one spoonful of
ocean water contains from 100 - 1,000,000 bacteria cells per cubic centimeter!
The oceans contain the largest repository of organisms on the planet, and all the organisms in the ocean are
subject to the properties of the seawater surrounding them.
Water surrounds all marine organisms, composes the greater bulk of their bodies, and is the medium by
which various chemical reactions take place, both inside and outside of their bodies.
Water itself is very simple. Each molecule of water is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen
atom.      The hydrogen atoms bond to the oxygen atom asymmetrically by sharing electrons (Each hydrogen
atoms shares its only electron with the oxygen atom. The oxygen atoms receives the two electrons needed
to complete its outer shell, making it a stable molecule.)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
바다는 거대하게 푸르고, 생명의 근원이며 지구의 보증증서와 같다. 우리는 물리적, 정신적으로 모두 바다를 품고
있다. 장대하면서도 깊고 잔잔하면서도 험난한 바다는 지구 고유의 특징이다.                                                     태양계에서 유일하게 이 행성은
생명체가 진화 할 수 있는 액체 물질을 갖음으로서 축복을 받았다.
구름으로 얼룩진 대기의 움직임과 바다의 크기가 우주에서 지구를 바라보는 시야를 압도한다. 이 엄청난 바다의
크기는 전 지구 표면의 71%를 장악하고 평균 깊이는 3730m다. 그 중 제일 수심이 깊다는 북서태평양에 위치한
마리아나 해구는 해면이하 11,038m이다. 대양분지는 1185백만 cu. Km정도의 대량의 물을 가지고 있다. 이
대량의 물은 지구 내부가 냉각되면서 발생하였다.
바다는 지구위에서 모든 문을 대표하는 생물체들의 가장 큰 저장고이다. 바다에서 생명체는 고래, 물고기, 산호,
크릴, 새우부터 바다위에 떠다니는 미세한 박테리아까지 풍부하게 존재한다.                                                      이 박테리아는 한 숟가락의
바닷물에 cubic centimeter당 100에서 1,000,000게의 박테리아 세포가 서식하고 있을 만큼 풍부하다!
바다는 지구에서 가장 큰 생물체의 저장소를 포함하고 있고 바다의 모든 생물체는 그들을 둘러싸고 있는
바닷물의 특징에 영향을 받는다. 물은 모든 바다 생물체를 둘러싸고 있으며 그들 대부분의 몸을 구성한다.
그리고 생물체의 체내와 체외에서 발생하는 다양한 화학작용이 일어나는 매개체이다.
물 그 자체는 아주 간단하다. 물의 분자는 두 개의 수소 원자와 한 개의 산소 원자로 구성 되어있다. 전자를
공유하는 방법으로 수소는 비대칭적으로 산소와 결합한다. (각 수소 원자는 산소원자와 자신의 유일한 전자를
공유한다. 산소 원자는 외곽 껍질을 채우는데 필요한 두 개의 전자를 받아들이고 이는 산소를 안정한 상태의
분자로 만든다.)


[ Guidewords ]
ocean basin : Geology. A depression on the surface of the lithosphere occupied an ocean.
Phylum : Biology. A primary division of a kingdom, as of the animal kingdom, ranking next above a class in
size.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
hallmarkㆍ
tranquilㆍ
treacherousㆍ
blessedㆍ
atmosphereㆍ
dominateㆍ
trenchㆍ
representativeㆍ
extremelyㆍ
microscopicㆍ
composeㆍ
asymmetricallyㆍ




ㆍfavored
ㆍdisloyal
ㆍair
ㆍspokesperson
ㆍindicator
ㆍrule
ㆍditch
ㆍvery
ㆍtiny
ㆍcalm
ㆍbe part of
ㆍdisproportionately




[ Answer ] :
hallmark-indicatortranquil-calmtreacherous-disloyalblessed-favoredatmosphere-airdominate-ruletr
ench-ditchrepresentative-spokespersonextremely-verymicroscopic-tinycompose-be part
ofasymmetrically-disproportionately




Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


25. indicator
identifying mark ,     badge , earmark , telltale sign , hallmark


26. calm
peaceful ,     serene , sedate ,      halcyon ,      tranquil


27. disloyal
traitorous , backstabbing ,         two-faced ,       perfidious ,   treacherous


28. favored
gifted , fortunate ,     graced ,    blissful ,    blessed


29. air
ozone ,     aura , heavens , ambience , atmosphere


30. rule
reign ,    overshadow , eclipse , subdue , dominate


31. ditch
moat ,     canal , channel , gully ,        trench


32. spokesperson
stand-in , advocate ,          delegate ,    mouthpiece ,       representative


33. very
exceedingly ,     excessively ,     greatly ,     immensely , extremely


34. tiny
minute ,     infinitesimal ,   minuscule ,      imperceptible , microscopic


35. be part of
make up , comprise , form ,                   constitute , compose


36. disproportionately
unequally ,       irregularly , unevenly ,              lopsidedly , asymmetrically
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
25.      indicator(지침)
identifying mark(척도) / badge(징표) / earmark(표시)/ telltale sign(기호) / hallmark(척도)


26.      calm(고요한)
peaceful(평정한) / serene(차분한) / sedate(잔잔한)/ halcyon(평온한) / tranquil(조용한)


27.      disloyal(불충실한)
traitorous(배신적인) / backstabbing(불의의) / two-faced(이면의) /perfidious(배반하는) / treacherous(불성실한)


28.      favored(혜택을 받고 있는)
gifted(재능을 타고난) / fortunate(운이 좋은) / graced(축복 받은) / blissful(행복에 넘친) / blessed(축복 받은)


29.      air(공기)
ozone(신선한 공기) / aura(분위기) / heavens(창공) / ambience(분위기) / atmosphere(대기)


30.      rule(통치하다)
reign(통치하다) / overshadow(보호하다) / eclipse(압도하다) / subdue(정복하다) / dominate(진압하다)


31.      ditch(깊은 도랑)
moat(해자(垓字) / canal(운하) / channel(수로) / gully(도랑) / trench(깊은 도랑, 해구(海溝))


32.      spokesperson(대변인)
stand-in(대역자) / advocate(대변인) / delegate(대표자) / mouthpiece(대변자) / representative(대리인)
33.       very(극단적으로)
exceedingly(과도하게) / excessively(지나치게) / greatly(대단히) / immensely(무한히) / extremely(극도로)


34.       tiny(작은)
minute(미세한) / infinitesimal(지극히 작은) / minuscule(아주 작은) / imperceptible(아주 미세한)) /
microscopic(극소의)


35.       be part of(~ 일부가 되다)
make up(형성하다) / comprise(~을 구성하다) / form(형성하다) / constitute(~을 구성하다) / compose(구성하다)


36.       disproportionately(불균형인)
unequally(불공평한) / irregularly(불규칙적으로) / unevenly(공평하지 않은) / lopsidedly(치우친) /
asymmetrically(비대칭의)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[ Guidewords ]
indicator , calm ,        disloyal ,   favored , air , rule , ditch ,   spokesperson , very , tiny ,   be part of ,
disproportionately


1. ________________
ozone ,     earmark ,      heavens ,    ambience , atmosphere
________________


2. ________________
identifying mark ,        badge , mouthpiece , telltale sign ,    hallmark
________________
3. ________________
minute ,     blissful ,   minuscule ,    imperceptible , microscopic
________________


4. ________________
gifted , fortunate ,   graced ,    perfidious ,    blessed
________________


5. ________________
traitorous , backstabbing ,       two-faced , serene , treacherous
________________


6. ________________
unequally ,    immensely ,    unevenly ,      lopsidedly , asymmetrically
________________


7. ________________
stand-in , advocate ,        delegate , canal , representative
________________


8. ________________
exceedingly ,    excessively ,    greatly ,    irregularly , extremely
________________


9. ________________
moat ,   aura , channel , gully ,      trench
________________


10. ________________
make up , subdue , form ,         constitute , compose
________________


11. ________________
peaceful ,    infinitesimal , sedate , halcyon ,      tranquil
________________
12. ________________
reign ,   overshadow , eclipse , comprise , dominate
________________


[ Answer ] : 1-air, earmark2-indicator, mouthpiece3-tiny, blissful4-favored, perfidious5-disloyal,
serene6-disportionately, immensely7-spokesperson, canal8-very, irregularly9-ditch, aura10-be part
of, subdue11-calm, infinitesimal12-rule, comprise




Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1. Butterfly is any of a large group of insects found throughout most of the world; with the moths, they
comprise the order Lepidoptera.
a. form       b. eclipse     c. constitute     d. compose (35)


2. It is used medicinally as a laxative and is widely employed in the laboratory as an indicator of the acidity or
basicity of solutions.
a. badge       b. earmark       c. hallmark     d. ditch (25)


3. It consists of an asymmetrically shaped object, e.g., an arrow or a rooster, mounted at its center of gravity
so it can move freely about a vertical axis.
a. disproportionately         b. unequally     c. irregularly    d. very (36)


4. Coal mining, engineering, and clothing industries dominate the local economy.
a. rule    b. reign        c. make up    d. subdue (30)


5. In Tennyson's Idylls of the King Merlin is imprisoned eternally in an old oak tree by the treacherous Vivien,
when he reveals the secrets of his knowledge to her.
a. disloyal      b. sedate    c. backstabbing      d. perfidious (27)


6. His tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school.
a. calm       b. peaceful      c. traitorous    d. serene (26)


7. Although some details about the atmospheres of other planets and satellites are known, only the earth's
atmosphere has been well studied, the science of which is called meteorology.
a. air   b. aura    c. heavens       d. moat      (29)


8. The ancient Egyptians, some archaeologists say, dug a trench around the site of a pyramid to make sure it
was level.
a. ambience        b. canal     c. channel     d. gully (31)


9. Diplodocus is immense quadruped herbivorous dinosaur found in the late Jurassic strata of the Colorado,
Utah, and Wyoming.
a. exceeding        b. great      c. extreme     d. tiny (33)


10. Her verses are often derivative and formal, but some are graced by realistic simplicity and genuine
feeling.
a. halcyon    b. gifted       c. fortunate   d. blissful (28)


11. Diplomatic negotiations often involve, in the initial stages, a representative of the respective
governments who iron out the small details.
a. advocate        b. delegate      c. mouthpiece         d. canal   (32)


12. Micromechanics is the combination of minuscule electrical and mechanical components in a single
device less than 1 mm across, such as a valve or a motor
a. minute     b. excessive         c. infinitesimal      d. microscopic (34)




[ Answer ] : 1. b 2. d        3. d 4. c 5. b 6. c        7. d 8. a    9. d   10. a 11. d 12. b
Chapter 4

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


The use and abuse of various drugs and narcotics, and the problems that result from the spread of these
harmful substances, has gained increased attention in recent years. The first two passages in this unit deal
with the various forms of addictive substances, including what is perhaps the most deadly of them, cocaine.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


sink, presence, subsequent, sensitive, magnitude, assess, volatile, deplete, ample, suspend, preferential,
hypothesis


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


Over the past few decades techniques for collecting and analyzing atmospheric samples for organic
contaminants, from both natural and anthropogenic (man made) sources, have been developed and
improved. The resulting body of data shows that the atmosphere can be an important transport system and
sink for many organic compounds. The presence of pesticides in the atmosphere was first reported 3040
years ago when there was significant usage of chlorinated products on a global scale; in particular DDT,
lindane and dieldrin, which were found not only near their site of application but also in the polar regions.
Pesticides have been found in locations such as the Swiss Alps, the West Indies, Enewetak Atoll in the
Pacific Ocean, the Arctic and the Antarctic. Their appearance in such areas can only have been from the
result of atmospheric transport and subsequent wet or dry deposition.
Thus since some pesticides can travel long distances under certain conditions, and their deposition may
have an impact on sensitive ecosystems, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the mechanisms of
their atmospheric transport and subsequent deposition. Mathematical models would play a key role if they
could predict the likely magnitude of atmospheric loading and transport of pesticides.
These models, coupled with the known toxicological and ecotoxicological effects of the pesticides, could
then be used to assess the likely impact of new pesticide uses.
Certain extremely volatile pesticides used as soil fumigants have been linked with ozone depletion.
Entry of pesticides into the atmosphere can occur by several routes. The major transport and distribution of
pesticides occurs close to the site of use although there is also ample evidence that atmospheric transport
can occur on a global scale, particularly for the more stable products such as the hydrolytically stable
organochlorines. The appearance of pesticides in air or in precipitation (rain, snow and fog) results from
drift during application, from volatility after application and from suspended particulate matter originating
from wind erosion of treated soil. Thus dry and wet deposition on non-target areas after horizontal and
vertical translocation has been reported after pesticide treatments.
In extreme cases soil particles containing adsorbed material can be transported over significant distances.
Additionally, there is evidence that organic compounds, including pesticides, are preferentially deposited at
higher latitudes according to the cold condensation hypothesis of Wania & Mackay.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
지난 몇 년 간 자연적 원인이나                             인위적 원인으로 발생한 유기 오염물질에 대해 대기시료를                  수집, 분석하는
기술이 개발, 향상 되었다. 그 자료의 결과는 대기가 유기화합물의 운반 및 집적에 중요한 역할을 하는 것으로
알려졌다.          대기에서 농약의 존재는 대략 삼 사십 년 전에 보고 되었으며 이 당시 전세계적으로 염소물질이
첨가된 제품이 상당수로 사용되었다.                                  특히 DDT같은 농약품, 린덴이나 디엘드린과 같은 살충제들은 이용된 장소
근처뿐만아니라 극지방에서도 발견되었다.
농약은 스위스 알프스 산맥 지역, 서인도제도와 태평양의 에니위톡 환초 그리고 북극과 남극 같은 장소에서
발견되었다. 이런 지역에서 농약이 발견된 가장 큰 이유는 오직 대기를 통한 이동과 지속적인 건식이나 습식
침전 현상의 결과일 수 있다.
알맞은 조건 아래 장거리를 이동이 가능한 농약의 침전 습성은 민감한 생태계에 큰 영향을 줄 수 있는 만큼
농약의 대기 수송 과정과 빈번한 침전 습성의 원리를 이해할 필요가 있다. 수학모델이 대기권                                            수송과 적재의
크기를 예측 할 수 있다면 이 현상을 이해하는데 중요한 열쇠가 될 것이다.
농약이 가지고 있는 알려진 독성과 생독성의 효과와 더불어, 이러한 모델은 새로운 농약의 영향력을 평가하는데
이용할 수 있다. 토양 훈증약으로 쓰이는 휘발성 농약은 오존 파괴와 관련 있는 것으로 알려져있다.
농약의 대기 유입은 여러가지 경로가 있다. 대다수 농약의 이동과 분포는 처음 이용한 곳 에서 가까운 장소에서
이루어지지만 대기권 수송으로 인하여 특히 수소적으로 안정된 유기염소 같은 물질이 전세계적으로 배포된다는
충분한 증거가 있다. 대기나 강수에서 농약의 검출은 농약의 인화성과 농약이 사용된 토양의 풍식작용에서
비롯된 부유 미립자 물질이 공중에 부유해서 발생한다. 그래서 농약이 처음 사용 되지 않았던 장소에서 수직적
수평적 이동 후 건식 침전이나 습식 침전 현상이 일어난다고 보고된 적이 있다.
아주 심한 경우에는 농약을 흡착한 토양 입자가 상당한 거리까지 이동될 수 있다. 게다가 Wania & Mackay
cold condensation 가정에 따라, 살충제를 포함한 유기 화합물들은 기온이 낮은 고지대에서 먼저 퇴적된다.




[ Glossary ]
anthropogenic : Ecology. Caused or influenced by the activities of humans.
Organic : Chemistry. Of or related to any covalently bonded compound containing carbon atoms.
Deposition : Geology. The process in which material from any source is laid down or accumulates naturally,
especially in beds, veins, or irregular masses of any kind.
Fumigant : Chemistry. Any vaporous toxic compound that is used as a pesticide.
organochlorine : Any of various hydrocarbon pesticides, such as DDT, that contain chlorine.
translocation : Botany. The movement of soluble nutrients from one part of a part plant to another.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
Sinkㆍ
Presenceㆍ
subsequentㆍ
sensitiveㆍ
magnitudeㆍ
assessㆍ
volatileㆍ
depleteㆍ
ampleㆍ
suspendㆍ
preferentialㆍ
hypothesisㆍ




ㆍuse up
ㆍsize
ㆍevaluate
ㆍfollowing
ㆍexistence
ㆍdiscriminatory
ㆍeasily hurt
ㆍunstable
ㆍmore than enough
ㆍbasin
ㆍtheory
ㆍhang




[ Answer ] :      sink-basinpresence-existencesubsequent-followingsensitive-easily
hurtmagnitude-sizeassess-evaluatevolatile-unstabledeplete-use upample-more than
enoughsuspend-hangpreferential-discriminatoryhypothesis-theory


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


37. basin
cesspool, washbowl, drain, sump, sink


38. existence
being, proximity, attendance, occupancy, presence


39. following
succeeding, ensuing, resultant, next, subsequent


40. easily hurt
easily offended, touchy, hypersensitive, irritable, sensitive
41. size
extent, greatness, dimensions, vastness, magnitude


42. evaluate
appraise, measure, estimate, weigh, assess


43. unstable
changeable, unsettled, mercurial, capricious, volatile
44. use up
exhaust, run out, consume, empty, deplete


45. more than enough
sufficient, plenty, affluent, lavish, ample


46. hang
dangle, sling, swing, pend, suspend


47. discriminatory
discriminative, selective, choosy, picky, preferential


48. theory
thesis, theorem, premise, supposition, hypothesis
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
37.      basin(세면기)
cesspool(오물통)/washbowl(세면기)/drain(하수구)/sump(오수지)/sink(하수구)


38.      existence(존재)
being(존재)/proximity(근접)/attendance(참여)/occupancy(점유)/presence(존재)


39.      following(다음의)
succeeding(다음의)/ensuing(잇따라 일어나는)/resultant(결과로서 생기는)/next(다음의)/subsequent(뒤이어
일어나는)


40.      easily hurt(예민한)
easily offended(쉽게 기분을 상하는)/touchy(과민한)/hypersensitive(과민한)/irritable(예민한)/sensitive(민감한)
41.      size(크기)
extent(크기)/greatness(규모)/dimensions(부피)/vastness(양)/magnitude(크기)


42.      evaluate(견적하다)
appraise(어림잡다)/measure(치수를 재다)/estimate(추정하다)/weigh(무게를 재다)/assess(결정하다)


43.      unstable(안정성이 없는)
changeable(변하기
쉬운)/unsettled(불안정한)/mercurial(변덕스러운)/capricious(변덕스러운)/volatile(변덕스러운)
44.       use up(다 써버리다)
exhaust(소모하다)/run out(써버리다)/consume(소비하다)/empty(비우다)/deplete(동이 나다)


45.       more than enough(충분한)
sufficient(풍족한)/plenty(다량의)/affluent(풍부한)/lavish(넉넉한)/ample(충분한)


46.       hang(매달리다)
dangle(매달아 늘어뜨리다)/sling(달아매다)/swing(매달리다)/pend(매달리다)/suspend(허공에 떠있게 하다)


47.       discriminatory(구별이 되는)
discriminative(식별이 되는)selective(선택적인)/choosy(가리는)/picky(까다로운)/preferential(차별적인)


48.       theory(학설)
thesis(논제)/theorem(원리)/premise(전제)/supposition(추정)/hypothesis(가설)


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.
[ Guidewords ]
basin, existence, following, easily hurt, size, evaluate, unstable, use up, more than enough, hang,
discriminatory, theory


1. ________________
succeeding, ensuing, selective, next, subsequent
________________


2. ________________
dangle, sling, estimate, pend, suspend
________________


3. ________________
discriminative, lavish, choosy, picky, preferential
________________


4. ________________
thesis, theorem, vastness, supposition, hypothesis
________________


5. ________________
easily offended, resultant, hypersensitive, irritable, sensitive
________________


6. ________________
changeable, touchy, mercurial, capricious, volatile
________________


7. ________________
exhaust, run out, consume, empty, swing
________________


8. ________________
extent, greatness, dimensions, attendance, magnitude
________________


9. ________________
appraise, measure, sink, weigh, assess
________________
10. ________________
cesspool, washbowl, drain, sump, deplete
________________


11. ________________
being, proximity, premise, occupancy, presence
________________


12. ________________
sufficient, plenty, affluent, unsettled, ample
________________


[ Answer ] : 1-following, selective2-hang, consume3-discriminatory, lavish4-theory, vastness5-easily
hurt, resultant6-unstable, touchy7-use up, estimate8-size, attendance9-evaluate, sump10-basin,
swing11-existence, premise12-more than enough, unsettled




Drill 4 Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1. Many small organisms that live in hostile climates may appear to be sensitive, yet are surprising hardy.
a. succeeding       b. easily hurt     c. touchy      d. hypersensitive (40)


2. The drain which the waste from the chemical plant is released leads directly to the river.
a. basin    b. sump    c. sink    d. hang (37)


3. Buridan's theory of the will was that choice is determined by the greater good and that the freedom a
person possesses is the power to suspend choice and reconsider motives for action.
a. sling    b. swing     c. pend      d. weigh (46)


4. Planck introduced the hypothesis that oscillating atoms absorb and emit energy only in discrete bundles
(called quanta) instead of continuously, as assumed in classical physics.
a. thesis      b. theorem       c. presence      d. supposition (48)


5. There is a complete series of carbonaceous fuels, which differ from each other in the relative amounts of
moisture, volatile matter, and fixed carbon they contain.
a. unstable      b. lavish      c. changeable      d. unsettled (43)


6. This is generally accomplished by the subsequent marriage of the parents. Under the common law,
legitimation by this process was not allowed, although that rule came under the displeasure of the church.
a. following     b. irritable     c. ensuing      d. resultant (39)


7. As physical frailty prevented her regular school attendance, she spent the early part of her education
learning at home from her brother Albert Baker.
a. existence      b. proximity      c. presence      d. theory (38)


8. Schick test is diagnostic test designed to evaluate susceptibility to diphtheria.
a. appraise      b. use up      c. measure      d. estimate (42)
9. Congestive heart failure is inability of the heart to expel sufficient blood to keep pace with the metabolic
demands of the body.
a. more than enough        b. plenty     c. affluent    d. discriminatory (45)


10. The magnitude of a volcanic eruption greatly depends on the temperature and the pressure of the gases
that force up magma from below the surface.
a. extent     b. greatness     c. dimensions           d. occupancy (41)


11. A herbicide in a particular formulation and application can be described as selective or nonselective.
a. discriminative     b. capricious        c. picky      d. preferential (47)


12. An individual incarcerated in a state prison is expected to exhaust all possible routes available before
applying to a federal judge for habeas corpus.
a. dangle    b. exhaust     c. run out     d. consume (44)




[ Answer ] : 1. a   2. d    3. d 4. c 5. b 6. b         7. d 8. b 9. d 10. d 11. b   12. a




Review Exercise

Reading Instructions
All the words from this unit are found in the exercise below. Each sentence contains one word in bold type
from all the drills in this unit. Select the word from the choices below that can replace the word in the bold
type. (The word numbers from all the Drills in the unit are in parentheses. These will help if you need to look
back.)


1. With the birth of her first son, her life became more sedate.
a. calm     b. concerning     c. serene       d. tranquil    (26)


2. The age of a star is not a directly observable characteristic but must be inferred from the very
evolutionary theory one is trying to validate.
a. authenticate     b. bulge c. corroborate             d. verify (6)


3. Heaven is blissful upper realm or state entered after death; in Western monotheistic religions it is the
place where the just see God face to face.
a. area     b. zone      c. outcrop      d. region    (13)


4. Tide is alternate and regular rise and fall of sea level in oceans and other large bodies of water.
a. sequential    b. successive          c. interchanged        d. peculiar     (1)


5. Although there is ample rainfall from June to December, there are no rivers, and water must be pumped
from subterranean caverns.
a. sufficient    b. plenty      c. lavish     d. ensuing (45)


6. Ruth was an unmistakable figure with his large frame and spindle-thin legs, and his talented and colorful
play captured baseball fans'imagination.
a. plain    b. bold   c. evident      d. definite    (16)


7. Although the term is sometimes used to describe discrete electronic components assembled in an
extremely small and compact form, it is often taken as a synonym for integrated circuit technology.
a. very b. exceedingly        c. immensely       d. unevenly         (33)


8. Religious medals, often worn by Roman Catholics, are believed to be efficacious if blessed by the Church.
a. exceptional    b. favored       c. graced     (28)


9. Rolling Stones is english rock music group that rose to prominence in the mid-1960s and continues to
exert great influence.
a. wield     b. employ       c. exert     d. thaw (5)


10. Earthworms burrow in the ground, swallowing soil from which the organic material is extracted and
ground up in the gizzard and depositing the residue as castings outside the burrow.
a. dig     b. excavate     c. furrow        d. cringe       (20)


11. In many mammals and birds the body temperature shows more pronounced cyclic variations than in
humans.
a. conspicuous        b. outstanding        c. prominent           d. singular (9)


12. Bacteria are microscopic unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of a
membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
a. tiny    b. infinitesimal     c. traitorous       d. minuscule (34)


13. For its accomplishment use is made of the fact that each chord figures in the harmonic relationships of
several keys.
a. achievement        b. predicament           c. attainment         d. fulfillment (22)


14. Formation of a brick-red precipitate indicates the presence of the aldehyde group.
a. ambience      b. existence          c. attendance        d. occupancy (38)


15. In return for restrictions on manufacturing and the regulation of trade, colonial commodities were often
given a monopoly of the English market and preferential tariff treatment.
a. discriminatory       b. selective        c. mercurial       d. choosy (47)


16. For building stone, rocks that do not shatter are separated by blasting; for softer rocks or when
explosives cannot be used, a process known as broaching, or channeling, is used.
a. stiffen   b. break         c. smash      d. splinter (7)


17. Botany, microbiology, and zoology together compose the science of biology. (35)
a. comprise       b. reign c. form          d. constitute     (35)


18. There, sunlight could free the chlorine or bromine atoms to form chlorine monoxide or other chemicals,
which would deplete upper-atmospheric ozone.
a. use up      b. exhaust        c. empty      d. weigh (44)


19. He accepted religious faith as a solution to the human dilemma and espoused Anglo-Catholicism in
1927.
a. rubble     b. difficulty     c. plight     d. impasse (17)


20. To assess the effectiveness of reductions a comprehensive study, comparing data from lakes and rivers
across N Europe and North America, was conducted by an international team of scientists in 1999.
a. evaluate      b. appraise       c. estimate       d. sink (42)


[ Answer ] : 1. b     2. b 3. c        4. d 5. d    6. b 7. d 8. a         9. d   10. d 11. d 12. c   13. b 14. a 15. c 16.
a   17. b 18. d      19. a     20. d




Additional Topics in Earth Science
Weathering
 Weathering is the collective term for the processes by which rock at or near the earths surface is
disintegrated and decomposed by the action of atmospheric agents, water, and living things. Some of these
processes are mechanical, e.g., the expansion and contraction caused by sudden, large changes in
temperature, the expansive force of water freezing in cracks, the splitting caused by plant roots, and the
impact of running water; others are chemical, e.g., oxidation, hydration, carbonization, and loss of chemical
elements by solution in water. Weathering is important because it aids in the formation of soil and prepares
materials for erosion. Construction materials for buildings and roads are subject to weathering by water,
carbon dioxide, aerosol gases, freeze-thaw cycles, and salt. (see also formation of potholes). New
techniques in road construction, allowing a minimum of weathering, more weather-resistant aggregates,
and better building materials have lowered costs for maintenance and repair.


Erosion
Erosion is the general term for the processes by which the surface of the earth is constantly being worn
away. The principal agents are gravity, running water, near-shore waves, ice (mostly glaciers), and wind.
All running water gathers and transports particles of soil or fragments of rock (formed by weathering), and
every stream carries, in suspension or rolling along its bottom, material received from its tributaries or
detached from its own banks. These transported particles strike against the bedrock of the stream channel,
literally grinding it away and eventually settle out along the channel or find their way to the sea. The
Mississippi River is being reduced by erosion at the rate of 1 ft (30 cm) in about 9,000 years. Seacoasts are
eroded by ocean waves, which detach loose or nonresistant material. Waves wear the rock by both the force
of their own impact and the abrasive action of the detritus they carry. Ice can erode rocks by a
freezing-thawing cycle; and ice in the form of glaciers erodes by plucking off loose rocks, by its abrasive
action on the surface over which it passes, and by glacial meltwater rivers and streams. In deserts and
along beaches, wind transports sand, eroding one area and depositing in another. The wind can also drive
sand and other particles against rocks, abrading them. Before human modification, landmasses were
probably eroding at rates close to 1 inch (2 to 3 centimeters) inch 1,000 years; now rates have doubled. In
the United States 30% is natural erosion, while 70% is because of human intervention. Suspended sediment
from erosion is one of the worlds greatest pollutants. Sediment can fill reservoirs and navigable waterways,
impair wildlife habitats, increase flooding and water treatment costs, and deplete valuable topsoil. It can
also concentrate harmful chemicals and bacteria. The continuous washing away of the fine rich topsoil of
farmland due to poor agricultural practices is a problem in many parts of the world. Accelerated erosion
from removal of acres of trees and vegetation, which diminishes the natural erosion protection, is becoming
increasingly common in populated areas. Strip mining also removes vegetation and can be a localized cause
of erosion. Among the methods of preventing soil erosion are reforestation, maintenance of fallow strips,
terracing, underdraining, ditching, deep plowing, and plowing across slopes rather than up and down.
Sediment
Sediment are the mineral or organic particles that are deposited by the action of wind, water, or glacial ice.
These sediments can eventually form sedimentary rocks. (see rock Classification of Sediments)


Sediments are commonly subdivided into three major groups ―mechanical, chemical, and organic.


Mechanical, or clastic, sediments are derived from the erosion of earlier formed rocks on the earth surface
or in the oceans. These are then carried by streams, winds, or glaciers to the site where they are deposited.
Streams deposit sediment in floodplains or carry these particles to the ocean, where they may be deposited
as a delta. Ocean sediments, especially in the form of turbidites, are usually deposited at the foot of
continental slopes. Glaciers carry sediment frozen within the mass of the ice and are capable of carrying
even huge boulders (erratics).


Chemical sediments are formed by chemical reactions in seawater that result in the precipitation of minute
mineral crystals, which settle to the floor of the sea and ultimately form a more or less chemically pure layer
of sediment. For example, evaporation in shallow basins results in a sequence of evaporite sediments,
which include gypsum and rock salt.


Organic sediments are formed as a result of plant or animal actions; for example, peat and coal form by the
incomplete decay of vegetation and its later compaction. Deep-ocean sediment known as pelagic ooze
consists largely of the remains of microscope organisms (mostly foraminifera and diatoms) from the
overlying waters as well as minor amounts of windblown volcanic and continental dust. Limestones are
commonly formed by the aggregation of calcite shells of animals.


Formation of Sedimentary Rock
Sediments form sedimentary rock by compaction and cementation of the particles. Thus, coarse sediments
become conglomerates; sands become sandstone ; and muds become shale. Sedimentary rocks make up
only about 5% of all rocks of the earths crust, yet they cover 75% of the land area in a veneer that averages
2.26 km (1.4 mi) in thickness, ranging from 0 to 12.9 km (0-8 mi).
Unit 8

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Computer Science


Chapter 1

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


Computers have become very important today, especially for business who can't operate without secure,
efficient computer systems. The passages in this unit discuss the problems that network administrators face
today in their efforts to protect valuable data and run an increasingly complex computer network.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


administrative, encrypted, mainframe, installations, concern, hub, inventory, emerged, exclusively,
espionage, savvy, unobstructed,


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


The data on a corporate network is valuable stuff. Loss or damage to corporate data can be costly. Modern
security practices weave layers of physical, administrative, electronic, and encrypted security around
valuable data.
In the early days of computing, data security wasn't a major concern. To steal data from a mainframe
computer, you'd need physical access to the computer itself.
Physical security remains an important factor, but it's even more difficult to enforce with small personal
computers. The central computer room, or server room, is making a comeback. Server rooms provide
cooling, stable electrical power, and security. They make sense in modern network installations.
During the 1980s, several trends combined to make data security a major concern. First, computers became
the hub of most modern businesses. They became the storehouse for inventory, payroll, employee
information, design, and manufacturing documents, and, as such, a juicy target. Second, the trend towards
networking and open communications led computer makers to adopt common standards for data
communication and storage. It became easy to view a file created on an IBM mainframe on a PC. Finally,
most large computers became connected to some kind of networking system, either by LAN or modem.
Sensitive corporate data came within the reach of anyone clever enough to get it.
In the 1980s, a new type of criminal the hacker emerged. Originally used to describe anyone who worked
with computers, the term is now almost exclusively applied to people who break into computers. Many
hackers do it for profit or for hire as a form of corporate or international espionage. But many others break
into computer systems purely for the challenge.
Many older mainframe computers were designed with few security measures beyond password protection.
In some cases, all computers with the same operating system shipped with the same maintenance password.
If an administrator didn't change the maintenance password, a savvy hacker had an unobstructed ride into
the system.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
기업 네트워크에 있는 자료는 귀중하다. 기업 자료가 만약 분실 됐거나                                                        파손이 됐다면 금전적 손실은 커진다.
대부분의 기업에서 귀중한 자료를 보호하기 위해서 물리적, 관리적, 전기적, 그리고 데이터를 기호화하는 여러
방식을 이용해서 몇 단계로 보안 층을 짜낸다.
초기에는 데이터 보안은 심각한 문제가 아니었다. 데이터를 메인프레임 컴퓨터에서 훔치기 위해서는 물리적으로
접속해야 했었기 때문이다.
아직도 물리적 보안은 중요하지만 작은 PC만 가지고 지키기에는 어려움이 있다. 하지만 중앙 컴퓨터 통제실
혹은 서버 룸은 다시 돌아오고 있는 추세다. 서버 룸은 냉각 능력과 안정된 전기 공급 그리고 보안까지 제공한다.
이 장점들은 현대 네트워크 시설에 있어야 하는 요인들과 이치에 맞다.
1980년대에는 컴퓨터 용도의 증가로 인해,                                      데이터 보안이 기업내의 중요한 문제로 대두 되었다. 첫번째로
컴퓨터는 기업들이 기업내의 데이터를 유지하는 중심지가 되었다. 컴퓨터는 재고품 목록, 급료 지불 명부, 사원
개인 정보 , 제품 디자인 설계도, 제조 문서와도 같은 회사 정보, 속칭 실속 있는 표적을 저장하는 장소로 변했다.
두 번째는 컴퓨터의 통신과 네트워크의 발전으로 인해, 컴퓨터 제조 업체들은 표준화되고 보편화된 저장장치와
데이터 통신을 채택 해야 했다. 그래서 IBM 메인 프레임에서 만든 파일을 PC에서 쉽게 볼 수 있게 되었다. 결국,
대부분의 대형 컴퓨터는 LAN이나 모뎀을 통해서 네트워크 시스템과 연결이 되었다. 이제는 기업 기밀 문서들은
솜씨 좋은 그 누구나 가져갈 수 있게 만들어졌다.
1980년대에 들어서는 새로운 컴퓨터 범죄자, 해커들이 나타났다. 컴퓨터로 일하는 사람들을 통틀어서 해커라고
불렀는데 이제는 컴퓨터를 침입하는 범죄자를 설명하는 단어로 쓰인다. 다수의 해커들은 이득을 위해서 해킹을
하기도 하고 산업 스파이나 국제 스파이 형태로 고용되기 위해 해킹을 하는 경우도 있다. 하지만 다수의
해커들은 도전 심리를 충족 시키기 위해서 다른 컴퓨터로 침입한다.
대다수의 낡은 메인프레임 컴퓨터는 암호 체제만 있는 극히 적은 보안 체제를 가졌다.                                                        같은 운영체제를 가진
컴퓨터가 같은 관리 암호를 가진 경우도                    있다. 만약 관리자가 관리 암호를 바꾸지 않았다면 영리한 해커는
시스템안으로 아무런 제한 없이 침입할 수 있다.


[ Glossary ]
server : Computer Science. Any device that is connected to a network and provides a service, such as
printing or file storage ad retrieval, in response to requests from computers connected to the network.
LAN : Computer Science. Local area network.
Modem : Electronics. A device connected between a digital circuit and an analog communication system,
such as telephone, to transmit and convert the received analog signal to digital data.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
Administrativeㆍ
Encryptedㆍ
Mainframeㆍ
Installationsㆍ
Concernㆍ
Hubㆍ
Inventoryㆍ
Emergedㆍ
Exclusivelyㆍ
Espionageㆍ
Savvyㆍ
Unobstructedㆍ




ㆍCPU
ㆍexecute
ㆍemplacement
ㆍspying
ㆍaffair
ㆍencode
ㆍcenter
ㆍonly
ㆍintelligent
ㆍunblocked
ㆍlisting
ㆍappear




[ Answer ] :
administrative-executiveencrypted-encodemainframe-CPUinstallations-emplacementconcern-affairh
ub-centerinventory-listingemerged-appearexclusively-onlyespionage-spyingsavvy-intelligentunobst
ructed-unblocked


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


1. executive
managerial, organizational, regulatory, supervisory, administrative


2. encode
code, encipher, cipher, inscribe, encrypt


3. CPU
central processing unit, C.P.U., central processor, processor, mainframe


4. emplacement
locating, establishment, positioning, fixing, installations


5. affair
care, matter, interest, department, concern
6. center
heart, axis, core, pivot, hub


7. listing
catalog(ue), index, tally, stock, inventory


8. appear
materialize, loom, surface, dawn, emerge


9. only
just, simply, merely, solely, exclusively


10. spying
shadowing, surveillance, undercover work, wiretapping, espionage


11. intelligent
astute, shrewd, perceptive, canny, savvy


12. unblocked
unhindered, unhampered, unprotected, unguarded, unobstructed
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[
    Guidewords ]
executive, encode, CPU, emplacement, affair, center, listing, appear, only, spying, intelligent, unblocked


1. ________________
central processing unit, C.P.U., central processor, surveillance, mainframe
________________
2. ________________
astute, simply, perceptive, canny, savvy
________________


3. ________________
managerial, organizational, regulatory, shrewd, administrative
________________


4. ________________
code, encipher, cipher, loom, encrypt
________________


5. ________________
materialize, inscribe, surface, dawn, emerge
________________


6. ________________
locating, establishment, stock, fixing, installations
________________


7. ________________
unhindered, supervisory, unprotected, unguarded, unobstructed
________________


8. ________________
catalog(ue), index, tally, interest, inventory
________________


9. ________________
just, unhampered, merely, solely, exclusively
________________


10. ________________
shadowing, core, undercover work, wiretapping, espionage
________________


11. ________________
heart, axis, positioning, pivot, hub
________________
12. ________________
care, matter, processor, department, concern
________________


[ Answer ] : 1-CPU, surveillance2-intelligent, simply3-executive, shrewd4-encode, loom5-appear,
inscribe6-emplacement, stock7-unblocked, supervisory8-listing, interest9-only,
unhampered10-spying, core11-center, positioning12-affair, processor


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1. In general, it is necessary to process, or encode, information from a source before transmitting it through
a given channel.
a. code     b. encipher    c. encrypt     d. appear (2)


2. It is an agricultural and commercial center and a road hub, known for its hot springs.
a. center      b. department c. heart     d. core (6)


3. Dentistry is mainly concerned with tooth decay, disease of the supporting structures, such as the gums,
and faulty positioning of the teeth.
b. emplacement       b. processor      c. establishment   d. installations   (4)


4. Such agents have often been employed in riot control, espionage, and warfare.
a. surveillance     b. undercover work      c. wiretapping   d. fixing   (10)


5. A commercial, agricultural, and administrative center, it is one of the world's oldest continually settled
towns.
a. executive      b. managerial   c. unblocked   d. regulatory   (1)


6. Before long, however, the majority of new HIV infections were seen in drug users who contracted the
disease from shared needles or unprotected sex.
a. canny    b. unblocked    c. unhindered      d. unhampered     (12)


7. Gasoline intended for use in engines is rated by octane number, an index of quality that reflects the ability
of the fuel to resist detonation and burn evenly when subjected to high pressures and temperatures inside
an engine.
a. listing      b. catalog(ue)          c. pivot    d. inventory (7)


8. Examples of mirages are pools of water seen over hot desert sand or over hot pavement; at sea, an
inverted image of a ship seen in the heavens or, also at sea, some object that is actually over the horizon but
seems to loom up a relatively short distance away.
a. surface        b. dawn           c. emerge      d. cipher (8)


9. In addition to the arithmetic and logic circuitry and a small number of registers, the heart of the computer
- called CPU - contains the circuitry that decodes the set of instructions, or program, and causes it to be
executed.
a. mainframe            b. affair    c. central processing unit         d. central processor   (3)


10. Hydroponics has been used for over a century as a research technique, but not until 1929 were
experiments conducted solely to determine its feasibility for growing commercial crops.
a. only       b. just    c. tally      d. exclusively (9)


11. Scientific study of the biological effects of aviation, especially on human beings. Although aviation
medicine is concerned with such problems as the spread of diseases by persons traveling by air and the
harmful effects of noise and air pollution, its principal concern is with stresses applied to the passengers or
crew of aircraft in flight.
a. axis      b. care      c. matter       d. interest    (5)


12. Napoleon III was shrewd enough to capitalize on the Napoleonic image and to govern capably, albeit
dictatorially.
a. intelligent      b. astute         c. supervisory        d. savvy (11)




[ Answer ] : 1. d 2. b          3. a 4. d       5. c 6. a      7. c   8. d 9. b 10. c 11. a 12. c
Chapter 2

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


The internet, which connects computers to the outside world, has presented a number of challenges to
network administrators who need to keep unwelcomed visitors away from their computer networks. This
passage outlines some of the tools with which the administrative can protect his network from attack.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


compromise, sophisticated, accredit, foil, would-be, optional, embed, privilege, packet, illegal, intent


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


The fact is that most intrusions into computer systems involve a compromised password. Passwords should
be more than five characters long, random, frequently changed, and protected in order to provide effective
security. The most sophisticated
electronic security systems are useless without good administrative security practices.
Electronic security techniques are designed to keep hackers away from important data. These techniques
operate at different levels, but generally they recognize and accredit the source of the data. Starting with
connections from outside the LAN, many modems can receive a call and, on command, dial back the caller
at a pre-stored number to foil a would-be intruder. Modems can also use Incoming Caller ID, an optional
telephone company feature, to identify calls as coming from an authorized telephone number. Similarly,
network operating systems can recognize the embedded addresses of network adapters and associate
certain maximum privileges with specific adapters.
In wide area networks, particularly those with Internet connections, specialized routers, called firewalls,
carefully inspect each incoming packet looking for authorized source addresses and rejecting any unknown
addresses or even suspicious packets. A skillful and determined hacker can generate packets with some
correct authorized source information, so sometimes illegal packets are only detected by their process and
intent.
Encryption is the final layer of protection. Interestingly, some data compression techniques, used during
data transmission and during file storage, act as a primitive form of encryption. It takes a lot more effort to
hijack compressed data. Beyond compression, serious encryption systems obscure even the volume of
information being transmitted and stored. Some operating systems and electronic mail systems encrypt files
during storage, and all commercial-quality network operating systems offer encryption of passwords.
Several companies offer encryption modules for routers so that all of the data passing between networked
sites is, in practical terms, totally private.
The threat to data exists even in small companies. The larger the monetary stakes, the higher the threat.
Good administrative security practices are a must for every organization. You can and should scale
electronic protection schemes to match the value of the information and the threat.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
사실상, 다수의 컴퓨터 침입들은 암호 누출로 발생한다. 보안 시스템이 제 기능을 발휘하기 위해서는 암호를 5자
이상으로 만들고 무작위화하고 그리고 자주 바꾸면서 암호가 다른 사람에게 누출되지 않도록 해야 한다.
관리자의 좋은 보안 습관이 없다면 최첨단 보안 장비 시스템들은 쓸모가 없다.
전자 보안 기술의 핵심은 해커가 중요한 데이터에 접근 할 수 없게 만드는 것이다. 이 기술들은 각기 다른
단계에서 작용하는데 일반적으로 데이터의 출처를 인식하고 위임한다. LAN 외부에서 모뎀을 가지고 접속을
시도할 경우, 침입자가 접근 못하도록 접속자만 알고 있는 전화번호로만 접속이 가능 하도록 설계된다.
모뎀에서는 호(call)를 허용할 것인지 허용하지 않을 것인지를 결정하기 위해 전화번호 이외에도 발신자 번호,
전화국에 대한 데이터등을 활용한다. 이와 비슷하게 네트워크 운용 시스템도 내장된 네트워크 어댑터의 주소를
인식하여 접속자에게 어느 정도의 권한을 부여할 것인지를 결정한다.
인터넷 같은 광역 통신망 (WAN)에서는 특정 라우터로 들어오는 패킷마다 발신 주소(source address)를
검사하여 미 확인된 주소나 의심 가는 패킷은 받아들이지 않는다. 이러한 보안 시스템을 방화벽(firewall)이라고
불린다. 실력 있는 해커들은 허가된 발신 주소(source address)를 가진 불법 패킷을 만들기도 하는데, 이건
해커들의 진행 과정과 의도로만 감지 할 수 있다.
암호화(Encryption)는 보안의 마지막 단계이다. 흥미롭게도 데이터 전송과 저장을 위해서 사용하는 데이터
압축기술은 가장 원시적인 암호화 기술이다. 압축된 데이터를 빼가려면 많은 노력이 필요하다. 더 나아가, 전송된
데이터의 양과 저장된 데이터까지 이해하기 힘들게 만드는 강력한 기호화 시스템도 있다. 어떤 운영체제와
전자메일시스템은 파일 저장시 암호화 한다. 모든 기업용 네트워크 운영체제의 암호화 시스템은 패스워드를 암호
기능을 갖추고 있다. 어떤 네트워크 장비 업체에서는 기업 내부에서 오가는 모든 데이터에 대한 보안을 위해
라우터를 지나가는 모든 패킷을 암호화 할 수 있는 라우터용 암호화 모듈을 제공하기도 한다.
데이터에 대한 위험 요소들은 아무리 작은 회사에서도 도사리고 있다. 돈이 많을수록 위험 요소들이 더 많아지는
건 사실이다. 관리자의 좋은 보안 습관은 조직마다 꼭 필요하다. 귀중한 정보를 보하고 위험요소에 대처하기
위해서는 당신은 전자 방어 체계를 한번 쯤 생각해볼 필요가 있다.


[ Glossary ]
electronic security : Electronics. A security system used to restrict access to valuable information.
Adapter : Computer Science. A device that changes incoming signals or information from one characteristic
to another, such as serial to parallel bit stream or different data transfer rates.
Router : Mechanical Devices. A canister-shaped tool with two handles and a bit that revolves at high speed
beneath the center of the tool.
Firewall : Telecommunications. A server with access-control software to prevent intrusion by internet
users into an internet computer network.
Module : Computer Programming. A discrete, logical component of a program.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
Compromiseㆍ
Sophisticatedㆍ
Accreditㆍ
Foilㆍ
would-beㆍ
optionalㆍ
embedㆍ
privilegeㆍ
packetㆍ
illegalㆍ
intentㆍ




ㆍcomplicated
ㆍwishful
ㆍby choice
ㆍimplant
ㆍadjust
ㆍadvantage
ㆍsteal
ㆍfrustrate
ㆍparcel
ㆍintention
ㆍauthorize
 [ Answer ] :
compromise-adjustsophisticated-complicatedaccredit-authorizefoil-frustratedwould-be -
wishfuloptional-by
choiceembed-implantprivilege-advantagepacket-parcelillegal-unlawfulintent-intentionhijack-steal


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions
The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


13. adjust
trade-off, agree, arbitrate, concede, compromise


14. complicated
complex, urbane, refined, elaborate, sophisticated


15. authorize
certify, sanction, qualify, endorse, accredit


16. frustrate
defeat, thwart, balk, baffle, foil


17. wishful
aspirant, aspiring, hopeful, wistful, would-be


18. by choice
elective, voluntary, discretionary, volitional, optional


19. implant
deposit, inlay, engraft, set, embed


20. advantage
carte blanche, perquisite, prerogative, entitlement, privilege
21. parcel
package, bundle, bale, sheaf, packet


22. unlawful
illicit, outlawed, unauthorized, felonious, illegal


23. intention
design, purpose, purport, goal, intent


24. steal
snatch, commandeer, seize control, skyjack, hijack


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[
    Guidewords ]
adjust, complicated, authorize, frustrate, wishful, by choice, implant, advantage, parcel, unlawful, intention,
steal


1. ________________
complex, urbane, discretionary, elaborate, sophisticated
________________


2. ________________
carte blanche, perquisite, prerogative, purpose, privilege
________________


3. ________________
defeat, thwart, skyjack, baffle, foil
________________
4. ________________
illicit, outlawed, unauthorized, refined, illegal
________________


5. ________________
aspirant, felonious, hopeful, wistful, would-be


6. ________________
snatch, commandeer, seize control, endorse, hijack
________________


7. ________________
deposit, agree, engraft, set, embed
________________


8. ________________
trade-off, balk, arbitrate, concede, compromise
________________


9. ________________
design, sheaf, purport, goal, intent
________________


10. ________________


elective, voluntary, aspiring, volitional, optional
________________


11. ________________
certify, sanction, qualify, inlay, accredit
________________


12. ________________
package, bundle, bale, entitlement, packet
________________
[ Answer ] : 1-complicated, discretionary2-advantage, purpose3-frustrated, skyjack4-unlawful,
refined5-wishful, felonious6-steal, endorse7-implant, agree8-adjust, balk9-intention, sheaf10-by
chance, aspiring11-authorize, inlay12-parcel, entitlement
Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1. Such devices have functioned successfully in animals but are still considered experimental in humans
because of their unproved reversibility, high cost, and the degree of surgical skill needed to implant them.
a. foil   b. deposit    c. inlay     d. embed (19)


2. Emphasis of certain words within a sentence is optional.
a. aspiring     b. elective   c. voluntary         d. discretionary (18)


3. After it was adopted by Christians and as it is practiced today, the wake serves the primary purpose of
allowing friends and relatives of the deceased an opportunity to adjust collectively to the changed
conditions.
a. agree       b. concede     c. compromise          d. authorize (13)


4. Striking in its symmetry, its outward-looking plan, and its numerous and large windows, it revealed a new
concept of domestic design, showing admirably refined use of classical detail.
a. urbane       b. refined    c. elaborate        d. wishful (14)


5. The few who are imbued with the colonial spirit not only fail in their duty, and become contemptible and
absurd, but they injure the influence and thwart the activity of the great majority of those who are similarly
situated, and who are also patriotic and public spirited.
a. frustrate     b. defeat    c. baffle        d. qualify    (16)


6. Coffin's purpose is usually to protect and to aid preservation of the body, although in the past some have
believed that it may confine the spirit of the deceased.
a. intention     b. goal c. design        d. set      (23)


7. The doctrine was first stated by Chief Justice John Marshall, who ruled that the power of Congress over
interstate commerce (Article 1, Section 8) could not prevent the states from controlling goods shipped from
another state after they had been broken out of the original package.
a. parcel      b. advantage        c. bundle      d. packet (21)


8. RASKOLNIKOV, the student who claims the right to murder and steal by virtue of his ill-applied scientific
theories, is not a figure the invention of which can be claimed by the Russian novelist.
a. snatch        b. steal        c. commandeer              d. purport         (24)


9. The greatest privilege in our society is to be a purveyor of news.
a. perquisite         b. intention         c. prerogative           d. entitlement (20)


10. If it is a financial report, as in case of a board of trustees or a treasurer, it should be referred to an
auditing committee, as the vote to accept the report does not endorse the accuracy of the figures, for the
assembly can only be sure of that by having the report audited.
a. sanction         b. arbitrate         c. certify       d. accredit (15)


11. When I'm dead to the world I'd be wishful to sing at all.
a. aspirant         b. hopeful         c. would-be            d. complicated (17)


12. Another five-power treaty made the rules of warfare applying to surface ships applicable also to
submarines and outlawed the use of poison gas.
a. unlawful         b. illicit     c. sheaf        d. felonious (22)


[ Answer ] : 1. a        2. a 3. d        4. d    5. d 6. d 7. b           8. d 9. b 10. b 11. d   12. c




Chapter 3

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


Information stored on computers need to be protected very carefully, and there are many ways that security
can be improved on computer networks in companies as well as in banks and stores. This passage
discusses some of the tools that can be used to better protect sensitive personal and financial data.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Listening Instruction 1
The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.
impose, safeguard, confidential, unauthorized, entitle, finance, thorough, legitimate, requirement, forgery,
advocate, sufficiently
Listening Instruction 2
Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


For the last decade or so, computer programmers have concentrated on making it easy for people to use
computer systems. Unfortunately, in some situations the systems are all too easy to use; they don't impose
nearly enough restrictions to safeguard confidential information or to prevent unauthorized persons from
changing the information in a file.
It's as if a bank concentrated all its efforts on handing out money as fast as it could and did very little to see
that the persons who requested the money were entitled to it. Of course, a real bank works just the opposite
way, checking very carefully before handing out any money. Computer systems that handle sensitive
personal and financial data should be designed with the same philosophy in mind.
A computer system needs a sure way of identifying the people who are authorized to use it. The
identification procedure has to be quick, simple, and convenient. It should be so thorough that there is little
chance of the computer being fooled by a clever imposter. At the same time, the computer must not reject
legitimate users. Unfortunately, no identification system currently in use meets all these requirements.
At present, signatures are widely used to identify credit-card holders, but it takes an expert to detect a
good forgery. Sometimes even a human expert is fooled, and there is no reason to believe that a computer
could do any better.
A variation is to have the computer analyze a person's hand movements as he signs his name instead of
analyzing the signature itself. Advocates of this method claim that different persons hand movements are
sufficiently distinct to identify them. And while a forger might learn to duplicate another persons signature,
he probably would not move his hand exactly the way the person whose signature he was forging did.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
지난 십년 동안 컴퓨터 프로그램머들은 사람들이 컴퓨터를 손쉽게 쓸 수 있게 만들려고 노력했다. 불행하게도
시스템을 사용자가 쉽게 사용하는 데만 초점을 맟춘 결과, 기밀 정보를 보호 할 수 있는 수단과 침입자가 정보를
변경을 못하게 하는 수단이 절대적으로 부족하게 되었다. 이런 경우는 은행이 돈을 빨리 주기만 했고 이 돈이
누구에게 줬는지 모르는 상황과 같다. 하지만 실제 은행은 이와 반대다. 은행은 돈이 지출되는 순간 세밀하게
확인한다. 개인 정보와 금융 정보를 다루는 컴퓨터 시스템은 은행의 세밀함을 생각하고 디자인 되어야 한다.
컴퓨터 시스템은 허가된 사용자만 이용 할 수 있게 이용자를 확실히 식별할 수 있는 기능이 필요하다. 그리고
확인 절차는 간단하면서도 빠르고 손쉽게 사용할 수 있어야 한다. 이 식별기능은 침입자들이 컴퓨터를 속이는
확률이 낮을 정도로 철저하고 세밀 해야 한다. 또한 컴퓨터는 허가가 난 사용자들을 거부하는 오류도 없어야
한다. 불행하게도                 이 필수 요구를 다 충족 할 수 있는 식별 체제는 존재하지 않는다.
현 시점에서는 신용카드 사용자들을 식별하기 위해서 개개인의 사인이 널리 사용되고 있다. 그러나 위조를 찾기
위해서 전문가들을 쓰지만 가끔씩 전문가들도 속을 때가 있다. 컴퓨터가 인간보다 더 확실한 작업을 할 수
있다는 보장은 없다.
사인을 식별하는 것 보다 컴퓨터가 이용자가 서명 할 때의 손동작을 분석하는 것 방법도 있을 수 있다. 이
기술의 주창자들은 사람들마다 손동작이 다르기 때문에 식별한데에는 충분하다고 주장한다.                                             그리고 만약
위조자가 다른 사람의 사인을 위조하려고 연습을 해도 손동작까지 똑같이 위조 할 수 없다는 것이다.


[ Glossary ]
identification : Control Systems.   A method of finding the transfer function of a system by examining its
response to either an impulse or a step-function input.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
Imposeㆍ
Safeguardㆍ
Confidentialㆍ
Unauthorizedㆍ
Entitleㆍ
Financeㆍ
Thoroughㆍ
Legitimateㆍ
Requirementㆍ
Forgeryㆍ
Advocateㆍ
Sufficientlyㆍ




ㆍsecret
ㆍenforce
ㆍnot permitted
ㆍenable
ㆍcomplete
ㆍlawful
ㆍguard
ㆍsupporter
ㆍfully
ㆍnecessity
ㆍfake
ㆍmoney management




[ Answer ] : impose-enforcesafeguard-guardconfidential-secretunauthorized-not
permittedentitle-enablefinance-money
managementthrough-completelegitimate-lawfulrequirement-necessityforgery-fakeadvocate-support
ersufficiently-fully


Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


25. enforce
charge, enjoin, levy, obtrude, impose


26. guard
protect, shield, defend, secure, safeguard


27. secret
closet, private, privy, personal, confidential


28. not permitted
uncertified, unsanctioned, unapproved, unlicensed, unauthorized


29. enable
allow, license, warrant, empower, entitle


30. money management
banking, investment, economics, fiscal matters, finance
31. complete
in-depth, all-out, exhaustive, thoroughgoing, thorough


32. lawful
legal, legit, licit, kosher, legitimate


33. necessity
must, essential, imperative, requisite, requirement


34. fake
sham, counterfeit, falsification, imitation, forgery


35. supporter
proponent, exponent, pleader, backer, advocate


36. fully
enough, adequately, amply, plenty, sufficiently
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.




[ Guidewords ]
enforce, guard, secret, not permitted, enable, allow, money management, complete, lawful, necessity, fake,
sham, supporter, fully


1. ________________
legal, legit, unapproved, kosher, legitimate
________________
2. ________________
proponent, exponent, requisite, backer, advocate
________________


3. ________________
protect, shield, defend, license, safeguard
________________


4. ________________
enough, adequately, amply, licit, sufficiently
________________


5. ________________
must, essential, imperative, imitation, requirement
________________


6. ________________
uncertified, unsanctioned, thoroughgoing, unlicensed, unauthorized
________________


7. ________________
closet, private, plenty, personal, confidential
________________


8. ________________
charge, enjoin, secure, obtrude, impose
________________


9. ________________
allow, levy, warrant, empower, entitle
________________


10. ________________
banking, pleader, economics, fiscal matters, finance
________________


11. ________________
in-depth, all-out, exhaustive, privy, thorough
________________
12. ________________
sham, counterfeit, falsification, investment, forgery
________________


[ Answer ] : 1-lawful, unapproved2-supporter, requisite3-guard, license4-fully, licit5-necessity,
imitation6-not permitted, thoroughgoing7-secret, plenty8-enforce, secure9-enable, levy10-money
management, pleader11-complete, privy12-fake, investment


Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1. To prevent unauthorized transactions, a personal identification number (PIN) must also be entered by the
user using a keypad.
a. unsanctioned      b. unapproved        c. unlicensed      d. privy (28)


2. The time, however, was spent in strengthening the entrenchments and making our position generally
more secure against a sudden attack.
a. protect     b. shield    c. defend     d. levy (26)


3. The evolution of masonry vaulting and its use in building was controlled by this essential fact.
a. necessary       b. kosher      c. imperative      d. requisite (33)


4. Many Japanese firms during the 1980's were criticized for their products that were mere imitations of
American consumer goods.
a. fakes     b. shams      c. falsifications   d. requirements (34)


5. The unstable nature of the water table in this regions warranted the drilling of a testing well first, before
construction could actually take place.
a. enabled    b. banking     c. empowered         d. entitled (29)


6. I would have it particularly enjoined upon corps commanders that, in case of an attack from the enemy,
those not attacked are not to wait for orders from the commanding officer of the army to which they belong,
but that they will move promptly, and notify the commander of their action.
a. enforced     b. charged       c. imposed       d. guarded (25)
7. That this is or may be so, the examples I have cited are amply sufficient to prove.
a. enough         b. adequately            c. not permitted          d. plenty (36)


8. A third part provided that creditors of either side would be unimpeded in the collection of lawful debts.
a. legal       b. legit      c. legitimate         d. uncertified               (32)


9. Common Cause supports a large number of political reforms, including campaign finance reform,
government ethics and accountability, and nuclear control agreements.
a. investment           b. economics            c. fiscal matters         d. necessity (30)


10. He migrated from his native Samos to Crotona and established a secret religious society or order similar
to, and possibly influenced by, the earlier Orphic cult.
a. closet       b. private         c. uncertified          d. confidential (27)


11. Chemical reaction, according to the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases, in which a water solution of
acid is mixed with a water solution of base to form a salt and water; this reaction is complete only if the
resulting solution has neither acidic nor basic properties.
a. legitimate       b. exhaustive c. thoroughgoing                     d. thorough (31)


12. A modern advocate of the influence of mind upon mind at a distance would have no difficulty in
convincing a savage.
a. proponent           b. exponent          c. pleader         d. forgery (35)


[ Answer ] : 1. d 2. d           3. b 4. d        5. b 6. d 7. c           8. d 9. d 10. c 1. a   12. d




Chapter 4

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preview


The use and abuse of various drugs and narcotics, and the problems that result from the spread of these
harmful substances, has gained increased attention in recent years. The first two passages in this unit deal
with the various forms of addictive substances, including what is perhaps the most deadly of them, cocaine.
Listening Instruction 1


The following are the vocabulary words found in the passage for this chapter. Listen carefully.


ease, couple, prompt, vendor, staff, considerable, bulk, facilitate, medium, orientation, harass, reference


Listening Instruction 2


Listen carefully to the passage below. Try to find and remember the vocabulary words that you have heard
above.


More and more companies are moving to intranets to overcome the limitations imposed by conventional
communication methods. Corporate intranets can provide information which is always current, accessible
from any platform, cost effective, rich in content and easy to use. In addition, the diminishing costs of PCs
and networks, the ease of support for cross platform environments and data security, coupled with open
standards for HTML and TCP/IP, have prompted companies to take full advantage of intranets.
Intranets enable companies to improve communication and collaboration among employees, vendors and
customers, thereby increasing productivity and providing significant savings in time and money. It is no
wonder that intranet usage is expected to dominate over external Internet usage in the next few years.
Almost all businesses-banking, health care, aerospace, manufacturing, insurance, etc.-have started
implementing intranets. Those who have experimented with intranets have experienced significant staff
productivity and considerable return on investment for the new technology. The companies utilizing
intranets, though varied in nature, have similar use of intranet applications (interoffice communication,
human resources, customer service, marketing and finance).
Interoffice and intra-office communications can be on a one-to-one, one-to-many or many-to-many
basis. Communications occur between employees, teams, departments and entire companies over intranets,
reducing the bulk of paper documents which were used previously. This use of Web technology eliminates
the cost of printing and distributing corporate information and facilitates the existence of a new
corporate-wide knowledge base. Employees who wish to communicate the status of projects among
themselves, to another department or even higher management, can make use of this service for better
information exchange.
Human resources will find this medium extremely useful to publish new employee orientation materials,
company policies and benefits, job postings, departmental and employee home pages and newsletters on
changes in benefit plans. Also, legal issues such as employee conduct and sexual harassment policies could
be mentioned. Customer service can provide tips on commonly asked questions and provide interactive
trouble-shooting sessions. The sales and marketing department could provide updates on new products
and product revisions for reference by employees, vendors and customers. The finance division could
project company targets and post results in the form of quarterly and annual reports.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
많은 기업들이 기존의 통신 방식의 한계를 넘기 위해서 인트라넷으로 바꾸고 있다. 기업형 인트라넷은 최근
정보를 제공할 수 있고 아무 플랫폼에서 정보를 손쉽게 접근 할 수 있고 비싸지 않으면서도 용량이 풍부하다.
거기다 더해서 네트워크와 PC의 가격 인하와 크로스 플랫폼의 환경과 데이터 보안의 쉬운 유지 , HTML이나
TCP/IP과 같은 표준의 기술의 발전은                                 기업들이 인트라넷 환경의 혜택을 더욱더 많이 누리도록 해주었다.
인트라넷은 직원들과 판매상 그리고 고객들 사이의 커뮤니케이션과 협동을 향상시키고 이로 인해서 생산력을
높이면서 상당한 양의 시간과 돈을 절약할 수 있다. 몇 년 후면 인트라넷 이용도는 외부 인터넷의 사용을 장악
할 것이라는 예상은 의심할 필요가 없다.
금융, 의료 보험, 우주공학, 제조업, 보험 등 여러 방면에서 인트라넷을 도입하기 시작했다. 인트라넷을 실험한
기업은 사원의 생산력 증가와 상당한 액수의 이율이 돌아온 것을 경험했다. 인트라넷을 활용하는 기업의 용도는
각기 다르지만 적용 방법들은 비슷하다. (사무실 커뮤니케이션, 인적 자원, 고객 서비스, 마케팅, 그리고 금융)
사무실 내부와 사무실 외부 커뮤니케이션은 일 대 일이거나 일 대 다수, 아니면 다수 대 다수로 기본을 둔다.
커뮤니케이션은 사원별, 팀별, 과별, 그리고 기업 전체 사이에서 인트라넷으로 일어난다. 이것으로 인해서 전에
있던 엄청난 분량의 종이 소비가 줄어든다. 이 웹 기술은 인쇄 비용과 회사 정보를 배포할 때 쓰던 비용을
줄이기도 한다. 그리고 또 새로운 광범위한 기업 정보 기반의 존재를 쉽게 한다. 사원이 프로젝트의 현 상태에
대해서 다른 사원들이나 다른 부서 아님 상급자들과 토론하고 싶다면 인트라넷을 이용해서 더 나은 정보 교환을
할 수 있다.
인적 자원에서는 이 방법을 신입사원의 오리엔테이션 자료나 회사 정책, 혜택, 채용정보 그리고 사원 홈페이지
운영과 혜택의 변경 상황을 알리는 회보를 발간하는데 유용하게 쓸 수 있다. 또한 사원 행실이나 성희롱 정책과
같은 법률 문제점에 대해서도 언급할 수 있다. 고객 서비스는 FAQ (자주 문의하는 질문)에 조언을 줄 수 있고
쌍방향 트러블슈팅 세션도 할 수 있다. 판매와 마케팅 부서는 신제품의 정보와 사원이나 판매책 아님 고객의
제품 교정 참조문도 새롭게 갱신할 수 있다. 재무과는 회서 목표를 기획하거나 quarterly report나 annual
report의 형태로 결과를 공고 할 수 있다.
[ Glossary ]
intranet : Network of computers within an organization
platform : Computer Technology. the combined hardware and operating system software that are needed to
run a particular piece of software; e.g., the Macintosh platform for personal computers
troubleshoot : To isolate the source of a problem and fix it. In the case of computer systems, the term
troubleshoot is usually used when the problem is suspected to be hardware -related. If the problem is
known to be in software, the term debug is more commonly used.
session : A related set of communications transactions between two or more network devices.


Drill 1
Reading Instructions
The bold words from the passage and their guidewords are listed below. Match the vocabulary word from
the text with their respective guidewords.
Easeㆍ
Coupleㆍ
Promptㆍ
Vendorㆍ
Staffㆍ
Considerableㆍ
Bulkㆍ
Facilitateㆍ
Mediumㆍ
Orientationㆍ
Harassㆍ
Referenceㆍ




ㆍlarge
ㆍeasiness
ㆍmass
ㆍjoint
ㆍhelp
ㆍarouse
ㆍseller
ㆍdisturb
ㆍmention
ㆍassistants
ㆍmeans
ㆍfamiliarization




[ Answer ] :
ease-easinesscouple-jointprompt-arousevendor-sellerstaff-assistantsconsiderable-largebulk-mas
sfacilitate-helpmedium-meansorientation-familiarizationharass-disturbreference-mention
Drill 2
Reading Instructions
The first word in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have
similar meanings. Read each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.
Listening Instructions


The first in each group below is the guideword. All the related words under each guideword have similar
meanings. Listen carefully to each group of words and try to remember which related words go with each
guideword.


37. easiness
facility, readiness, effortlessness, a snap, ease


38. joint
mate, pair, yoke, connect, couple


39. arouse
evoke, cue, stimulate, spur, prompt


40. seller
salesman, peddler, dealer, monger, vendor


41. assistants
employees, work force, crew, personnel, staff


42. large
sizable, noteworthy, substantial, respectable, considerable


43. mass
volume, amount, quantity, body, bulk


44. help
simplify, expedite, quicken, further, facilitate


45. means
vehicle, channel, mode, agency, medium
46. familiarization
adjusting, adapting, conforming, acclimating, orientation


47. disturb
torment, pester, bother, harry, harass


48. mention
citation, allusion, quotation, implication, reference


Drill 3
Reading Instructions
Twelve groups of related words are written below without their respective guidewords. Write the correct
guideword over each word group. Each group of related words also contains one word that does not belong
in the group. Find that word, cross it out, and write it under the group to which it belongs.
Listening Instructions


In the following drill, you will hear six words for each question, including one word whose meaning is
different from the rest. Find the word that does not belong.


[ Guidewords ]
easiness, joint, arouse, seller, assistants, large, mass, help, means, familiarization, disturb, mention


1. ________________
adjusting, adapting, noteworthy, acclimating, orientation
________________


2. ________________
connect, evoke, bother, harry, harass
________________


3. ________________
cue, stimulate, torment, simplify, prompt
________________


4. ________________
expedite, pester, spur, further, facilitate
________________
5. ________________
employees, work force, agency, personnel, staff
________________


6. ________________
salesman, implication, dealer, monger, vendor
________________


7. ________________
yoke, amount, quantity, body, bulk
________________


8. ________________
sizable, conforming, substantial, respectable, considerable
________________


9. ________________
facility, crew, effortlessness, a snap, ease
________________


10. ________________
citation, allusion, quotation, readiness, reference
________________


11. ________________
vehicle, channel, mode, peddler, medium
________________


12. ________________
pair, mate, connect, allusion, couple
________________


[ Answer ] : 1-familiarization, noteworthy2-disturb, connect and evoke3-arouse, torment and
simplify4-help, pester and spur5-assistants, agency6-seller, implication7-mass, yoke8-large,
conforming9-easiness, crew10-mention, readiness11-means, peddler12-joint, allusion
Drill 4
Reading Instructions
Each sentence below contains one word, which is bold type. Find the word below each sentence that could
not replace in bold word in the sentence, and circle that word. (The word numbers from Drill 2 are in
parentheses. These will help you if you need to look back.)


1. Organic compound composed of amino acids is linked together chemically by peptide bonds.
a. connect      b. arouse       c. joint     d. yoke    (38)


2. The growth of the crystals of one mineral on the crystal face of another mineral, such that the crystalline
substrates of both minerals have the same structural orientation.
a. familiarization     b. adjusting        c. acclimating      d. mention (46)


3. The onset of menstruation, called menarche, signals the body's coming readiness for childbearing.
a. easiness     b. facility      c. effortlessness       d. monger (37)


4. Any of various techniques for the separation of complex mixtures that rely on the differential affinities of
substances for a gas or liquid mobile medium.
a. channel     b. body        c. mode       d. agency (45)


5. The protection thus afforded the physician would also extend to the druggist, or vendor, acting upon the
physician's prescription or order.
a. seller    b. salesman        c. peddler      d. prompt (40)


6. Ludwig served on the general staff during World War I.
a. dealer     b. assistants       c. employees         d. crew (41)


7. Drug or other substance used to stimulate the action of the intestines in eliminating waste from the body.
a. evoke      b. cue    c. couple     d. spur (39)


8. The bulk of dietary lipids are a class called triacylglycerols and are attacked by lipases to yield simple
fatty acids and glycerol, molecules which can permeate the membranes of the stomach and small intestine
for use by the body.
a. mass      b. volume        c. quantity     d. means (43)


9. Serious illness doesn't bother me for long because I am too inhospitable a host.
a. disturb     b. simplify      c. torment     d. pester (47)
10. Transfusions are performed to replace a substantial loss of blood and as supportive treatment in certain
diseases and blood disorders.
a. large     b. noteworthy      c. conforming        d. respectable (42)


11. As the authors from whom selections were made were required to follow one another in chronological
order, there was no choice save to begin with specimens of religious poetry; for only in that is found the very
little of our early verse that can be deemed worthy of citation at all.
a. mention      b. adapting     c. implication       d. quotation (48)


12. Technique for organizing computer databases or documents to facilitate the nonsequential retrieval of
information.
a. prompt      b. help    c. expedite    d. quicken (44)


[ Answer ] : 1. b 2. d    3. b 4. d     5. b      6. d   7. c   8. d   9. d 10. c 11. a   12. d




Review Exercise

Reading Instructions
All the words from this unit are found in the exercise below. Each sentence contains one word in bold type
from all the drills in this unit. Select the word from the choices below that can replace the word in the bold
type. (The word numbers from all the Drills in the unit are in parentheses. These will help if you need to look
back.)


1. It contains a noteworthy art collection with many classical works brought from Rome in the 18th century.
a. sizable     b. substantial     c. considerable        d. unauthorized (42)


2. An old station-master was digging in his garden, and with his spade over his shoulder sauntered to the
train, took charge of a parcel, and went back to his potatoes.
a. package      b. purport      c. bundle      d. sheaf (21)


3. There was plenty of Shakespearean criticism even half a century ago; but it was mostly of what Dallas
called the editorial class.
a. enough      b. amply      c. sufficient     d. legitimate (36)
4. A letter to the Times newspaper should begin with a mention of the offending article, a factual
presentation and not a personal insult since the editors were so ego-ridden that they needed to be told that
even their obvious misdeeds were intellectually sound.
a. citation     b. medium c. allusion          d. quotation (48)


5. There is a fable told by Lucian, that while a troop of monkeys, well drilled by an intelligent manager, were
performing a tragedy with great applause, the decorum of the whole scene was at once destroyed, and the
natural passion of the actors called forth in a very indecent and active emulation, by a wag who threw a
handful of nuts upon the stage.
a. astute      b. shrewd       c. canny     d. administrative (11)


6. As the fluid flows more rapidly, it reaches a velocity, known as the critical velocity, at which the motion
changes from laminar to turbulent, with the formation of eddy currents and vortices that disturb the flow.
a. stimulate     b. torment        c. pester    d. harass (47)


7. The term later generally designated any elaborate burial casket not sunk underground.
a. complicated         b. locating     c. urbane      d. sophisticated (14)


8. Many miles of navigable waterways connect with the coastal system, including the Hudson River.
a. joint    b. allow     c. link     d. couple (38)


9. We must also consider the care and relief of the sick or handicapped; the care and relief of needy families;
and supervisory, educational, and constructive activity, especially for the young.
a. executive      b. arbitrate c. managerial            d. regulatory   (1)


10. The old curriculum retained its function as an instrument of education, partly because the newer studies
had not yet reached that stage of systematization which is requisite in any branch of knowledge designed to
educate.
a. necessity     b. requirement          c. essential     d. guard (32)


11. Igneous masses are dated according to whether they caused metamorphism in the surrounding rock
(proof of emplacement in preexisting rock) or whether sediments were deposited on them after they were
formed.
a. location     b. establishment         c. positioning     d. espionage      (4)


12. By persons resident in the country and attached to rural objects, many places will be found unnamed or
of unknown names, where little incidents must have occurred, or feelings been experienced, which will have
given to such places a private and peculiar interest.
a. closet     b. privy      c. imperative      d. personal (27)
13. Many states now accredit schools of acupuncture and administer licensing examinations for
nonphysicians.
a. authorize      b. sanction     c. stimulate       d. endorse (15)


14. I believe, with abiding conviction, that this people-nurtured by their deep faith, tutored by their hard
lessons, moved by their high aspirations-have the will to meet the trials that these times impose.
a. enforce      b. deposit      c. charge       d. enjoin (25)


15. For this development a written language is not required, but necessarily the earliest known legal codes
are those of literate societies.
a. lawful     b. unsanctioned       c. legit     d. kosher (31)


16. In its National Water Quality Inventory, reported to Congress in 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency concluded that approximately 40% of the nation's surveyed lakes, rivers, and estuaries were too
polluted for such basic uses as drinking supply, fishing, and swimming.
a. center      b. listing    c. index     d. stock (5)


17. With delicate charm and pathos, he captured the essence of the ever hopeful but always disappointed
lover.
a. wishful     b. aspirant      c. wistful     d. urbane (17)


18. In 1897, she became an assistant in the Harvard College Observatory, where (1911-1938) she was
astronomer and curator of astronomical photographs.
a. seller     b. peddler      c. bother      d. vendor (40)


19. The human brain can soften as a result of incessant listening to music with an intent to commit prose.
a. bale      b. intention    c. design       d. purpose (24)


20. Tragelaphus eurycerus, found in jungles and thick bamboo forests of equatorial Africa. Shy, elusive
animals, bongos never emerge into the open and are seldom seen.
a. appear       b. loom     c. dawn       d. inscribe (8)


[ Answer ] : 1. b 2. b       3. d 4. b    5. d 6. a      7. b 8. b 9. b 10.d   11. d   12. c 13. c 14. b 15. b 16. a 17.
d 18. d 19. a 20. d
Additional Topics in Earth Science

Network
A Network, in computing, two or more computers connected for the purpose of routing, managing, and
storing rapidly changing data. A local area network (LAN), which is restricted by distances of up to one mile,
and a metropolitan area network (MAN), which is restricted to distances of up to 60 miles, connect personal
computers and workstations (each called a node) over dedicated, private communications links. A wide area
network (WAN) connects large numbers of nodes over long-distance communications links, node common
carrier telephone lines, over distances ranging from that between major metropolitan centers to that
between continents. An internet is a connection between networks. The Internet is a WAN that connects
thousands of disparate networks in the U.S., Canada, Europe, Asia, and elsewhere, providing global
communication between nodes on government, educational, and industrial networks. Networks allow for
resource sharing (e.g., multiple computers sharing one printer), data sharing, and communication or data
exchange (e.g., lectronic mail).




Local area Network
Local area network, or (LAN) is, a computer network dedicated to sharing data among several single-user
workstations or personal computers, each of which is called a node. A LAN can have from two to several
hundred such nodes, each separated by distances of several feet to as much as a mile, and should be
distinguished from connections among computers over public carriers, such as telephone circuits, that are
used for other purposes. Because of the relatively small areas involved, the nodes in a LAN can be
connected by special high-data-rate cables. A metropolitan area network (MAN) is defined as being
restricted to a larger area (maximum distances of 50-60 miles) than a LAN but one still small enough so that
dedicated links (such as microwave links) can be used.
Personal Computer
The personal computer, (PC), small but powerful computer primarily used in an office or home without the
need to be connected to a larger computer. PCs evolved after the development of the microprocessor made
possible the hobby-computer movement of the late 1970's, when some computers were built from
components or kits. In the early 1980's the first low-cost, fully assembled units were mass-marketed. The
typical configuration consists of a video display, keyboard, mouse, logic unit and memory, consist device
and, often, a modem; multimedia computers add a sound-reproduction adapter, stereo speakers, and a
compact disc (CD-ROM) drive to this configuration so that material can be presented in a combination of
animation, graphics, sound, text, and video. Decreases in component size have made it possible to build
portable PC's, or laptops, the size of a ream of paper and smaller, and palmtops, which can be held in one
hand. Most current PCs have     more computing power, memory, and storage than the large mainframe
computers of the 1950's and early 60's. As the speed and power of the complex instruction set computer
(CISC) processors used to power PC's have reached levels previously reserved for the reduced instruction
set processors (see RISC processor) used in workstations, the distinction between PC's and workstations
has blurred. PC's equipped with networking and communications hardware are often used as computer
terminals.




Multimedia
Multimedia in personal computing, software and applications that combine text, high-quality sound, two- and
three-dimensional graphics, animation, photo images, and full-motion video.
In order to work with multimedia, a personal computer typically requires a powerful microprocessor, large
memory and storage capabilities, a high-quality monitor and a video accelerator, external loudspeakers or
headphones and a sound card (or sound board) for improved sound generation, and a CD-ROM (see
compact disc) or DVD-ROM (see digital versatile disc) drive, as well as special software to utilize many of
these
devices. A multimedia computer may also use other devices, such as a microphone or keyboard for audio
input, a digital camera or scanner for graphics input, and a videocassette recorder or camcorder for video
input or output. Multimedia software is used for electronic publishing and electronic games and in employee-
training programs.
The term multimedia is also used to describe home entertainment systems and other electronic products
and services, particularly interactive ones, that combine text, sound, video, and the like. Uses include virtual
reality simulations, interactive television, commercial advertising, and hypertext applications.
Virtual Reality
Virtual Reality(VR), or virtual environment(VE), computer-generated environment with and within which
people can interact. The advantage of VR is that it can immerse people in an environment that would
normally be unavailable due to cost, safety, or perception restrictions. A successful VR environment offers
users immersion, navigation, and manipulation. VR encompasses a range of interactive computer
environments, from text-oriented on-line forums and multiplayer games to complex simulations that combine
audio; video, animation, or three-dimensional graphics; and scent. Some of the more realistic effects are
achieved using a helmetlike apparatus with tiny computer screens, one in front of each eye and each giving
a slightly different view so as to mimic stereoscopic vision. Sensors attached to the participant (e.g., gloves,
bodysuit, footwear) pass on his or her movements to the computer, which changes the graphics accordingly
to give the participant the feeling of movement through the scene. Computer-generated physical feedback
adds a feel to the visual illusion, and computer-controlled sounds and odors reinforce the virtual
environment. Other VR systems, such as flight simulators, use larger displays and enclosed environments to
create an illusion. Less complicated systems for personal computers manipulate an image of three-
dimensional space on a computer screen. In a virtual network many users can be immersed in the same
simulation, each perceiving it from a personal point of view. VR is used in some electronic games, in
amusement-park attractions, in military exercises, and to simulate construction designs. Experimental and
envisioned uses include education, industrial design, surgical training, and art.
Epilogue


『영어 공부 제대로 하자』에서는 한국의 영어교육 현실의 문제점을 지적하였고, 그 대안으로 소리 교재 개발과
영어 클럽 활성화를 제안했다. 영어 클럽의 활성화만이 평소 영어를 사용하지 않는 우리의 현실을 극복할 수있는
유일한 대안이라고 확신했기 때문이다. 현재 국내에는 on-line, offe-line을 포함해서 헤아릴 수 없는 많은 영어
소모임과 동호회가 있다. 영어 공부에 대한 목마름이 자신과 같은 처지의 사람들끼리 모이게 하는 것이다.
하지만 이 모임을 이끌어 가는 주체와 효과적으로 공부할 수 있는 program 개발이 없다면 많은 노력에도
불구하고 목표를 달성하기는 쉽지 않다. 실제로 공부를 위해 모였지만 별 소득 없이 해산 되어 버리는 모임이
많은 이유도 바로 여기에 있다. 우리가 제안하는 "soriclub"은 효과적인 program을 단계에 맞게 제공해 주고,
모임을 이끄는 원어만 을 원할하게 수급하는, 보다 체계적인 클럽을 말한다. 현재      program 개발과 club 활동의
기초 자료를 만들기 위해 영어 클럽을 운영하고 있으며, 이 방법의 확산을 위해 소리 클럽의 내용과 진행 상황을
인터넷(www.soriclub.com)에 올려 공개하고 있으니 많은 참고하길 바란다.


이 책은『영어 공부 제대로 하자』의 소리 영어 이론에 근거한 실제 학습 자료 시리즈 중 하나임을 밝혀 둔다.
『영어 공부 제대로 하자』에서는 이미 소리 영어, 표현 영어, 클럽 영어라는 개념으로 우리 영어가 나아갈
방향을 설명했다.   그러나 구체적으로 소리 영어의 원리가 적용된 교재의 개발이 없다면 긴 설명도 공염불이
되기 쉽다는 판단이 들었다. 소리를 활용한 언어 교재의 개발이 부분적으로는 시도되고 있으나 아직도
제한적이며, 소리를 어떻게 활용해야 하는 지에 대해서는 여전히 미개척 분야로 남아 있는 실정이다.


이 책은 두꺼운 영어 어휘 책을 메고 다니는 사람들이 보기에 조금 시시해 보일지 모른다. '단어 공부'만 생각하면
연습장으로 까맣게 만들어가며     한 단어씩 정복하는 방법만이 정석이라고 믿는 사람들도 이 책의 효용성을
의심할지 모른다. 이 책은 단순히 영어 vocabulary 책이라기보다는 어휘를 소재로 한 소리 영어 교재이다.
영어를 직접 소리로 쓰지 않는 한국의 현실에서 어휘를 늘리는 데도 왜 소리를 이용한 방법이 가장 올바르고
빠른 방법인지를 실증시켜 줄 것이다. 이 책은 영어 단어를 한꺼번에 많이 외워야 하는 유학생을 우선 대상으로
하였다. 원래는 초ㆍ중급용 교재를 구상했으나, 특히, 자연계 대학생을 위한 적절한 교재가 거의 없다는 점을
염두에 두고 자연계 대학생을 위한 고급용 교재를 먼저 만들게 되었다. 차후로도 전문 분야별 교재를 만들
예정이며 특히 초급자, 중급자를 위한 재미있는 소리 교재를 구상중이다.




한국인이 어휘 습득과 영어 공부에 새 바람이 일어나길 기대하며
-소리 클럽 연구실-