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					  Knowledge Translation Toolkit

Questions to be addressed regarding
     KT in research projects.


                By

         Yvon Allard M.Sc.
            Policy Analyst
        Métis Centre @ NAHO
     Métis Centre @ NAHO

A key objective of the Métis Centre @ NAHO
is to transfer research findings and new
knowledge into policy and practice to improve
primary health care for the Métis and improve
the health status and health outcomes of the
Métis.
Knowledge translation for MC@NAHO
involves the systematic examination of:

   the origin of the research;
   the assumptions underpinning the research
   process;
   the degree to which the research is perceived to
   have resulted in changes to policy, practice and
   health outcomes for organizations and Métis/First
   Nations/Inuit (M/FN/I) communities; and
   the perceptions of factors which impeded or
   supported the translation of the research into
   improved health outcomes and health status for
   M/FN/I communities.
      Dr. Mason Durie (Maori
      Researcher) (Durie 2004):
“Indigenous knowledge cannot be verified by
scientific criteria nor can science be adequately
assessed according to the tenets of indigenous
knowledge. Each is built on distinctive
philosophies, methodologies, and criteria.”
“The challenge is to afford each belief system its own
integrity, while developing approaches that can
incorporate aspects of both and lead to
innovation, greater relevance, and additional
opportunities for the creation of new knowledge.”
Concept of Knowledge Translation

Knowledge Translation is an overarching paradigm
(concept) that encompasses both research transfer and
knowledge brokering.
Knowledge translation encourages research findings
and new knowledge to be taken up in evidence-based
policy, service delivery and practice.
Processes that encourage stakeholder involvement are
a particular focus of Knowledge Translation, as is
detailed dissemination planning and targeting key
positions in stakeholder groups.
 Concept of Knowledge Translation

There is a critical need for capacity exchange or
capacity development for conducting research in
Métis/First Nations/Inuit (M/FN/I) communities.
This requires the exchange of knowledge, skills and
resources to build research capacity on an
individual, organizational, community and workforce
level.
Increased research capacity for M/FN/I involves
developing workforce skills, research project
management skills, partnerships and other resources
such quantitative and qualitative analyses skills.
Knowledge Translation (KT)
      involves both:


     Research Transfer
           and
    Knowledge Brokerage
           Research Transfer
Population health policy, in the form of laws,
guidelines, and regulations, has a profound effect on
health status and health outcomes.

Research Transfer is making sure research is used to
inform policy, practice and service provision.

Research transfer requires use of more dynamic
mechanisms for engaging stakeholders in order to
increase their uptake and application of research
information (and thereby enhance the decision-
making process).
      Research Transfer (cont.)

KT is in part a recognition of the difference between:
    data (unorganized facts);
    information (data plus specific context);
    and knowledge (information plus
    judgement based on world view).

Métis/First Nations/Inuit (M/FN/I) knowledge must
be created with an Indigenous perspective to translate
data to information, and finally into new Indigenous
knowledge.
         Knowledge Brokering

Knowledge Brokerage is connecting people with
people, people with information, and people with
other people with specific skill sets in order to help
solve problems in communities.

The principles of OCAP are integral to knowledge
brokerage in M/FN/I research projects. The
development of a community-driven health research
infrastructure is seen as a long-term benefit of OCAP.
    KT and “Social Marketing”

“Social Marketing” is a technique used in
knowledge translation. Social Marketing talks
to the consumer (target populations), not about
the product.

In social marketing, the primary focus is on the
consumer-- on learning what people want and
need rather than trying to persuade them to buy
what we happen to be producing.
KT and Policy

KT               Capacity

Increased knowledge on
     health issues

Evidence-based decisions


 Improved health status
  and health outcomes
  Strategic research planning by M/FN/I
     organizations and communities.

How should M/FN/I (and non- M/FN/I )
organizations and communities set research priorities
which are likely to lead to improvements in M/FN/I
health, as well as increased knowledge?

Knowledge translation is the linkage between the
processes of research and the processes of decision-
making in policy and practice, at national, regional,
community and individual levels.
KT and Research Project Committees

Knowledge translation operates in two directions:
research-based knowledge can influence
decisions, and the problems of the decision-maker
and/or consumer can guide the researcher.
Organizations and communities must establish a
research committee or review process to assess
research proposals.
Research committees must develop criteria for
evaluating research proposals. The MC Toolkit is
such a process to integrate KT into the research
process.
     Planning Knowledge Translation


The Métis Centre “KT Toolkit” is a set of 10
questions that should be addressed in the planning
stages of any M/FN/I research project. The answers
derived by the planning committee are incorporated
into the „Research and Funding Proposal‟.

KT is therefore addressed and planned for at the front
end of a project, rather than as an afterthought.
   10 Questions in Planning KT

The following 10 questions should be asked by
research committees/teams and its
stakeholders (organizations, communities) to
make operational and to incorporate the
concept of Knowledge Translation (KT) in
regards to research in M/FN/I communities.
Q1. What is this project trying to achieve?

  What do you hope will happen as a result of
  the research project in regards to health
  status and outcomes in M/FN/I communities?

  Is it likely to have an impact on health
  service provision, health professionals‟
  practice, policy and funding allocations,
  treatment options, building capacity, or
  informing healthy behaviour?
Q2. Who are the potential users of the outcomes
      or knowledge from the project?

 Evidence shows that the involvement of
 potential users in the planning, conduct and
 dissemination of projects is likely to assist the
 uptake of research.

 The research project committee has to „market‟
 (i.e. social marketing) the KT process to
 stakeholders, including the knowledge created
 by the research project.
Q3. How does this project relate to other current
 research work or trends in policy and practice?

   Policy makers prefer to engage with a synthesis of
   knowledge rather than individual research project
   reports. If the findings of the research project puts
   forward radically new treatment options, you may
   anticipate some resistance from potential users.
   One of the biggest challenges to research transfer is
   that users will adopt research findings most easily if
   the findings match their own preconceived beliefs
   or world view. They will be very slow to adopt any
   findings that don‟t, such as Indigenous worldviews.
Q4. How can you try to ensure your project
         achieves an impact?

 Involving potential users is one way. You also
 need to make sure that the ways you try to
 communicate with different potential users is
 suitable for their needs.
 Translating research findings into changes in
 health policy may require the production of
 briefing notes, meetings with politicians and
 public servants, and an action-learning
 approach to implement the change at the level
 of service provision.
Q5. What are the risks or obstacles to successful
     research transfer for this project?

 Think about the potential barriers to research
 transfer relevant to your project. Barriers
 might include a hostile political climate, or
 language and cultural differences between
 researchers, policy makers and community
 members.
 The creation of a Memorandum of
 Understanding (MOU) among research
 participants is a strategy that can be used.
Q6. What are the opportunities which exist
around this project to facilitate knowledge
               translation?
 One of the strongest facilitating factors is the deep
 desire of researchers and organizations to help
 communities and to improve the health status and
 health outcomes of M/FN/I peoples.
 What are the key issues and concepts that the
 research findings address?
 What are the opportunities to lobby for changes to
 programs and policies or to create new policies?
 What new strategies can be utilized to address
 health issues?
Q7. Can capacity development be an outcome of
                this project?

   Research is a capacity developing activity – by
   planning carefully you can maximize the
   opportunities for capacity development for project
   team members, participants, organizations and
   communities.
   A fundamental component of community-based
   research is to develop research capacity „within the
   community‟. Researchers must be in place in
   M/FN/I communities and organizations (e.g.
   NAHO), as well as in universities, to engage in
   research and KT.
Q8. What are the dissemination and publication
       requirements for this project?

 Will it require the publication of a report, a journal
 article, the production of a video, a series of
 workshops or a media campaign?
 Will the findings of the research project be published
 in M/FN/I media, such as
 newsletters, newspaper, radio, television, journals?
 This could be at the
 local, regional, provincial/territorial, national and
 international levels.
 Will the findings be presented at conferences
 organized by M/FN/I organizations (NAHO, IAPH-
 CIHR, Circumpolar Health)?
Q9. How have/will you provide feedback to community
  organizations or members who participated in the
                     research?

   This is one of the most sensitive areas in Indigenous
   health research because in the past researchers often
   did not report back to communities and were seen
   to be taking community knowledge and giving
   nothing back.
   Effective engagement with communities and
   participants is also one of the richest potential areas
   of learning. NAHO and it‟s Centres provide advice
   on effective strategies on learning.
Q10. How much will a KT process cost?
Make sure you budget for knowledge
translation in the project proposal.
Effective strategies for knowledge translation
are likely to cost money, and are also very
likely to take considerable time to make sure
they work.
Without effective planning and budgeting for
research transfer, all the hard work and
commitment of organizations and M/FN/I
participants in doing the research may be
“lost in translation”.
               10 Questions in KT

Q1. What is this project trying to achieve?

Q2. Who are the potential users of the outcomes or knowledge
    from the project?

Q3. How does this project relate to other current research work
    or trends in policy and practice?

Q4. How can you try to ensure your project achieves an impact?

Q5. What are the risks or obstacles to successful knowledge
    translation for this project?
           10 KT Questions (cont.)
Q6. What are the opportunities which exist around this project
    to facilitate knowledge translation?

Q7. Can capacity development be an outcome of this project?

Q8. What are the dissemination and publication requirements for
    this project?

Q9. How have/will you provide feedback to community
    organizations or members who participated in the research?

Q10. How much will a KT process cost? Make sure you budget
     for knowledge translation.
       Knowledge Translation and
       MC @ NAHO Strategic Plan
The Métis Centre “KT Toolkit” is a tool to be utilized
in the planning stages of any M/FN/I community-
based research project. The Métis Centre @ NAHO
will actively support KT strategies designed to ensure
that new knowledge is shared and used to improve
care, treatment and prevention services, and to shape
policy in regards to health status and health outcomes
in M/FN/I Communities and Peoples.

				
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