Research Programs at the UBC Wine Research Centre by rt3463df

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 17

									Gene Discovery Research in Grapevine
   and Applications to Viticulture


             Steven T. Lund, Ph.D.
                Assistant Professor



    wineresearchcentre
    AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
     UBC Wine Research Centre –
     Growing by Leaps and Bounds
• Founded in 1999 by Dr. Hennie van Vuuren, WRC
  Director – 7 members
• 2002 HJVV obtained Western Diversification funding to
  renovate five former Home Economics labs into three
  state-of-the-art molecular biology labs for faculty and two
  core facilities
• 2002 Wine Library opens, funded in part with donations
  from BC wineries
• 2002 Viticulture/Plant Genomics junior chair position
  filled by SL
• 2003 Yeast Genomics junior chair position filled by Dr.
  Vivien Measday
• Today, WRC consists of 3 faculty, 3 associate faculty, 17
  staff and students – target is 30-35 total in Vancouver
   Potential for Future Expansion
         to UBC Okanagan
• Research at the WRC is focused on
  molecular biology and genomics of
  grapevine and wine yeasts
• Future expansion should include:
  – Grapevine physiologists and geneticists
  – Enologists
  – Highly trained extension specialists to support
    viticulturalists and wine makers throughout
    BC
    Viticulture Genomics Research
      Program at UBC (Lund lab)
• Control of ripening initiation and
  metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon berries
 (currently funded by Genome Canada)
• Mechanisms underlying freezing tolerance
  in deacclimating buds in Cabernet
  Sauvignon and Vitis riparia cv. Gloire
 (funding to be secured)
GrapeGen: A Genomic Approach to the Identification of
the Genetic and Environmental Components Underlying
  Berry Quality in Grapevine ($6.2 million Cdn, 3 yr.)



                     Genoma
                     España
        Genome          25%
        Canada
                      Spain
           50%
                     Matching
                                     Provincial government
                      Funds          Table grape industry
                        25%
              GrapeGen Goals

• Determine the molecular basis for ripening
  initiation and the metabolism of compounds
  important for grape must and wine quality
• Determine how gene expression and metabolite
  profiles are affected by different environmental
  conditions (diffuse sunlight versus heavy canopy
  shading)
• Use sequence and expression profiling data to
  identify key DNA markers for: 1) diagnostic tool
  development and 2) molecular breeding and
  clonal selection efforts
Vineyard Sampling – Osoyoos, BC
          Berry Growth and Development
                           VERAISON
                                                       Size
                                                       Glucose,
                                                       Fructose
                                                  Monoterpenes,
                                                  Norisoprenoids,
                                                  Esters



                                                      Malic Acid



June 15      July 15   August 15   September 15   October 15
              30,000 Genes in Grapevine




                                  BIOINFORMATICS
Berry ESTs

Transcript profiling
Protein profiling
Metabolite profiling

Sun vs. shade


             200- 500 candidate genes for functional testing
                    and DNA marker development
  Climacteric Fruit Ripening
ethylene




Non-climacteric Fruit Ripening


                Abscisic acid (ABA)?
                Other signals with synergistic
                effects on ripening initiation?
Cellular Signaling for
 Ripening Initiation
                     RIPENING SIGNALS




                              Protein
                              -signaling
                        RNA   -transporters
               DNA            -enzymes
 Does a Vacuole Transporter
Control Acidity in Grape Cells?
                     Veraison and
Green Stages         Red Stages
                          malate
   malate            malate malate
                                 malate

         malate
                        malate
 malate malate
          malate           malate
   malate
        malate
  Enzymes Control the Nuances of Flavour and
  Aroma Through the Production of Metabolites
       (collaboration with Dr. Joerg Bohlmann, UBC)


trans-carveol:NADP+ oxidoreductase




                                     l-Carvone – mint
                                     flavour to Cab Sauv
  Non-GMO Applications of Grape
     Genomics Research Data
• Genomics      GMOs
• DNA sequences can be printed onto chips
  (called ‘microarrays’). These could be used to
  monitor berry development and vine health
  throughout the growing season:
  –   Predict timing of veraison with accuracy each season
  –   Assess drought, cold, pathogen stresses
  –   Monitor and forecast metabolite profiles
  –   Monitor response in berries to C:N
• ESTs can be mapped to genetic loci important
  for berry quality. This information can be used in
  breeding programs to exploit natural genetic
  variation in Vitis relatives.
          GM Grapevines?
    What the Future Could Bring
• GM involves the introduction of up to 5 thousand
  DNA base pairs into the grapevine diploid
  genome of 950 million base pairs (that’s a
  0.0005% change!)
• Potential applications of GM to berry production:
  – Accelerate ripening initiation and shorten the season
  – Control acid content/pH
  – Tailor metabolite profiles and improve balance at
    harvest
  – Generate smaller, darker berries
  GrapeGen Project Team - Canada
Expression Profiling        Genome Sciences Centre
Research Assoc. (Jan ’05)   Marco Marra  Steven Jones
Karen Reid, M.Sc.           Robert Holt  Research Assoc. (Jan ’05)
Niclas Olsson, (Jan ’05)                 Nancy Liao

Functional Analysis         UVic-Genome BC Proteomics Centre
Joost Lücker, Ph.D.         Robert Olafson
Javonna Richards, M.Sc.     Derek Smith

Biochemistry                UBC Vancouver
Diane Martin, Ph.D.*        Joerg Bohlmann, Michael Smith Labs*
Research Tech. (Jan ’05)

Viticulture and Histology   Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre –
James Schlosser, M.Sc.**    Summerland, BC
                            Patricia Bowen**

								
To top