Exercise and Training

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					Exercise and Training

 Diet, Health and Hygiene

         Part II
What we will learn this lesson
   Be able to give definitions for the terms Overweight,
    Over-fat and Obese
   Be able to name and distinguish between different body
    types and the effect they have on sporting performance
   Be able to explain how and why an athletes diet is
    affected by the activity they train for
   Understand how overeating and under-eating can affect
    body weight and that body weight varies according to
    height, sex, bone structure and muscle girth
   Control of body weight (BW) is important not
    only for participation in physical activity but
    also for general health
   Excess food intake causes fat to be stored under
    the skin
   This causes the heart to work harder, puts strain
    on joints & causes the bodies use of energy to
    be less efficient
      Definitions of body weight
   Changes in BW caused by
    changes in amount of water,
    fat & muscle in the body
   Changes in amount of water
    are short but in muscle + fat
    are slower
   Fat is long term energy source
    but produces no movement
   Muscles are active & use up
   So important to consider how
    much of BW is fat or muscle
              Being overweight
   Lean Body Weight = BW
    – weight of fat
   This is hard to measure &
   BW increases by adding
    extra fat, muscle or both
   Muscle is heavier than fat
    so is possible to lose fat
    but not lose weight if you
    have increased muscle
    through exercise
               What is Over-fat?
   This is where there is an above
    average amount of fat in the
    body…so if

Energy In > Energy Out =    weight
   This makes the body, heart
    work harder and less
             What is Obese?
   A person is considered obese if they are 20% higher
    than the average weight for their height
         What Is Obese (continued)
   In terms of Body Mass Index (BMI) you
    would be considered obese if you were:
                  Male = 30 or more
                 Female = 28 or more
Worked out by:      Weight in KG
                                      = BMI
                  Height in m squared
   Obesity carries increased risk of cancer,
    heart trouble, diabetes, arthritis & limits
         Different body types
   These have a skeletal
    structure that has…

    -Narrow shoulders
    -Narrow hips
    -Low muscle to High fat
        Body types          (continued)

   These have a skeletal
    structure that has….
    - Wide shoulders
    - Narrow Hips
    - High muscle to low
    fat ratio
         Body types         (continued)

   These have s skeletal
    structure that has…
    - Narrow shoulders
    - Wide hips
    - Low muscle to high
    fat ratio
    Effects of body type on sporting performance

   Physique & build affect
   Body types are genetically
   Training may change fat/
    muscle ratio
   Body types measured on 7
    point scale (7 = extreme)
   1st (Endo), 2nd (Meso), 3rd
        Different diets for different sports

   A individual participating in sport can adjust their diet to
    suit the sports demands
e.g Sports with a high energy demand means athletes can
   “glycogen load”
   Athletes starve the body of carbs for 3-4 days whilst
    training using up all glycogen stores in the muscles
   Then they eat excess carbs for 3-4 days whilst
    exercising less
   The body overcompensates storing loads of glycogen in
    the muscles, more than the normal 2 hours
    Food weight and performance
   Under-eating can result
    in loss of weight
   If loss = fat it can
    improve performance
   Especially in events like
    running, cycling &
   If fitness levels similar
    lighter weight could be
    the advantage needed
Food, weight & performance
   Overeating results
    in a gain of weight
   Many activities where
    a solid base & low
    centre of gravity is
    needed e.g. sumo
    wrestling, shot putt
    this can aid
             Optimum weight
   An individuals “best” weight varies from
    person to person due to…
       i.Height (Taller = Longer so heavier bones)
       ii. Sex (Male v Female)
       - Males are generally taller
       - females tend to have more BF
       - Males have higher muscle (heavier)
 Changes in BW are caused by changes in the
  amount of fat, muscle and water in the body
 Being overweight can depend on the ratio of body
  fat & muscle mass
 Over fat means you have an above average
  amount of fat for your height
 If you are 20% higher than the average weight for
  your height you could be classed obese
 Body types fall in 3 categories (Endomorph,
  Ectomorph & Mesomorph)
         Summary (continued)
 Physique and build can affect performance
  & diet can be adjusted to suit your activity
  e.g. carbohydrate loading
 Over & under eating affects body weight
  which can suit certain types of activity
 Optimum weight varies but is influenced by
  height, sex and build