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Nightlife violence in youth tourism


									   Tourism and violence in nightlife
                              Main results

Teams involved in this project:

IREFREA. European Institute of Studies on Prevention

Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) Centre for
Public Health, Faculty of Health and Applied Social
Sciences - United Kingdom

SPI Forschung GMBH (SPI Research Institute) -

(This project has received funding from the European Commission. The views expressed
in this report can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European

Introduction                                                           3
Background                                                             3
Some comparative data about the surveyed placed (Majorca & Ibiza)      4
Key points                                                             6
Methodology                                                            7
      Qualitative research                                             7
      Quantitative research                                            8
Main statistical results                                               9
      The sample                                                       9
      Reasons for visiting Majorca and Ibiza                           9
      Nightlife participation                                          10
      Substance use                                                    10
      Perceptions of safety                                            12
      Experience of violence on holiday                                13
      Sexual behaviour during the holiday                              15
Main qualitative results. Findings from key informants - qualitative   16
Literature evidence                                                    17
Recommendations                                                        19
      General policy recommendations                                   19
      Specific recommendations                                         20
      New approaches, new proposals                                    23
References                                                             24


Whilst health risk behaviours such as alcohol and drug use among young people are
known to escalate during short holidays in international nightlife resorts, research has
only just begun to explore the problem of violence in youth holidaymakers. During the
last two years, three European teams have been conducting innovative research into the
subject of violence and its relationships with alcohol and drug use in Spanish tourist
resorts (Mallorca and Ibiza islands).
Specific qualitative and quantitative methodologies have been set up in order to
understand the contextual risk factors associated with violence. The study has also
examined the interaction between violence and other health and safety risks that arise in
those contexts, including the use of alcohol and other drugs.
Results show that context conditions and the chosen tourist destination are related to
differences in the prevalence of violent behaviours, as are gender and substance use
behaviours. However, the Balearic Islands are just one of the many international
nightlife destinations routinely visited by an increasing number of young Europeans.
Research results highlight the urgent need for the development of prevention and harm
minimisation fieldwork in international nightlife settings to protect the health of those
on holiday and to reduce the international spread of violent youth cultures. A collateral
benefit is that prevention programmes will also extend benefits to local populations in
contact with those visiting nightlife tourist resorts.

Studies of holidaymakers have shown holiday periods to be times of excess for young
people, when both alcohol and illicit drug use increase (Bellis et al 2003, Lee 2006, Bellis
2007, Hughes 2004, Grekin 2007). Participation in nightlife is often a key holiday priority
for young travelers and a major factor in their choice of destination (Bellis 2003).
Consequently, to cater for widespread demand for nightlife, youth-oriented holiday
resorts often contain concentrations of bars and nightclubs that specifically target young,
partying holidaymakers. Thus holiday resorts can feature many of the most recognized
risk factors for violence; high levels of substance use, large numbers of drinking settings
catering for heavy substance-using youth and, where drug use is a feature of holiday
nightlife, the presence of an illicit drug trade. Despite this, there is a scarcity of research
on violence occurring in international holiday resorts. However, media reports show
that such violence does occur and that its impacts can be devastating for both victims
and local tourism-dependent populations (BBC 2003, 2004).
Localities that contain popular nightlife areas often find their resources stretched
through violence linked to nightlife activity. Thus, health services must treat injuries
sustained in violent assaults; criminal justice agencies deter violence and prosecute
offenders; and local councils deal with the fall-out of aggression, including property
damage and negative impacts on businesses, regeneration and tourism (Bellis and
Hughes 2008, Mayor of London 2007). Nevertheless this problem is underreported; the

tourist industry and local authorities can be afraid of possible economical problems if
such negative issues are aired in the media. As a consequence there is a lack of
implementation of preventive measures. Meanwhile millions of young people now
holiday in international destinations specifically chosen for their vibrant nightlife. Despite
historical narratives that suggest such settings contribute to the spread of recreational
drug use, problems of violence, sexual risk behaviours, etc., relatively few empirical
studies have addressed this issue. With international tourism growing
(Forschungsgemeinschaft Urlaub und Reisen 2007), authorities in popular youth holiday
destinations must increasingly manage nightlife cultures that can be far removed from
those of their native youth. With the availability of low cost air travel having increased
dramatically over the last few decades (Dobruszkes 2006), young people are now able
to spend more of their recreational lives abroad. The international reputation of
nightlife in cities and resorts is a major factor in destination choice (Bellis et al 2003),
and consequently many destinations are specifically marketed at young travellers as
international nightlife resorts (Sellars 1998). Such settings attract individuals from within
nations and from around Europe whose principal reasons for travel are clubbing and
other nightlife pastimes, usually under the influence of alcohol and often also
recreational drugs (Bellis et al 2003, Apostolopoulos et al 2002; Josiam et al 1998).

Spain is the most popular holiday destination for many young Europeans (National
Statistics 2008) and in particular the Balearic islands of Mallorca and Ibiza (Ministerio de
Industria, Turismo y Comercio 2007) are known for their sunshine, beaches and thriving
nightlife environments. Media reports of serious incidents suggest nightlife violence is an
issue in the islands during the summer season; yet experience of violence among
holidaymakers has not previously been explored. Thus we surveyed 3,003 British,
German and Spanish tourists (aged 16-35) to Mallorca and Ibiza during the summer of
Some comparative data about the surveyed places (Majorca & Ibiza):
Mallorca, with the provincial capital, Palma de Mallorca, is the largest of the Balearic
Islands and is around six times bigger than Ibiza. Both islands are famous for their tourist
resorts and have the highest occupation during the summer. Although both receive
Spanish, German and English tourism, the island of Ibiza is visited mainly by English
tourists (but also Spanish, German and Italian) and Mallorca by Germans (as well as
Spanish and English). Within Mallorca, there are areas that attract specific nationalities:
for example, the area of S’Arenal is typically visited by Germans, with advertisements in
German and German speaking bar staff, while Punta Ballena, Magalluf, is geared towards
English tourism. In Mallorca, during the year there are 12 visitors per resident,
compared with 20 in Ibiza (see table 1). When analysing the ages of all tourists to each
island (see table 2), Ibiza tends to have slightly more younger visitors while Mallorca is
more a family resort with a greater number of visitors aged over 25.

Table 1: Comparative data from Majorca & Ibiza

                   Km2      Kms       Number      Number        Number            Main tourist          Main
                             of          of       of tourist     visitors         nationalities      recreational
                            coast     habitants    visiting     per year                                areas
                                                      the      / number     Spa       Ger     Eng
                                                    island     habitants
        Mallorca   3.640    623       814,275     9,716,091    11.9         14.8%    37.4%   26.9%
        Ibiza      541      239       111,107     1,910,446    19.9         29.9%    20%     29.4%

Table 2: Age group distribution for tourist visiting Majorca & Ibiza islands

  Age groups               Mallorca       Ibiza
  < 25                     22.1%          25.1%
  Between 25 y 44          35.3%          44.6%
  Between 45 y 64          28%            21.9%
  > 64                     14.5%          8.4%

        One phenomenon that is quite relevant in resort nightlife areas, especially across Ibiza, is
        the transformation of tourist areas from day to night, with usually quiet streets becoming
        crowded, bustling places; below is an example of a popular street in Ibiza town, during the
        day and 12 hours later.

         BY DAY                                                                                      BY NIGHT


  Millions of young people choose to visit international destinations
  specifically for their vibrant nightlife. Despite historical narratives that
  suggest such settings contribute to the international spread of
  recreational drug use relatively few empirical studies have addressed
  this issue.

  Violence in nightlife-focused tourist areas is underreported. The
  industry and the local authorities are often anxious of publicity
  surrounding this issue as this can damage tourism; however, localities
  with an important nightlife often find their resources stretched (health
  services, security and justice, property damage) because of violence.
  Despite this, there is a scarcity of research on violence occurring in
  international holiday resorts.

  The study identifies how, depending on destination and nationality, up
  to one in five individuals (e.g. British in Ibiza) may try a new drug for
  the first time while on holiday while others may return to using a
  substance after at least 12 months abstinence.

  We highlight how many international nightlife settings will have both a
  high concentration of recreational drug users and substantial numbers
  who are naive users combining recreational drugs with high levels of
  alcohol use.

  Results suggest that prevention and harm minimisation work in
  international nightlife settings is urgently required - to protect the
  health of those on holiday and to reduce the international spread of
  youth drug cultures.


The main aim of this study is to generate relevant information on emerging violence
involving young people in tourist resorts, to evaluate and propose preventive actions at
policy levels and also at practical implementation levels. All this will be achieved by
comparing levels of violence between different geographical destinations. Both
qualitative and quantitative methodologies have been used.

Qualitative research
This section of the research focuses on staff working in institutions involved with tourist
resorts of Ibiza and Mallorca. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 key
individuals involved with local nightlife (such as police, health services personnel,
consulate staff) in order to assess violence prevention methods. Interviews were
conducted in person and were tape recorded and transcribed, or were completed via
email. Interviewees were chosen for their direct role in dealing with nightlife issues (see
below table) and common themes were identified from the interviews.

Key interviewees:
                       Number                 Professional           Roles
                                                                     Head of regional
                                                                     department; heads
                                9                  Police staff
                                                                     of town police;
Key staff                                                            police officers.
interviewed                                                          Emergency doctors,
                                8                  Health staff      and nurses; forensic
                                                                     Managers; Waiters;
                                19                Nightlife staff    DJs; gogo dancers;
                                                                     door staff
                                2                Consulate staff     Consul

Quantitative research
To assess tourists’ experience and perceptions of violence and other health-related risk
behaviours, a short, anonymous questionnaire was designed to explore: holidaymakers’
characteristics; experiences of violence and alcohol and drug use during the holiday and
at home; and other nightlife-related factors including features of bars and preferred
nightclubs. The questionnaires were originally written in English and were translated into
German and Spanish (for more details, see tools/questionnaires section at following a research meeting to ensure questions and the meaning of
the term ‘fight’ were consistent between languages. As a result of this meeting, a
separate question was included, asking if participants had been involved in arguments to
allow participants to distinguish between verbal and physical aggression. Experienced
researchers from the UK, Germany and Spain were recruited and trained to carry out
the survey, which took place in local airport departure areas in Mallorca (30th July to 5th
August 2007) and Ibiza (21st to 28th August 2007). Researchers were instructed to target
all individuals that appeared to be aged 16 to 35 and travelling without children or older
relatives, and who were waiting to check-in to flights bound for the UK, Germany or
Spain. A target sample of 500 participants for each nationality was set for each location,
with researchers instructed to over-sample if possible. Spanish researchers were
instructed to confirm that individuals were not residents of Mallorca or Ibiza before
including them in the study.

  Main statistical results

The Sample

Table 1 presents the characteristics of the samples surveyed in Majorca and Ibiza. There
were differences in age between both nationalities and survey locations; specifically Ibiza
provided an older sample of holidaymakers, whilst Spanish participants in both locations
were older than those from the UK and Germany. Overall, approximately half the sample
was male with no significant gender differences between survey locations. However in
each location a larger proportion of German participants were male. Mean length of stay
in Majorca or Ibiza for all nationalities ranged between seven and ten days.

Table 1: Basic characteristics of the sample, by survey location
                                      Majorca                                           Ibiza
                    British   Spanish    German     Total    P1     British   Spanish    German      Total     P1    P2
 Sample (n)          505        487        484      1476             528        499        500       1527
 Age (%)
           16-19     61.6       14.2       48.8     41.7             12.1        4.8       31.4      16.1
           20-25     33.9       43.3       40.3     39.1             56.4       40.9       46.0      47.9
           26-35     4.6        42.5        11      19.2     ***     31.5       54.3       22.6       36      ***    ***
 Sex (%)
             Male    48.7       50.3       60.7     53.2             45.1       49.9       57.2      50.6
           Female    51.3       49.7       39.3     46.8     ***     54.9       50.1       42.8      49.4     ***    NS
 Mean length
                    10.04        9.39     7.89       9.12     ***     8.87       7.43       8.45       8.26     *     **
 of stay (days)
P1 shows significant differences between nationalities within each location. P2 shows significant differences overall
between locations. *** P<0.001; **P<0.01; *P<0.05; NS = not significant

Reasons for visiting Majorca and Ibiza

Participants were asked to identify reasons why they had chosen to visit Majorca or Ibiza,
with a list of options provided to choose from (multiple options could be selected). In
both locations, nightlife was the most popular option selected overall, followed by the
weather (Table 2). However, nightlife was not a major attraction for Spanish participants
visiting Majorca, who were more likely to be visiting family and friends.

Table 2: Reasons for choosing the holiday destination
                                              Majorca                                        Ibiza
                          British   Spanish     German    Total     P1   British   Spanish    German     Total    P1    P2
                     Cost    17.5    17.9       31.3       22.1     ***     7.4      5.6         15.5       9.5   ***   ***
                Nightlife    82.9    18.9       78.1       60.1     ***    89.0     64.5         74.5      76.2 ***     ***
                 Culture      4.8     8.8        4.8        6.1      **    13.3     11.4          7.2      10.7    **   ***
               Weather       55.5    37.4       72.3       55.0     ***    43.4     45.2         64.5      50.9 ***      *
                   Work       1.8     8.0       1.0         3.6     ***     3.4      1.0          0.0       1.5   ***   ***
  Visiting family/friends    8.3     39.8       9.3        19.1     ***     9.9     19.6          7.8      12.4 ***     ***
P1 shows significant differences between nationalities within each location. P2 shows significant differences overall
between locations. *** P<0.001; **P<0.01; *P<0.05

Nightlife participation

Corresponding to participants’ reasons for choosing their holiday destination, the majority
of British (82.1%) and German (71.1%) holidaymakers to Majorca reported visiting bars or
nightclubs on five or more nights per week during their holiday, compared to just 29.6%
of Spanish holidaymakers. In Ibiza, however, almost half (47.0%) Spanish holidaymakers
visited bars of nightclubs five or more nights per week, similar to German participants
(46.5%) yet lower than British holidaymakers (82.5%).

Substance use

To use and abuse alcohol and other drugs is a key risk factor associated to aggression and
violence. It is for this reason that we explored specifically that behaviour. In order to
measure changes in substance use during the holiday, participants were asked if, and how
frequently, they used alcohol, tobacco and a range of illicit drugs at home over the past 12
months and during their holiday in Ibiza or Mallorca. Table 3 shows the proportion of
participants who reported having used each substance at home and during their holiday.
The vast majority of holidaymakers to both locations had used alcohol, both at home and
during their holiday, with Spanish participants displaying lower prevalence of alcohol use
than British and German participants.

To measure levels of alcohol use on holiday, participants were asked how frequently they
got drunk during their stay in Majorca or Ibiza. There were significant differences between
nationalities in levels of drunkenness (Figures 1). In both Majorca and Ibiza, over half of
British participants reported having been drunk on five or more days per week during
their holiday, and the majority of German participants reported drunkenness at least
twice a week on holiday. However, the majority of Spanish participants did not get drunk
during their holiday.

For all nationalities, prevalence of illicit drug use both at home and on holiday was higher
among the Ibiza samples. For example, during their holiday 2.1% of Spanish visitors to
Majorca used ecstasy compared with 16.0% of Spanish visitors to Ibiza. However, overall

illicit drug use was highest amongst British visitors to Ibiza, Here, for example, 44.2% used
ecstasy during their holiday and 34.2% used cocaine. German participants were least likely
to use illicit drugs on holiday.

Table 3 also shows that for many substances, levels of use on holiday, particularly in Ibiza,
were higher than levels of use at home. This shows that a proportion of holidaymakers
were using drugs for the first time during their holiday. For example, 8.6% of British, 7.2%
of Spanish and 1.8% of German holidaymakers to Ibiza used ecstasy for the first time
during their stay.

Table 3: Prevalence of substance use at home and during the holiday, by
nationality and location of survey
                                                               Majorca                                           Ibiza
                                            British   German     Spanish      Total    P     British    German   Spanish     Total   P
                                  Alcohol     97.8      97.9       84.1        93.3    ***       98.1     96.8      87.7      94.3   ***
 Ever used at home (%)

                                 Tobacco      65.4      50.5       56.0        57.4    ***       40.8     55.1      52.9      49.4   ***
                                Cannabis      13.7      10.1       17.6        13.8     **       19.4     14.0      21.2      18.2    **
                                  Ecstasy      7.3       2.3        1.2         3.7    ***       33.5      4.0       6.9      15.2   ***
                                 Cocaine       9.3       2.5        3.3         5.1    ***       33.7      3.6      12.9      17.1   ***
                            Amphetatmine       1.6       2.3        0.4         1.4      *        4.2      3.4       4.7       4.1   NS
                               Ketamine        1.8       0.2        0.4         0.8      *        7.8      1.0       3.4       4.2   ***
                                    GHB        1.2       0.6        0.4         0.8    NS         7.8      1.0       3.4       4.2   ***
                                  Alcohol     99.4      96.7       87.4        94.6    ***       98.7     95.4      92.5      95.6   ***
 Used on this holiday (%)

                                 Tobacco      39.4      52.2       46.2        45.8    ***       47.2     57.9      58.5      54.4   ***
                                Cannabis       9.5       6.0       12.6         9.4     **       20.1     11.1      23.0      18.1   ***
                                  Ecstasy      4.0       2.3         2.1        2.8    NS        44.2      5.7      16.0      22.4   ***
                                 Cocaine       7.5       2.9         3.9        4.8     **       34.2      5.0      17.3      19.2   ***
                            Amphetatmine       1.8       0.6         1.3        1.2    NS         5.1      2.8       8.3       5.4    **
                               Ketamine        1.6       0.4         0.9        1.0    NS        14.2      0.8       5.9       7.1   ***
                  GHB         1.8       0.6          0.4                        1.0    NS         3.6      1.0       4.1       2.9    **
*** P<0.001; **P<0.01; *P<0.05; NS = not significant

Figure 1: Frequency of drunkenness on holiday by holiday destination and nationality


                            60                                             Never
                                                                           Once a week or less
                                                                           2-4 days a week
                            40                                             5+ days a week




                                  British      German          Spanish                       British      German           Spanish
                                              Majorca                                                      Ibiza
  For individuals who used substances both at                      Figure 2: Frequency of cannabis use at
  home and on holiday, it was possible to                          home and on holiday among those who
  explore changes in the frequency of use                                 used in both locations
  whilst on holiday. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show
  changes in frequency of use for the three                               50                 Home
  most commonly used substances: cannabis,                                                   Holiday
  ecstasy and cocaine (nationalities and holiday                          40
  locations combined). For all drugs, frequency

                                                             % of users
  of use increased during the holiday period.
  For example, whilst 80% of ecstasy users                                20
  reported using the drug less than once a
  week when at home, during their holiday 80%                             10
  reported using at least twice per week. Over                             0
  40% of ecstasy users reported using the drug
  five or more days per week during their                                        <1 day     1 day      2-4 days 5+ days
  holiday.                                                                              Days used per week

 Figure 3: Frequency of ecstasy use at home            Figure 4: Frequency of cocaine use at home
and on holiday among those who used in both           and on holiday among those who used in both
                 locations                                             locations
         100                                                       80
                                   Home                                                             Home
                                   Holiday                         60                               Holiday
% of users

                                                      % of users


             20                                                    20

             0                                                       0
                  <1 day   1 day   2-4 days 5+ days                            <1 day     1 day     2-4 days 5+ days
                      Days used per week                                            Days used per week

  Perceptions of safety

  Participants were asked a range of questions aimed at gaining an insight into how they felt
  nightlife safety and management varied between their home environments and nightlife
  environments in their holiday destination. Table 4 shows that over 60% of holidaymakers
  of all nationalities believed that nightlife environments in their holiday location were
  better managed than nightlife environments at home. However, perceptions for all other
  questions differed between countries. For example, whilst three quarters of German and
  Spanish holidaymakers felt safer on a night out at home than on holiday, for British
  participants this dropped to just over half. British and German, but not Spanish,

holidaymakers believed it was easier to get drugs in the holiday location than it was at
home. Over three quarters of British and German holidaymakers believed bar staff in the
holiday resort were more tolerant of drunkenness than those at home, and that door
supervisors working in the resort were less aggressive than those at home. German
participants in particular thought that the legal consequences of violence would be
stricter in their own countries than in the holiday destination.

Table 4: Perceptions of nightlife safety and management between home and
holiday nightlife environments, by nationality (Majorca and Ibiza samples
                                                           British          German           Spanish
                                                    At           On        At     On        At        On
                                                   Home         Holiday   Home   Holiday   Home      Holiday   P
    I feel safer when out at night                  55.8         44.2     75.5     24.5    74.7       25.3     ***
    Bars/nightclubs are more crowded                30.1         69.9     24.2     75.8    31.2       68.8      **
    Bar staff appear better trained                 58.4         41.6     71.8     28.2    47.2       52.8     ***
    It is easier to get illegal drugs               34.6         65.4     23.8     76.2    53.1       46.9     ***
    Nightlife seems more violent                    86.1         13.9     74.1     25.9    60.0       40.0     ***
    It is easier to get home after a night out      45.4         54.6     66.9     33.1    77.0       23.0     ***
    There are more underage drinkers in bars        51.9         48.1     64.1     35.9    53.0       47.0     ***
    Legal consequences of violence are harsher      47.0         53.0     86.4     13.6    66.7       33.3     ***
    Bar staff are more tolerant of drunkenness      22.0         78.0     17.3     82.7    38.0       62.0     ***
    Door supervisors are more aggressive            73.4         26.6     80.0     20.0    59.1       40.9     ***
    Nightlife seems better managed                  39.3         60.7     37.3     62.7    38.1       61.9     NS
    Each question was answered by at least 75% of participants.
    *** P<0.001; **P<0.01; *P<0.05; NS = not significant

Experience of violence on holiday

To explore holidaymakers’ experiences with violence on holiday, the questionnaire asked
whether they had seen any physical fights during their holiday and whether they had
themselves been involved in a physical fight.

Figure 4 shows the proportion of                             Figure 4: Percentage of participants having seen
holidaymakers of each nationality that                            physical violence during their holiday
reported having seen fighting at least
once during their holiday, by holiday                                70                    UK
destination. There were significant                                  60                    Germany
differences between nationalities and                                                      Spain
locations. Among British and Spanish
holidaymakers, those visiting Majorca

were more likely to report having seen                               30
violence than those visiting Ibiza.                                  20
However in German holidaymakers, a                                   10


                                                                             Majorca                  Ibiza
higher proportion of visitors to Ibiza         Table 5: Participants’ involvement in physical
reported seeing violence on holiday                        violence on holiday
than visitors to Majorca.                                         Majorca        Ibiza          All
                                                n                  1420          1484          2904
Table 5 shows the proportion of                 All (%)             6.2           2.8           4.4
holidaymakers that were themselves              Nationality (%)
involved in a fight during their holiday,                 British   11.6          2.9          7.2
by location, nationality, age and gender.               German       4.8          2.5          3.6
                                                        Spanish      1.7          2.9          2.3
Again there were significant differences                        P    ***          NS           ***
between locations with prevalence of            Age (%)
fighting higher in Majorca. Here,                         16-19     10.0          5.0          8.6
fighting was most commonly reported                       20-25      4.2          2.5          3.2
                                                          26-35      1.9          2.1            2
by British holidaymakers, with over                             P    ***          NS           ***
one in ten involved in violence on              Sex (%)
holiday. In Ibiza, however, there were                     Male      9.9          3.7          6.8
no significant differences between                       Female      2.1          1.8          1.9
                                                                P    ***           *           ***
                                                Group size (%)
                                                             1-2     2.4          2.2          2.3
Fighting was most prevalent among                            3-4     2.2          2.1          2.2
younger participants in each location,                        5+    10.7          3.7          7.3
                                                                P    ***          NS           ***
although in Ibiza differences were not            *** P<0.001; **P<0.01; *P<0.05; NS = not significant
significant. Males were significantly
more likely to be involved in violence in both Majorca and Ibiza. Involvement in violence
was also analysed by the size of the group that participants travelled to Majorca and Ibiza
in. In Majorca only, fighting was significantly more prevalent among those that had
travelled in a group of more than four people (including the participant).

Sexual behaviour during the holiday

Overall, 28.9% of participants travelled to their holiday destination with a sexual partner.
However, one third (33.8%) of those travelling without a sexual partner had sex during
their holiday and 17.9% had sex with more than one person. Of those arriving in the
holiday destination without a sexual partner and having sex, a third (34.8%) did not always
use a condom and 16.0% had sex with more than one partner without using condoms.

Table 6 shows a breakdown of sexual behaviour among those arriving without a sexual
partner, by holiday location and nationality. There were significant differences between
nationalities in the number of sexual partners reported on holiday, with British
holidaymakers to both locations least likely to have sex with a new partner. In Majorca,
German holidaymakers were most likely to report having sex with a new partner without
a condom, while in Ibiza such risky sexual behaviour was most commonly reported by
Spanish holidaymakers, although here differences between nationalities did not reach

Table 6: Sexual behaviour among holidaymakers travelling without sexual partners, by
holiday location and nationality
                                                          Majorca                         Ibiza
                                                 British German Spanish   P    British German Spanish   P
 Number of sexual partners on
 holiday (%)
                                   0              70.4    60.5    57.3         74.7    65.2     61.9
                                   1              12.1    18.1    25.3         13.4    15.7     16.0
                              2 to 4              11.1    10.4    10.1          8.2    12.5     15.5
                         5 or more                 6.5    11.0    7.3     **   3.7     6.7      6.6     *
 Number of unprotected sexual
 partners (%)1
                                   0              66.9    53.8    74.3         65.1    70.4     63.8
                                   1              17.8    22.2    20.3         19.3    18.5     13.0
                              2 to 4               7.6    10.3     4.1          6.0     4.6     10.1
                         5 or more                 7.6    13.7    1.4     *     9.6     6.5     13.0    NS
1 Analyseslimited to individuals who had sex on holiday
*** P<0.001; **P<0.01; *P<0.05; NS = not significant

Main qualitative results


The main reasons that encourage the emergence of violence among
tourists visiting the Balearic islands are:
   ♦ Abuse of alcohol
   ♦ Low risk perception of being punished if they “break rules”
   ♦ Intake of illegal drugs (less frequent than alcohol intoxication)
   ♦ Small illegal drug dealing
   ♦ Overcrowding of nightlife venues
   ♦ Poor training of private security / door staff in venues
   ♦ Underage users in nightclubs and similar recreational venues
   ♦ Competition between men for sexual partners (women)
   ♦ World football matches like The Champions’ League, etc. (mainly between
       English population)
The most frequent incidents are:
  ♦ Fights between male groups, without presence of weapons
  ♦ Fights between men to obtain sexual partner
  ♦ Fights under influence of alcohol (mainly) and other drugs
  ♦ Thefts among tourists under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
  ♦  Sexual harassment of people under the influence of alcohol or drugs (mainly
Fights in general occur:
   ♦ Between men
   ♦ Between the youngest people
   ♦ Between the hours of 4 am and until 13 pm; the later the worse (“after party”
   ♦ Most frequently, one or more of the persons involved are under the influence
       of alcohol (and less commonly, drugs)

Literature that supports with empirical evidence key informants’ statements.
Nightlife and risk behaviour: youth violence, alcohol and other drugs use.

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consumption. Drug Alcohol Dependence 2002; 29-37.
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depression, substance use, and the use of violence by young adolescents. The Journal of Pediatrics 2000; 137(5):707-
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February 2008.
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of aggression in late-night large-capacity bars and clubs. Addiction 2006; 101:1569-1580.
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d'urgence. Alcoologie et Addictologie 2006; 28(1):51-57.
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This section includes some concluding general policy recommendations along with some
key recommendations addressed at specific stakeholders and local authorities.

  General policy recommendations:
  Synergic working:
  Violence in holiday resorts requires multi-agency networking, within locations and
  international, to exchange intelligence on how violence can be managed in
  particular settings, as well as the contributions of each nationality when engaging in
  international nightlife tourism; in particular, this network should include data on:
      Regional epidemiological information on tourism behaviors: alcohol and drug
      use, violent behaviors, reasons for choosing a destination (why tourists feel
      attracted to a resort).
      Preventive programs being carried out and their effects on local and visiting
      New ideas for preventive measures and interventions which could be carried
      out at local, national and mainly international level, engaging countries which
      have a constant tourist flow amongst them (e.g. Germany, England, Spain).

  Data presented in this study highlights the relationship between alcohol and
  substance misuse, environmental and cultural issues (nationality, reasons to choose
  a holiday destination) and levels of violence. We recommend policies to set up
  international quality standards to promote health and security conditions for
  tourists as well as local residents.

  The environment is a major risk factor. Prevention should include environmental
  measures (transportation, lighting, venues design and management, etc) as well as
  staff training and health interventions aimed at tackling risk behaviors.

  There is scarce information available to analyse the risks that specifically affect
  nightlife behaviours. In addition, some countries show little interest in creating and
  disseminating information on the subject. We recommend promoting the research
  to create evidences on alcohol use, other drugs consumption, and risk behaviors
  related to nightlife.

  Tackling the drug problems that multi-national communities present in international
  settings requires concerted coordination beyond most prevention and harm
  reduction organizations. Therefore, incoming tourist countries must assume their
  responsibility regarding the conditions holidaymakers find and create cooperation
  protocols for all the institutions involved (particularly policymakers, police, health
  agencies, recreational industry professionals, etc.)

Measures that are merely informative, or that just attempt to make young people
accountable, may be effective but are insufficient. Approaches should not only seek
to implement prevention and harm minimisation measures for nightlife tourists, but
also explore what such settings have learnt from managing hundreds of thousands
of binge drinkers and drug users all socialising within a relatively contained

Results suggest that prevention and harm minimization work in
international nightlife settings is urgently required - to protect the
health of those on holiday and to reduce the international spread of
youth drug cultures.


♦ Tourist destinations are strong economic and cultural sources, social meeting
  points for youth arriving from diverse countries, as well as places expected to
  provide fun and well-being.
♦ Because of its specific features, those locations can sometimes be holding a
  social paradox: while security and health for both tourist visitors and local
  population must be guaranteed, authorities are worried about bringing to the
  public opinion issues regarding violence and alcohol and drug consumption,
  because these concerns could seriously damage the image of those tourist
♦ Therefore, it becomes crucial to set up international quality standards that
  would have to be offered by the local agencies and requested by the tour-
♦ Such actions –creating and sharing international quality standards- would
  depend on the establishment of an in depth and long lasting network, at local,
  national and international levels, involving tourist providers as well as recipient
  countries. All implied stakeholders, from the very local ones such as club and
  bar owners, night staff, or young users (the tourists themselves) going through
  health and police services, consulates, and local authorities, to reaching national
  and international organizations, should assume their responsibility and duties
  concerning safe and health conditions to be guaranteed for all visitors and local
  residents in international resorts. Apart from some concrete actions, suggested
  below, it is very important to keep in mind as a background reference this new
  philosophy of collaboration at the different levels. This should cover any
  concrete preventive action started, planed or promoted.

♦ Administration:
  Authorities have great responsibilities in terms of public health and security.
  Important actions such as controlling opening times in leisure venues, organizing
  night public transportation, promoting law reinforcement, or calling for
  international quality standards that will stimulate the visit of tourists to the
  resorts should be carried out.

    ♦ Authorities are in a great place to act as mediators between the different
      converging interests: tourists, industry, local residents, etc. So they should
      promote their role at local and international levels.

    ♦ In general terms, they should:

               Design common strategies between local police, national police, and
               private security staff in order to maximize human and technical
               Show publicity surrounding the consequences of tourists’ negative
               behavior including violence. Such as: being caught by police, having to
               undergo a quick trial (in 48 hours) foreseen by the Spanish law.
               Ensure public transport during nightlife

♦    Tour-operators:
         Create strategies for systematically control the contents of tourist
         advertisement in the mass-media: TV, radio, the internet, newspapers,
         travel agency pamphlets, airport and street hoardings, etc., in order to
         report publicly non- ethical advertisement and apply the corresponding
         sanctions for it
             - For example: by creating a web page in which concrete rules are
                 specified, and summarizing acceptable terms and types of
             - Creating a permanent commission of experts to detect
         Promote an international tender to reward, for example:
             - The best/ most healthy advertisement linked to tourist publicity;
             - The advertisement that promotes the best image of the tourist
                 destination; and
             - The most innovative advertisement in promoting a good image of
                 tourist destination

           Avoid using sexual and/or violent contents (e.g. inciting tourists to be
           violent or to show uninhibited behaviors), as well as symbols relating to
           alcohol and drug consumption in their publicity campaigns

          Stress should be placed on avoiding all subliminal and indirect messages
          that promote an image of tourist resorts as a “place to have fun through
          breaking rules”
          Offer alternative activities, related to the resort’s culture, including open
          air activities, sports etc.

♦ Local recreational nightlife industry:

   Should be responsible for putting into practice international quality standards of
   best practices for their customers and the local residents. Therefore, they
   should work on prevention as dependable agents like other industry
   organizations in different European countries are since they became aware that
   carrying on these politics works in their benefit.

          Managers of nightlife industry:

      Apply a standardized protocol to ensure door staff is adequately screened.
      Create a support network for door staff to prevent burn-out syndrome
      (debriefing techniques; frequent staff rotation and longer breaks at the end
      of the season, etc.)
      Create and guarantee the minimum health conditions at the venues, such as
      plastic glasses, condoms in the toilets, hygienic conditions, adequate
      lightening, emergency exits well indicated and located, and maximum
      capacity per m2.
      Establish specific training for all night staff, commission specific tasks and
      responsibilities to waiters, door personnel, dancers, DJs, etc.
      Establish restrictions on opening hours for discotheques and especially for
      after parties. This has been shown to effectively reduce number and/or
      seriousness of hospital emergency cases
      Set up sobriety checkpoints for staff working in nighttime venues
      In activities for youngsters, such as parties (regionally referred to as galas de
      tarde) where the minimum age for entrance is 13, only non-alcoholic
      beverages should be on sale and alcohol drinks should be at all times out of
      the sight of teenagers.
      Establish specific context strategies to control overcrowdings and group
      formation. In places were tourist concentrations are more likely to provoke
      violent outbreaks would require actions designed specifically for each
       Tap water should be supplied in the nightlife venues free of charge to all
      According to different studies, higher alcohol prices have a preventive
      effect. For this reason there should be some control to prevent certain
      practices that use low alcohol prices as a marketing strategy. At the same
      time, prices for non-alcoholic beverages should be much less expensive than
      the alcoholic ones.

               Door staff:
           Deny entrance to persons who have previously been involved in any violent
           incident in the venue.
           Willingly to undertake sobriety check points
           Training for all door staff providing:
               A minimum of foreign language knowledge (English, German, etc) to
               avoid language misunderstandings
               Conflict resolution skills
               De-escalation training (also for waiters and other staff).
               Specific medical/first aid training (heat stroke, heart attack, paranoid
               behavior, overdose, etc.)
               Specific information about the risks and overdose effects of most
               frequently consumed party drugs.


    The promotion of tourist areas under a positive light may help to reverse some of
    the adverse effects which are a consequence of negative and harmful nighttime
    behaviors. Visible public information campaigns can encourage pro-social norms, by
    establishing the consequences of antisocial or illegal behavior that involve criminal
    justice agencies 1 . New trends in emerging violence in tourist resorts may be
    attributable to the social image of the destination promoted by tour-operator in mass
    media campaigns 2 . Such negative images may encourage lack of inhibitions and
    behaviors not usually performed in their home countries. The perceived lack of
    punishment may also encourage such behaviours. Suggested initiatives to highlight the
    real consequences for tourists could be:

       Creating a video using, for example, a YouTube-style format (to be broadcast
       through the same mass media and distribution channels that promote the
       opposite image) showing that using alcohol and drugs and/or being violent often
       ends up with visits to the hospital or the police station. In opposition to this
       message, it could also show “idyllic” images of relaxing holidays in the beach,
       under the sun, etc. The main message for tourists could be: “help us to keep it
       like this, for you, for us, for everyone”.

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