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					                                                                               WiMAX Solutions
                                                                                  Division




                                   Mobile WiMAX/3G
                           Performance Comparison*

                                                               Kuo-Hui Li, PhD
                                                       WiMAX Solutions Division
                                                           Intel Mobility Group
                                                                 June 05, 2006
* WiMAX Forum, Mobile WiMAX-Part I: A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation, June 2006
* WiMAX Forum, Mobile WiMAX-Part II: A Comparative Analysis, May 2006
(http://www.wimaxforum.org)
  WiMAX/3GTechnology Availability
1992-2000              2000-2004                              2004 -2008


    TDMA                       EGPRS                TD-SCDMA
                            384 kb/s(~80)            (China)


 GSM                 GPRS                          WCDMA (TDD)
                 ~150 kb/s (~30)


                               WCDMA (R99)            HSDPA (R5)                       Adv. Receivers
       PDC                     2 Mbps (~300)                              HSUPA (R6)        (R7)
                                                   14 Mbps (~3 Mb/s)


                                                                  VoIP

                      CDMA2000 1X              CDMA2000 1xEVDO           CDMA2000
   cdmaOne
                        144 (~60)                2.4Mbps (~300)           1xEVDV



             Current WCDMA deployments are Release 99 (end of 1999)
             Current WCDMA deployments are Release 99 (end of 1999)
       with some Release 4 network enhancements, such as IMS (July 2001)
       with some Release 4 network enhancements, such as IMS (July 2001)
                   HSDPA part of Release 5 (Mar. ’04 commercial late ’05)
                  HSDPA part of Release 5 (Mar. ’04 // commercial late ’05)
                     HSUPA part of Release 6 (End of ’06)
                     HSUPA part of Release 6 (End of ’06)

  Slide2                                                        WiMAX Solutions
                                                                   Division
                   3GPP/3GPP2 Evolution
     CDMA2000                                         1xEVDO Rev B
                              1xEVDO Rev A
3GPP2 1xEVDO Rev 0                                    2x1.25 MHz FDD
                              2x1.25 MHz FDD           Enhanced DL
  2x1.25 MHz FDD          Enhanced DL/UL Capacity      & Multi-Carrier
Enhanced DL Capacity
                            Peak = 3.1/1.8 Mbps     Peak = 4.9/1.8 Mbps
Peak = 2.4/0.15 Mbps




                                  HSDPA              HSUPA (HSPA)
     WCDMA (UMTS)
                              2x5 MHz FDD             2x5 MHz FDD
     3GPP Release 99                                    Enhanced
                          Enhanced DL Capacity
         2x5 MHz FDD                                   UL Capacity
                            Peak = 14/2.0 Mbps
                                                   Peak = 14/5.8 Mbps



  2004             2005    2006            2007             2008/9



Slide3                                           WiMAX Solutions
                                                    Division
           Evolution for 3G CDMA Systems
System          Enhancements          First Commercial Availability

1xEVDO, CDMA2000
 Rev 0          DL Enhancements          First deployments in 2003
 Rev A          Add UL Enhancements                2006
 Rev B          Add Multi-Carrier                  2008

HSPA, WCDMA
 HSDPA          DL Enhancements                 2005/2006
 HSUPA          Add UL Enhancements               2007/8

WiMAX
 Mobile WiMAX   Mobility                          2006/7



  Slide4                                  WiMAX Solutions
                                             Division
         Mobile WiMAX Performance




Slide5                    WiMAX Solutions
                             Division
                         WiMAX Simulation Parameters
                     Parameters                                        Value
Cell Configuration                     3 Sectors/Cell
Frequency Reuse                        1/3/1
Users/Sector                           10
Traffic Type                           Full Buffer
Channel Estimation                     Ideal
PHY Abstraction                        EESM
Scheduler                              Proprietary Proportional Fair

Link Adaptation                        Realistic with delay feedback

Antenna Configuration                  1x2, 2x2
                                  DL   Alamouti STC, VSM
MIMO Support
                                  UL   Collaborative SM
MIMO Switch                            Adaptive STC/VSM switch
MIMO Receiver                          MLD
HARQ                                   CC, 3 Retransmissions
Coding                                 CTC
Frame Overhead                         11 OFDM Symbols (7 DL, 3 UL, 1 TTG)
Data Symbols per Frame                 37
                                  A    28:9
DL/UL Partition
                                  B    22:15
    Slide6                                                       WiMAX Solutions
                                                                    Division
       Mobile WiMAX OFDMA Parameters
                    Parameters                            Values
System Channel Bandwidth (MHz)                               10
Sampling Frequency (Fp in MHz)                              11.2
FFT Size (NFFT)                                             1024
Sub-Carrier Frequency Spacing                             10.94 kHz
Useful Symbol Time (Tb = 1/f)                           91.4 microsec
Guard Time (Tg =Tb/8)                                   11.4 microsec
OFDMA Symbol Duration (Ts = Tb + Tg)                    102.9 microsec
Frame duration                                            5 millisec
Number of OFDMA Symbols                                      48
DL PUSC                         Null Sub-carriers            184
                                Pilot Sub-carriers           120
                                Data Sub-carriers            720
                                Sub-Channels                 30
UL PUSC                         Null Sub-carriers            184
                                Pilot Sub-carriers           280
                                Data Sub-carriers            560
                                Sub-Channels                 35
   Slide7                                            WiMAX Solutions
                                                        Division
  Throughput and Spectral Efficiency (per sector)
                           DL: 28 data symbols            DL: 22 data symbols
    Cases
                           UL: 9 data symbols             UL: 15 data symbols
                                          Spectral       Sector        Spectral
Antenna       Link   Sector Throughput
                                         Efficiency    Throughput     Efficiency
              DL         8.8 Mbps        1.21 bps/Hz    6.6 Mbps     1.09 bps/Hz
SIMO
              UL        1.38 Mbps        0.55 bps/Hz   2.20 Mbps     0.59 bps/Hz
              DL        13.60 Mbps       1.87 bps/Hz   10.63 Mbps    1.76 bps/Hz
MIMO
              UL        1.83 Mbps        0.73 bps/Hz   2.74 Mbps     0.83 bps/Hz



          •    Basic MIMO configuration
          •    PUSC with no frequency selective scheduling
          •    Conservative 11 symbol overhead



  Slide8                                               WiMAX Solutions
                                                          Division
 Aggregated Throughput and Spectral Efficiency

 Cases                        DL/UL=28/9                                        DL/UL=22/15

                                                                                     Sector
                                Sector Spectral                       Sector
          Sector Throughput                       Cell Spectral                     Spectral    Cell Spectral
                                  Efficiency                       Throughput
Antenna        (Mbps)
                                   (bps/Hz)
                                                   Efficiency
                                                                     (Mbps)
                                                                                   Efficiency    Efficiency
            (BW=10MHz)                             (bps/Hz)                         (bps/Hz)     (bps/Hz)
                                                                  (BW=10MHz)




SIMO           10.18                1.02             3.05            8.80            0.88          2.64




MIMO           15.43                1.54             4.63           13.37            1.34          4.01




 Slide9                                                               WiMAX Solutions
                                                                         Division
  Spectral Efficiency Improvement with Optimized Mobile WiMAX


         DL Spectral Efficiency MIMO (2x2)                            UL Spectral Efficiency MIMO (2x2)

       3.0                                                      1.2
       2.5                                                      1.0
       2.0                                   + 30%              0.8                                   + 30%
Mbps




                                                         Mbps
       1.5                                   + 20%              0.6                                   + 20%

       1.0                                   Base Line          0.4                       0.83        Base Line
                1.87          1.76                                          0.73
       0.5                                                      0.2
       0.0                                                      0.0
                28:9         22:15                                          28:9          22:15

                   DL/UL Ratio                                                 DL/UL Ratio



• Frequency selective scheduling
• Reduced overhead
• 20~30% improvement

    Slide10                                                                   WiMAX Solutions
                                                                                 Division
                     Adjustable Sector Throughput in TDD

                  DL Sector Throughput                                      UL Sector Throughput

       25                                                        10
       20                                                        8
       15                                                        6
Mbps




                                                          Mbps
       10                                                        4
        5                                                        2
        0                                                        0
            1:0     28:9    2:1     22:15     1:1   0:1               1:0    28:9    2:1     22:15     1:1   0:1
                            DL/UL Ratio                                              DL/UL Ratio

                      Base Line   + 20%     + 30%                              Base Line   + 20%     + 30%




 • Maximum DL sector throughput > 20Mbps
 • Maximum UL sector throughput >8Mbps
 • DL/UL ratio can be adjusted to match the traffic profile


       Slide11                                                               WiMAX Solutions
                                                                                Division
Mobile WiMAX-3G Performance Comparsions




Slide12                  WiMAX Solutions
                            Division
             Summary of Comparative Features
                          1xEVDO Rev A       HSDPA/HSUPA
     Attribute                                                      Mobile WiMAX
                            (HSPD-A)            (HSPA)
   Base Standard         CDMA2000/IS-95          WCDMA                IEEE 802.16e

   Duplex Method               FDD                 FDD            TDD (FDD optional)

     Downlink                 TDM               CDM-TDM                   OFDM
  Uplink Multiple
                             CDMA                 CDMA                   OFDMA
      Access
                                                                  Scalable: 5, 7, 8.75, 10
    Channel BW              1.25 MHz             5.0 MHz
                                                                           MHz

                   DL    1.67 milliseconds    2 milliseconds       5 milliseconds TDD
Frame Size
                   UL    6.67 milliseconds   2, 10 milliseconds    5 milliseconds TDD

                                                                     QPSK/16QAM/
   Modulation DL        QPSK/8PSK/ 16QAM      QPSK/16QAM
                                                                       64QAM

   Modulation UL        BPSK,QPSK/8PSK         BPSK/QPSK             QPSK/16QAM


 Slide13                                                  WiMAX Solutions
                                                             Division
  Summary of Comparative Features (contd)
                         1xEVDO Rev A             HSDPA/HSUPA
     Attribute                                                             Mobile WiMAX
                           (HSPD-A)                  (HSPA)
      Coding                  Turbo                  CC, Turbo                CC, Turbo
DL Peak Over the Air                                                          46 Mbps[1]
                             3.1 Mbps                 14 Mbps
     Data Rate                                                              (10 MHz TDD)
UL Peak Over the Air                                                          14 Mbps[2]
                             1.8 Mbps                 5.8 Mbps
     Data Rate                                                              (10 MHz TDD)
                          Fast 4-Channel           Fast 6-Channel          Multi-Channel
      H-ARQ
                          Synchronous IR          Asynchronous CC         Asynchronous CC
                       Fast Scheduling in the   Fast Scheduling in the   Fast Scheduling in DL
    Scheduling
                                DL                       DL                     and UL
                                                Network Initiated Hard    Network Optimized
      Handoff          Virtual Soft Handoff
                                                      Handoff               Hard Handoff

  Tx Diversity and      Simple Open Loop        Simple Open & Closed
                                                                              STBC, SM
      MIMO                  Diversity              Loop Diversity
                                                        Yes
   Beamforming                  No                                               Yes
                                                  (Dedicated Pilots)

Slide14                                                       WiMAX Solutions
                                                                 Division
                       Common Features

•     Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC)
              see summary in next slide

• Hybrid ARQ (HARQ)

• Fast Scheduling

• Bandwidth Efficient Handoff




    Slide15                               WiMAX Solutions
                                             Division
   Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC)
    Technology   DL Modulation    DL Code Rate         UL Modulation     UL Code Rate

1xEVDO-Rev 0                                            Fixed (BPSK)          Fixed
                 16QAM, 8PSK,
                    QPSK
1xEVDO-Rev A
                                  Turbo: 1/3, 1/5
                                                        BPSK, QPSK,
                   64QAM[1],                                             Turbo: 1/2, 1/4
                                                           8PSK
1xEVDO-Rev B     16QAM, 8PSK,
                     QPSK

HSDPA                                                   Fixed (BPSK)          Fixed
                                 Turbo, CC: 1/4,
                 16QAM, QPSK
HSPA                              2/4, 3/4, 4/4                         Turbo, CC: 2/3,
                                                        BPSK, QPSK
(HSDPA+HSUPA)                                                              3/4, 4/4

                                    Turbo, CC,                             Turbo, CC,
                    64QAM,       Repetition: 1/12,     16QAM, QPSK,     Repetition: 1/12,
Mobile WiMAX
                 16QAM, QPSK     1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 2/3,   64QAM Optional   1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 2/3,
                                      3/4, 5/6                          3/4, 5/6 Optional




Slide16                                                   WiMAX Solutions
                                                             Division
  WiMAX & 3G Simulation Parameters
                                                   Values
         Parameters             Mobile
                                                  1xEVDO               HSPA
                                WiMAX
Number of 3-Sector Cells                             19
Operating Frequency             2500 MHz                    2000 MHz
Duplex                            TDD                         FDD
Channel Bandwidth               10 MHz         2 x 1.25 MHz         2 x 5 MHz
BS-to-BS Distance                              2.8 kilometers
Minimum Mobile-to-BS Distance                     36 meters
Antenna Pattern                   70° (-3 dB) with 20 dB front-to-back ratio
BS Height                                         32 meters
Mobile Terminal Height                           1.5 meters
BS Antenna Gain                                    15 dBi
MS Antenna Gain                                    -1 dBi


 Slide17                                           WiMAX Solutions
                                                      Division
       WiMAX and 3G Simulation Parameters (contd)

                                                    Values
           Parameters
                               Mobile WiMAX        1xEVDO                   HSPA
BS Maximum PA Power                                 43 dBm
Mobile Terminal Maximum PA
                                                    23 dBm
Power
# of BS Tx/Rx Antenna           Tx: 2; Rx: 2                 Tx: 1; Rx: 2
# of MS Tx/Rx Antenna           Tx: 1; Rx: 2                 Tx: 1; Rx: 2
Receiver                           MLD                         RAKE
BS Noise Figure                                      4 dB
MS Noise Figure                                      7 dB
Propagation Model                              COST 231 Suburban
Log-Normal Shadowing SD (σs)                         8 dB
BS shadowing correlation                              0.5
Penetration Loss                                     10 dB


  Slide18                                            WiMAX Solutions
                                                        Division
                Channel Model
 Channel   Multi-path       # of                                   Assignment
                                        Speed         Fading
  Model     Model         Fingers                                  Probability
 Model A   Pedestrian A     1          3 km/hr         Jakes          0.30
 Model B   Pedestrian B     3         10 km/hr         Jakes          0.30
 Model C   Vehicular A      2         30 km/hr         Jakes          0.20
 Model D   Pedestrian A     1         120 km/hr        Jakes          0.10
 Model E   Single Path      1       0, fDoppler = 1.5   Rician        0.10
                                          Hz          Factor K =
                                                        10 dB




Slide19                                           WiMAX Solutions
                                                     Division
           Performance Comparison
                                       EVDO                        HSPA         Mobile
                        1xEVDO
     Parameter                         Rev B[1]     HSDPA        (HSDPA +       WiMAX
                         Rev A
                                     (3-Carrier)                  HSUPA)         (2x2)
       Duplex             FDD           FDD           FDD           FDD           TDD
 Occupied Spectrum      2.5 MHz       10 MHz        10 MHz        10 MHz        10 MHz
                  DL   1.25 MHz        5 MHz         5 MHz         5 MHz
 Channel BW                                                                     10 MHz
                  UL   1.25 MHz        5 MHz         5 MHz         5 MHz
                  DL    3.1 Mbps     14.7 Mbps      14 Mbps       14 Mbps      46[2] Mbps
Peak Data Rate
                  UL    1.8 Mbps      5.4 Mbps      2.0 Mbps      5.8 Mbps     14[3] Mbps
                          0.85                                      0.78         1.93[4]
   Spectral       DL                 0.93 bps/Hz   0.78 bps/Hz
                         Bps/Hz                                    bps/Hz        bps/Hz
  Efficiency
                  UL   0.36 bps/Hz   0.28 bps/Hz   0.14 bps/Hz   0.30 bps/Hz   0.88 bps/Hz

                  DL   1.06 Mbps     4.65 Mbps     3.91 Mbps     3.91 Mbps     14.1 Mbps
Net Information
Through-put per
Channel/ Sector   UL   0.45 Mbps     1.39 Mbps     0.70 Mbps     1.50 Mbps     2.19 Mbps



 Slide20                                                       WiMAX Solutions
                                                                  Division
             Performance comparison




   WiMAX data rates are 5X better than 3G+ Technologies




Slide21                                   WiMAX Solutions
                                             Division
          Spectral efficiency difference




     WiMAX Spectral efficiency (UL+DL) is 3X better than 3G+
                          technology.

Slide22                                   WiMAX Solutions
                                             Division

				
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