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					                               Homework
1.   What is the difference between data and information?
     Data is raw material for data processing. Data relates to fact, event and
     transactions. Information is data that has been processed in such a way
     as to be meaningful to the person who receives it.
2.   Give separate examples of situation where an organization or individual
     would use information technology to persuade, inform, educate and
     entertain.
     Business put advertisement on TV, computer to get more customers.
     People use email, MSN to contact each other. Students submit their work
     to internet instead of hand it in as paper. People play games, listen to
     music and watch videos or movie on computer.
3.   Describe the ease with which each type of data(text, numerical, graphics,
     sound and video data) can be converted into digital form.
     Text and numerical data can be entered with keyboard; graphics can be
     scanned. Sound can be record by microphone and Video can be
     downloaded from camcorder.
4.   What are four characteristics of usable data?
     i) Suitability ii) Reliability iii) Accuracy iv) Timeliness
5.   What are transcription errors? How are they caused?
     A transcription error is a specific type of data entry error such as entering
     impossible data occurs.
6.   Describe three influences that can bias your data.
     Vested interest – Bias can infiltrate data if the respondent to a survey or
     interview has a vested interest in the out come of research
     Timing – The timing of the gathering of data may also introduce an
     element of bias.
     Small sample size – Choosing a sample size that is too small may also
     introduce bias.
7.   What are you looking for when you proofread data?
     Are looking for Transcription errors.
8.   What factors can affect the quality of proofreading? Who should you use
     to proofread your data?
     The concentration of the proofreader can affect the quality of proofreading.
     The person you choose to do the proofreading should be someone who is
     familiar with the data.
9.   A VCE teacher has entered results for school assessed coursework into
     the school’s administration computer. What steps should the teacher take
     to manually validate this data? What machine validation is likely to be
     included in the software?
     The teacher should proofread their information and have someone else
     check their information that is used to VCE results. Forms of electric
     validation are spell-checkers and alignment validation technology they
     groups each set of information to the left.
10. a) Sending email b) Video game c) TV advertisement d) an online tutorial
11. What are the nine major steps associated with information-processing?
     Describe each step.
     - Acquisition: Data can be gathered or acquired from a number of sources.
     - Input: Data is entered into the computer.
     - Validation: To check the error
     - Manipulation: Organizes and manipulates the data into information.
     - Storage: Data awaiting processing and information produced in the
     manipulation step will need to be stored so that it is available when required.
     - Retrieval: Data and information that have been stored will need to be
     returned to the computer’s main memory.
     - Output: The output of information can be printed document or something
     like that.
     - Communication: Information needed to be communicated to intended users.
     - Disposal: to delete the information that is no longer required.
12. – Storage                  - Input
     - Manipulation            - Communication
     - Output                  - Disposal
     - Input                   - Manipulation
13. It is a convention in preparing reports that dates are aligned to the right of
      their cells in spreadsheet and database packages. How does the facilitate
      machine-validation?
      It will pick the error cells and show it in yellow color that we can clearly find
      out.
14. Range-checking is an important machine-validation technique. Describe
      the types of errors it will detect and the ones it will miss
      Digital errors and text errors.
15.    Answer: 0
16.    In what form is information most likely to be presented to a manager who
      makes day-to-day decisions that influence the operations of an
      organization?
      Detailed summery report.
17.    Look at an official letter from your school. What convention can you
      identify?
      The letter has a title, the page file name, pages number and the purpose
      of the letter.
18. The Herald-Sun and The Age are two popular newspapers available in
      Victoria. The newspapers are similar in the way they distinguish
      paragraphs. Describe the format used by the newspapers.
      The titles of every article in the newspapers are usually big and bold.
      There are spaces between each paragraph.
19. The proprietor of Westend Car Sales has produced a list of cars for sale
      that meet the needs of a customer. The document appears in Figure 1-42.
      It breaches a number of formatting rules. List the changes you would
      recommend.
      - Complete contact details: Westend Car Sales, Address, phone no.
      - Company logo
      - Prices in table.
20. Describe the four types of charts commonly used to represent data
      - A line graph is used to show how a variable behaves over a period of
      time.
      - A column chart can be use to compare variables.
    - A bar graph is useful when you need to compare several items at a
    particular point in time.
    - A pie chart is used to display how each of two or more items contributes
    to the total of those items.
21. A school canteen secretary wishes to produce a roster of parents to help
    out at lunch time. The roster is to be distributed to each parent. What
    information should be placed on the report?
    The school name, purpose, date and the parent name.
22. How can tell that a printed report you have produced for someone
    contains all the information that they need.
    Collect them a week after their use by the decision –maker or problem
    solver.
23. Describe a procedure you can use to check that the calculations
    performed by a software package are correct.
    The test runs using dummy data. The data chosen should allow all
    aspects of a formula or function to be fully tested.
24. Describe how bias can be introduced into information because of the way
    in which data is sorted.


25. The Ocker Battery Company has introduced a new battery in its range and
    produced advertisements highlighting its performance the promotions
    contain the graph shown in Figure 1-43. Comment on the quality of the
    information presented in the graph.
    The quality of the information presented in the graph isn’t very good. It is
    not clear enough. Instead of just compare the new battery and the leading
    competitor, the company better put the information of old battery in to the
    graph.
26. For each type of audience characteristic, list two considerations for
    creating information to meet their needs.
    - Gender: the information must appeal to both genders or be specifically
    targeted at one or the other if we have a specific audience mind.
    - Special needs: Audiences with special needs must be catered for in any
    information you produce, especially if it is to be available globally.
27. What types of features are built into current application software to help
    users with special needs?
    Diagrams can be used to explain text for people who have difficulty
    understanding written words, captions can be used on audio and video
    files and colors can be chosen to avoid colorblindness conflicts.




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