Ali bin abu talib by msk33

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About the Author
Imam Mohamad Jawad Chirri is a native of Lebanon and a graduate of the distinguished religious institute of Najaf in Iraq. He is an Islamic theologian lecturer historian and author. He is the host of a weekly radio program called "Islam In Focus " broadcast by WNIC. From his published books are: Moslem Practice. Islamic Teaching. Imam Hussein Leader of the Martyrs Inquiries About Islam (Thousands of American libraries acquired this book.) "Al-Khilafatu Fi Al-Dustour Al-Islami" (The Caliphate in The "Ameer Islamic Al-


Munineen" (The Leader of Believers-

Arabic.) Imam Chirri was invited by the Detroit Muslim Community to be their spiritual leader. He was instrumental in constructing the Islamic Center of Detroit one of the largest Islamic institutes in North America. He is currently the Director of this Center. Imam Chirri's work was extended to West Africa. While on a lecture tour in 1958 he was able to induce the Lebanese community in Sierra Leone to build a children's hospital as a present to the natives of that country. During a visit to the Middle East in 1959 the author dealt with an old Islamic problem and succeeded in finding its solution. For over a thousand years the Muslims were divided into Sunnites and Shi-ites (neither of the two sides was recognizing the soundness of the teachings

of the

( 10 ) other) in spite of the agreement of both Schools on all the teaching of the Holy Qur'an and the authentically reported hadiths of the Holy Prophet Mohammad. The author met the late Sheikh AlAzhar Sheikh Mahmood Shaltut on July 1 1959. He discussed with him the important issue. At the conclusion of the discussion Sheikh Shaltut acknowledged the

soundness of the Islamic Shi-ite Jaafari School. The author requested him to declare equality between the Shi-ite Jaafari and Sunnite Schools. The Declaration was broadcast and published on July 7 1979. This Declaration was historical and the first of its kind since the separation of the two Schools.






brotherhood can prevail only by mutual understanding among the various Islamic Schools. It is with this in mind that the author presents this book The Brother of the Prophet Mohammad. Needless to say that the arguments among various Islamic Schools revolve mainly around the history of this great Imam. A true understanding of his position in Islam is bound to lead the Muslims to a more genuine broherhood.

( 31 )

Members of the House of Mohammad
Relying on the tacit agreement among the Muslims we assumed the Imam Ali his wife Fatimah and their two children Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein are members of the blessed House of Mohammad. The most reliable evidence in this matter is the

reported words of the Prophet Mohammad himself where he spoke of Ahl Beit Mohammad or his Itrah. The reported words of the Messenger on this subject can be classified into two types: 1. The hadiths which contained descriptions that distinguish the House of Mohammad from others who would be excluded by the same descriptions. 2. The hadiths which specify these members.

From the first type are the following: Jaber Ibn Abdullah a famous companion reported that the Messenger of God said: "O people I have left for you that which if you follow you will never go astray: the Book of God and the members of my House who are my "Itrah" (close relative and progeny)." ( 1 )

Zeid Ibn Arqam a well known companion ot Mohammad reported that the Messenger of God said:

( 1 ) Al-Termathi Sunan Al-Termathi Part 5 p.328 (hadith No. 3874)

( 32 ) "I have left for you that which if you hold fast you shall not go astray after me: The Book of God a rope extended between Heaven and Earth and the members of my House who are my Itrah. Certainly both (the Book of God and the members of my House) shall not part from each other until they join me on the Day of Judgement. Beware how you will treat both of them after me."( 2 ) Zaid Ibn Thabit reported that the Messenger of God said: "I am leaving among you two successors: The Book of

God a rope extended between the Heaven and the earth and the members of my House who are my Itrah). Certainly they (the Book and the Itrah) will not part from each other until the Day of Judgement."( 3 ) Zeid Ibn Arqam again reported that the Messenger of God said on the day of Ghadeer Khum: "I am about to be summoned by God and I shall respond. Certainly I have left for you the two most valuable legacies. One of them is bigger than the other: The Book of God and my "Itrah " members of my House. Beware how you will treat both of them after me. They will not part from each other until the Day of Judgement.". Then he said: "Certainly God is my 'Moula'

(Guardian) and I am the Moula of every

believer." Then he held Ali's hand and said: 'Whoever I am his Moula this is his Moula.' God love whoever loves him and cast out of Thy favor whoever antagonizes him." (4) Accordingly the members of the House of the Messenger are the ones who possess the following qualifications:

( 2 ) Al-Termathi Sunan Al-Termathi Part 5 p. 329 (hadith No. 3876) ( 3 ) Imam Ahmad reported it in his Musnad by two authentic ways Part 5 p.181. ( 4 ) Al-Hakim in his Sahih Al-Mustadrak Part 3 p.109.

( 33 ) 1. To be of Mohammad's ltrah. Man's Itrah is his close relatives (by birth) and his progeny. By this definition the wives of the Prophet and his companions from the non-Hashimites are excluded.

2. Righteousness of the Highest Degree. The members of the House of the Prophet have been described in these hadiths as true allies of the Qur'an who will never part from it. Thus unpious men and women would be disqualified for the membership whether they are Hashimites or non-Hashimites. 3. To Possess the Highest Degree of Knowledge in the Contents of the Holy Qur'an and the Teachings of the

Messenger. Those who have limited knowledge in religion are excluded even if they are closely related to Mohammad. They are bound by their very lack of knowledge to fall intentionally or

unintentionally into disagreement with all Qur'an. The members of the blessed House according to the hadiths are secured against disagreement with the Book of God. Such a security cannot exist without

a profound knowledge in the Qur'an and all the Islamic teachings. 4. To Be in Agreement with Each Other. When there are persons or groups contradicting one another some of them will be wrong and in disagreement with the Qur'an. Since all members of the House are in agreement with the Holy Qur'an they must be in full agreement with each other. 5. To Possess Certitude in all Religious Knowledge. By this the Islamic scholars whom we call "Mujtahids" who are capable of conducting religious research and forming their own opinions are excluded even if they are Hashimites (related to the Prophet). To understand this clearly a few points ought to be mentioned: When we try to know the Islamic rules of our devotional






evidences come from the Qur'an or from the hadiths of the Prophet. When we find clear and specific instructions in the Qur'an about a certain matter our knowledge reaches the degree of certitude whether we are Islamic scholars or lay-

( 34 ) men. When we do not have a clear Qur'anic instruction we solicit that from the hadiths of the Messenger. Some of the hadiths are clear in their indication and reported by numerous companions. Again our knowledge through this type of hadith attains certitude. The difficulty is that hadiths of this type are not numerous and the majority of them are reported by one or two or a very

few companions. Through such hadiths our knowledge concerning the rules which we try to know never reaches the level of certainty because the conveying

companion did not report it to us directly because he is not living in our time nor did he record it in a book. A person received a hadith from a companion. He in turn reported it to another and so on. Later the hadiths were recorded in a book after they passed through many hands. Thus our knowledge through this type of hadith would be at best conjectural. There are other places at which instructions of the Messenger have been reported unclearly or in two opposite ways. The conclusion can be drawn in such cases only by professional scholars or "mujtahids." The conclusion reached and the opinions formed by the scholars in any of

the above mentioned cases are mostly conjectural. They do not usually reach the height of certainty nor do they certainly agree with the Book of God. The probability of disagreement with it is very high considering only one of the opinions in each case. If we consider two opposite opinions of two scholars we would be certain that one of them is in disagreement with the Holy Qur'an

because the two opinions contradict one another and the Qur'an cannot agree with two contradictory views. From this it becomes clear that the Mujtahids whether Hashimites or nonHashimites are not included in the particular membership of the House of Mohammad. knowledge of This is because is the



conjectural and in many cases does not agree with actual teaching of the Qur'an

while the knowledge of the members of the House is securely in agreement with the Book of God.

( 35 ) This is because the aforementioned hadiths clearly indicate that the knowledge of the members of the House of

Mohammad is a knowledge of certainty rather than a knowledge of conjecture; otherwise they would have parted in many cases with the Holy Qur'an. By this we ought to consider a mujtahid such as Adbullah Ibn Abbas (a cousin of the Prophet) out of the circle of the House in spite of his extensive knowledge in religion and his close relation to the Holy Prophet. The rest of the companions who were not closely related to Mohammad nor reached the degree of knowledge of Ibn

Abbas are obviously excluded. How Could It Be Possible for the Members of the House of Mohammad to Obtain a Knowledge of Certainty in All the Islamic Teachings?" Possession of

certainty in religious teachings was very possible at the time of the Messenger. It is very logical to assume that the Prophet taught a disciple of his such as Ali all the contents of the Holy Qur'an and informed him of all the Islamic laws which may number a few thousands. It is fair to assume that such a close disciple taught some of his disciples all that he received from the Prophet. These assumptions are supported by certain facts: Ali was with the Prophet from the time of his childhood until the time of the death of the Prophet. He was his trusted disciple and close associate. He was his keen-minded student who attended his

public as well as his private teaching. Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein (the

grandsons of Mohammad and the sons of Ali) lived with their father many years. They were his close associates. They were his most brilliant disciples and the purest Muslims who resembled their teacher and his teacher. Thus we can say that the certainty of knowledge pertaining to the Holy Qur'an and the instructions of the Prophet was available and possible to some of the disciples of Mohammad.

( 36 )

Several hadiths of the Prophet named the members of the house of Mohammad. Muslim recorded in his Sahih the

following: "When the (following) verse came

down (at the time of a debate between the Messenger and Christians from Najran): 'If anyone disputes in this matter with thee now after full knowledge has come to thee say: Let us summon our sons and your sons our women and your women

ourselves and yourselves; then let us earnestly pray and invoke the curse of God on those who lie.' The Messenger of God called Ali Fatimah Hassan and Hussein and said: God these are the mem- bers of my family." ( 5) Al-Termathi Ibn Manthoor Al-

Hakim Ibn Mardawaih and Al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan all recorded the report of OmSalemah wife of the Prophet in which she said: "In my own house the (Quranic) verse (from chapter 33): 'Certainly God wants to keep away all abomination from you members of the House (of

Mohammad) to make you pure and spotless." Ali Fatimah Al- Hassan and AlHussein were at my house. The Messenger of God covered them with a garment then said: "These are the members of my House. God keep away abomination from them and make them pure and spotless." ( 6) Muslim in his Sahih recorded that Ayesha Said: "The Messenger of God came out wearing a wide cloak made of black hair. Fatimah Hassan Hussein and Ali came successively then he covered them with his cloak and said: 'Certainly God wants to keep all abominations away from you ye members of the House of Mohammad and make you pure spotless."( 7)

( 5 ) Muslim Sahih Muslim Part 15 p. 176. ( 6 ) Al-Termathi Sunan Al-Termathi Part 5 p. 328 (hadith No. 3875) ( 7 ) Muslim Sahih Muslim Part 15 p. 194.

( 37 ) The two following hadiths are

recorded in Al-Durr Al-Manthour by AlSayooti (his commentary on the Qur'an) "Abu Al-Hamra (one of the

companions of the Messenger) reported that the Messenger of God continued eight months in Medina coming to the door of Ali at every morning prayer putting his two hands on the two sides of the door and exclaiming: Assalat Assalat (prayer

prayer). Certainly God only wants to keep away all abominations from you ye members of the House of Mohammad and to make you pure and spotless." (8)
Ibn Abbas reported:

"We have witnessed the Messenger of God for nine months coming every day to the door of Ali son of Abu Talib at the time of each prayer and saying: Assalamu

Aleikum Wa-Rahmatullah Ahl Al-Beit (peace and mercy of God be upon you ye members of the House of Mohammad). Certainly God wants only to keep away all abominations from you members of the House and to make you pure and spotless."( 9 ) These hadiths cleary indicate that each one of the four is a member of the House of Mohammad. They also exclude all other individuals who were living at the time of Mohammad the Hashimites as well as the non-Hashimites from the Arabs and non-Arabs.
Members Born After the Prophet Mohammad

This restrictive statement however does not exclude all Hashimites who were born after the time of Mohammad . The first group of hadiths we advanced indicate that members of the House are to continue after his death and

through numerous centuries because the members according to the hadiths shall exist as long as the Qur'an exists.

( 8-9 ) Al-Sayooti Al-Durr Al-Manthoor Part 5 p.198 (Conveyed by Sayed Taqi Al-Hakeem Al-Ossol Al-Ammah for Al-Fiqh Al-Muqaram pp.155-156).

( 38 ) By commanding the Muslims to follow the Book of God and the members of his House and by declaring that Ali Fatimah Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein are the members of his House the Holy Prophet actually placed Ali and his two sons at the seat of leadership of the nation. Thus the two sons did not need to be appointed by their father and Al-Hussein did not need to be appointed by his brother Al-Hassan. ( 80


Ali's Role in Building the Islamic State
Self-determination is an inalienable right of every nation and every nation therefore has the right to establish a state and institute a national government. Such a state has the right to unite all its people under one banner unless legitimate governments for sections of one nation had been already established. These rights are natural and no power has the right to prevent a nation or a people of a country from exercising them. The Arab nation at the time of the Messenger was no exception. It had the right to establish a state and institute a government. This was not only a right but also the duty of the Arab nation. Yet due to unusual circumstances the Arab people in Hijaz Najd and Tuhama were living

without government of any kind. There was no power to stop a public offender and enable people to live in peace and security for their wealth lives and honors. The Arab tribes were reciprocating hostilities. No honor blood or property of a tribe was sacred to other tribes. Anarchy to them was a matter of course and no change was necessary; and if anyone thought of a change he did not have the means to realize it. The rest of the Arab people in Yemen Syria and Iraq were ruled by foreign powers who did not have the right to rule them. It was a duty of any new government to try to liberate these people from foreign domination and unite them with the rest of the Arabs regardless of any religious principles.

( 81 ) But there was no one to fulfill this duty or exercise these rights. The Almighty wanted to deliver the Arabs and other nations and liberate them from their social political and religious anarchies. He sent Mohammad to lead mankind to the right road and wanted the Arab nation to be the starting point. Probably the Arabs were the most needy for such a guidance and should they be guided by a heavenly leader they would be well qualified to carry His message to other nations. The Messenger tried to deliver His message and to establish a state. The forces of anarchy from pagans and nonpagans tried with all their means to prevent him from fulfilling his mission waging against him a relentless war.

It was impossible for him to fulfill his mission without accepting their

challenge and meeting them at the battle field and defeating them completely. It was the right as well as the duty of the Holy Prophet to defeat the adversary forces in order to establish a new state from a new and ideal kind. The Islamic State which he was trying to establish was not a subduing force which ruled people against their own will and imposed itself above them. The Messenger wanted to found a state and a government in which the ruler and the ruled are equal and brothers to each other. A strong individual or group in this state would not be respected for strength nor would the weak be deprived of his right because of his weakness. The government the Prophet wanted to

establish was projected to direct mankind

to the Creator of the Universe and make the nations as well as the individuals realize that He is their True Ruler. Thus they would obey His command and obtain the projected worldly and spiritual

happiness in His obedience. The Projected government would develop as a

spontaneous outcome of their adherence to a set of principles which elevated people to make them live spiritually above their own human level.

( 82 )

The anarchic and evil forces of Mecca and other Arab communities did not only deny Mohammad the right to establish a state and a government but also tried to prevent him and his followers from exercising their religious devotion. They denied him and his tollowers the right to

live as long as they believed in One God. These forces drove Mohammad and his followers out of their homes and properties. They wanted to shed his blood and the blood of his followers. Had these forces done nothing other than preventing him from establishing a state he would have had the right to combat them and defeat them for the continuation of their power meant the continuation of injustice towards the weak and the absence of security in society; above all that the Almighty would not be worshiped and His Oneness would not be acknowledged. The adverse elements were the opposite barriers the removal of which was a necessary requirement for establishing the projected state. It was impossible to bring such a state into existence without destroying its opposite. Thus the Heavenly state was destined to be born on the

battlefield when the founder of the state and his followers were accepting the challenges of the evil forces one after another. Had these forces been able to prevail on the battlefield the Islamic state could not have been born or continued to exist.
Quality Versus Quantity:

Muslims at the beginning of the Hijrah were a very small minority

compared to the rest of the Arab forces which stood against them. They were overwhelmingly outnumbered and poorly equipped . For the Faith of Islam to triumph and establish a state it had to have one of the two following methods: 1. A Divine intervention through which the evil forces would be

miraculously destroyed. God is able to do that and nothing is beyond His power.

Whenever He wants to

( 83 ) do anything He only says: "Be and it is." However it is evident that this was not to happen. The Almighty runs the events of the world through the natural courses. He tests the believers and they do not pass the test unless they try to fulfill what He commands them to do offering in His way what they possess of resourcefulness and power. 2. The other way by which the small Islamic minority could obtain victory was to have a superior quality which enabled it to prevail against opponents with

quantitative superiority. This is what took place.
The Unique Hero

Here we find Ali Ibn Abu Talib next to the Messenger . He proved to be a unique hero and a giant; mankind had never witnessed his equal in the history of "Jihad." The reader may remember that the Messenger of God gathered his close relatives after the commencement of his Prophethood

seeking from among them a minister to assist him in his difficult mission. None of the Hashimites other than Ali responded to his call. "Prophet of God " he said "I shall be your minister." The Prophet upon hearing this told the Hashimites: "This (Ali) is my brother executor and

successor.". This event took place ten years before the Hijrah when Ali was thirteen years old. During the ten years which followed the event Ali's manhood reached its unequalled strength. This became

crystal clear at the night of Hijrah when he lay on the bed of the Messenger giving the highest example in the history of Islamic redemption. This manhood was destined to be transformed into a unique heroism when the Messenger and his followers accepted the challenge of their enemies and went on defending their sacred freedom trying to bring about the birth of the Islamic State which was conceived to carry the torch of guidance for mankind . No one other than the Messenger expected the word "Wazeeruk" (your minister) which Ali uttered at the historical conference to be so full of its meaning and flowing

( 84 ) with so much of heroism. The Messenger was the only one who expected from Ali

all his future record. The Messenger was the architect and the founder of the Islamic State. His minister Ali was the eliminator of the obstructive forces which stood in the way of its establishment for he was the hero and the bearer of the banner of the Messenger in every decisive battle. ( 1 ) The Messenger made him the

commander-in-chief of every expedition he attended. He never placed him under any command other than his. Whenever he carried the banner of the Messenger he came back with an impressive victory and history. His leadership was unique in style. He was not a commander who was defended by his soldiers. He was rather the leader who stood in the front line literally leading his soldiers. On more than one occasion his soldiers took refuge in him and he was

their protector at more than one battle. On occasions the bulk of the companions ran away leaving the Messenger alone and Ali stood along with him compensating him through his heroic performance for what the Prophet missed of their defensive actions. Ali attended eighteen battles with the Messenger. In addition he led numerous expeditions. It suffices to mention briefly his indispensable contributions in four decisive battles: Badr Ohod the Moat and Kheibar. These four battles were truly the battles of destiny for Islam and Muslims. The future of Islam was dependent upon their outcomes.

( 1 ) Ibn Saad in his Al-Tabaqat Part 3 p. 25. Al-Hakim also reported that in his Al-Mustadrak Part 3 p.111.

( 97


The Moat
The Qureshite community had one important dream: The destruction of Mohammad and his religion. Pagan tribes outside Mecca were sharing with them the same dream. Like the Meccans these tribes considered Mohammad a serious menace to their religion. This belief brought these tribes and the Muslims into military confrontations in which the Muslims had the upper hand. These tribes therefore were like the Meccan community full of resentment and rancour towards

Mohammad and his religion.
Non-Pagan Tribes

There were clashes between the Muslims and some of the people of scripture who were neighboring Medina caused by their breaching of covenants

with the Holy Prophet. Tribes from among them such as Banu Al-Natheer and others were exiled by the Prophet. A delegation from these people went to Mecca and other Arab communities during the fifth year after the Hijrah propogating war against the Prophet and attempting to mobilize the Arab forces for the proposed war. They did not need much effort to persuade the Meccans to a military undertaking against the Prophet. Their response to the invitation was prompt and without hesitation they

mobilized four thousand fighters. This army was supplemented with six thousands from Ghatafan Saleem and other tribes. Thus ten thousands strong marched

towards Medina. The Holy Prophet received the news of the imminent invasion a few days before their arrival at Medina. He

( 1 ) Chapter 33 verses 1O-13.

( 98 ) consulted his companions and Salman AlFarisi (the Persian) advised the Prophet to dig a moat around Medina to prevent the invaders from entering it. The Messenger commanded the Muslims (who were about three thousands) to implement the plan. The moat was dug within six days. Witnessing the moat the invaders were surprised and realized that it had become difficult for them to enter Medina. Thus they found it necessary to besiege Medina instead of invading it directly. Banu Quraidhah a community from the followers of the Scripture joined the pagan army after its arrival. This community had a covenant of peace with the Prophet. Their treacherous action was a frightening

surprise to the Muslims. By breaching the covenant this community gave the pagan army additional forces and equipment. It became the duty of the Muslims to add to their defensive lines another line .
The Muslims In Horror

There were many hypocrites among the Muslims who circulated frightening rumors which added to the fear of the Muslims. The Holy Qur'an tells us of the psychological crisis with which the

Muslims lived during that period: "Behold! They came upon you from above you and from below you and when the eyes grew wild and the hearts gaped up to the throats and ye imagined various (vain) thoughts about God! In that situation the believers were tried: They were shaken with a mighty shock. And behold! The hypocrites and those in whose hearts there is a disease (even) say: God and His Apostle promised us nothing but delusion! Behold! A party

among them said: O people of Yathrib (Medina) you cannot stand (the attack) therefore turn back! And a band of them ask for leave of the Prophet saying: Truly our houses are bare and exposed though they were not exposed; they intended nothing but to flee." ( 1 ) The pagan army on the contrary was enjoying an ex-

( 2 ) Holy Qur'an. Chapter 33 verse 23.

( 99 ) tremely high morale. Victory to them was certain. Medina was under their siege and its inhabitants did not possess the courage to come out of it. Their confidence in victory and morale went higher when Banu Quraidhah joined them . This made them change their strategy

from the siege of Medina to a direct invasion .
Amr's Venture

Amr Ibn Abd Wodd accompanied by Dhirar Ibn Al-Khattab Akramah Ibn Abu Jahl and others sought and found a narrow place in the moat. Their horses leaped above the moat to the other side. Had this adventure succeeded many pagan fighters were expected to follow them and make it feasible for the whole army to pass through that narrow place for they could have spanned the two sides of the ditch by filling that narrow gap with soil . The Muslims were in a state of shock and horror before the passage of these pagan soldiers to their side. The new danger which was presented by their passage made the morale of the Muslims much lower than before.
Men of Strong Faith

Though the hearts of most of the Muslims were filled with fear some of them were unshaken by the new danger . It rather made their faith stronger in God His Messenger and the promised victory. These individuals were ready to sacrifice themselves and one of them certainly was determined to try to confine the danger then to remove it. The Holy Qur'an tells us of the morale of these believers. "When the believers saw the

confederate forces they said: This is what God and His Apostle had promised us. And God and His Apostle told us what is true. And it only added to their faith and their zeal in obedience. "Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with God: Of them some have completed their vow

(to the extreme) and some (still) wait; but they have never changed (their

determination) in the least." ( 2)

( 100 ) The Holy Qur'an does not inform us of the number of those believers whose faith was increased by the increase of the danger. These believers may have been scores or just a few. However faith sometimes remains only as a state of mind without being transformed into action. Some of the faith is active flowing with vitality and moving the faithful to face the danger and to rise to its level and above its level . The number of these distinguished believers remained unknown.


However history informed us of one of them because of his outstanding achievements at this battle in confining and removing the danger which shook the very foundation of the Islamic state. That man was no other than Ali Ibn Abu Talib . Amr Ibn Wodd who crossed the moat was well known among the Arabs. He attended the battle boastfully making his place known to people. His very passage from one side to the other side of the moat accompanied only by a small number of fighters indicates that the man was extremely courageous. He was the only one from among the ten thousand fighters who tried to invade the Muslims directly and challenge them totally while he was with them on one side . The companions passage of Amr and his to


the Muslims a new and serious danger and

a frightening surprise which they never expected. The door was about to be opened widely and hundreds and thousands were expected to follow. The surprise however did not frighten or astonish Ali. History informs us of Ali's present-mindedness and fast response for he immediately moved to confine the danger then to remove it. Leading a small number of believers he went immediately

to the point where the Islamic defense line was broken

by the passage of Amr. He had his companions stand there preventing others from


( 3 ) Ibn Husham Biography of the Prophet Part 2 p. 224.

( 101 ) to follow Amr. ( 3 ) And after be confined

the new danger he managed to remove it completely . . While mounting his horse Amr went around the area of Sal'a facing the Muslims and challenging them: "Is there any dueler?" He repeated this call but there was no response on the part of the companions. This compelled Ali to leave his place where he was deterring the pagan forces from following Amr by crossing the Moat. Responding to Amr's challenge he left that place temporarily to be defended by the few who were with him. He neared Amr and asked him to face him in a duel. Amr arrogantly replied: "Why son of my brother (Amr was a friend of Abu Talib father of Ali)? By God I would not like to kill you." Ali replied: "But by God I would love to kill you." A short but extremely violent duel between the two







immediately and Amr's companions ran away trying to re-cross the moat from the Islamic side to the pagan side. Ali exclaimed: "Allahu Akbar " (God is Great) and so did the Muslims. The death of Amr was the end of the new danger. Those who were with him ran away trying to save their skin; but most of them were killed before they could cross to the other side . Ali made a great contribution in the defense of Islam at this battle during which the danger against the new Faith reached its peak. At this battle the Muslims faced a greater danger than ever before. The elements of the Islamic defense were the same three elements which played their roles during the two battles of Badr and Ohod: The firmness of the Messenger and

his ideal leadership: the heroism of Ali; and the determination of the Islamic army . A fourth element was added at this battle: The role of Salman Al-Farisi (the Persian) who counseled the Prophet to dig the moat around Medina . The role of the Islamic army during the Battle of Ohod was smaller than its role during the Battle of Badr. And it

( 102 ) was less important at the Battle of the Moat than it was at the Battle of Ohod for the Muslims during the Battle of the Moat did not even dare face the enemy. They only dug the moat around the city before the arrival of the pagan army then stood behind the moat until the end of the battle. The roles of the first two defensive

elements were similar to their roles at Badr and Ohod and probably bigger . The firmness of the Messenger his leadership his war strategy and his speed in digging the moat were most essential in making the Muslims pass the crisis safely . Ali's role at this battle was

outstanding in the history of the Islamic defense.


It would not be logical to say that the Muslims were unable collectively to kill Amr who could not by himself prevail against thousands of Muslims. But this was not the cas. Amr was calling for a duel. A duel could only be between two persons. It was considered to be shameful for two men or more to have a duel with one man. Amr challenged all the Muslims to send one of them to have a duel with him. None

of them was willing to face him except Ali . Nor would it be logical to say that Amr was the entire power of the pagan forces and that his death was a defeat for the whole confederate army. But it would be logical to affirm two important matters: 1. Ali's initiative to block the passage point and prevent others from following Amr had stopped the danger and confined it. Had the passage point remained open a great number of the pagan soldiers would have followed Amr and their passage could have resulted in establishing a bridge between the two sides of the moat. Such a bridge would enable the whole army to cross. One hour of negligence could have led to a decisive defeat of the Islamic army. This did not happen because Ali was fast in his response to the new danger

present minded calm and collective and ready to deal with the serious crisis .

( 103 ) 2. The death of Amr proved to the pagan army that they were unable to pass the moat again and that what Amr could not accomplish could not be accomplished by others. By this the pagan army had to face one of two alternatives: Withdrawal or continuation of the siege until the Muslims surrender or were forced to cross the moat and fight the pagans. The continuity of the siege of Medina was beyond the ability of the pagan army. It did not have the food supplies for ten thousand fighters and their horses and camels which could enable them to continue the siege for several months or weeks. In addition a hurricane-

like wind went on causing the pagan army many damages and making its life

miserable. The hurricane was preceded by an argument between the pagans and their Jewish allies which made their cooperation in the battle highly difficult. Thus there was only one alternative for the pagan army to take after the failure of Amr and his death: The withdrawal and that is what they did. We ought not to forget an important matter! The death of Amr and most of his companions raised the morale of the Muslims. Their hope in continuity of life and in victory was revived. All this was a result of Ali's endeavor and by this we can understand the meaning of the declaration of the Prophet. "The duel of Ali Ibn Abu Talib against Amr Ibn Abd Wodd at the Battle of the Moat outweighs the good deeds of my whole nation until the Day of

Judgement." ( 4) The Confederate Army withdrew and the Muslims passed the crisis safely. They regained their confidence concerning the future because of failure of the

Confederate forces after their biggest mobilization. The Messenger said after their withdrawal: "After today we shall invade them and they will not invade us." ( 5)

( 4 ) Al-Mustadrak, Part 3, p. 32. ( 5 ) Ibn Husham in his Biography of the Prophet, Part 2, p. 254.

( 123 )

Ali's Place From the Prophet in the Qur'an
During the ninth year after the Hijrah

a Christian delegation from Nijran Yemen came to Medina to inquire about Islam and debate with the Prophet about religion. There was a dialogue between the Messenger and the delegation in which the Messenger stated the positive position of Islam towards the teachings of the Messiah. The delegation chose to stay on their negative position towards Islam. A revelation came to the Prophet

commanding him to invite the delegation to a prayer to be offered by both sides asking the Almighty to bring down His punishment on the wrong side of the two parties. From the Holy Qur'an: "And whoso disputes with thee concerning him (Jesus) after the knowledge which has come unto thee say (unto them): Come! We will summon our sons and your sons and our women and your women and ourselves and yourselves. Then we will pray humbly (to our Lord) invoking the

curse from God upon those who lie." ( 1 ) The Messenger in compliance with the revealed command invited the

Christian delegation for the prayer. AlNisaboori in his commentary on the Holy Qur'an entitled: "Ghara-ib Bul-Qur'an and Aja-Ibul-Furqan " recorded the following: "The Messenger told the Christian delegation:

( 1 ) Chapter 3 verse 62.

( 124 ) God has commanded me to call upon you to share with me a prayer for punishment. They said "Abu Al-Qasim" (the Prophet's code name) we shall think of the matter then we will come to you." They had a conference headed by their counselor Al-Aquib. When they asked him his advice

he said: "By God you have known that Mohammad is a Messenger of God. He told you the exact truth about your man the Messiah. By God whenever people

challenge a prophet and share with him a prayer for punishment their grown-ups will not last and their small ones will not grow. It will be your annihilation if you accept his challenge. If you insist on keeping your religion make peace between you and the man and go back to your country. "When the Christian delegation came back to the Messenger they found him on his way to the proposed prayer wearing a garment made of black hair carrying AlHussein on his arm and leading Al-Hassan by his hand with Fatima walking behind him and Ali walking behind her. The Prophet said to the four

members of his family: "When I pray say: 'Amen.'" Looking at the Prophet and his

family the priest of the delegation said to his group: "Christians I see faces whose prayer will be answered even for removal of a mountain. Accept not their challenge. If you do you will perish and the Christians will not live on this earth." The delegation heeded the warning of their priest and said to the Prophet: decided "Abu not Al-Qasim." to make we prayer have of

"Mubahalah" with you. ( 2 ) Al-Tabari in his commentary on the Holy Qur'an reported many hadiths the





Messenger accompanied Ali Fatima AlHassan and Al-Hussein in the event of "Mubahalah" ( 3 ) Muslim in his Sahih recorded that Saad Ibn Abu Wa-

( 2 ) You find it in Al-Nisaboori's Commentaries on the

Qur'an printed on the margin of Al-Tabari's Commentaries Part 2 pp. 192-193. ( 3 ) Al-Tabari in his Commentaries on the Qur'an Part 2 pp. 192- 193.

( 125 ) qass reported that after the revelation of the following verse: "And whoso disputes with thee concerning him (Jesus) after the knowledge which had come to thee say (unto them): Come! We will summon our sons and your sons and our women and your women and ourselves and yourselves. . . ." The Messenger of God invited Ali Fatima Hassan and Hussein then he said: "God these are the members of my family." ( 4 )






Messenger to say to the delegation of

Najran: "Come! We will summon our sons and your sons our women and your women; and ourselves and yourselves. . . ." In compliance with this command the Prophet brought with him Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein because they were the sons of his daughter Fatima and for this they are his sons. He brought Fatima with him because she represents the women from the members of his House. But why did he bring with him Ali who was neither from the sons nor from the women? Ali has no place in the verse unless he is included in the word "ourselves." Bringing Ali with him indicates that the Messenger of God considered Ali an extension of his

personality. By considering him so he elevated him above all the Muslims. The Messenger said on many

occasions: "Ali is from me and I am from him." Hubshi Ibn Janadah reported that he

heard the Messenger of God saying: "Ali is from me and I am from him and no one repre-

sents me but Ali." ( 5)

( 4 ) Muslim in his Sahih Part 15 p. 176. ( 5 ) Ibn Majah in his Sahih (hadith No. 143)

( 126 ) A dialogue between the Imam Ali Al-Ridha and Al-Ma-Moon (a prominent Abbaside caliph) went as follows: Al-MaMoon: "What is the evidence on the caliphate of your grandfather (Ali)?". The Imam Al-Ridha: The evidence is the word of God "and ourselves and yourselves." The Imam meant that by bringing the Imam with him in the event of "Mubahalah " the Messenger made him an extension of himself; and whoever is an



the personality of


Messenger would be the Imam of the Muslims. Al-Ma-Moon: This would be true if there is not "our women and your women.". Al-Ma-Moon meant that it is

possible that there were among the Muslims other men who were like Ali in being an extension of the personality of the Holy Prophet but he did not want to bring all of them. He chose to bring one of them Ali as a representative of his equals. The evidence of this is the word "Our women " since this word includes all women who are related to the Holy Prophet by birth or marriage. But the Messenger brought only one of them Fatima who is related to him by birth as a representative of the women who are related to him. The Imam Al-Ridah: This would be

true if there were not the words: "And our sons and your sons." He meant that Fatima was brought as the unequaled woman rather than a representative of her equals in the family of the Prophet. Had other women been equal to Fatima the Holy Prophet would have brought them with her. For he brought Al-Hassan and AlHussein together because they were equal to each other and did not bring one of them as a representative of his sons. Therefore presenting Ali on this occasion is an evidence that Ali is the only one whom the Prophet considered to be an extension of his personality. It is reported that Amr Ibn Al-Auss asked the Prophet: "Who is the most beloved to you from men?" The Messen ger said: Abu Bakr. Then he asked him: "Who is next?"

And the Messenger said: Omar. Ibn AlAuss said: "Then where is the place of

Ali?" The Prophet turned his face to

( 127 ) the people around him saying: "This man is asking about the self." ( 6 ) I have mentioned in the last chapter that the Messenger's declaration after the Hijrah was not a fulfillment of a promise he made to Ali before the Hijrah for he fulfilled his promise to Ali by "brothering" him on the day of the conference which took place at his house. Furthermore he did not promise Ali with such a declaration to be made in the future. The Holy Prophet announced that to the Muslims voluntarily because Ali deserved the unique honor and because its announcement might prepare the Muslims psychologically for the leadership of Ali in the future. He wanted to show the nation

the guiding Minaret which the nation would need after the Prophet. As the Messenger announced to the Muslims the unique honor which he bestowed upon Ali by "brothering" him he was expected to announce publicly the other two high honors which he conferred on him: of being his executor and successor. For what the nation needed more than anything else was the good leadership to which it might resort after the Messenger. Such a leadership is what could secure the continuity of the Islamic Message in its purity. It could also secure the nation against deviation from the right road in its long future. The Messenger chose to announce this leadership during the tenth year after the Hijrah when he was performing his valedictory pilgrimage. He declared to the

thousands of pilgrims that Ali had the right to administer the affairs of the Muslims as much as the Prophet had. This meant that the Prophet had declared that Ali was to be his successor. It also implied executorship for whomever the Prophet appointed to

administer the affairs of the Muslims would be his executor also.

( 6 ) Almuttaqi Al-Hindi, Kanzul-Ummal, Part 15 (virtues of Ali), p. 125 (hadith No. 361)

SELECTED JUDGEMENTS OF IMAM ALI (as) Acknowledgements Kulaini; Sudooq, Shaikh Ar-Razi; As-Sarwi, Kafi; Al-Faqih; Al-Irshad; At-Tahzeeb; Khas'aesul Aimma; Al-Manaqib; and Allama Jazaeri for Selections from the Judgements of Ameer-ul-Momineen; and Ibrahim ibne-Hashim Alqaani; Ash-Shaikh; An-Najashi; Ismail-bin-Khalid; Abdullah-bin-Ahmed; Mo'all'a-bin-Muhammed Al-Basri; Muhammed ibne Qais al Bajli ; Muhammed bin Qais al-Asadi and Obedullah ibne Abi Rafey for other relevent matter and references to their books on the subject.

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful The need of English version of the delivered in extraordinarily complicated cases, by Amir-ul-Momineen Hazrat Ali (A) bin Abi Talib was being felt by many among the

English reading public since long. The number of these judgements being very large, we have selected some very important ones for this booklet. These selections are made from various books on the subject in Arabic and some other languages, particularly Qazae Amir-ul-Momineen compiled by the celebrated Scholar, Al-Allama Al-Shaikh Muhammed Taqi Al-Tostari published, Najaf, 1963, duly acknowledged in this compilation, and they speak by themselves of the rare wisdom, quick with marvellous power of judgement and knowledge of Hazrat Ali (A) with regards to Mathemancs, Ancient History, Geography, Chemistry, Physics, Metaphysics Astronomy, Medical Science and even some of the modern sciences unknown to mankind in those days. If Hazrat Ali (A)'s judgements contained in the following pages are thoroughly gone through they will be sufficient to convince the readers of the claim of almost all the great scholars that his unique judgements although delivered by him long long ago are still indispensable for those courts of law that desire their judgements to be most righteous in each case. Published at the very beginning of this book are some instructions of Hazrat Ali (A) for the judges appointed by him or by the Chief Justice (Qazi Shareh) of a particular Province in his jurisdiction. Although the number of these instructions is small, they are self sufficient as well as selfcontained inasmuch as the duties and the path to be adopted by the judges while delivering judgements in various cases even to day is concerned, and will, we believe, be appreciated not only by those who belong to the sphere of judicature but all others such as the accused, coplainants, defendants and plaintiffs as well as the general public till Qiyamat (the day of Judgement). It is expected that this humble effort will be received with the same zeal with which it is presented and will also serve the purpose it is brought out for. It would be ingratitude on my part if I do not thank the trustees of the Peer Mahomed Ebrahim Trust, Karachi, for without their moral and material help as well as encouragement this humble efforts on the part of the writer would not have seen the light of the day. In fact they are the people under whose patronage and sincere support such publications, which are most beneficial to the generality of Allah's creatures are being presented at a definetly below the cost price (free publications being mostly wasted and lose their value.) Kaukab Shadani Karachi 8th July, 1969

Instructions to Judges

1. Oath and Evidence The plaintiff should be first put on oath and should accept personal responsibility of the proof. This brings the case fully to light and makes the judgments easy. 2. Presentation of Evidence Anyone who desires to present evidence in a case before you should be given opportunity and allowed sufficient time for presenting the witnesses in due course of time. If he fails to do it during the time scheduled, you are free to deal with the case according to your own power of judgement. However, the benefit of doubt and full facilities of defence should be allowed to the accused. 3. Conditions of Witnesses May it be known to you that all the Muslims are supposed to be just. Therefore, they should be accepted as witnesses except those who are already convicted in a previous case and have not offered penitence or are accused of mischief-making and plunderism. 4. Anxiety when in the Court of Law You should not feel pressure of anxiety under any circumstances in delivering just judgements according to your power of decision-making. Your judgements should, in all cases be the righteous one, which is a must in view of your high office and for which there is a good reward from Allah. 5. How to go to the Court of Law You should not go to your Court when you are hungry. You must first satisfy your hunger and then take up the hearing of cases brought to your Court therefore.

6. Undue Haste in Decisions Judges should not make haste in delivering the judgement in any case. When a case is taken up for judgement, it should never be left incomplete and should not, be delayed as according to a general saying “Justice delayed is justice denied.” If there is a delay in some case, it should not be insisted upon and in case it is quite evident, no weakness should be shown in delivering the judgement according to the provision of law. Everything should be decided according to the schedule and should be kept in its proper place. 7. Judgement without emotions You should keep control over your anger, fury and your tongue. No case should in any condition be decided under the influence of fury or anger. When you feel no iota of anger

or strong emotion in your heart of hearts, you are free to decide the case according to the provision of law. This only is possible when you are sure of your return to Allah. 8. Judgement without bias When your judgement is righteous, you should not be afraid of delivering it even against your near relatives. In such a case you should only keep the pleasure of Allah before you and should exercise your complete will power. If it goes against your relations or your companions, you shall have to bear with it. Although it would be heavy on you, but you shall have to keep only the final result in view, which will certainly be good after all. 9. Sentence to death and other deterrent punishments Sentences to death should not be executed and other examplary punishments should not be awarded until all such sentences are referred to and are confirmed by me. 10. The Jury Your jury should not consist of those who are greedy, coward and paupers because such persons are not expected to arrive at a correct decision in any case or deliver a righteous judgement without being impartial. 11. Disposal of Work Without Delay The work of a particular day should be disposed of according to the schedule at the proper time without any delay, because pressure of daily work demands it. 12. Watch and Check on the Lower Courts by Chief Justice To keep a proper watch and checking of the work of the lower courts is one of your main responsibilities. The Qazis sitting there should be allowed freedom of decision but should in no case be allowed to remain needy so that nobody should have the courage to make them accept unlawful gratification and put any kind of pressure on them. 13. Appointment of Judges For the propagation and maintaince of justice in the country it is imperative and essential that due care should be taken with regard to the appointment of the Judges. For this office only top class people and who are the best in your eyes should be selected. They should be only such people who may not be afraid of pressure of work, should not insist on their wrong decisions and should not stick to them after manifestation and revelation of facts in a case. They should neither be greedy and should be in the habit of pondering over all cases without any exception. They should also stop at doubtful cases and should give due consideration and attach importance to only clear proof. They should not as well feel tired of any long examinations of the plaintiffs and the defendants of going to the depth of each case and should be courageous enough to deliver the righteous judgements after

coming of the facts to light. They should be only such persons who may not be swayed with flattery, although such people are rare in the society and are difficult to be found. 14. Mistakes in Judgements In case someone is put to death as a result of a mistake in judgement which is beyond the control of the judge such as on the basis of witnesses, the compensation money would be paid from the Government Exchequer (Baitul Mal). 15. Justice and Generosity Mercy is a good. thing, but justice is, however, better and should never be given up, that is, justice should not be sacrificed for mercy. 16. The Holy Quran and the Traditions The Quranic commandments must be followed in each case but where explanation is required, traditions of the Holy Prophet (S) should invariably be referred to, because without referring to the traditions it is at times impossible to arrive at a correct decision. Besides, the carrying out of religious obligations without referring to traditions would not be possible through the Holy Quran only, which lays down only principles for the Holy Prophet (S). As for example, there is no mention of the number of Raka'at of the Namaz and the detailed Masails (Rules) of the performance of Haj etc. in the Holy Quran. 17. In Case of a Zindiq The case of a Zindiq (one who argues against the Quranic commandments and the religious law) should be decided on the statements of two male prosecution witnesses who are pious and of proved good character notwithstanding a thousand defence witnesses of his class (Zindiq). 18. If a Judge Himself is an Eye-witness Even if a judge himself is an eye-witness in a case of adultery his witness is not acceptable, because in such cases at least four witnesses are required according to the provisions of law. 19. Discretion In case of the use of discretion (in some case) the path to be adopted should be the one which is most truthful and most just and satisfying to the general policy.

20. Orders of Punishment Should not be Executed on the Lands of the Enemy

Orders of punshment should not be executed within the boundaries of lands possessed by an enemy, lest the accused should run to the enemy's camp for shelter and then fight on his behalf against our country in any way. Chapter two

Rare Justice: Judgements, Decisions and Answers to Difficult Questions
2. The Case of a Slave Who Claimed to be the Master of His Master It has been described by Kulaini and Sheikh on the authority of Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) that during the 'Khilafat' (Caliphate) of Hazrat Ali(A) two men, a slave and his master, were traveling to Kufa after performing Haj (Pilgrimage). The slave committed some mistake and the master beat him for that. The slave said to his master: “You are my slave, but still you are beating me for nothing.” Some other people wanted to decide between the two, but the slave did not admit his mistake but went on repeating that he was the master of the man accompanying him till they all entered Kufa. The master then said to his slave: “Let us go to Ameer-ul-Momineen for a judgement.” To that the slave agreed and they both went to Hazrat Ali (A), but while giving their statements before him both claimed to be the master of each other. The one who was actually the master stated weeping that he was the real master and that his father had sent him on pilgrimage to Mecca. He had taken a slave with him who had committed a mistake on his way back home and he therefore beat him. By saying that he was the master he wanted to take away all his possessions wrongfully. But the slave also repeated the same story on oath. Hazrat Ali (A) after hearing both, ordered them to present themselves before him the next day. Meanwhile, he ordered two holes to be made in a wall, each one large enough for the head of a man to pass through. When the two men came to him on the following day, he ordered each of them to put his head into the two holes. This done, he ordered his personal servant “Cut off the head of the slave.” No sooner the slave heard this order, he pulled out his head from the hole while the one who was the master did not move even slightly. Hazrat Ali (A) then reprimanded the slave, who went away with his master hanging his head in shame. 3. The Case of Two Women Each of Whom Claimed to be the Mother of One and the Same Child Sarui has described in Irshad that during the caliphate of Hazrat Omar two women were produced before Hakim, the then Qazi of Medina. Both of them claimed the same child to be their own. Hakim was puzzled and did not know what to do. The case was, therefore, taken to Hazrat Omar (RA) for decision, but he also could not decide it. Hazrat Ali (A) was then requested to decide the case. Hazrat Ali (A) asked the women as to whether they had any objection if the child were cut into two and one part given to each of them. One of the woman agreed to it, but the other started crying. She said to Hazrat Ali (A):

“O' Abul Hasan! I forego my claim. Give the child to this woman.” Thus the child was restored to its real mother who started crying 5. A Strange Cruelty on an Orphan Girl and Hazrat Ali's Judgement Therein It has been stated by Kulaini and Sheikh Suduq as also incorporated in Sahih Bokhari on the authority of Hazrat Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) that a slave girl was brought to the court of Hazrat Omar (RA) with the accusation that she had not proved loyal to her master. Her story is narrated thus: A man had given shelter to an orphan girl. As he often had to goout of his home town on business trips, he had given the girl in the care of his wife. When a few years passed like this, the girl became mature and also looked extremely beautiful. The wife of the man with the aimthat her husband should not marry the girl, once got her intoxicated, , with the help of some woman from the neighbourhood and also got removed the sign of her chastity with the help of the same woman. When the man returned from his business tour abroad, he asked his wife about the girl. Thereupon she replied with complete innocence: “She has eloped with a young man in the neighbourhood.” Then the man went out in search of the girl, caught hold of her and dragged her to the court of Hazrat Omar (RA), who was then a Caliph. Hazrat Omar (RA) finding the case to be considerably difficult, referred it to Amir ulMomineen (A), as he had invariably done previously in such cases. Hazrat Ali (A) sent for the man, his wife and the girl, together with the witnesses, if any. The man and his wife related the same story before Amir-ul-Momineen (A) also, which they had previously related in the court of Hazrat Omar (RA), and also produced the four women who had been named by the wife of the appellant as witnesses. Hazrat Ali (A) called the first witness, unsheathed his sword and keeping it between the woman and himself, said to her: Do you know, I am Ali (A) Ibne Abi-Talib ? Tell me the truth, the truth and nothing but the truth.” The woman who was exceedingly clever gave the same false evidence she had given in the court of Hazrat Omar (RA) and insisted thereon. Hazrat Ali (A) seeing this, ordered her to be kept in confinement, separate from other witness. He then caned the second witness before him and pointing to his sword, said to her: “Do you see this sword ? If you do not tell the truth, I shall behead you with this sword. And remember that the woman who has just gone out has told me the truth and, therefore, I have given her pardon. If you tell me the true story, the same you shall get.” Hearing this, the second woman related the true story of the case, out of fear of her life. Having heard the truth from the second witness Amir-ul- Momenin (A) said, “After Daniel, the Prophet, I am the first man who has forced different statements from two witnesses.” Thereafter, he ordered punishment to be accorded to the wife of the man in question. He also ordered the man to divorce his wife and marry the innocent girl. When his orders were carried out, he paid the dowry to the girl from his own pocket. He also fined the

four women who had stood witnesses in the case, one hundred Dirhams each, and gave the whole amount of penalty to the girl. After this strange but righteous judgement Hazrat Omar (RA) besought the favour of Amir-ul-Momenin (A) of telling him the story of Hazrat Daniel (A). Hazrat Ali (A) acceding to his request told him the following story: “Hazrat Daniel (A) was an orphan, who had lost his father and mother both. At that time the ruler was one from Bani Israel and had two Qazis among his courtiers. Both of these Qazis used to visit the court of the king accompanied by a very pious and godly man of the day. Once the king wanted to send a trustworthy person on an urgent official business outside the dominion of his empire and requested the two Qazis to help him in selecting of someone worthy for the purpose. The Qazis advised the king to entrust the work to the same pious and godly man who used to visit his court every now and then alongwith themselves. Acting on their advice the king sent the pious man with necessary instructions on the fateful journey. Now per chance the pious man had a very pretty and beautiful wife who was also pious and godly like her husband. However, the man while going out of the country gave her in the care of the aforesaid Qazis, saying: I give her in your care with the will that you will treat her with virtue and will take care of her daily needs. Then he set off at his journey. Thereafter, once the two Qazis happend to go to the house of the pious man and by chance saw his pretty wife. Seeing her they both madly felt in love with her. When they expressed their carnal desire the good woman flatly refused to fall prey to their desire. Thereupon they threatened her to complain against her to the king and say that she had committed adultery with the result that she would be stoned to death. In reply she said: Say whatever you like, but I would not give my consent to this act of sin.” Thereupon both the wicked Qazis went to the king and reported to him that the wife of the pious man whom he had sent on journey had committed adultery. The king was very much surprised on the report because the woman had a reputation for piety. He bent his head for a while and then lifting his head he said to them : “I believe you and accept your witness but give me three days time for issuing orders in the matter.” The king then consulted his Wazir in the matter and said to him: “I don't think she is guilty of the act of adultery, what do you say about it ? The Wazir also on hearing the report, said to the king: “I am also surprised.” Then, on the 3rd day the Wazir happened to pass by a lane where some children were playing, Hazrat Daniel (A) being among them. Hazrat Daniel (A) said to one of the children: “Let us stage the drama of the wife of the pious man and the two Qazis, you play the part of the wife of the pious man and two other of you, the part of the Qazis.”

He then turned to the two boys and said to them : “You present the case of this woman to me as the two Qazis have presented it to the king.” The king meanwhile had proclaimed with the beating of the drums (as was the custom those days) that the wife of the pious man had committed adultery and the two Qazis had reported the matter to the king and, therefore, the woman was going to be stoned to death. Hazrat Daniel (A) called one of the boys who was playing the part of one of the Qazis and asked him: “What do you say in the matter ?” He also pointed to a wooden sword wrapped in a cloth, if you tell a lie I shall behead you with this sword.” The boy replied: “Sir, the wife of the pious man has committed adultery and I am a witness to it” Hazrat Daniel (A) asked him: “Where and when and on which day and what time” ? The boy answered all the questions of Hazrat Daniel (A). Then, Hazrat Daniel (A) called the other boy and put the same questions to him, but his answers were quite contrary to the answers of the other boy. After hearing the second boy Hazrat Daniel (A) said : “God is great, you have given false witness in the case.” He then acquitted the woman honourably and sentenced the boys who were playing the role of the Qazis to death. The Wazir who saw this play of the boys and the judgement of Hazrat Daniel (A) in the play reported the whole thing to the king who decided the case accordingly (Wafi, vol. 9, p.161; Manaqib, vol. 7, p.193; Turuq-i-Hikmia, p. 60). 6. The Case of a Man Whose Son Differed in Colour with Him A Negro once came to Hazrat Omar (RA). His wife was also of black colour. The Negro complained to Hazrat Omar (RA) that he and his wife were both of black coloured, but his wife in contrast to their colour had given birth to a child of red colour. He also said that his wife had obviously committed adultery with some man who was of the colour of the child. Hazrat Omar (RA) could not decide the case and referred the matter to Hazrat Ali (A) who in turn asked the Negro: “ If I ask you a question, will you answer it correctly ?” The Negro replied: “ Yes Sir, by all means and quite correctly if I could.” Hazrat Ali (A) asked the negro: “Did you ever go to your wife i.e., had you ever had intercourse with her during her monthly course” ? The negro replied : “Yes, Sir, I think I have.” Hazrat Ali (A) said to him: “The colour of the child is the result of that very act of yours. You are, therefore, yourself at fault and not your wife.” The Negro was ashamed and went away. (Turuq-i-Hikmia by Ibne Qaiyyum: p. 47). 7. The First Case After the Demise of the Holy Prophet (S)

It has been reported by Kulaini on the authority of Hazrat Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) that a case was decided by Hazrat Ali (A) in such a way that it was never decided before and that it was the first case after the demise of the Holy Prophet (S). “During the caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) a man was found drunk and brought before the Caliph, Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA). The Caliph asked him as to whether he had drunk wine. In reply the man admitted to have drunk. The Caliph asked him: “Why did you drink when it has been prohibited in Islam ?” The man replied: “I am residing in the neighbourhood of some pcople who are habitual drinkers. Although I am a Muslim, I have never heard that wine has been prohibited in Islam.” Hearing this Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) looked at Hazrat Omar (RA) with a question mark in his eyes. Hazrat Omar (RA) said: “This is just one of the cases that no one else than Ali could decide.” When the case was referred to Hazrat Ali (A), he sent the man round in the city with some persons to ask the people as to whether anyone had recited to him the verse of the holy Quran whereby wine was totally prohibited. And when it was proved that none had done so, the man was rleased with a warning never to drink in future. (also carried by Nasikhut Tawarikh, vol. 2, p. 731; Buharij, vo1. 9, p. 483; Manaqib, vol. 2, p.178). 8. A Case Which was Decided Wrongly by Qazi (Judge) It has been recorded in Ajaibul Ahkam that once when Hazrat Ali (A) entered the Mosque of Kufa, he saw a young man who was weeping pitiably. Hazrat Ali (A) asked him about the cause of such weeping. The man replied : “Ya Amir ul-Momineen, I have come to you for appeal against the decision of Qazi in my case.” Hazrat Ali (A) asked him about the case The young man said : “My father had gone on journey with some persons. When these persons returned from the journey, I asked them about my father. They said: He died during the journey. When I asked them about the money my father had taken with him, they said he left no money, but I know for certain that he had a good amount of money with him.” The young man further said to Hazrat Ali (A): “As I was certain about the money my father had carried with him, I reported the matter to Qazi Sharih and be sought a judgement from him in the case.” The young man continued, “Qazi Sharih called those persons and took oath from them one by one. They all said unanimously on oath that my father had no cash at the time of his death. Therefore, Qazi Sharih ordered for their release.” Relating the above story to Hazrat Ali (A), the young man said: “Ya Amir ul-Momineen! I have now come to you for a righteous judgement.” Amir ul-Momineen Hazrat All (A) said: “I shall deliver judgement in this case as none has ever before delivered in any case other than Hazrat Daud (David) (A).” Hazrat Ali (A) then asked Qanbar, his personal servant, to call some men of shurtatul Khamees (a contingent of the officers in command of an Army). When these officers

arrived, Amir ul-Momineen Hazrat Ali (A) ordered them to ask the young man the names of the persons who had accompanied his father on the journey and present them before him immediately. The orders of Hazrat Ali (A) were carried out forthwith. When all those persons were brought before Hazrat Ali (A), he cast a glance over them all and ordered each to be tied with the pillars of the mosque separately and asked the people, present in the mosque to join him in Takbir (Greatest is God) loudly when he said it, Hazrat Ali (A) then called one of the persons and asked him as to what he had to say in the matter. He said what he had said to Qazi. Qazi Sharih was also present there. Hazrat Ali (A) said to the man: “Don't think that I do not know any thing about this case. Go ahead now; When did you all start on the fateful journey; tell me the year, the month, the day and the exact time when you all started on your journey with the father of this yolmg man ? And when was he taken ill, where and what day and at what time ? What was his disease ? Who treated him and with which medicine ? When did he die ? Give me the date and the time. Who gave him bath after his death ? Who wrapped him in the coffin ? How many people attended his funeral ? Name any of them, if possible. Who lowered him in his grave?.” The man was first baffled by this volley of the most relevant questions, but he tried to answer them one by one obviously at random. When he had finished, Amir ul-Momineen Hazrat Ali (A) said the Takbir aloud. All the other people present in the mosque repeated it as they were ordered before. Hazrat Ali (A) then sent the man to prison and called the second man. The second man being now certain because of the Takbir of the people following Hazrat Ali (A) and his sending the first man to the prison that his companion had confessed, told Hazrat Ali (A) that he was from the very beginning against the murder of their companion, the father of the young man, and taking away his cash and that none of the others listened to him. He then besought forgiveness and mercy at the hands of Amir ul-Momineen as he was only compelled to become an accomplice in the case. Thereafter, all the rest also had to confess their crime of murder and loot. Amir ul-Momineen Hazrat Ali (A) then made them to return the money of the deceased to his son, together with the penalty for the murder . Qazi, who was called to attend the hearing of the case was reprimanded and warned to be careful in serious cases such as murder. Very politely rather humbly he asked Amir ulMomineen Hazrat Ali (A) as to what the case decided by Hazrat Daud (David) (A) referred to by him as, a similar case was. Hazrat Ali (A) described the case thus: “Hazrat Daud (A) was once passing through a lane when he heard some children playing & calling one of their play- mates by the name of „Matat Din'. The boy was also answered to this name. Hazrat Daud (A) was very much surprised at hearing this queer name which meant, “religion diedl.” Therefore, prophet David (A) called the boy and asked him as to who had given him that name.” The boy said: “My father, Sir.” “Where is your father” ? asked the prophet. “He is dead”,

replied the boy Hazrat Daud (A) then asked the boy to take him to his mother, which he did. When asked about the name, the mother of the boy told the prophet that the name was given to the boy under the last will of his father . When asked about the details, she told him that the father of the boy had gone on a journey with some persons, but he did not return from that journey which was his last. When the mother of the boy enquiredabout her husband, his companions told her that he had died on his way back home. She asked: “What about the money he had taken with him”,. “He left no money”, they replied innocently. Relating this much Amir ul-Momineen, Hazrat Ali (A) said to Qazi Shareh and the people then present in the mosque, that Hazrat Daud (A) had decided the case as he himself had decided that day. He also told them that after delivering the judgement in that identical case Hazrat Daud (A) asked the woman to call her son by the name “Ashad Din”, which meant the “religion has survived.” According to Kafi there also started a dispute between the young man and the murderers of his father regarding the amount of the money carried by his father from home for the journey. 9. The Case of Three Dinars It has been reported by Suduq and Sheikh on the authority of Imam Jafir Sadiq (A) who reported it on the authority of his father and forefathers that a man had deposited two Dinars with a person and another man had deposited only one Dinar with the same person. One of the Dinars was stolen. When the case was brought to Amir ul-Momineen Hazrat Ali (A), he ordered one Dinar to be given to the first person and the equal division of the second between both the depositors. Explanation: The first man who had deposited two Dinars had one of his two Dinars still safe whether or not one of his own Dinar was stolen, while the other one, in case his only Dinar was stolen, had none. As the theft in each case affected the second Dinar the second man had to share both the loss and the gain. (Qaza, p.29) 10. The Case of a Woman Who had Given Birth to a Child Within Six Months of Her Pregnancy and Hazrat Omar (RA) had Ordered her to be Stoned to Death A soldier in the Army returned home. When he had stayed with his wife for only six months, his wife gave birth to a male child and claimed that it was his child. The soldier refused to accept her claim and brought her to Hazrat Omar (RA) who ordered the woman to be stoned to death. By chance Hazrat Ali (A) also happened to be there and he pointed out to Hazra Omar (RA) that the Holy Quran had fixed the time of pregnancy and the time of nursing of a child as thirty months, and at another place the time of nursing as complete two years. These two years if deducted from the combined time of pregnancy and nursing, the time of pregnancy remained only six months, i.e., the minimum. Hearing this Hazrat Omar (RA) said: “Had not there been Ali, Omar would have gone to dust” and released the woman. (Qaza, p. 35).


1. Adultery and its Seriousness Hazrat Ali (A) has reported from the Holy Prophet (SA) who said, “When the crime of adultery in my followers will be appalling, the number of premature deaths will be on increase.” (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 34) Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) has said, “A man who indulges in adultery must be ready for six things, he will face three things in this world and the other three in the world hereafter. The three things he will face in this world are: 1. His face will become ugly 2. Will be penniless 3. Will die soon The three things he will face in the world hereafter are: 1. The rage of Allah 2. Very hard questioning. 3. Will remain in the hell forever 2. Adultery by an Unmarried Person Hazrat Ali (A) used to punish those unmarried men who committed adultery by hundred whips and exile. (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 39). 3. If a Married Man or Woman Committed Adultery If a married man or woman committed adultery Hazrat Ali (A) awarded them the punishment of stoning to death. (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 39). 4. Rajm (Stoning to Death) Purifies the One Who Committed Adultery) When Hazrat Ali (A) went to see Sharaha Hamadania (a woman who committed adultery) being stoned to death there was such a huge crowd that it was feared that people would be trampled by one another. Hazrat Ali (A), therefore, ordered the closure of the City gates. When the punishment was over and the gates were reopened for the people who had accompanied Hazrat Ali (A) to the scene to come in, people started passing remarks on th decased. Hazrat Ali (A) said to them, “Hold your tongue now, the deceased has been purified by the punishment awarded to her.” 7. Adultery With a Woman Who Agrees to the Crime Under Adverse Circumstances It has been related from Arbaeen Khateeb Baghdadi that a woman was brought to Hazrat Omar (RA). She was found committing adultery on the banks of a certain river of

Arbistan. After examining the witnesess Hazrat Omar (RA) awarded her punishment of stoning to death. Hearing this judgement of Hazrat Omar (RA), she uttered the following words, “O God! Thou knoweth that I am not guilty.” These words of her enraged Hazrat Omar (RA) further. He said to her, “You committed adultery and still you dare belie the witnesses.” When she was being carried to the place where she was going to be stoned to death, she met Hazrat Ali (A) who was passing by that way. Seeing her, he asked the executioners to take her back to Hazrat Omar (RA) for further investigation. When she was taken back to Hazrat Omar (RA), Hazrat Ali (A) asked her to relate her story to him (Hazrat Ali (A)). The woman in question related her story to as follows: “My family has some camels. Yesterday, I took them out to the desert for grazing. At about noon I felt thirsty, but I had no water with me to drink, neither there was any water in the vicinity with which I could quench my thirst.” “A little way off from there,” she continued, there was another man, who had water with him. But when I asked him for a little water to drink, he refused to give a single drop of it to me unless I agreed to commit adultery with him, but I refused.” “When I felt very thirsty and was about to die of thirst,” further continued the woman, “I agreed, under compulsion though, to allow him to fulfil his carnal desire. Having heard the story of the woman Hazrat Ali (A) exclaimed, “The one who is compelled by circumstances in case he or she is not disobedient and does not exceed the limits of law and go beyond the restrictions put on him or her by Allah they are not responsible for any crime committed under such circumstances.” Hearing this Hazrat Omar (RA) released the woman. (Manaqib, vol. 2, p. 190, Biharul Anwar, vol. 9, p. 484, Riaz, vol. 2 p. 259; Zakheeratul Uqba, p. 81, Turuqi Hikmia by Ibne Qaiyum). 11. Different Punishments For One and the Same Crime Asbagh bin Nabata has reported that five persons who were accused of adultery were once brought to Hazrat Omar (RA). He ordered for their punishment by stoning them all to death. Hazrat Ali (A) when heard of that, said that the judgeent was wrong. He then heard them separately and awarded them different punishments as follows: To the first he awarded the punishment of beheading, stoning to death to the second, whipping to the third and half of the full punishment to the fourth. He set free the fifth after awarding him an ordinary punishment. When Hazrat Omar (RA) asked Hazrat Ali (A) to explain his above decision, he (Hazrat Ali AS) said to him.

“The first of them is a Zimmi (the one who pays a certain amount to an Islamic State for the safety of his life) who has committed adultery with a Muslim woman; the second is a married man whose punishment under the religious law is stoning to death; the third is an unmarried man, who stands to be punished under the same law by whipping; the fourth is a slave whose punishment in case of adultery as fixed by the religious law is half of the full punishment fixed by the religious law for that crime; the fifth of them is half-mad and has therefore, been awarded an ordinary punishment for one and the same crime committed by others as this punishment has been fixed for such men and women by the religious law.” Hazrat Omar (RA) while accepting the above judgement of Hazrat Ali (A) said, “May I not live in the nation wherein there is no Abul Hasan for solving such problems.” (Manaqib, vol. 2, p. 183; Nasikhut Tawarikh, vol. 2, p. 732, Biharul Anwar vol. 9, p. 478) 2. If Adultery is Committed by a Man Whose Wife is Away From Him Hazrat Ali (A) was on pilgrimage to Mecca when a man who accused of adultery was produced before him. The judgement by Hazrat Omar (RA) who was a caliph then, was to stone the man to death. On hearing of the above judgement delivered by Hazrat Omar (RA) in the case in question, Hazrat Ali (A) said to him; “The total punishment fixed by the religious law in such a case is whipping and not stoning to death, because the wife of the man involved in it is away from him.” Hearing this decision by Hazrat Ali (A), Hazrat Omar (RA) said, “May not Allah allow me to survive the time when I am in a difficulty and Abul Hasan is not there to solve it.” (Manaqib Khawarzami through Bihar vol. 9, p. 478; Manaqib Shehr Aashob vol. 2, p. 183). 13. Adultery With a Christian or a Jewish Woman Hazrat Muhammad bin Abubakr once wrote to Hazrat Ali (A) asking him that if a male Muslim commits adultery with a Christian or a Jewish woman what punishment should be awarded to them. Hazrat Ali (A) wrote back to him, “If the Muslim male is a married one, stone him to death, if unmarried, he should be punished by hundred whips. The Christian or Jewish woman, if involved in such a case should be deported to their people to treat her as they liked. (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 39).

20. If Adultery is Committed by Those Who are Dangerously Ill A man was once brought to Hazrat Ali (A) who was to be punished under the religious law for committing a certain crime, but as he had several wounds on his body, Hazrat Ali (A) said that he should be spared for some time till he recovered from those wounds. when his wounds healed, Hazrat Ali(a) ordered for his total punishment. (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 45).

It has been reported by Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) that a man was suffering from dropsy was presented before the Holy Prophet (SA). He was accused of adultery. The Holy Prophet (SA) asked the woman involved in the case as to whether she had agreed to the crime to which she replied that she became aware of the fact when he had attacked her and overpowered her. Thereafter, the Holy Prophet (SA) asked the man as to whether he admitted his crime, to which he replied in the affirmative, but he was not a married man. The Holy Prophet (SA), therefore, sent for a branch of the palm tree. Then, He (S) caught hold of a hundred thin straws from that branch and beat the man therewith. From both the above reports, if taken jointly, it would be clear that a Muslim judge has the discretion of awarding either of the two punishments in such cases, i.e., he may award the punishment there and then as was done by the Holy Prophet (SA) or he may wait till the person recovers from illness. In case the one and the only way adopted by the Holy Prophet (SA) is followed by the judges in all such cases the fear of punishment would vanish from the minds of the peopleHowever, the judge must decide each case on individual merits and award the required punishment accordingly. In case there is no hope of the survival of the person from that disease as was surely in the case decided by the Holy Prophet (SA), he may follow the Holy Prophet (SA) in his judgement, but in case there is hope of survival of the accused from a certain disease or wounds as in the case decided by Hazrat Ali (A) wherein there was a certainty that the accused would servive his wounds which were expected to heal sooner or later, the judge may follow the latter with discretion which is allowed to him in such cases. (Note by Allama Jazairi; Abu Turab, (Urdu) vol. 2, p.88). 21. If Adultey is Committed With an Insane Woman A question was put to Hazrat Ali (A) about an insane woman with whom adultery was committed and she had become pregnant , to which the Holy Imam (A) replied. “An insane woman is just like an animal and is out of the control of her mind. Therefore, there is no punishment for her if she is involved in a case of adultery i.e., neither stoning to death nor even whipping or exile.” (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 46). Allama Jazairi in his collection of judgements of Hazrat Ali (A) titled 'Abu Turab' (Urdu) vol. 2, p. 89) has added the following note to the above judgement. “The above judgement is particularly meant for an insane woman. If an insane man who is either completely mad or his brain is slightly deranged is involved in such a case he cannot escape the punishment fixed for adultery for the reason as explained in the following tradition of Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) who has said .” “If an insane man or a woman? whose brain is half deranged indulges in adultery, he would be stoned to death, provided he has a wife, otherwise he would be whipped.” The person who has reported the above tradition of the Holy Imam (A) proceeding further says as under : “When I asked the Holy Imam (A) as to why there were two different punishment for an insane man and an insane woman, he replied.” “It is because the man involved in such a case commits the crime deliberately and sensibly i.e., with full knowledge of his sensual feelings and as to how he should do it, whereas the woman with whom the crime is committed and who is only an object in the

case and has no sense at all as to what is being done with her but at times she is totally ignorant of it.” (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 46). 23. Adultery In Dream A man brought another man, holding him by the opening in his shirt, to the first caliph, Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA), and said to the caliph, “This man says that he was discharged by dreaming adultery with my mother last night.” The caliph wondered as to what he should say in the matter. Hazrat Ali (A) who was also present in the mosque at the time said to the caliph. “In such a case the justice is this that the man who has described his dream to the other man should be made to stand in the sun-shine and the punishment orders should be carried out on his shadow as he dreamt adultery only in a dream and the man should also be struck with one or two whips, so that he should not trouble people with such loose talk in future.” (Manaqib Shehr Aashob vol. 2, p. 179).

1. Confession by a Man of Having Committed Adultery It has been reported by Sheikh Sudooq (AR) that a man once came to Hazrat Ali (A) and confessed that he had committed adultery and requested him to purify him of his sin, but Hazrat Ali (A) turned his face to another direction. The man stood up again and said: “Ya Ali. ! I have committed adultery.” Hazrat Ali (A) again turned his face from his side to another direction and engaged himself in talking with some other people present there. But the man once again addressed Hazrat Ali (A) in the same way, confessed again before him of having committed adultery and requested Hazrat Ali (A) earnestly to purify him of his sin. Hazrat Ali (A) asked him : “Why are you saying this” ? “For purification of my sin”, said the man. At first Hazrat Ali (A) said without addressing any man in particular: “Why people dont' hide their own sins as Allah hides them ...from the eyes of other people ? The second time when the man requested him again to purify him of his sin, Hazrat Ali (A) remarked : “What else is there which is better than penitence ? When the man stressed the point for the third time, Hazrat Ali (A) told him that if he repeated his words of confession once again he would have to punish him as had been ordered by Allah; But when the man, despite the warning by Hazrat Ali (A), repeated the words of confession once again, he asked him as to whether he was physically sound and if his mind was working all right. When the man replied in the affirmative, Hazrat Ali (A) said to him.

“All right, let me make an enquiry about the soundness of your brain at my own as you have told me now. Therefore, you better wait a bit and come to me after some time when I have completed my enquiry.” After Amir-ul-Momineen Hazrat Ali (A) had made his private enquiry about the soundness of the man's brain and it proved to be in proper form the man appeared before him again and insisted on the punishment for his above mentioned crime and for his purification thereby. Hazrat Ali (A) then asked the people to gather next day outside Kufa with the condition that all of them had each a veil on their faces. On the subsequent day when most of the residents of Kufa had collected outside the city of Kufa, Hazrat Ali (A) addressed them as follows :“O the people of Kufa! You have all collected and come here to witness this man to be stoned to death, but I bind you in the name of Allah to do so only if none of you has committed a crime for which punishment was necessary.” Hearing the above words of Hazrat Ali (A) most of the spectators left the scene. But according to the report of Kulaini (may the peace of Allah be on him) only three persons were left on the scene. They were Hazrat Ali (A) himself and his two sons, Hazrat Imam Hasan (A) and Hazrat Imam Husain (A). When all other people had left, Hazrat Ali (A) hit the man with a big and heavy stone first, sounding the words or 'Takbir' (God is the greatest of all). Thereafter, Hazrat Imam Hasan and Hazrat Imam Husain (A) hit him with stones turn by turn till the man was dead and his soul (in all probability) had reached paradise. Therefore, Hazrat Ali (A) pulled the dead body of the man out of the ditch which was dug previously for the purpose of stoning him to death, brought him to the city of Kufa, led his funeral prayer and buried him. When people asked him as to why he had not given him the last bath, Hazrat Ali (A) replied as under: “The patience he manifested while being stoned to death gave him such a bath of purity that he did not require any bath thereafter “ (Biharul Anwar, vol. 9 p. 494 through Abu Turab (Urdu) by Allama Jazairi, vol. 2, pp. 129-l32).

5. Conditions of Confession Besides mentioning the perfect frame of mind, freedom to confess or not to confess and maturity as conditions of confession Hazrat Ali (A) has also said : “If an accused in some case of theft admits to have committed the crime in question his hand is not to be cut off” (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 64). Cases of Theft Allama Jazairi (need not remove the following explanation as it does not create fiqhi complications for common man)who has rendered the above story from Arabic into urdu has added the following explanation to it :- “In Islam the punishment for committing theft is the cutting

off the hand. This is such a nice commandment of Allah in the 'Holy Quran' that in almost all the cases the possibility of repetition of the offence ends with it. Moreover a thief is always easily recognized thereafter and wherever this practice is in force people very seldom dare commit the offence.” “However”, says the Allama, the question which arises with regard to the punishment itself is that whether the hand of the thief should be cut off from the wrist, the elbow or the forearm ? Because the 'Holy Quran' is silent after the main verse in this regard, i.e., “Cut off the hand of the thief, male or female.” “Those”, explains the Allama, “who argue in favour of cutting off the hand of the thief upto the wrist only cite the verse of the 'Holy Quran' wherein the word 'hand' applies upto that portion only, while some others cite another verse of the Holy Book regarding ablution the word hand precedes the words “upto the elbow.” 'Therefore, the second group of theologians have recommended that the hand of a thief should be cut “upto” the elbow, which in the arabic language, at times, means “including.” There seems some major shortfall/mistake in quoting from the Urdu book. Since, I do not have the original Urdu book with me I cannot cross check. Please compare and corect. Proceeding further with his explanation regarding the orders of Hazrat Ali (A) for cutting off the hand of the thief by which only four fingers were cut off as in the case of the negro, AlIama Jazairi of Lahore has reproduced (Abu Turab vol. 2, p. 113) the account of an incident from Muntahi-ul-Ama1 (vol. 2, p. 234) relating the same question, which once took place in the court of Motasim Abbasi, the Abbasiad Caliph. The incident described by the author of Muntahi-al-Amal and reproduced by Allama Jazairi is as follows: Once a thief was produced in the court of Motasim Abbasi and the thief admitted that he had committed theft. “The Abbasiad Caliph turned to the theologians then present at the time in his court and asked them as to what portion of the thief's hand should be cut off according to the religious law.” “'One of the groups of theologians referred to the first verse of thc Holy Quran mentioned above and another, to the second also cited above. Then, the Caliph consulted Imam Muhammad Taqi (A) who also happened to be present at that time in his court, and asked him as to what he had to say in the matter.” The Holy Imam (A) exclaimed: “You have already heard what the two opposite groups of the theologians have said about it.” But the caliph said to him: “I want your opinion, Sir” “Thereupon, the Holy Imam (A) referred to the order of Hazrat Ali (A) in that respect i.e., if only four fingers of the culprit are cut off, the commandment of Allah in the Holy Quran is fulfifled”. When called upon to explain his claim, the Holy Imam (A) elaborated the point as follows ; “In so far as the comments on the two verses of the Holy Quran by the theologians present here are concerned, they are correct and quite relevant in their respective places, but the words of the Holy Quran which were kept in view by Hazrat Ali (A) while

awarding punishment to a thief were neither of the first verse nor of the second but of another verse which, I submit, has escaped the sight of the honourable theologians present here.” “The Holy Imam (A) recited the following verse of the 'Holy Quran' : “The parts (of the body) with which Sajdah (putting of head on the ground while offering prayers to Allah) is perfonned are all for Allah.” Explaining the above verse of the Holy Quran, Imam Muhammad Taqi (A) said to Motasim Abbasi, the then Abbasiad Caliph : “If besides the forehead, palms of both the hands are not used while performing 'Sajdah' the 'Sajdah' would be incomplete and consequently the prayers also. This is what is meant by th verse I have just recited and followed by Hazrat Ali (A) when awarding punishment to a thief i.e., cutting off only four fingers of his or her hand”: When enlightened by the Holy Imam (A) on the point of punishment to a thief, Motasim did not only agree with the views presented to him by the Holy Imam (A) but followed them and the thief concerned was awarded the punishment accordingly. 4. The One Whose Hand is Amputated as Punishment for Committing Theft As reported by Imam Ja'far Sadiq (A) some thieves were brought to Hazrat Ali (A). The thieves admitted their crime and Hazrat Ali (A) ordered for cutting off their hands and when the order was carried out he said to them : “Your hands have gone to Hell. If you offer penitence and abstain from committing theft in future, you can get them out, otherwise they will pull you all there.” (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 66).

7. Acquital of an Accused Who Admitted His Crime of Theft. A person came to Hazrat Ali (A) and admitted before him that he had committed a theft. Hazrat Ali (A) asked him if he could read the Holy Quran. The man said that he could read Surah Baqarah of Holy Book of Allah. Hazrat Ali (A) said to him: “I acquit you of the crime for the sake of that part of the Holy Quran.” Hearing these words of Hazrat Ali (A), Asha's bin Qais who happened to be present there said to him : “Ya Ali'. Do you want to suspend the order passed by Allah for this crime ?” Hazrat Ali (A) replied : “O'ye ignorant t You do not know that an Imam who is just can acquit the accused who admit their crime themselves, but if they do not and two witnesses who are just and of good moral character are produced against each of them, he cannot. (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 78 through Abu Turab (Urdu), vol. 2, p. 118)

10. Slave Trade

A trafficker in children i.e., a man who used to pick up children from the streets and then sell them as slaves was brought to Hazrat Ali (A). He punished that criminal by cutting off his hand. (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 67). 12. Punishment for a Pickpocket (2) A pick-pocket was once brought to Hazrat Ali (A) with the accusation that he had picked the pocket of another person. Ali (A) said to the people present before him, : “If he has picked the inner pocket of this man his hand should be cut off but in case he has picked the complainant's outer pocket his hand should not be cut off. (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 64). Note :-Hazrat Ali (A) would order only beating them and sending them to prison. Note by the Compiler It would be interesting to note in this connection a discourse in Arabic poetry between Abulula Moarri and Syed Murtaza Ibne Huda, (brother of Syed Razi, the compiler of Nahjul Balagha,) which we have rendered in English prose for the benefit of our readers. Abulula: How is that the hand, the penalty of which is five hundred Dinars is cut off for half Dinar only. Syed Murtaza: The penalty has been fixed at a higher rate for the hand of an honest man, whereas a thief lowers its price by degrading it by dishonesty. 14. Committing Theft During Famine It has been reported by Hazrat Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) that Hazrat Ali (A) did not order for cutting off the hand of thief during a famine. ((Wafi, vol. 9, p. 64). Explanation Allama Jazairi of Lahore has explained the above order as follows : According to the meaning derived from reports recorded through some other Imams it has been calculated that such judgements mostly had been delivered by Hazrat Ali (A) only when somebody would have had stolen some articles of food only and that too, under compulsion of hunger during a famine otherwise he always awarded total punishment. (Abu Turab (Urdu) vol. 2, p. 126-27).

Cheating and Forgery
4. Cheating in Marriage A man had two daughters, one of them was from an Arab wife and the other from another wife who hailed from some country other than Arabia. A young man contracted to marry the gjrl who was the daughter of the man's Arab wife. The marriage performed, he brought her to his house and paid her the dower.

The day after the night they had passed as husband and wife, he came to know that he was decieved by the father of his wife, who had married to him his other daughter instead of the one who was from his Arab wife and whom he had contracted to give to him (the young man) in wedlock. When the case regarding this deceitful marriage was taken to Moawiya, he was unable to decide the case and, therefore referred it to Hazrat Ali (A) who was then at Kufa. When the case was presented before Ali (A) he ordered the father of the gjrl to give his second daughter to the young man in marriage together with a dower equal to the dower the young man had paid to his first daughter. He also ordered the young man to divorce his first wife and live separate from her till the expiry of her probation period and then remarry her, if he liked. Besides, the father of the two girls was also ordered to pay the penalty for cheating the young man. (Mustadrik, vol. 2, p. 603, Manaqib, vol. 2, p. 197; Nasikhut Tawarikh, vol. 3, p. 738 through Abu Turab (Urdu) vol. 2, p. 155). 1. A Clear Order Regarding Drinking Alcohol According to an order of Hazrat Ali (A) if some one drinks once, twice or thrice he will be punished by eighty whips each time, but if he repeats the crime for the fourth time he will be beheaded. (Qaza and Teha, p. 162). 2. Deriving Wrong Meaning From the Verses of The Holy Quran with Regards to Drinking During the Caliphate of Hazrat Omar (RA), Qudama bin Mazoon drank wine. The Caliph (Hazrat Omar (RA) wanted to punish him by whipping, but the accused Qudama recited the following verse from the Holy Quran : “There is no harm if the believers and those who do good deeds eat and drink according to their (own) choice, provided they continue fearing Allah and doing good deeds.” Having heard the above verse beautifully pronounced by Qudama as an argument in his favour Hazrat Omar (RA) forgave him and acquitted him of the charge of drinking. When Hazrat Ali (A) heard of it, he said to Hazrat Omar (RA) : “Qudama does not come under the definition of those who have been mentioned in the verse in question as the very first words of the verse refers to those who do not lead a prohibited way of life and abstain from what has been forbidden by Allah. Proceeding further Hazrat Ali (A) asked Hazrat Omar (RA) as to how a person who does not care for the commandments of Allah could come under this declaration by Allah in the Holy Quran. Therefore, Qudama must offer penitence, otherwise he does not remain a Muslim and has to be beheaded. When Qudama heard of this he came at once and offered penitence. Hazrat Omar (RA) hearing this well argued point from Hazrat Ali (A) wanted to punish Qudama for drinking, as he had already offered penitence for deriving wrong meaning from a verse of the Holy Quran, but he did not know the number of blows of whip to be struck on the body of a person accused of drinking. He therefore, consulted Hazrat Ali (A) in the matter. Hazrat Ali (A) explained it as under:

After drinking one becomes intoxicated and under intoxication one is amiable to slandering. As the punishment for slandering is eighty strokes of a whip, the punishment for drinking if calculated in this way amounts to the same number of strokes by a whip i.e., eighty strokes. Hazrat Omar (RA) punished Qudama accordingly. (Bihar:Vol, 9, p. 4) 3. Drinking During the Holy Month of Ramazan It has been reported by Kulaini on the authority of Jabir that once the poet Najjashi was brought to Hazrat Ali (A) with the accusation that he was found drunk during the holy month of Ramazan. The accusation when proved, Hazrat Ali (A) ordered for whipping the poet by eighty lashes which was carried out. The next morning the poet was ordered for another twenty lashes. When Najjashi asked Hazrat Ali (A) the cause of the extra twenty lashes as the order of the Holy Quran in such cases was only eighty, the holy Imam Hazrat Ali (A) replied: “Twenty for disregarding the respect of the Holy month of Ramazan.” (Qaza, p. 140).

I. The Murder of Husband It has been reported by Asbagh bin Nabata that a woman had an illicit relation with a man but she was married to another man. She, on the very first night of her marriage induced her lover to come stealthily into her private room. When her husband wanted to go to bed with her, her lover attacked him, but her husband did not only repulse the attack but also killed him in the fight which ensued thereafter. Seeing this the woman attacked her husband from behind and killed him. When the case was brought to Hazrat Ali (A), he gave the decision that the blood-money for the murder of the first man, that is, the lover of the woman should be paid by herself and she should be stoned to death for the murder of the second man, that is, her husband. (Manaqib Shehr Aashob, vol. 2, p 200 Turaq-i-Hikmia p 50). Allama Jazaeri of Lahore has added the following note to the above judgement:- “The great scholar Allama Syed Mohsin Aamli has said with regard to this Judgement that it has been reported in the same words as quoted above, but according to the religious law the compensation for the murder of the lover of the woman was not due from her, because he had come to the house of her husband, who killed him in his defence at his own will and on his own feet.” What Allama Syed Mohsin has said may be correct, but the blood money was, as a matter of fact, due from the woman in question because it was she who had induced her lover to enter her bed-room at the dark of night which was otherwise impossible, hence the above decision by Hazrat Ali (A). (Ref: Abu Turab, vol. 2, p. 54). 3. A Man Killed by his Step-Mother

It has been reported in Ajaaibul Ahkaam that the step-mother of a man got him murdered with the help of several other men. When the case of the above mentioned murder was brought to Hazrat Omar (RA) who was the then Caliph, he wondered whether only one person was to be punished for that crime or all who were involved in it. Hazrat Ali (A) who was present at that time in the court of Hazrat Omar (RA) asked him if several people had stolen a camel how many of them were to be punished by cutting their hands? “I shall punish them all.” “Similar is this case,” said Hazrat Ali (A) (Kafi -Tehzib -Qaza and Teha, p. 84). 5. One Who is Saved by Allah A man murdered the son of an Ansari. The father of the murdered boy caught hold of the murderer and brought him to Hazrat Omar (RA), who allowed the Ansari to kill the murderer by sword as his son was killed. The Ansari gave two strokes of his sword on the neck of the murderer and thinking him to be dead went away from the scene. The relations of the murderer who wanted to take his corpse for burial found him still breathing. They took him to some surgeon who succeeded in saving his life with great efforts. When the Ansari saw him alive , he caught hold of him again and brought him to Hazrat Omar (RA). Hazrat Omar (RA) ordered for his punishment again till he was dead. Hazrat Ali (A) asked Hazrat Omar, (RA) “ Had you not ordered for his punishment to death once before ?.” “Yes”, said Hazrat Omar, (RA) “but as he is still alive, he should be struck with sword again till he is dead.” Hazrat Ali (A) said to Hazrat Omar (RA): why twice ? The Ansari who struck him before with his sword twice was satisfied with it and had left him thinking him dead. He was punished as far the punishment under law was concerned. It would be a crime to punish him for the same crime again and again:” Hazrat Omar (RA) was thinking over what Hazrat Ali (A) had said when the Ansari said to him: „Ya Ali! you are allowing the blood of my son to go in vain. How? enquired Hazrat Ali (A) “You are allowing the murderer to go away free before I have avenged the murder of my son.” “Alright.”, said Hazrat Ali (A) let him strike your neck twice with his sword as you struck him before as penalty, then you strike him as many times with your sword as you like till he is dead.” The Ansari hearing this became afraid of the result, forgave the man involved in the murder of his son and went away.

Thereafter, Hazrat Omar (RA) said to Hazrat Ali (A), All praise is for God „O Abul Hasan! you are mercy personified from Ahlul Bait. Had not there been for Al,i Omar would have been ruined. (Naskihut Tawarikh- Manaqib vol. 00, p I87).

Other Punishments
2. Magic Hazrat Ali (A) has reported from the Holy Prophet (SA ) who said: If two persons stand witness to the fact that some body has indulged in magic, a judge who is just and of proved good moral character can punish him by sentencing him to death. (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 69). 3. Arson A man was brought to Hazrat Ali (A). He had set on fire the house of another man due to malice. Hazrat Ali (A) ordered the accused to pay a fine equal to the cost of the house and the effects of the house-hold. Then he ordered that the man to be beheaded. (Wafi, vol. 3, p. 122 through Abu Turab (Urdu) vol. 2, p./189) 4. Punishment for Several Crimes in one and the Same Case A man was once brought to Hazrat Ali (A) who had committed three crimes successively i.e., murder, theft and drinking. Hazrat Ali (A) ordered for his punishment in the following order: 1. Eighty strokes of a whip for drinking. 2. Cutting hand for theft. 3. Beheading for murder. (Qaza & Teha., p. 183 through Abu Turab (urdu) vol. 2, p. 189-190.)

6. Fore-Warning AccordIng to an order of Hazrat Ali (A) If an accused involved in a case in which one or more parts of some one's body are damaged or destroyed or one is even killed, no penalty is due from him if he has given a caution before accident, such as in games. (Wafi, vol. 3, p. 123 through Abu Turab, vol. 2. p. 194). 7. Insanity in Crimes Muhammad bin Abu Bakr once wrote to Hazrat Ali (AS): “An insane man has committed murder intentionally. Please write to tell me as to what punishment should be awarded to that man? Hazrat Ali (A) wrote back to him:

“The responsibility for paying penalty for the murder rests with the tribe of the insane man, because the mistake and intention of a mad man are equal to each other.” 8. Punishment as Reprimand or Warning According to a report by Asbagh bin Nobata, Hazrat Ali (A) never suspended punishment even in the cases of minor children and slaves, but the punishment varied according to the ages of children and the quality of crime in case of slaves, but that too, was awarded as a warning to save them of major punishments in future. (Qaza & Teha, p. 164; Wafi, vol. 9, p. 66 through Abu Turab (Urdu), vol. 2, pp. 195199). 9. Punishment of Sodomy Once Khalid bin Valeed wrote to Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) that there was a man who was in the habit of getting the act of Sodomy committed on him (the - man). Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) who was the caliph then asked for Hazrat Ali (A)'s advice in the matter saying that the Arabs viewed the cutting of a person into pieces a very bad thing. Hazrat Ali (A) advised that the man in question should be burnt to death. The punishment was carried out accordingly. (Arjahul Matalib, p 126). Similary during the caliphate of Hazrat Omar (RA) two men were seen committing the act of sodomy. When apprehended, one of them ran away, but the other was caught and brought to the court of the caliph. Hazrat Omar (RA) when sought advice of the people in the matter, . All proposed different punishments to be awarded to the accused. Hazrat Omar (RA) then turned to Hazrat Ali (A) and asked for his advice in deciding the case according to the divine law. Hazrat A1i (A) advised the caliph to behead the man. When the punishment was carried out according to the advice of Hazrat Ali (A) and under the orders of Hazrat Omar (RA) and the body of the accused was being carried away, Hazrat Ali (A) stopped the people and said that there was another punishment yet which was to be awarded to the man who had committed such a serious crime. He then ordered the people to collect firewood and burn the dead body of the man.. The orders of Hazrat Ali (A) were accordingly carried out with the consent of the then caliph, Hazrat Omar (RA). (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 51). Hazra Imam Sadiq (A) has said : “None from among men, who considers sodomy a correct action and having religious sanction, passes his life on earth without being hit by one of the stones from Allah by which He hit the nation of Lot, and he dies of it, but the people do not see it.” (Qasasul Ambia, p. 162). 2. Punishment of Sahq (Carnal Copulation between two women). A group of people came to Hazrat Ali (A) to get an problem solved by him. As Hazrat Ali (A) was not present at the moment and they were about to go back when Hazrat Imam Hasan (A) asked them about the problem,adding that he would try to solve. In

case he was correct, it would be deemed to have been solved by Allah and Amir-ulMomineen Hazrat Ali (A) and if he went wrong the responsibility would be only his. He also said that Hazrat Ali (A) was about to reach the place, but if they narrated the problem to him, he was sure to solve it (by the Grace of Allah) correctly. The people there- upon narrated the problem to him as follows :“A man copulated with his wife after which she copulated with a virgin whereby the virgin girl became pregnant obviously with the creative germs of the man which were still in the womb of the wife.” Hazrat Imam Hasan (A) said : the dower of the virgin should be exhorted from the wife of the man, because no child is born unless the curtain of virginity in the uterus of a woman is already removed.Thereafter, he advised them to wait till after the birth of the baby when her mother could be punished according to provisions of the religious law. The baby after she is born, he said, was to be handed over to her father, the husband of the woman concerned, who (the woman) would be stoned to death as provided in the religious law, After this decision by Hazrat Imam Hasan (A) the people in question returned to their respective places, but while going back they met Hazrat Ali (A) and apprised him of the decision of Hazrat Imam Hasan (A) in their case. When Hazrat Ali (A) heard of the decision of Hazrat Imam Hasan (A) in such a difficult case he exclaimed: “ By God, had you met Abul Hasan ,(meaning himself), he would have nothing to say in the case except what Hasan has said,” (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 52, Wasael, vol.3 p. 438, also Mustadrik, vol. 3, p. 254).

An explanation Regarding Sahq And Sodomy Hazrat Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) has narrated that whenever two men or two women were presented before Hazrat Ali (A) with the accusation that they were found under a sheet in objectionable state, he issued orders for a part of the full punishment provided by law in such cases, if there was a doubt. (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 47). The part of the full punishment in such cases as will appear from the following report is thirty whips to ninety-nine whips provided the crime is not actually committed and the case remains doubtful, otherwise full punishment will have to be awarded as provided in the religious law. 13. A Further Explanation “A man requested Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) to kindly explain if there was any harm in two men sleeping together under one and the same sheet. Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) asked him to clarify as to whether they were related to each other. Getting the reply from the questioner in the negative he asked if they had slept together under the pressure of any necessity, i.e., there being only one sheet available with them and when he got the reply from the man again in the negative, he said that both of them would be punished by thirty whips each. The man then asked as to what the religious law said in the matter had they committed the crime in question. In that case,” replied Imam Jafar Sadiq (A), both of them would be struck with a sword cut on the neck to the extent it goes into the neck in

one blow.” Thereupon the man exclaimed that that could result in the murder of the men in question. To that the Imam (A) replied that that was the law. The man then asked as to what was the law if two women were involved in such a case. Hazrat Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) repeated the above two answers in this case also and when he was asked regarding the law had the women committed carnal copulation with each other, he exclaimed, “Oh! In that case both of the accused women would be stoned to death.”. (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 48).) Explanation It should be realised that Sahq and sodomy are such grave and serious crimes against humanity that the Mulim law has provided equally deterrent punishment for these and has totally prohibited sleeping of two men or two women together except in, very special cases as mentioned above (compiler). I. Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) once ordered that two women should not sleep together unless there was a certain relation between them. If they do it they should initially be warned, but in case they insist upon it they should be punished . And if they repeat the same action for the fourth time they should be stoned to death. (Abu Turab, vol. 2,p176). 2. Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) was once asked by some women about the punishment of carnal copulation between two women. He replied that the punishment for such a crime was just the same as has been ordained by Allah in the Holy Quran for adultery i.e. one hundred whips for an unmarried woman and stoning to death for a married one. And when those women said objected that there was no mention of such a case in the Holy Quran, he exclaimed: “Why not?” 'The people of Ras' occuring in the Holy Quran indicated the persons were indulged in this very crime. (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 52). Note:-'Ras' was the name of a channel near which „Ashab-e- Ras‟ mentioned in the Holy Quran were residing before their complete destruction for committing the crime mentioned above. (Compiler.)

Compensation And Penalties
1. If a Woman Aborts After She is Beaten A certain person beat a woman, who aborted in the shape of „Alqa‟, Hazrat Ali (A) fixed its compensation at forty Dinar. (Qaza p.l63). Explaining he said that the penalty for abortion in various forms according to the command of Allah in the Holy Quran is : Penalty for Nutfa (time of Contact of the worms of production 20 Dinars Penalty for Alqa 40 Penalty when it is in the shape of flesh and blood 60 “ Penalty for full structure before taking shape 80 “ Penalty after the structure takes human shape 100 “

(Qaza p. 43; Abuturab Voll p. 220-223). 2. The Loss of An Eye A man who had lost an eye was presented before Amir-ul-Momineen Hazrat Ali (A). He had lost his second eye on being hit by another person.. The penalty for this fixed by Hazrat Ali (A) was that either the person concerned should be ready to lose one eye and pay half penalty of 500 Dinars or he should pay full penalty and save his eye, the choice being his. (Qaza P/43). 3. Penalty for a Single Part of The Human Body and Life (1 Dinar = I £ sterling) Life .. 10,000 Dinars Sight 1000 ,. Power of Hearing 1000 “ Nose 1000 “ Power of Talking 1000 “ Both Lips 1000 “ Both Hands 1000 “ Feet. . 1000 “ Backbone 1000 “ Testicles 1000 “ Male Organ 1000 “ Hips, if urine or stool become 1000 “ uncontrollable. The penalty for parts which are in pair is 1000 Dinars and for one part of the pair is 500 Dinars, but testicles and lips are exempted from this because the penalty for the upper lip is 500 Dinar, but the penalty for the lower one is 600 Dinars. Similarly the penalty for the right testicle is 2/3 of the full penalty and for the left it is 1/3 thereof. Explanation 1. The lower lip helps prevent the food or any liquid coming out of the mouth. 2. The right testicle helps the birth of a male child. (Wasael -Kitab Diyyat). 4. Compensation For Wounds On The Head If it only bleeds If some bone becomes visible If bone comes out If the attack reaches the brain. . (Wafi, and Wasael -Kitab Diyyat). 5. Penalties For The Face 10 Dinars. 50 “ 150 “ 333-1/3 “

If mouth becomes visible. . If the wound defaces any part of the face after healing If the wound reaches the jaw, If both the cheeks are pierced. . For an iriftllable hole in one of the cheeks. . If a bone is cracked or fractured If some bone becomes visible by a wound. . If flesh above one Dirham or more is removed If the wound becomes a mark. . For an ordinary wound

200 Dinars. 50 Dinars. 150 “ 100 “ 100 “ 80 “ 150 “ 30 “ 12.5 “ 10 “

6. Penalty For a Slap If the cheek goes black If it goes blue If it becomes red 7. Penalty For Teeth If a tooth is completely uprooted If it goes black and the same condition continues for one year For shaking of a tooth For a black (Worm-eaten)???? tooth (Wasael & Wafi) 8. Lobes And Nostrils For cutting the lobe For burst in the nostril 9. Collar-Bone For fracture For burst If the bone becomes visible If bone comes out by fracture For a hole 10. Beard If the beard could not grow again If it grows again 1000 Dinars. 333-1/3 “ 40 Dinars 32 “ 25 “ 20 “ 10 “ 666-2/3Dinars 333-1/3 “ 50 Dinars. 50 “ 50 “ 12.5 “ 6 Dinars. 3“ 1.5 “

11. Shoulder If correctly fitted after fracture For a burst If the bone becomes visible If the bone is removed For a hole If not fitted after fracture For dislocation 12. Arm For fracture If the bone becomes visible by a wound If the bone is removed For a hole 13. Elbow If fitted after fracture loo Dinars. For a burst 32 If bone becomes visible 25 If bone is removed 50 For a hole 25 If not fitted after fracture For dislocatiop only 14. Wrist If fitted after fracture For a burst If bone becomes visible If the bone is removed For a hole If the wound reaches the bone If the fore-arm is fractured For fracture of the wrist 15. Hand For fracture For visibility of bone If the bone is removed For a hole If the wound reaches the bone 100 Dinars. 25 “ 50 “ 25 “ 100 “ l00 Dinars. 80 ” 25 “ 100 “ 25 “ 50 “ 50 “ 100 “ 100 Dinars. 25 “ 50 “ 25 “ 100 Dinars. 80 “ 25 “ 50 “ 25 “ 333-1/3 “ 30 “

1/3 Dinars 30 Dinars.

For dislocation. 16. Thumb The thumb has two parts, the upper and the lower and for each part there is a different penalty :If the upper part is fractured and fitted again For a burst If the bone becomes visible If the bone is removed For a hole If the lower part is fractured and fitted again For a burst For a hole If the bone becomes visible If the bone is removed For dislocation For cutting of the whole thumb the penalty will be 1/3 of the hand i.e. If only a portion of the thumb is cut the penalty will have to be awarded proportionately 11. Fingers And The Nails Every finger has three different parts and the penalty is also different for each of them :1. The lower part which is joined to the palm if fractured For a burst For visibility of the bone If the bone is removed For a hole For dislocation If the whole finger is cut, the penalty will be 1/6 of the hand, i.e. 2. The middle part if fractured. If the bone becomes visible If the bone is removed For a hole For dislocation If the whole is cut 3. The upper part if fractured For a burst If the bone becomes visible If the bone is removed

166-2/3 Dinars.

16-2/3 Dinars 13-1/3 “ 4-1/6 “ 5“ 4-1/6 “ 33-1/3 “ 26-2/3 “ 8-1/3 “ 8“ 16-2/3 “ 10 “ 166-1/3 “

16-2/3 Dinars. 13-1/3 “ 4-1/6 “ 8-1/3 “ 4-1/6 “ 5“ 83-2/3 “ 11-1/3 Dinars. 2-2/3 “ 5-1/3 “ 2-2/3 “ 3-2/3 “ 55-1/3 “ 5-4/5 Dinars. 4-1/5 “ 2-1/3 “ 5-1/3 “

For a hole For dislocation If wholly cut

2-2/3 “ 3-2/3 “ 27 “

4. If the nails grow again the penalty for each nail will be 5 Dinars, but in case it does not grow at all or grows black the penalty will be 10 Dinars for each nail. 18. The Chest and the Back If chest is fractured and bent both side If fractured and bent only one side If the ribs are also fractured together with the chest on both sides For one side only For inability in morving on any side For fracture of the back bone if refitted For male breast For female breast For both For each of the ribs in the sphere of the heart For burst For visibility of the bone If the bone is removed For a hole For each rib in the sphere of the arms if fractured For a burst If the bone is removed For a hole If the weapon goes deep into the chest or the belly If it pierces through 19. Hips If bone of the hip is fractured For a burst For visibility of the bone If the bone is removed For dislocation If bent after refitting 20. Thighs If the thigh is fractured For a burst If the bone becomes visible If the bone is removed For only a hole 200 Dinars. 160 “ 50 “ 100 “ 50 “ 200 Dinars. 160 “ 50 “ 175 “ 30 “ 333-1/3 “ 500 Dinars. 250 “ 1000 “ 500 “ 500 “ 500 “ 125 “ 500 “ 1000 “ 25 “ 12.5 6.5 7.5 6.5 10 2.5 5 Dinars. 2.5 “ 333-1/3 Dinars. 432-1/3 “

If the bone is bent after fracture 21. The Knees If the bone is fractured For a burst If the bone becomes visible by a wound If the cap is removed For dislocation For a hole If fractured and could not be refitted. . 22. The Legs If the leg is fractured If the bone is burst If the bone becomes visible If the bone is removed For a hole If could not be refitted after fracture. .

333-1/3 Dinars.

200 Dinars. 160 “ 50 “ 50 “ 30 “ 50 “ 333-1/3 Dinars.

200 Dinars. 160 “ 50 “ 50 “ 25 “ 333-1/3 “

23. The Feet If broken. If the bone becomes visible If the bone is removed For a hole 24. Foot Fingers For the whole of thumb The part of the thumb which is joined to the foot if broken If burst If the bone becomes visible. . If the bone is removed For a hole For dislocation The upper part of the thumb having the nail if broken For a burst If the bone becomes visible Fora hole If the bone is removed For dislocation If wholly cut the penalty will be half of what is for the whole foot. 333-1/3 Dinars. 66-2/3 “ 26-2/3 “ 8-1/3 “ 26-2/3 “ 4-1/6 “ 10 “ 16-2/3 “ 13-1/3 “ 4-1/6 “ 4-1/6 “ 8-1/3 “ 5“ 200 Dinars. 50 “ l00 “ 50 “

For nail of the thumb For the part of each finger which is joined to the foot if broken For a burst If the bone becomes visible If the bone is removed For a hole Penalty for the whole finger For lower part of each finger if brken For a burst 1f the bone becomes visible If the bone is removed For a hole For dislocation The middle part of the finger if broken For a burst If the bone becomes visible If the bone is removed For a hole For dislocation If the whole finger is cut down The upper part which has the nail if broken For a burst of the same If the bone becomes visible If the bone is removed For a hole For dislocation In case it is cut down Penalty for each nail (Wafi, & Wasael -Kitab-i-Diyyat). 25. The Tongue :

30 “ 16-1/3 “ 13-1/3 “ 4-1/6 “ 8-1/3 “ 4-1/6 “ 83-1/8 “ 16-2/3 “ 13-1/3 “ 4-1/6 “ 8-1/3 “ 4-1/6 5“ 11-2/3 “ 8-4/5 “ 2“ 5-2/3 “ 2-2/3 “ 8“ 55-2/3 “ 5-4/5 “ 4-1/5 “ 11/3 “ 2-1/5 “ I-I/3 “ 2-4/5 “ 27-4/5 “ 10 “

Compensation of a part of the Tongue : It has been described in the “Majmua” by Ibn-i-Maizaban that a man came to Hazrat Omar, (RA) and complained to him that a man had cut a part of his tongue with the result that he could not speak properly. Hazrat Omar (RA) found it difficult to fix the penalty for that crime. He, therefore, turned to Hazrat Ali (A) who was present at that time for a solution as to whether penalty for the whole tongue should be fixed or for the part which was cut and as to what should be the amount of the penalty ?

Hazrat Ali.(A) advised him to let the man pronounce all the alphabets. The number of the alphabets he could not pronounce or pronounced with difficulty should be deducted from the total number of the alphabets of the Arabic language and the penalty should be fixed accordingly. 26. Penalty to the Inheritors of a Murdered Man whose one Hand was already Cut It has been reported by Kulaini who reported it from Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) and the latter reported it from 'Kitab-i-Ali' that a man murdered another man intentionally, but one hand of the murdered man was already cut either for penalty or by some one out of enmity. Hazrat Ali (A) said that if the hand of the murdered man was cut for penalty he still stood responsible for it, but if it was cut down by some one out of enmity and as a mark of cruelty the inheritors of the murdered man should return the amount of penalty, if already received by him as penalty, to the inheritors of the murderer before murdering him. In the former case they may not pay any thing and murder the murderer for murdering their legator or alternatively they can receive full penalty in cash from the murderer for the murder . 27. A Case of Penalty with Regard to Drunkards Four persons drank wine, quarrelled among themselves and stabbed one another with the result that two of them died on the spot and the two other who survived were wounded in the brawl. Hazrat Ali (A) ordered for eighty whips each to the wounded and also ordered them to pay the penalty to the inheritors of the deceased after deducting the penalty for their wounds. He also added that in case any of the wounded persons or both of them died then inheritors had nothing to pay to the inheritors of the murdered. According to another report he said that the penalty was due from all the four tribes of the persons concerned. The amount of penalty which had to be paid to the wounded would however, be deducted from the total amount of penalty to be paid to the inheritors of the murdered because it was quite possible that they might have murdered each other, (Manaqib Sher Aashob: vol. 2,p.200 through Abu Turab: p. 227). 29. The Compensation with Regard to a Drowned Man Six persons were once swimming in the Euphrates. One of them was drowned. Two of them came to Amir-ul-Momineen Hazrat Ali (A), and complained to him that the three other had drowned him, while they complained the two who had complained to him previously had themselves drowned him and were simply accusing them to save their own skin. Hazrat Ali (A) ordered that the total amount of the penalty should be shared equally by all the five of them and paid to the inheritors of the sixth man, who was drowned (Manaqib hehr Aashob: vol. 2, p. 200). 30. Four Persons who Fell Pray Prey to the Paws and Jaws of a Lion.

It has been reported by Ali bin Ibrahim Qurni on the authority of Imam Jafar Sadiq (AS) that when the Holy Prophet (SA) sent Hazrat Ali (AS) to Yeman a very extraordinary case was brought to him there which he decided wonderfully. The residents of Yeman had dug a deep hole like a well in the ground in the vicinity of the town to corner a lion, who had become a danger for them and the herds of their cattle and the lion fell therein one night as was intended by them.The next morning a huge crowd gathered together near the deep hole to , see the lion caught therein. The crowd was willing to have a glance of the lion before everyone else with the result that the first man who was ahead fell in the hole. He caught another man behind him to save himself from falling in the hole and escape the jaws of the lion caught therein. The second man in turn caught hold of another one behind him and similarly the 3rd one also caught hold of another for the same purpose resulting in the fall of all the four in the deep and big hole and a prey to the angry lion. Consequently the relations of the first man demanded penalty from the relations of the second man and those of the second from those of the third and similarly those of the third man from the relations of the fourth man and all of them put the blame on the other turn by turn. As the matter could not be decided by argument they were about to decide it by swords. Then some one among them said: “Let us go to Hazrat Ali (A) and get the case decided by him.” So they all came to Hazrat Ali (A), who decided the case as follows :The relations of the first man should be paid 1/4 of the penalty from the crowd, the second 1/2, the third 3/4 and the crowd should pay full penalty to the relations of the fourth one. A part of the crowd agreed to the decision of Hazrat Ali (A), whereas others did not. Therefore, Amir ul-Momineen Hazrat Ali (A) said to them: If you do not accept my decision unanimously let the Holy Prophet (SA) decide the case at the time of the next pilgrimage at Mecca. To this they unanimously agreed. But when the case was presented before the Holy Prophet (SA) at Mecca, and he was about to give his judgement, one of, the parties told him that it had already been decided by Hazrat Ali (A). On asking as to what decision was previously given by Hazrat Ali (A), the party informed the Holy Prophet (SA) of the decision given by Hazrat Ali (A) to which the Holy Prophet (SA) said that it was the only righteous decision which could be given in the case. According to some other report the Holy Prophet (SA) had said that the decision given by Hazrat Ali (A) was the one commanded by Allah. (Zakhair-ul-Uqba: p. 84; Manaqib Shehr Ashob: vol. 2, p. 176). Kulaini has also reported this with some difference. Explanation There were four causes of the death of the first man: The push of the pressure of the crowd and the fall of the three other persons on him, But had he not pulled the second man, he and the other two would not have fallen on him. Thus he was himself responsible for ¾ cause of his death, hence ¼ of the penalty. Similarly the causes of the second man were three: the push of the crowd and the fall of two persons on him, hence ¾ of the

penalty. The causes of the death of the third person being two, i.e. the push or pressure by the crowd and the pull by the second man, hence the amount of penalty ordered to be paid to him was fixed at ½ . The cause of the death of the fourth and the last man was only the push or the pressure of the crowd and in view of the fact that he did not pull any body, the crowd and only the crowd was , responsible for his death. He therefore, deserved full penalty. It may, however, be argued that the crowd was responsible for the death of all the four persons why then a part of the penalty should be deducted proportionately from the full amount of penalty due to each of them. The answer is that the first and the two other persons had on their parts created a cause for their deaths while the fourth had not. Therefore, the amount of responsibility for the cause of death rested proportionately on their own shoulders, hence the proportionate deduction. The fourth has no such cause except the push or the pressure of the.v crowd. Therefore, his relations were duly ordered to be paid full amount of the penalty of his death. 31. The Three Acrobat Girls Ali bin Ibrahim Qurni has reported in Ajaebul Ahkam that a young girl was playing with some of her play-mates. She ascended the shoulders of one of her play-mates during the play. Another girl among them pinched the girl on whose shoulders the first girl has ascended. She jumped up and threw the girl on her shoulders on the ground. Unfortunately, the girl who fell on the ground could not survive the hurt. When the case was brought to Hazrat Ali (A), he ordered : “The penalty should be divided into three equal parts. The first part should be paid by the one who threw the girl and the second part should be paid by the girl who pinched the girl who had the deceased on her shoulders and threw her on account of her pinch. As for the third part none owed it to the parents of the girl, because she had herself ascended on the shoulder of her play-mate out of fondness of the acrobatic feats.” (Irshad Mufid; Manaqib Shehr Ashob: vol. 2, p. l77; Nasikhut Tawarikh: vol. 2 p. 730). 32. Compensation for Hurt or Death by Quadrupads Hazrat Ali (A) also declared: If some one is hurt and dies by the fore legs of a quadrupad the owner is responsible to pay the penalty, if by the hind he is not. In case the animal is teased or hit by anyone, the one who teases or hits him is responsible for the penalty. 33. Orders in Case of Dog -Bite: Amir-ul-Momineen Ali (A) decided the cases of dog-bites as follows :I. The owner is responsible for paying the penalty to the person concerned if his dog bites some one during day time, if at night he is not, because he has the right for the safety of self and the safe-guard of his property by keeping a dog and unchaining him at night. (Wafi vol.3 p. 126).

2. He (A) also declared that if anyone enters the house of the owner of the dog with his permission he is responsible for the bite and the penalty, therefore, is due from him. (Wasael : Wafi, vol. 2I, p. 125). 34. Compensation for Loss by Grazing or Trampling by the Quadrupeds If some farmer sustained a loss by grazing or trampling of his crops by the quadrupeds of another at day he (A.S) did not hold the owner of the quadruped responsible for it and get the farmer compensated therefor. But if such a case occurred at night, he held the owner of the quadruped responsible for it, his plea being that the night is meant for rest and the owner of the crop is not responsible for keeping watch over his farms then. He, therefore, ordered the owners of the quadruped to take care of them at night and compensate the one who had sustained any loss by his carelessness. (Wasael: vol. 3, p. 493). 35. Cases of Trampling under the Feet of a Crowd and Loss of Life Thereby Hazrat Ali (A) declared that in case some person is trampled and killed and the one who trampled and killed him is not traceable the relations of the deceased should be compensated by the Government Treasury. (Wafi, vol. 3. p. 124). 36. Mistake in Judgement If some one was sentenced to death by mistake and under the circumstances beyond the control of a Qazi (Judge) and it was later proved that the sentence awarded was wrong, the amount of penalty for the death of the deceased was paid to his inheritors from Govt. treasury under the orders of Hazrat Ali (A). (Wafi, vol. 2I, p. 127). 37. Penalty for the Eye of a Horse Some one hit the eye of a horse. Hazrat Ali (A) ordered the accused to pay 1/4 of the price of the horse to the owner. The price was calculated at the prevailing rates on the day when the horse had lost its eye. (Wafi, vol. 2I, p. 130). 38. Compensation for a Pig A Muslim killed the pig owned by some Christian. Hazrat Ali (A) ordered the Muslim to pay the penalty therefor to the owner of the pig.

1. Eye Witness of a Judge is not Sufficient for Punishing an Accused in a Case of Adultery

It has been reported by Umme Kulthoom, daughter of Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) on the authority of Hazrat Omar (RA) who said that he was once petrolling at night in Medina when he saw a couple in a half demolished house engaged in the act of adultery. Next morning, he asked the people if the Caliph sees some body committing adultery, could he punish the culprit at his own accord, i.e., would that one eye witness of the Caliph himself be sufficient for framing the charge of adultery fgainst the culprit and punish on that account. All the people present in the court of the Caliph including his advisers and some of the senior companions of the Holy Prophet (SA) said with one voice: “What more witness than the eyewitness of the Caliph himself is required for punishing the culprit in a case of adultery.” Hazrat Ali (A) when heard the above unanimous advice of all the people present in the court of Hazrat Omar, (RA) he said to him Hazrat Omar (RA) In that case you would yourself be punished for false imputation, for a full evidence required in each case of adultery under the religious law is equal to four witnesses without any exemption whatsoever. The report adds that the same question was put to people by Hazrat Omar (RA) and they replied in the affirmative except Hazrat Ali (A) who replied in the negative (Qaza & Teha) p. 43, through Abu Turab (Urdu), vol. 2 p. 201). 2. When Witnesses Find no Way Out Three persons once came to Hazrat Ali (A) to record their witnesses in a case of adultery. Their statements recorded, Hazrat Ali (A) asked them as to where was the fourth witness. They replied: “He would come just now.” Hazrat Ali (A) ordered them to be punished for false imputation saying that four witnesses were required in a case of adultery as commanded by Allah in the Holy Quran and that the punishment in a case cannot be suspended for a moment for want of a witness which is said to appear in the court later. (Qaza) p. 55, through Abu Turab vol. 2, p. 202). 3. Four Unjust Witnesses Four persons once came to Hazrat Ali (A) to stand as witnesses and record evidence in a case of adultery. Amir-ul-Momineen Hazrat Ali (A) when made a private enquiry about them, they were found to be unjust and also not of good moral character. Hazrat Ali (A) ordered for their punishment for false accusation. (Qaza and Teha, p. 166, also Qaza, p. 55, and Abu Turab, vol. 2, page 202). 4. Cases Wherein Only One Witness is Acceptable It has been reported by Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) that Hazrat Ali (A) used to decide the cases of loan against only one witness also as well as on taking oath by the appellant (Wafi, vol. 3, p. 148).

Explanation About cases as the one above Hazrat Imam Muhammad Baqir (A) says as follows: If the administration of a state is in our hands i.e., the Muslims we can decide a case even on the production of one good witness only provided the case belonged to rights of the masses, but if the case concerned the rights of Allah or the visibility of Moon, one witness would not suffice. (Wafi, vol. 3, p. 148).

5. Witness by Women According to what Hazrat Ali (A) has said witnesses of women are acceptable in cases of marriage but not in cases of divorce. Also said Hazrat Ali (A): “If three men and two women are produced as witnesses they are acceptable in a case wherein the culprit has to be sentenced to death by stoning, but if the number of men in such cases is only two and that of women four they are not acceptable.” (Wafi,, vol. 3, p. 142). 6. Witnesses of Women in Cases Particular to Females A virgin girl who was accused of having committed adultery was once brought to Hazrat Ali (A). He ordered a few women to examine her in private and say as to whether she was still virgin or the sign of her chastity was removed. The women appointed by Hazrat Ali (A) for examination of the accused girl reported to him that the girl was still virgin. Hazrat Ali (A) then exclaimed: “How can I punish a girl accused of adultery when she has been found still virgin according to the report of her own sex.” (Wafi vol. 3, p. 143). 7. Witness of a Women in Case of Will In a case of a will left by some deceased person a woman was produced as witness. Hazrat Ali (A) decided that in such a case if only one woman is produced as witness, her witness will be acceptable only with regard to t part of the will concerned. (Wafi, vol. 3, p. 144). 8. Witness of Children According to what Hazrat Ali (A) said witness of minor children is acceptable in cases concerning themselves provided they come direct to report the matter to the authorities concerned before they see their elders who are their guardian. (Wafi, vol.3, p. 145). 9. Witness of Enemy

According to what Hazrat Ali (A) said the witness of an enemy of the one accused in a case is not acceptable. (Wafi, vol.3, p. 148). 10. Witness of a Spy, Face Reader or a Thief Said Hazrat Ali (A) “I would not accept the witness of spy, face-reader or a thief unless they stand witnesses in their own cases wherein they do admit their crimes.” (Wafi, vol. 3, p. 148). 11. Contradictory Witnesses If two or more witnesses appeared in one and the same case and their evidences were recorded by Hazrat Ali (A) and all the witnesses appeared to be of good moral character and following justice by experience in public, but their statements were found to be contradictory to one another Hazrat Ali (A) decided the case by ballot, and also took oath from the one in whose favour the ballot was drawn (Qaza, p. 133). 12. Contradiction in Evidence It has been reported on the authority of Imam Baqir (A) that when Qudarabin Mazoon was brought before Hazrat Omar (RA) with the accusation that the poet named above was found drunk in public and two witnesses were produced against him as evidence to his crime, one of the witnesses happened to be a castrate. Besides the statements of the two witnesses in so far as the evidence with regard to drinking of wine by the famous poet Qudama was concerned happened to be contradictory to each other. Hazrat Omar (RA) finding it difficult to decide the case called the companions of the Holy Prophet (A) including Hazrat Ali (A) for consultation, particularly the last named person i.e. Hazrat Ali (A) and said to him. “Ya Abul Hasan! What do you say in this case, because what you will say in the matter will be most welcome and acceptable as according to a tradition of the Holy Prophet (SA) you are the most learned among us all and your decisions are all the righteous ones I, therefore, implore you kindly to decide this case for me.” “Hazrat Ali (A) advised Hazrat Omar (RA) as follows: “Although apparently there is contradiction in the statement of the two witnesses with regard to the evidence to drinking by Qudama bin Mazoon i.e., according to the one he was.found drinking whereas according to the other he was found vomitting Wine, but if the two things are put in proper perspective they would appear to be equal to each other because as far as the religious law about drinking is concerned, drinking of wine and vomiting it is just one and the same.” When Hazrat Omar (RA) further asked him Hazrat Ali (A) if the witness of a castrate was acceptable under the religious and ecclesiastical law, Hazrat Ali (A) replied as follows: “Why not ? The penis (male organ) is just equal to any other part of the body. Therefore, if a man is castrated it is just as if any other part of his body was cut off. Hence the witness of a castrate is as well acceptable as that of any other man without a limb.” (Qaza p. 42, also see Kafi).

13. Punishment for a False Witness If a person accused of standing as a false witness in a case when brought to Hazrat Ali (A), he punished him by parading him as a public example through the streets of Kufa if he belonged to it otherwise in case of his being a traveller through the streets of the city to which he belonged. (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 73 through Abu Turab (Urdu) by Allama Jazaeri of Lahore, vol. 1, p. 208).

Psychological Points
1. How to Recognize the Status of a Person It has been reported by Imam Jafar Sadiq (A) that during the caliphate of Hazrat Ali (A) a man went on pilgrimage to Mecca accompanied by his slave. During the journey the master punished his slave for Some mistake on the latter's part. The slave took it so ill that he became deadly against his master so much so that he refused to be his slave. He instead claimed to be the master of his own master and the quarrel continued throughout the journey till they both reached Kufa on their way back home. On their arrival at Kufa the master said to his slave: “O ye! the enemy of Allah. Let us go to Amir-ul-Momineen Hazrat Ali (A) and let him decide the case between the two of us.” When Hazrat Ali (A) granted them audience the master said to Amir-ul-Momineen: “Ya, Amir-ul-Momineen, This is my slave. I had punished him for some mistake on his part while going to Mecca on pilgrimage. Ever since he refused to be my slave and instead saysthat I am his slave.” When ordered by Hazrat Ali (A) the slave took an oath to the effect that he was the master and not the slave and his father had sent him on pilgrimage to Mecca with him as a guide for performing 'Haj'. “Now, further proceeded the slave, this man claims to be my master instead of being my slave with the intention to taking possession of my property.” The master when ordered by Hazrat Ali (A) to tell thetruth, he also said on oath that he was the master and that his companion was telling a lie. Hearing them both, Hazrat Ali (A) ordered them to attend his court the subsequent day for a decision in the case. Meanwhile, Amir-ul-Momineen Hazrat Ali (A) ordered his orderly Qambar to make two holes in a wall of his court. People who had heard the two persons pleading their cases before Hazrat Ali (A) become very much interested to see as to what decision Hazrat Ali (A) would give the next day in such a complicated case. So, they and many others who heard of that strange case assembled and went to the court of Hazrat Ali (A) to see as to what judgement he would deliver therein. The next day when the master and the slave went to Hazrat Ali (A) for a decision in their case as promised by him the previous day, he ordered them to put their heads accrossthe holes in a wall Qamber had already made under his orders.

When both of them had put their heads accross the holes in the wall as had been ordered by Hazrat Ali (A), he ordered Qamber dramatically as he had brought home the him to previous day. “Qamber! cut off the head of the slave with one stroke of your sword.” No sooner heared, the man who actually was the slave pulled back his head from the hole in the wall. Seeing this Hazrat Ali (A) said to him: “Were you not saying yesterday that you were the master and not the slave and had you not even taken an oath to that effect ?” The slave replied. apologizingly: “Ya Amir-ul- M omineen, I am no doubt the slave of this man, but as he had beaten me red and blue for a very slight mistake I refused to be his slave.” (Kafi, Nasikhut Tawarikh, vol. 3, p. 738, Manaqib, vol. 2, p. 200). 3. The Refusal of a Mother to Own Her Son Asim bin Zaura has been quoted by the author of Hadaiqi Abu Turab as follows:“I saw a young man at Madina making a hue and cry and saying aloud, „O God! You are the one who can decide between me and my mother .” According to Asim bin Zaura Hazrat Omar (RA) was passing by the place where the above mentioned young man was addressing Allah as quoted above. “When Hazrat Omar (RA) asked him as to why he was cursing his mother, the young man said as follows: “O the Caliph of the Muslims: My mother bore me in her womb for nine months. Then she gave me birth and nursed me for two years. But now when I have grown up a man she refuses to be my mother. Not only that she has turned me out of her house and says tha, I am not her son.” “On enquiry by Hazrat Omar (RA) as to where his mother lived the young man gave him the address of her house.” “When Hazrat Omar (RA) sent.for the woman in question she came to him accompanied by her four brothers and forty other persons of her tribe.” “When she was asked by Hazrat Omar (RA) as to why she had turned out her son, she told him that the young man was a lier and that she did not even know as to who he was.” “Proceeding further the woman told Hazrat Omar (RA) that she was a virgin haling from a tribe of Quresh and that the young man most probably desired to defame her.” When asked by Hazrat Omar (RA) her four brothers and the forty men of her tribe who had accompanied her also confirmed on oath what she had told him. Although the young man said repeatedly and also took oath before Hazrat Omar (RA) that the woman in question was his real mother yet she denied it also on oath, that she was not. Moreover, the youngman had no evidence to prove and support his claim while the woman had not only her four brother but also the forty men who confirmed unanimously what she had said. Therefore Hazrat Omar (RA) could not but order for punishing the youngman by whipping him for false imputation against a virgin.” When the young man was being carried for punishment under the orders of Hazrat Omar, (RA) he saw Hazrat Ali (A) who happened to pass by that way only by chance and yelled

“O the cousion of the Holy Prophet (SA) ! I am an oppressed man. Kindly help me.” Hazrat Ali (A) asked him as to what had happened to hit and when the young man related his story to Amir-ul-Momineen. Hazrat Ali (A) he ordered the people who were taking him for whipping to take him back to Hazrat Omar (RA) and he himself also accompanied them.” When the people took the youngman back to Hazrat Omar (RA) he asked as to why they had come back. They told him that the had done that under the orders of Hazrat Ali (A). Hazrat Ali (A) said to Hazrat Omar (RA):“Could you allow me to reopen and decide the case on your behalf ?” “With pleasure, said Hazrat Omar (RA) and also added: “How could I deny you that right when I have heard the Holy Prophet (SA) saying that you were the most learned man among us all.” “Then, Hazrat Ali (A) sent for the woman in question who came accompanied again as before by her four brothers and the same forty men of her tribe. And when ordered by Amir-ul-Momineen Hazrat Ali (A) she repeated the same statement which she had given before Hazrat Omer. (RA) Her four brothers and the forty men of her tribe also confirmed her statement, again on Oath.” “Finding her adamant Hazrat Ali (A) said to her “Do you know who am I ? and do you also know that nothing remains hidden from me when I turn to Allah to let me know it ?” “In turn the woman f\lthough affirmed that she knew Hazrat Ali (A) well and also his qualities as an Imam, yet she remained adamant in her previous statement i.e., she was a virgin and that the young man simply wanted to share her property fraudulently. Seeing no other way out Hazrat Ali (A) asked the young man if he objected to his adopting him as his son, so that he could become and treated as his two other sons, Hasan & Husain (A). The young man did not only agree to the Proposal of Hazrat Ali (A) but also thanked him a great many times therefor. Hazrat Ali (A) then asked the four brothers of the woman, who were also her guardians as to whether they agreed to his marrying the woman whom they had stated to be a virgin to the youngman to which they agreed. Hazrat Ali (A) had already asked the woman as to who her guardians were and she had pointed to her brothers. This done, Hazrat Ali (A) said to the people present there at that time, including Hazrat Oamar (RA) : “With the witness of Allah and all of you present here I marry this girl, with the permission of her guardians to this young man and fix four hundred Dirhams as her lower which I shall pay from my own pocket.” “Saying this Hazrat Ali (A) ordered Qamber, his personal servant, to bring four hundred Dirhams from his (Hazrat Ali (A) house and give to the young man.” “He then asked the young man.” to put those four hundred Dirhams in the skirt of the garment of the woman in question and take her home and pass the night with her as her husband.” “Hazrat Ali (A) also ordered the young man to report to him the next morning that he had complied with his orders.” Hearing all this the woman yelled: “Fie! Ya' Ali ! fie! Do you want me to go to Hell ? This young man is my real son! Allah will not forgive me ! I go with him as his wife and how on earth could I ?” “Thereafter she told Hazrat Ali (A) that her husband was a man of very ordinary means to whom her brothers had married her in order to usurp the share she had inherited from her

father and then they wanted to deprive her son of whatever little property her husband who had died in some other country while on journey had left.” “Therefore, she proceeded further,” they had forced me to state before Hazrat Omar (RA) as well as before you.” “However” she said, I offer penitence to all for what I have wrongly stated and hope that you would also forgive me therefor.” “Having said that she held the hand of the young man and went away”, concludes Asim bin Zaura as quoted in HadaeqiAbu- Turab. Note: Allama Majlisi has also incorporated in his records regarding the judgements of Hazrat Ali (A) a similar story on another authority with the only difference that the witnesses produced by the woman mentioned in that story were seven women and they were all bribed by that man as well as the woman examined her under the orders of Hazrat Ali (A). However, both the above records which are most authentic ones bear a clear proof of the rare psychological wisdom possessed by Hazrat Ali (A).

Mathematical Problems
1. The Equal Division of Seventeen Camels Without Friction Three persons had a dispute about the division of seventeen camels. The ratio of their share was 1/2, 1/3 & 1/9 and they could not divide the figure of seventeen proportionately without friction. Finding no way out they wanted to cut one camel into pieces for the purpose of the correct division, but before acting upon this last alternative, they took their problem to Hazrat Ali (A), for they were sure it was he who was capable of solving their problem. Hearing their problem Hazrat Ali (A) asked them if it was agreeable to them to add one of his own camels to their seventeen camels and make the total eighteen. As they agreed to it, he gave half of the total number of the camels i.e., nine to the first man (1/2 of the total) , and six to the second man making 1/3 of the total, and two camels to the third man which is 1/9 of the total. Thus all the three men got the camels divided according to respective shares, the total amounting to seventeen only. Thereafter he took back his own camel. Thus he solved the problem of dividing the seventeen camels proportionately according to their respective shares to their satisfaction and displeasing none of them and without cutting one of the camels into pieces. (Nasikhut Tawarikh vol. 3, p. 757). 2. The Problem of Eight Breads Two persons while travelling on a road sat under the shade of a tree for lunch. One of them took out of his big five breads and the other took out three breads out of his bag and put them near the five breads of his companion making the total number of the breads to eight. They had not yet started eating when a third person happened to pass by them. Invited by the first two, the third man also sat with them and shared their lunch and while departing after meal, he gave them eight Dirhams against the share of the food he had taken with them.

After he had gone, the first two travellers started quarrelling about their portions in the eight Dirhams. One of them who had five breads claimed to have five Dirhams reasoning that it was his due, but his companion who had three breads did not agree to such a division also reasoning that the stranger who had shared their food had not given them the eight Dirhams to them to share proportionately according to the number of breads they had. Moreover, he argued that the share of the stranger was equa1 to each of their own. Therefore, he claimed that what the stranger had given them had to be divided equally. Finally they decided to approach Hazrat Ali (A) for a decision between the two. Having heard the case Hazrat Ali (A) first advised them for a compromise and when they did not agree, particularly the one who had three breads, he solved the problem as under: He said to the one who had three breads and had taken the case to him with the claim that half of the eight Dirhams, i.e., Four Dirhams was his due share: “If you want a righteous decision in the case you should have only one Dirham which is your due actually. When requested to explain he enlightened him as follows: He asked him; “Had you not had only three breads and your companion five of them ?” When he replied in the affirmative he said; “The total of the breads you both had i.e., eight divided into three bits comes to twenty four. And as you say the stranger shared your food equally he should have eaten eight bits, i.e., only one of the nine bits of your breads, seven of them eaten from other's, that is why you should have only one Dirham for only one bit of the eight bits of breads which the stranger ate. Feeling uneasy at the above decision of Hazrat Ali (A) the claimant who had taken the case to him agreed to the compromise he had advised for and to the offer of three Dirhams made by his companion. (Zakhaerul Uqba, p. 84, also Kafi)

Following are a few cases relating to physics decided by Hazrat Ali (A) : 1. Compensation Judgement in Case of the Loss of an Eye Once a slave of Hazrat Othman (RA) hit the eye of a bedouin resulting in the loss of his eye. The bedouine took the matter to Hazrat Othman, (AR) who tried to patch up the matter by offering full penalty of the eye of the complainant, but he would not agree. Hazrat Otman (RA) then offered him the double of the amount fixed as penalty for an eye by the religious law, but the bedouine would still not agree to the offer but insisted on taking th eye of the slave out as an exchange of his eye which was lost by the hit of the slave. HazratOthman (RA) was confused as what to do thereafter and referred the case to Hazrat Ali (A) who first tried to make the bedouine to accept the offer, but when he would not agree despite all the possible efforts of even the Holy Imam (A), he sent for a patch of cotton put in the water and placed it in the eye of the slave, leaving the pupil open. Then, he sent for a mirror and put it in the sun and ordered the slave to see the sun therein with

that eye till the sight thereof was lost, but the eye ball remained intact (Wafi, vol. 9, p. 99) 2. Medical Examination of an Eye A man's head was hit by some body also whereafter the man who was hit claimed that his eye sight had become weak thereby. Hazrat Ali (A) examined his eye in the following way: He held an egg in his hand and asked the man to stand at some distance and say as to whether he could se the egg. When the man in question replied in the affirmative he made the man to get back to a certain further distance and again to a little more. Hazrat Ali (A) repeated this action till after the man said he could not see the egg. He also repeated this action keeping the egg in the circumferance of a horizontal line and marking the target in each case. He then measured the various distances in each case and found all the distances 1.e., right and left and up and down and announced that the claim of the man was correct otherwise, he said, there must have been a difference in the various distances measured by him. He then repeated this action in respect of another man, who had hit the first man in question whose eye sight had become deffective as a result of his hit, to pay him penalty according to the difference of his eye sight as compared with the man whose eye sight was normal. (Wasael, vol. 3, p. 405, Mustadrik, vol. 3, p. 285 through Abu Turab (Urdu) by Allama Jazaeri vol. 2, p. 308). 3. Examination of Eye Sight, the Power of Talking and that of Smelling It has been reported in the book Ajaibul Ahkam that a man was struck on the head of by another person with something hard. The man who was struck claimed that he had lost his eye sight as well as his power of talking and that of smelling as a result of that stroke. Hazrat Ali (A) said if the man was correct, he deserved to receive penalty on all the three counts. When asked as to how was it possible to check that the claim of the man in question was correct, Hazrat Ali (A) said as follows:(i) “As regards his eye sight the man will be made to stand in the open and cast his eyes on the sun. In case he could and did not shut his eyes his claim of losing his eye sight would be correct.” (ii) In the case of the power of smelling he would be made to inhale the smoke of a patch of burning cotton. If he does not make signs of feeling sensation in his nose and also does not shed tears by the effect thereof his claim of losing his power of smell would be deemed as intact. (iii) In the case of power of talking the tip of his tongue would be pricked with a small needle. If the drop of blood which would come out of his tongue is red he would be deemed to possess power of talking and only as malingering there about. But if the drop of blood is black he would be deemed as correct in his claim. He also advised to examine all the dumbs in the same manner. (Wafi, Kafi and Turaqi Hakmia, p.49).

4. Counting of the Beats of Breathing A man struck the chest of another man who claimed that it had affected the regularity of his breathing. Hazrat Ali (A) decided the case by counting the beats of his breath in the following manner. According to Hazrat Ali (A), the breath of a person remains for some time in ones right nostril and sometimes in the left. In the early morning till sunrises he said it remains in the right nostril. Therefore he counted the breath of the man in question while it was in the right nostril and then the next morning that of another man supposed to be possessing regularly breathing and then made the man who had struck the complainant pay the latter a penalty therefor according to the difference between normality and irregularity of the latters breathing. (Qaza p. 150) 5. The Sign of Chastity in a Virgin A man filed a suit against his wife in the court of Hazrat Ali (A) accusing her that she did not possess the sign of virginity. Hazrat Ali (A) told the man that thin skin in the womb of a virgin, which is usually supposed to be the sign of her virginity some time bursts automatically in jumping and also during a play wherein jumpings is freely required and dismissed the case he had taken to his court against his wife. (Qaza-wa-Teeha, p. 165).

Cases Wherein His Knowledge of Geometry was Displayed
1. The Weight of a Fetter Two men saw a slave walking through a street with a fetter on one of his feet. One of the men said : “The weight of the fetter on the foot of the slave is so much and if it was not my wife stands divorced.” The other man suggested that the weight of the fetter was different one and he also made a bet that if the weight thereof was that which was suggested by his companion his wife would stand divorced. Agreeing to the bet they both went to the master of the slave and requested him to take out the chain from the foot of his slave so that it could be weighed. They also mentioned to him the bet they had made. The master of the slaves when heard of the bet he told the two men that he had taken an oath that the fetter would be removed from the foot of the slave after completion of a certain period of time and that if he removed it before the expiry of that period of time his wife would also stand divorced. Therefore, he said, he could not remove the fetter from the foot of his slave before the expiry of that period of time.

When the case was taken to HazratOmar (RA) he ordered the two men who had made the bet to divorce their wives, because he could not order the master of slave to remove the fetter from the foot of his slave before the expiry of the period of time in question under any rule or practice of human society or under any clause of the religious law. When Hazrat Ali (A) heard of this decision of Hazrat Omar (RA) in the case in question by the two men who had gone to him with an appeal, he said to them that it was quite easy to take the weight of the fetter without removing it from the foot of the slave. He then sent for a big pot open on all sides and deep enough to contain sufficient water for drowning the foot and the fetter of the slave therein. When the slave put his foot with the fetter thereon in the pot containing the fixed quantity of water, the water rose to a certain point in the pot which was marked. When the fetter of the slave was raised towards the knee of the slave with the help of thread tied to it, the level of water fell down to a certain point in the pot, which was also duly marked under the orders of Hazrat Ali (A). Then he ordered for putting iron dust in the pot slowly and gradually so that the water could rise to the first mark. There after, he ordered the slave to take out his foot from the pot to let the water fall down to its original level in the pot where after he ordered the weighing of the iron-dust saying that that was the weight of the fetter. (Tehzibul Ahkam; Biharul Anwar, vol. 9, p. 465). 2. How He Weighed An Iron Gate Once a dispute arose between some persons who had ordered for an iron gate and the blacksmith who had made it about the weight of the iron used therein. The man who had ordered for it said it was not the weight he had ordered for whereas the blacksmith said that it was. They could not obviously weigh such a huge gate there being no means available then to weigh such big things as there are today When the case was taken to Hazrat Ali (A) for a decision between the two opposite parties, he ordered them to place the gate on a boat and mark the point to which the water of tpe river rose on either side of the boat. The gate was then removed from the boat and some bags full ordates were loaded on the boat allowing the water to rise upto the point of her sides to which it had risen under the weight of the gate. He (A) then ordered them to weigh the bags of the dates in an ordinary scale and find out the weight of the gate thereby, because, he (A) said the weight of the gate would be the same as that of the weight of the total number of bags of the dates.

1. A Camel Shared by Three Three men shared a camel equally. One of them tied his forelegs and went away for some work. In the meantime, the other two returned to their place of stay and untied one leg aru they also went away together. The camel in their absence, walked with one untied leg off the place where the first man had tied him and fell in a well and wounded himself by the

fall. The two men returned again, saw the camel fallen in the well, got him out some-how or other, and butchered him and sold the meat for collecting some money in view of a little compensation for the loss. When the first partner returned, he saw the skin of the camel. On enquiry, the two other partners told him what had happened. He took an objection to it, and rather complained against their untying the camel which resulted in the heavy loss to him. He then took the case to Hazrat Ali (A), who ordered for payment of 1/3 of the actual price of the camel to him. When the cash which was collected by selling the meat of the camel was counted it was one third of the cost price of the camel. This amount was paid in full to the first partner of the camel and the other two went away empty handed. While they were about to leave, Hazrat Ali (A) told them that as they had not taken proper care for the safety of the camel and the safe-guard of their shares, whereas their first partner had by tying his two legs, hence their loss. (Manaqib, vol. 11, p. 201). 2. Decision in the Case of a Cow and a Camel A man catching hold of the opening of the shirt of another man came to Hazrat Omar, (RA) and told him that the other man's cow had torn off the belly of the camel of the appellant which resulted in its death. Saying this he requested Hat Omar (RA) for ordering the accused to pay 'full penalty of his camel to him. Hazrat Omar (RA) said : “No penalty on the quadrupeds.” Hearing this order Hazrat Ali (A) said to Hazrat Omar(RA) : “I have heard the Holy Prophet saying : “No man can put another man to loss.” He then added : “If the accused person had tied his cow on the way of the camel, he has to pay the penalty, otherwise not.” On enquiry it was revealed that the owner of the cow had actually tied his cow on the way of the camel. Hazrat Omar (RA) then ordered the accused to pay full penalty of the camel to his owner. (Qazaand Tehas: p. 80; Qaza p. 158; , Abu Turab' (Urdu translation) vol. 2. by Allama Jazaeri, p. 244). 3. Decision About a Donkey and a Cow Once a man came to the Holy Prophet (SA) with the complaint that the cow of another man, who had also accompanied him, had killed his donkey. The Holy Prophet (SA) sent both of them to Hazrat Abu Bakr. (RA) Hazrat Abu Bakr(RA) asked them as to why they had not gone to the Holy Prophet (SA). They replied that the Holy Prophet (SA) had himself sent them to him and that th case was in the first instance was duly taken to the Prophet of Allah (SA). Having heard the initial reportHazrat Abu Bakr (RA) said : “If an animal kills another animal there is no penalty on the animal or his owner.” Saying thiso Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) told the parties to go to the Holy Prophet (SA) again and inform him of his decision. In compliance of the orders of Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA)

both the men went back to the Holy Prophet (SA) and informed him of Hazrat Abu Bakr's (RA) decision in their case. The Holy Prophet (A) then sent them to Hazrat Omar (RA). He also gave the same decision as was previously given by Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA ). When they appraised the Holy Prophet (SA) of the decision by Hazrat Omar, (RA) the Holy Prophet (SA) finall) sent them to Hazrat Ali (A) for a decision. When the two men went to Hazrat Ali (A), he put a few questions to them. The first question was: “Were both the animals united at the time of occurrence of the incident ? “No”, said both of them. Hazrat Ali (A) then put a second question to them: “Were both of them tied” ? “No”, replied they. Then Hazrat Ali (A) put a third question to them: “Was the cow tied and the donkey untied” ? “No”, replied the twb men again. The fourth and the last question of Hazrat Ali (A) was: “Was the donkey tied and the cow untied” ? “Yes”, came the reply from both the parties. “Then”, Hazrat Ali (A) said, “the owner of the cow has to pay the penalty to the owner of the donkey whom the cow has killed.” When the report of the decision by Hazrat Ali (A) in the above case reached, the Holy Prophet (SA), he exclaimed : “Lo! Ali has given the same decision as Allah Himself would have given in this case.” (Matalibus Soul: p. 85; Irshad Mufid, Manaqib, vol. 2, p. 177; Nasikhut Tawarikh: vol. 2, p.731).

4. A Game Bird A man saw some g'dme bird and followed her till she flew from the ground and sat on a tree. Meanwhile, another hunter came on the scene and hunted the bird. The first man protesting to his action said : As I had seen the bird first, I must get it. the case was taken to Amir ul-Momineen Hazrat Ali (A), he said to the first man. “It was your luck only to see the bird and you have been successful the1ein in seeing. The man who has hunted it has the right to possess it. Therefore, your claim to the hunted bird is quite invalid.” The first man accepted this decision of Hazrat Ali (A), and went away without any grumble and even murmur. (Qaza and Teha : p. 181).
 > > One Day a person came to Ali (A.S.), thinking that since Ali thinks he is too smart, I'll ask him such a tough question that he won't be able to answer it and I'll have the chance to embarrass him in front of all the Arabs. > > He asked "Ali, tell me a number, that if we divide it by any number from 1-10 the answer will always come in the form of a whole number and not as a fraction."

> Hazrat Ali Looked back at him and said, "Take the number of days in a year and multiply it with the number of days in a week and you will have your answer." > > The person got astonished but as he was a Mushrik he still didn't believe Ali (A.S.). He calculated the answer Ali (AS) gave him. To his amazement he came across the following results: > The number of Days in a Year = 360 (in Arabic Calendar) > > The Number of Days in a Week = 7 > > The product of the two numbers = 2520 > > Now ... 2520 ? 1 = 2520 > > 2520 ? 2 = 1260 > > 2520 ? 3 = 840 > > 2520 ? 4 = 630 > > 2520 ? 5 = 504 > > 2520 ? 6 = 420 > > 2520 ? 7 = 360 > > 2520 ? 8 = 315 > > 2520 ? 9 = 280 > > 2520 ? 10= 252 > > ***************************************************************** ****** > > One day a person came to Ali (A.S.). He was planning to ask Ali (A.S.) such a question which would take Ali (A.S.) a long time to answer and because of that his Maghrib Prayers would be > delayed. He asked, "Ali you say you know everything in the world, then tell me which animals > lay eggs and which animals give birth to their young ones"> > Hazrat Ali (A.S.) looked back at him smiled and said, "The animals who have their 'EARS' outside their body give birth to their young ones and the animals who have their 'EARS' inside their body lay eggs." > > ***************************************************************** ****** > > A person was about to die, and before dying he wrote his Will which went as follows ... > "I have 17 Camels, and I have three sons. Divide my Camels in such a way that My eldest son gets half of them, the second one gets 1/3rd of the total and my youngest son gets 1/9th of the

total number of Camels" > After his death when the relatives read his will they got extremely perplexed and said to each other that how can we divide 17 camels like this ? > > So after a long hard thought they decided that there was only one man in Arabia who could help them: "Ali Ibne Abi Taalib." So they all came to the door of Ali (A.S.) and put forward their problem. > > Hazrat Ali (A.S.) said, "Ok. I will divide the camels as per the man's will." > > He said, "I will lend one of my camels to the total which makes it 18 (17+1=18), now lets divide as per his will" > The Eldest gets 1/2 of 18 = 9 > The second one gets 1/3 of 18 = 6 > and The Youngest gets 1/9 of 18 = 2 > Now the total number of camels = 17 > > Then Hazrat Ali (A.S.) said, "Now I will take my Camel back." > > This was the genius that Hazrat Ali was in his time.

1. The Son of an Old Man An old man married a woman and died on the very first night of his marriage with her. The woman who had become pregnant, gave birth to a male child. The sons and daughters of the old man from his first wife accused their step mother of adultery and dragged her to the court of Hazrat Omar (RA). He heard the case and ordered that the woman should be punished for the crime of adultery and stoned to death. By chance Hazrat Ali (A) happened to pass by the place where she was being stoned. When he heard of the case, he went to Hazrat Omar (RA) and desired that the case should be reopened and heard again in his presence. Hazrat Omar (RA) gave permission therefore Hazrat Ali (A) then asked Hazrat Omar (RA) as to whether he had taken the statement of the woman regarding the date of the marriage, the time of their remaining together as man and wife and the date and time of her husband's death. Hazrat Omar (RA)informed Hazrat Ali (A) that he had put all these questions to the woman and recorded her statement in all respects. Thereafter, Hazrat Ali (A) sought permission of Hazrat Omar, (RA) who was the Caliph then, to order the woman to present in the court of the Caliph, the child whom she claimed to be the old man's son born by her. Hazrat Omar (RA) ordered therefor and the child was brought before him Hazrat Ali (A) sent the child to go and play with some other children who were playing nearby. Then he said to Hazrat Omar (RA): “Let us also go and see him play.”

Hazrat Omar (RA) followed Hazrat Ali (A) to the place with other people present in the court. When all of them had arrived, Hazrat Ali (A) asked all the children to sit down. The children sat down, the child in question also being among them. Then, Hazrat Ali (A) asked them to stand up. The children did accordingly and all of them stood up all at once, except the child in question who also stood up, but not before the support of his hands by putting them on the ground. Seeing this Hazrat Ali (A) said to Hazrat Omar (RA) : “Did you observe how the child stood up ? Is it not the clear proof of the fact that the child is not an illegitimate one. His weakness is sufficient proof that he is son of the dead old man.” Hazrat Omar (RA) appreciated the wisdom of Hazrat Ali(A) and acquitted the woman honourably. He also ordered for the punishment of the sons and daughters of the old man from his first wife for false accusation as was advised by Hazrat Ali (A). (Kafi ; Ajaibul Ahkam ; Manaqib : vol. 2, p. 90) Allama Jazairi in his Urdu translation (Abu Turab vol. II, p. 252) adds : I” Apparently Hazrat Ali (A) had decided the case with the help of his natural instinct and his particular innersight which guided him to reach the conclusion that the child was the old man's son. Therefore, this case should not be cited as an in- stance in similar cases now.” 2. The Effect of Blood Once a lad appeared in the court of Hazrat Omar (RA) and preferred a claim that his father had died in another city and his movable and immovable property may be transferred in his name. As the lad had no evidence to support his claim Hazrat Omar (RA) turned him out. While going back he met Hazrat Ali (A), and related his story to him. Hazrat Ali (A) asked te lad to accompany him to the court of Hazrat Omar, (RA) who was the Caliph then. Reaching there Hazrat Ali (A) advised Hazrat Omar (RA) to reopen the case which the latter did. Satisfied with this, Hazrat Ali (A) asked the lad to inform him of the place where his father was burried. When he was informed of the place, he requested Hazrat Omar (RA) to accompany him to that place together with the lad and a group of people. Reaching there Hazrat Ali (A) got the corpse of the lad's father exhumed, took out one rib and asked the boy to smell it. No sooner the boy smelt the bone his nose started bleeding. Hazrat Ali (A) told Hazrat Omar (RA) that the statement of the boy was correct and that the property of the deceased should be transferred in his name. Hazrat Omar (RA) asked him with some surprise: “Should I do it in view of the mere fact that the boy's nose started bleeding by smelling the dead man's bone” ? Hazrat Ali (A) said: “Wait a bit.” He then asked several other persons to smell the bone, but no one's nose bled at all. He then asked the boy again to smell the bone. When he did this his nose started bleeding again. Hazrat Ali (A) then turned to Hazrat Omar(RA) and said : “Do you see ? This boy is actually the son of the dead man. Otherwise his nose also would not bleed as others' did not. By God I never told a lie as Allah who gave me this knowledge did not.”

(Manaqib Shehr Ashob vol. 2, p. 182 through Abu Turab : vol. 2, p. 253). 3. Hashmia And Ansaria A man had two wives, a Hashmia and an Ansaria. He divorced the Ansaria and died thereafter. After some time the Ansaria came to Hazrat Osman (RA) and preferring her claim said : “I have complied with all the restrictions placed on me by religion for the duration of probation time. I, therefore have every right to claim my share in the property of the deceased.” Hazrat Osman (RA) was at a loss to understand as to how he should decide the case to the satisfaction of all the people involved therein. Therefore, he referred the case to Hazrat Ali (A) for a righteous judgement. Hazrat Ali called the Ansaria and asked her to tell him on oath that the time of her three menses had not till then elapsed after the death of her deceased husband and get her claim satisfled. At this Ha zratOsman(RA) asked the Hashmia ifsheagreed to the decision of .Hazrat Ali (A) who happened to be her cousin by blood. The Hashimite said : “Let the Ansaria say on oath what Hazrat Ali (A) has asked her to say and then inherit her share in the property of the deceased as his widow .” As the Ansari women did not take the oath and the Hashmia inherited the whole property of the deceased as her only widow. (Boharij : vol. IX, p. 483; Manaqib Shehr A'shob : vol.II, p. 193; Nasikhut-Tawarikh : vol. 2I, p. 737; Arjahul Matalib, p. 126, also Urdu Translation (Abu Turab, vol. 2, p. 255 55 by Allama Jazaeri). 4. A Child with Two Heads I. Once a question was put to Hazrat Ali (A) about the inheritance of a child having two heads, two chests but only one back. Hazart Ali (A) replied : Let him go to sleep and then call him by name his parents have given him. If one of them wakes up, take him to be only one, otherwise two and let him inherit accordingly. (Biharul Anwar, vol. 9, p. 486; Turuq-i-Hikamiah by Ibn-iQaiyyim, p. 53; also Abu Turab vol. 2, by AllamaJazaeri). 2. Once a lad was brought to Hazrat Omar. (RA) The lad has had two heads, two mouths, four eyes, four hands, four feet and two separate organs for passing urine and stool. Hazrat Omar (RA) was requested to solve the problem of his inheritance. Being puzzled he called Hazrat Ali (A) and sought for his advice in the matter. Hazrat Ali (A) said : Let him go to sleep. If the two heads snore simultaneously, the inheritance would be equal to one man's share, otherwise equal to two (two joined together) men's share (*). He proved to be two joined together . After some time when the twins grew up they wanted to marry. Hazrat Ali (A) was called again by Hazrat Omar (RA) to solve the problem. He said :

“The Cohabitation of man and wife before a human eye other than of themselves is unnatural and against the will of God.” Proceeding further he said : As they have now come of age and possess sexual feelings, they would soon die. And after a while it happened what was prophesied by the Holy Imam. 5. The Inheritance of a Mother and Her Child After Jang-i-Jamal (the war of the Camel) Hazrat Ali (A) was passing by a place where he saw the corpse of a woman whose new born child, also dead, was lying near her. When asked about them he was told that the woman had aborted after seeing the Army in action. Hazrat Ali (A) asked the people of the vicinity as to Who died first the mother or the child. He was told that the child died first. Hazrat Ali (A) ordered for penalty for both as follows ;(1) He divided the penalty for the child into three equal parts, kept one part for the mother and gave two of them to the father of the child. (2) He again divided the share of the mother of the child by two and handed over the dividend equally to her husband and her near relations. (3) He then divided the amount of penalty for the Woman also by two and handed over the dividend again equally to the husband of the Woman and her near relatives as before. Thus they were all compensated as commanded by Allah in the Holy Quran. The penalty was paid from Bait-ul-Mal (Public Exchequer) (Manaqib Shehr A'shob V 01. II, p. 194; Nasikhut Tawarikh V0l. III, p. 738). The Problems of Slaves and The Slave Girls 4. Full Punishment For a Slave A slave falsely accused a free man. Hazrat Ali (A) awarded him full punishment fixed for the crime. When requested to explain as to why he was awarded full punishment in that case while in other cases such as drinking stealing and adultery a slave is awarded only half of the punishment fixed for those crimes ? The case was explained by Hazrat Ali (A) as follows :“The other crimes you have just enumerated are the rights of Allah wherein He has given the rebate in question to the slaves and the slave-girls, but this case is the one wherein the rights of people are directly concerned. In such cases Allah does not want to interfere” (Wasael;) vol. 2I, chapter Qasaf (false accusation); Wafi, vol. II, p. 57). Kulaini (may peace be on him) has reported that a house had collapsed in Yeman and two children were picked up alive from the debris thereof. One of those children was free while the other one was a slave. When the case was brought to Hazrat Ali (A) for a decision, he decided that case, too, by ballot. The child who was free succeeded in the balloting and the whole property was given to him. The child who was a slave was set free (Qaza, p. 133).

Rare Cases of Insight Regarding Ecclesiastical Law
1. A Rare Example of Insight Regarding Ecclesiastical Law A man brought his slave to Hazrat Ali (A) and said: “Ya Amir ul-Momineen ! This slave of mine has married a woman without my permission.” Hazrat Ali (A) said to him. “Why don't you separate them.” Thereupon, the man ordered his slave : “O you bad man! Divorce your wife.” When Hazrat Ali (A) heard these words, he said to the slave that he was free either to divorce or not to divorce his wife. The master of the slave was taken aback when he heard these words of Hazrat Ali (A) and said to him. “Ya Amir ul-Momineen! You just said to me that I can separate the two. But now you are saying to the slave that was at liberty to divorce or not divorce his wife.” Saying this he solicited favour of the holy Imam (A) to explain to him his two different order:s in one and the same case. Hazrat Ali (A) enlightened the man thus :“When you ordered your slave you admitted interalia that you had permitted him to marry otherwise the marriage would have been unlawful and in that case you need not have to order him to divorce his wife, because divorce was necessary after only a lawful marriage. The result: The marriage was lawful as you have indirectly admitted. Therefore, your slave is now at liberty to divorce his wife or not.” (Bihar, vol. 9, p. 492). 2. The Case of a Marriage Wherein a Woman had Married a Man With the Condition That the Matter of Divorce Would Remain in her Hands It has been reported by Hazrat Imam Muhammad Baqir (A) that once a man during the period of Hazrat Ali (A) married a woman who had placed the condition of the marriage that the matter of divorce would remain in her hands in case he lived separately or married another woman. The man when sought adviceofHazrat Ali (A) in the matter he told him that the conditions of Allah in the case of a marriage were superior over all other conditions and all other conditions become null and void in comparison with the conditions of Allah. “ Allah, he said, has put the condition on a marriage i.e., has commanded that the matter of divorce in case of each and every marriage would remain in the hands of man and not the woman.” (Wafi, vol. 2I, p. 70). Allama Jazaeri while translating the above into urdu from Arabic vide page 272 of his book Abu Turab, vol. 2, has added a note thereto as follows :“The above decision of Hazrat Ali (A) throws light on the question as to whether the matter of divorce could religiously be the right of a woman or not.” Allama Jazaeri has discussed the point at length in his book referred to above, but we leave it for want of space in this small book. (Kaukab Shadani). 3. Second Marriage During the Probation Time (Iddah) of a Woman

Qarezi Abu Yusuf and Imam Ahmad Hambal reported that a woman who had married during probation was brought to Hazrat Omar. (RA) Hazrat Omar (RA) ordered that she should be separated from her husband and her dower be deposited in the Bait-ulmal (Public Exchequer). He added that he did not think that the dower was correctly connected with the marriage in question. “Therefore”, he said, “the man and the woman have both been deprived of each other in this case.” When Haziat Ali (A) heard of the decision of Hazrat Omar (RA) in the above case, he said : “If these people were ignorant of the religion law in this connection, none could deprive the woman of her right to the dower, because the man has already utilized his matrimonia rights.” He said further, “let them separate for the duration of th probation period, but he has the right to marry her again if he likes like others, and the marriage would then be lawful religiously.” When Hazrat Omar (RA) heard of this, he went to the pulpit and addressed the audience as follows :“If any of you have contracted such a marriage out of ignorance of Sunnah (religious law) he should correct it under the light of the decision of Ali.” Hazrat Omar (RA) then decided the case in question himself accordingly. (Manaqib Shehr A'shob : vol. 2, p. 183; Zakhair- ul-Uqba : p. 81; Arjhul Matalib, p. 124). 4. Coition Before and after ahe End of the Probation Period (Iddah) If a man is charged of coition with his divorced wife after the end of the probation period he will be awarded punishment as fixed by Ecclesiastical law according to a decision of Hazrat Ali (A), but if he is charged of the same act before the end of the probation period after divorce it would be deemed to be return to the original position and no punishment will have to be awarded therefor. (Mustadrik : vol. 2I, p. 126). 5. No Pardon after an Accusation is Proved to be False A woman accused her husband to have committed adultery. When the man was going to be punished therefor under the orders of Hazrat Ali (A). She said that she had pardoned him. Hazrat Ali (A) remarked. “Now there is no use of your pardoning him, because the charge has been proved. He must, therefore, be punished for the crime.” (Qaza and Teha : p. 165). 6. Accusing a Group of People Said Hazrat Ali (A) : “If some one accuses a group of people and the accusation is on investigation proved to be false the number of punishment would be according to the number of persons in the group so accused, provided the accuser has named all the persons in the group otherwise the number of the punishment would be according to the number of the people the person concerned has name .

(Qaza and Teha : p. 165). 8. A Gift for Hazrat Othman Once, Hazrat Osman was on his way to pilgrimage to Mecca and attired in the restricted costum (Ehram) of Haj (pilgrimage to Mecca). Meanwhile a man happened to bring a roasted bird to him as a gift for him and for his friends. Hazrat Osman did not seem to feel any restriction connect therewith, but his companions did not touch the meat. Thereupon, Hazrat Osman (RA) exclaimed: “Brothers! This meat of the bird is not prohibited for us, because we did not hunt the bird nor anyone else who is dressed in the restricted clothes of the pilgrimage. Therefore, I don't see any harm in eating this meat.” But the people present in his tent said, “You may not, but Hazrat Ali (A) does not like it despite all the explanation you have given in this connection. Then, Hazrat Osman called Hazrat Ali (A) through some one. Hazrat Ali (A) who was marking the camels there seemed a bit annoyed but still he accompanied the man to the tent of Hazrat Osman. (RA) Hazrat Osman (RA) said to him: “Ya Ali (A) ! You always seem to go against me in all the religious matters.” On this Hazrat Ali (A) said to the people present there. I ask you to tell on oath whether the Holy Prophet (SA) had not once refused the meat of a roasted wild donkey with the excuse that he and his companions were dressed in the restricted clothes of Haj and if the meat was not given to those who were not ?” About twelve persons present there said on oath that it had actually happened what had been described by Hazrat Ali (A). Then, Hazrat Ali (A) asked the people present there again . to say on oath as to whether five eggs of the camelbird were not once brought to the Holy Prophet (SA) as a gift when he was on his way to Mecca for Haj and as to whether had he not refused to eat them on the same place. About a dozen of people again said on oath that it had happened the same way as was described by Hazrat Ali (A). Thereupon, Hazrat Osman went inside his tent, leaving the gift with (hose who had brought it. (Musnad Ahmad bin Hambal vol. 1, p. l00-l04; Manaqib vol. 2, p. l94; Nasikhut Tawarikh vol. 3, p. 738, Kitabul Um lil Shafai Voi. 7, p. 257; Sunan-i-Baihaqi vol. V, p. 194; Kanzul Ummal Voi. Ill, p. 53, also Abu Turab (Urdu) by Allama Jazairi Voi. II, p. 280-281). 9. How to Put a Dumb on Oath Hazrat Ali (A) was once requested to describe how to a dumb on Oath. He said; “Praise is for Allah that He did not make me depart from this world before I had solved all the religious problems of the Muslim nation wherein they needed my help.” Thereafter, he described the way of putting a dumb on oath in a case wherein he or she is a defendent in the following manner. He said: “If a dumb person is accused of borrowing any thing from somebody and when he or she is called to a court of law and required to say on oath as to whether he or she

had or had not borrowed in kind or cash from the complainant in the case in question he or she shown the Holy Quran and asked as to what it was. He would certainly raise his or her finger towards the sky, there is to say, that it was the Book of Allah.” He then asked Qambar to bring a pen and an inkpot and wrote on a piece of paper the following words :“I take oath of the one and only Allah there is no God except Himself; Who knows all the visible and the hidden things; He desires His creature to be true and virtuous and is the most powerful; He who has the power to benefit and harm all. He who is kind and merciful; He Who has the power to ruin and catch any body. He likes to; He Who is aware of what is said and what is not said; I do not owe (such a such man or woman) here the person concerned has to be named any thing and he or she (name of the person concerned) has no right to ask me to refund (name the thing or the amount of cash whatever the case may be).” He then asked Qambar to wash the words from the piece of the paper and take the water to the last drop in a tumbular. Then he said to the people who had requested him to describe the manner in which a dumb was to be put on oath to “let the dumb involved in such a case to swallow the liquid prepared like this and the oath would be over.” Proceeding further, he said: “If the dumb person refuses to drink that water the charge is proved,” (Qaza p. 147). 10. The Funeral Prayer for a Deserter or a Fugitive From War not Allowed When Hazrat Ali (A) reached the dead of his side in the wars of Jamal, Siffeen and Nehrawan, he did not allow the funeral prayers for those who were wounded on the back, but he allowed the prayer for those who were wounded on the front side of their bodies and got them burried like the dead Muslims. (Qaza p. 179). 11. No Ransom Money for the Fugitives It has been reported by Asbagh bin Banatah that Hazrat Ali (A) used to pay ransom money only for those prisoners of war who were wounded on the front side of their bodies and get them freed thereby, but not those who were wounded in their backs. (Qaza p. 179). 14. Punishment for the Denial of Prophethood Kulaini has reported in 'Kafi' on the authority of Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (A) that Hazrat Ali (A) was once sitting in the Juma Mosque of Kufa when four persons were presented to him as prisoners with the crime that they were taking food during day time although they knew it that that was the Holy month of Ramzan. Hazrat Ali (A) talked to them as follows: “Did you take your food during day knowing that it was the month of Ramzan ?” “Yes, Sir.” ”Are You Jews ?” “No Sir”

“Christians ?” “No, Sir.” “What religion do you, then, belong to ?” “We are Muslims, Sir.” “Then you must be travellers ?” “No, Sir, we are the residents of this very city.” “Then you must be suffering from certain diseases of which others might not be aware, but you might be knowing them well ? as the Holy Quran says : “A man knows about himself and when a disease befalls him he knows it.” “Thank God, we are not suffering from any disease what.soever,” replied the prisoners. Hearing this Hazrat Ali (A) smiled and asked the prisoners. “Do you believe in the Unity of God and the Prophethood of Muhammad (SA)” ? The prisoners replied “We believe in the Unity of God, but we do not believe in Muhammad (SA) as a Prophet of God; we rather believe that Muhammad (SA) was only an Arab, who had invited people to gather round him.” Hazrat Ali (A) then said to them “If you denied the Prophethood of Muhammad (SA) after calling yourselves Muslims, I shall kill you all.” To this they replied: “You may do whatever you like.” Thereafter, no way out was left for Hazrat Ali (A) except killing them for the crime of apostasy. But he killed them by smoke gradually i.e., putting them in a covered ditch blocked on all the four corners except a hole to a similar ditch wherein they were put and through which smoke was passing to their ditch from the adjacent one where a fire was buring and putting the question to them as to whether they agreed for penitence for their crime of apostasy. But the prisoners were adamant enough not to agree to penitence with the result that all died without a word till they breathed their last. When the news of the above incident spread to other cities a group of Jews came from Medina to Kufa and requested for audience with Hazrat Ali (A) and it was duly granted. When they were presented to Hazrat Ali (A), they said to him: “Sir, we have heard that have invented a punishment for killing people which is against all the tents of Islam as well as those of Christianity and the religion of the Jews. We have, therefore, came to ask you, Sir, whether it is true or not.” Thereafter, they waited for an answer from Hazrat Ali (A) and it came as follows :“It put you on oath by the signs which were shown to Hazrat Musa (A) (Moses) and by the one who does not need any thing but is the whole and sole monarch of the Day of Judgement i.e., Allah to say as to after departure of Moses (A) a group of people was no brought to Yoosha bin Noon with the accusation that they believed in the Unity of God, but they had denied the Prophethood of Moses (A), although they had accepted him as a Prophet earlier and to whether the latter had not awarded the same punishment to them as have awarded to these so called Muslims now ?” All the Jews then said with one voice: “We now believe that you know the Secrets of Moses (A).” Thereafter their leader took out a document from under his cloak and showed to Hazrat Ali (A). After Hazrat Ali (A) had gone through the document he began weeping bitterly. The leader of the Jews asked him as to whether he could read Hebrew being an Arab, Hazrat Ali (A) replied in the affirmative and told his (Hazrat Ali AS) own name was written in the document and that was the reason of his shedding tears.

The Grand Jew requested Hazrat Ali (A) to show where his name was written in the document. Hazrat Ali (A) showed him his name and told him Elia stood for Ali in Hebrew language. Thereafter, the Grand Jew together with his folks recited the Kalma and became Muslims. (Biharul Anwar, vol. 9. p. 492). 5. Decision That Penitence Purifies a Sin It has been described by Suduq on the authority of Saad binTarif who has carried it from Asbagh that a man came to Hazrat Ali (A) and submitted to him that he had committed a crime and asked him to purify him. Hazrat Ali asked whether he was suffering from any major disease. When he replied in the affirmative, Hazrat Ali (A) asked him to go get the disease treated and then come back to him. When he came back, Hazrat Ali (A) asked him whether he repented what he had done. The man said, “Yes and wept bitterly. Then Hazrat Ali (A) told him that repentence had purified him as sincere repentenee and penitence was sufficient for purification. But it has been unanimously accepted that nobody else than an Imam can grant forgiveness like this. (Abu Turab, vol. 2, p. 118). Hazrat Ali (A) Ali! Thou art the rarest gem That the world has ever seen ; Thou art the embodiment great of godliness, beauty and love ; Thy spotless life so pure and good Inspires men to tread their upward path To the horis land of calm and bliss. First in battle and first in truth Thou stood's stately, sure and firm By Muhammad's dark and sunny days, Dined with him that Meraj night, And slept on his hallowed bed that perilous night From whence the Islamic age began. Full of wisdom and full of lore art thou As truly said the Holy Prophet greatFor at thy feet the two worlds sat Praising thee for thy talents rare ; Ali ! Thou shouldst be the first Caliph ! Immortal Ka'aba thy place of birth Immortal Koofa-Mosque thy place of death ; Ali Thou art a blessed God's own being ! Thou wert to thine murderer extremely kind Who clapped in chains was before thee brought ! Even as the sandal tree its fragrance yields To the wood-cutter that strikes it hard Thou set him free with a glorious grace

And offered him thy bread and milk These eternal charity deeds of thine The living world remembers and reveres sure ! Cursed be the men that envied thee And those that thought and spoke low of thee, Despite the virtuous birth and heritage divine ; Aided thus by false and impure men Did jarring sect into Islam creep But thou shinest above these all O Lord Like a steadfast star of the skies ! These numbers are but a frail tribute to thee My Lord, I implore thee--cast once thy gracious smile on tr One and one only, I implore thee, I am blessed. By the Courtesy of Mirza Ghulam Raza (Masolipatam)
You may need to use the karbala font attached to see the arabic letters

A Sermon without Dots

The knowledge, wisdom and eloquence of Imam „Ali b. Abi Talib (a) is well known among Muslims of all schools of thought. One such example of his mastery over the Arabic language manifested itself in this extempore sermon which, in its written form, is devoid of any dots !!
All praise be to Allah: the praised King, the affectionate Owner, the Fashioner of all who are born, the Recourse for every downtrodden, the Outstretcher of lands, the Establisher of firm mountains, the Sender of rain, the Alleviator of difficulties, the Knower and Perceiver of secrets, the Destroyer of kingdoms and Perisher of possessions, the Renewer of eras and their Repetitor, the Source of all things and their Destination. Widespread is His generosity and sufficient are the layered clouds and the supply of rain. He responds to the one who asks or hopes, giving wide and with abundance. I praise Him endlessly. I consider Him one as He is considered one by those who turn to Him. Lo ! He is Allah, there is no god for the nations except Him. No one can distort what He set upright and established. He sent Muhammad as the standard-bearer of submission (Islam), the leader for the rulers and preventer of their oppression, The crippler of the authorities of Wudd and Sawa` (two idols). He informed and educated, appointed and perfected. He founded the fundamentals and eased them in. He emphasized the appointed promise (Day of Judgment) and forewarned. Allah has linked him with honor and granted his soul the peace, and may Allah have mercy on his progeny and his venerated family; as long as the guiding stars shine, the crescent continues to rise, and the chant of the oneness (La ilaha illa Allah) is made to be heard around. May God protect ye! Work towards the best of deeds. So tread the path seeking the lawful, and give up the forbidden and abandon it. Listen to the command of Allah and be aware of it. Maintain the ties with relations and nurture them. Disobey desires and repel

them. Bond as kins with the righteous and pious, and discontinue the company of amusement and greed. Your groom is the most impeccable of free men by birth, most generous and honorable with glories, and of the sweetest of descent. Here he came to you, took your kin with permission, in marriage, the gracious bride. Offered a dowry, just as the Messenger of Allah did to Umm Salamah. Certainly, he [s] was the most gracious son-in-law. Kind to his progeny. He gave them in marriage to whom he wanted. He was neither confused in his choice of wife nor had an oversight. I ask Allah, on your behalf, for the lasting graciousness of His connection. And the continuation of His pleasures, and that He may inspire all: the reform of their own condition, and the preparation for their individual destiny and the hereafter. Gratitude is for Him forever and the praise for His Messenger Ahmad [s]. This sermon appears to have been delivered by Imam ‘Ali (a) on the occasion of someone’s marriage (nikah), and may well have been his own marriage. It has been quoted by several scholars such as:
  

Muhammad Rida al-Hakimi, Saluni qabl an tafqiduni, vol. 2, pp. 442-3. Sayyid al-Musawi, al-Qatarah min bihar manaqib Aal-Nabi wa al-`Itrah, vol. 2, p. 179 Hasun al-Dulafi, Fada’il Aal al-Rasul, p. 6

(What is so special about this sermon?
Those who know Arabic or can at least read the Qur‟anic script will appreciate that certain letters of the Arabic alphabet have dots associated with them. These letters are listed below and are used all the time in Arabic speech and written texts.
















To create any written script of any meaningful nature, without using any of these letters, is a difficult task. To deliver such a sermon without prior preparation, as Imam „Ali (a) is known to have done with all his sermons, is truly amazing!
[Note: The letter representing taa marbutah used to be written without dots in early Arabic script]

Are there any other such sermons?
Imam „Ali (a) once delivered another beautiful sermon which was without the letter alif !! This letter of the Arabic alphabet is undoubtedly the most commonly occurring character in the language. If composing a few meaningful sentences without dots is hard enough, how about delivering a sermon, one which is full of wisdom and which is many times the size of the one you have just seen, but without ever using a single alif !! This sermon is usually called al-Khutbah al-Muniqah and is recorded by many Muslim scholars. Amongst the Sunni scholars who quote it can be mentioned:  Muhammad b. Muslim al-Shafi‟i, Kifayat al-Talib, p. 248


Ibn Abi‟l Hadid al-Mu‟tazili, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 19, p. 140

How could Imam ‘Ali (a) accomplish such a feat?
Imam „Ali (a) derived his vast knowledge and striking eloquence by virtue of his long and close association with the Prophet Muhammad (s). The Prophet (s), with Divine inspiration, was the source of all such knowledge and wisdom and a teacher par excellence for Imam „Ali (a). To find out more about authentic Islam, as taught by Prophet Muhammad (s) and as explained by Imam ‘Ali (a) after him, visit:

A Sermon without Alif
There is another sermon without alif from ..

Know Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (a.s.)
Nahjul Balagaha An uparalled A book of sermons & letters by Imam Ali(as) | NahjulBalagha Details Sahifa Alavia - A beautiful collection of some supplications by Imam Ali(as) The Voice of Human Justice George Jordache Life of Imam Ali-as ( Seerat) More Books | More on Imam Ali link Ghadeer - Official appointment by the Prophet(as) as his successor + A Collection of traditions from the various schools of Islamic belief ,on the leadership (Imamate) and mastership (Wilaayat) of , Ali b. Abi Talib. A 119 page (11 mb Pdf) booklet . Imam Ali (as) & Ahlulbayt in the Quran | Hadith By the Prophet on Imam ali

(as) Two Miraculous sermons by Imam Ali (as)-Sermon without using any alphabets with dots ‫ & ج خ ف ظ ن ت خ ث ي‬A sermon w/o alphabet Alif ‫ا‬ Imam Ali (as) Mathematical brilliance samples | Download 'Selected

Judgements of Imam Ali(as)'- zip file Evidence of Imam's Miraculous birth inside the Kaaba pdf | More Photos of Rukn Yamani Imam Ali (as) role in each battle | Examples of Imam Ali (as) Moral virtues |

Imam Ali (as) Western views Know about the Family of Ali (as) :- Father :-Abu Talib (Also see book On Abutalib) , Wife:- the daugther of the Prophet(as), Syeda Fatima Zehra , Sons:- Imam Hassan(as) Imam Hussain (as) & Hazrat Abbas (as) (another book ) ,Daughter: Syeda Zainub (Another book) & Mother Fatima bint Asad , Grandson:- Imam Zainul Abideen(as) Ziaraat (visitation recitation ) of Imam Ali(as) Download Powerpoint Presentation 'Who is Ali'

Birth On the 13th of the month of Rajab, twenty-three years before the migration of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) a child was born in the family of Abu Talib, the light of whom kindled the whole World. Kunaab Mecci narrates about his birth: "We and Abbas (Ibne Abdul Mutalib) were sitting together when suddenly we saw Fatima bint-e-Asad moving towards the Kaabah in the condition having delivery pain and saying "Oh God I have faith in you and the Prophet ( i.e., Abraham) who by your command laid the foundation of this house. O God! I swear you by the same Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and swear you by the child in my womb make this birth comfortable and easy for me." This was the time when all of us saw with our own eyes that the wall of Kaabah

broke apart and Fatima bint-e-Asad entered into the Kaabah. Then the wall again united. We ran terrified and trembling to our houses to send our women into the Kaabah for the help and assistance of Fatima. We did our best but the door did not open. This event surprised all the people of Mecca. The women of Mecca were anxiously counting moments to meet Fatima till the time she came out of the Kaabah along with a beautiful baby, saying, "God has chosen me from among the ladies of Mecca and He made me His guest in His house and gave me meals and fruits of the heaven to eat. The ladies who were surrounding her in the form of a circle and escorting her to her home asked her, "What name have you given to this child?" She said: "When I was in the Kaabah, I heard a hidden voice call," Name this child "ALI". Yes! We are talking about Ali (A.S.) the pious man whose childhood and infancy period lasted in such a pure and chaste way that he himself stated in Nahjul Balaghah, "The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) used to pick me in his lap and embrace me and chew the food and put it into my mouth. Early Youth Ali Ibne Abi Talib describes this enlightening period of his age as under: The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) used to go the Cave of Hira but nobody except he (P.B.U.H.) and I did know about it. At the time when the religion of Islam had not yet reached the homes, he ( P.B.U.H.) and his wife Khatija were the only Muslims. I was the next person to them who saw the light of revelation and prophet hood and smelled the fragrance of the Prophet hood. When the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) of Islam was ordered by God to invite his family members to embrace Islam Ali ( A.S.) according to the advice of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) invited forty persons of the Prophet's family at his home. Although the food was quite little but all of them ate fully well. After the meal was over the Prophet (P.B.U.H .) spoke to those present saying, "Oh the sons of Abdul Mutalib, God has ordered me to invite you to embrace Islam and get you introduced to it." Whosoever, having believed in my Prophet hood, promises to help and assist me shall be my brother, deputy and successor and my caliph. He repeated this sentence thrice but no one except "Ali (A.S.)" gave a positive response. As many time as the Prophet ( P.B.U.H.) addressed the persons

present, nobody except Ali (A.S.) answered. Ali (A.S.) was rising again and again to his feet and promising help to him and announcing his faith. Evidence present at the Kaaba of his birth is at here Youth This is the very reason why the Prophet ( P.B.U.H.) said: "This Ali, is my brother and successor listen and lend ears to what he says and obey his orders." When Ali (A.S.) entered from his early youth into the phase of puberty, the part of age when all the human energies and powers are strong and firm, even in this part of the life he remained closely associated to the Prophet ( P.B.U.H.) like a flying moth which moves around the Candle. He defended Islam and the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) with his strong, energetic arms. When the enemy besieged and surrounded the Muslims in the battle of Hunain and they abandoned and left behind the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) running away for their lives, it was only and only Ali (A.S.) who defended and saved the Prophet (P.B.U.H .) and made the enemies retreat and take to their heals. Ali (A.S.) killed Marhab the chief of army of Jews in the Khyber battle, whose power and bravery was making everybody tremble but Ali (A.S.) cut him into two and pulled apart the gate of the Khyber fort which used to be opened and closed by twenty men together. Ali ( A.S.) used it as a bridge over the trench for the Islamic army to cross over to the Khyber fort. Many such events are the specimens and evidences about the faith, and spirit of self-sacrifice and devotion of Ali (A.S.). Self-Sacrifice and Devotion There is no doubt to it that every body loves his soul and very rarely gets ready to sacrifice it for another person but because of the fact that Ali (A.S.) loved the soul of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) even more than his own one, he got prepared to lay his life for him.

The event takes shape like this. When the polytheists saw that they are in danger, they jointly made a firm determination to take the Prophet ( P.B.U.H.) by surprise and martyr him. So all of them gathered in "Dar un Nadva" and choose one person from each family so that every tribe gets involved in getting Mohammad (P.B.U.H.) killed and then no one could take the revenge of him. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had come to know about this conspiracy through revelation. God ordered him (P.B.U.H.) to migrate from Mecca in the darkness of the night. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) needed someone, prepared to sacrifice his life and must be a trustworthy secret holder. Hence, there was no one else except Ali (A.S.) in whom he confided, and told him "God has informed me that the infidels will break through the house to kill me so today you sleep on my bed." Ali (A.S.) smilingly accepted it. Then the time came when the darkness of the night covered everything and Ali (A.S.) was sleeping on the Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) bed calmly and peacefully and the Prophet ( P.B.U.H.) came out of his house and started proceeding towards the Cave of Saur. The infidels besieged the house and got prepared with their swords and spears to attack it. The sooner they were instructed to make it, they break through the house rushing with naked swords. But when they found Ali ( A.S.) laying on the bed of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) they immediately moved out of the house desperate and astonished, and sent a few horsemen to search the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). But not very long afterwards they too returned defeated and hopeless.

Ali (A.S.) and Holy War Islam is the religion of peace and tranquility and does not like killing, plundering, and bloodshed. But if some one kills another without any reason then Islam has strong punishment to deal with him. Of course, if an enemy attacks the Muslims then by the standards of wits, common

sense, and religious law, self defense which as a form of Jehad becomes essential and indispensable. All the battles of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) in which Ali (A.S.) fought armed and truthfully were defensive battles. Ali (A.S.) was such a brave, faithful, holy warrior who never got frustrated and upset and tired of the fighting and battles. He was afraid of no one except God. He used to say "By God if I see that on one side is the truth and on the other side all the rest of the people I, without caring and paying heed to those reproaching me, will fight all alone with my sword, on the way and path of the right, against them. Ali's (A.S.) way or Training The city of Kufa was the capital of the Islamic Government. People from all over the World used to gather at that point to get the benefit of knowledge and learning from that great Islamic University. One of those days two men came across each other in the vicinity of the city one of them was Ali (A.S.) and the other was a Christian who did not recognize him. The Christian man was moving towards the suburban area of Kufa, where as, Ali ( A.S.) was on his way to kufa. They mutually agreed to accompany each other for a while, talking to each other, so that they do not get tired. They reached a point where two ways split out, so that each one wanted to move on one of those two different roads. The Christian bade Farwell and went on his way but he observed that his Muslim companion, whose way was on the opposite side, was moving towards him. So he stopped and questioned him, "Don't you want to go to kufa?" Ali (A.S.) said, "Yes". The Christian man said, "Then why are you coming towards this direction?"

Ali (A.S.) replied, "I wish to accompany you to a certain length of distance because the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) said, "when two persons are together on a way (journey companions) they get a right over each other." "Now that you have got a right upon me, I go along with you up to a certain distance so that I must pay you (discharge) that light of yours in this world. Then I will part off on my own way." The Christian man was much pleased and moved by this humanly attitude and conduct and he liked his talk and said, "It is befitting that I should also embrace Islam which has such a culture and students." His amazement and astonishment was only too enhanced when he discovered that his travel companion is Ali (A.S.), the ruler of Islam. So he immediately accepted and embraced Islam at his hand.

Self-preservation of Ali ( A.S.) When human being is in the normal and natural condition, he can better be the master of his wits and control himself and take distance and move away from the sins and bad acts and get himself aside from them. But when the flames of anger, rage or jealousy are lit, then it is only with difficulty that man could think and keep in view fact and God. Therefore, most of the crimes are committed at times when man looses his normal natural condition. But, Ali (A.S.) who was a self made and sublime person his approach and behavior was different than that of the others. He, in all the conditions, kept his attention focused and concentrated on God and took distance from anything which did not have the approval of God, whether he was at home or in the battle field, both in joy or anger. We would better have a glance upon his behavior and conduct in the battlefield to prove our point. In the battle of "the trench" all the people of Medinah dug up a great trench on the sides of the city and filled it up with water to block the enemy's

way. Amer bin Abduwad, the famous and gallant Arab warrior among the enemy army, was challenged the Muslims to send him a match for the fight. Nobody among the Muslims plucked the courage to give him a response and came out to face him. On this occasion Ali (A.S.) came out taking stable and strong steps to face him with a heart full of faith. He said, "Oh Amro do not boast off too much about your bravery and man-hood. The one who has the power and energy to fight you is standing before you". Amro viewed him and said: "You would better turn back I do not like to kill you because I was a friend of your father." Ali (A.S.) replied: "By God, I like killing you." Amro got angry and climbed down from the horse and quickly attacked Ali (A.S.) with his sword but the sword did strongly strike Ali's (A.S.) shield and so it was not effective. Then Ali (A.S.) by blowing a strike of his sword made him fall to the earth and climbed upon his chest to kill him. But Amro, out of his rage and anger spitted at Ali's ( A.S.) face. Suddenly Ali (A.S.) came down from his chest and started walking on the ground. Then he came again towards him. Amro enquired him, "what is the meaning of it that firstly you struck me an effective blow and then let me go free?" Ali (A.S.) said, "Oh Amro I use my sword for God and not myself? At the time when I saw you fall to the ground and climbed your chest, you spit at my face and made me angry. Had I killed you in such condition I would had no reward to my credit because I was angry. Therefore, I got up from your chest and started walking so that my anger and hot temper is cooled down and subsided and I may do my job purely for God." The bravery, ferocity, self-preservation and control of Ali had a very deep effect over the Arab champion. And attracted the attention and eyes of both the friends and foes to such an extent that the friends raised the slogan of Takbeer (Allaho Akbar) from

the depth of their heart and the enemies hearts were filled up with tenor and harassment, so far so, that it ended upon the defeat of the enemy. This is the sole reason why his deed was decisive and fate making such as the Prophet said about it. "The job that Ali (A.S.) did on the day of the Khandak (battle of trench) and the sword strike by him (against the enemy) is more precious to God then the collective prayers of the mankind and jins together.

Ali's (A.S.) Mercy and Compassion We learnt about the bravery and dauntlessness of Ali (A.S.) in the battlefield but we should not omit this point that if a man is brave, ferocious, and dauntless but he does not possess the qualities of mercy and generosity then that bravery and gallantry has no value. The bravery of Ali ( A.S.), when he stepped into the battlefield, was such that he did care and was attentive to the injured, thirsty and hungry ones. He would attack an aggressive enemy and kill him but when he came across an injured thirsty and hungry enemy he would save him from thirst and hunger and if he was injured then he would extend his treatment. He did fiercely fight the enemy but never killed him while he was in a thirsty or hungry condition and he never destroyed and dismantled the houses of the enemy. Because he considered all these acts as against the norms of nobility and generosity. This is the reason, why having taken the river water from the control of the Muawiyah's forces in the sifeen battle he ordered his warriors to let the water free for all and sundry and do not resist against the army men of Muawiyah if they wanted to use the water. The army men of Ali (A.S.) objected and said "the enemy having taken the water's control in their hand had stopped us from using it. So that they wanted us to submit to them through this way. We would better do the same to them." Ali (A.S.) replied, "No we will fight the enemy manly and we consider this act against

the human nobility and generosity. If we do the same what they did then what would be the difference between them and us? Beware, works are for God and we should not take steps against His wish and will."

Ali (A.S.) Conduct during his ruler ship

1. Siding with the masses Ali (A.S.), with all the difficulties that he had to face, used to personally attend the affairs and works. He would get himself informed about the problems of the people. He did not drive away his enemies due to personal enmities. So far so that he used to give them their rights from the bait-ul-mal (Islamic treasury). Moreover, he did not give any privileges to his friends due to their friendship. He continuously used to order his officials and workers to have a conduct of justice with the people and if he observed any misdeed or misconduct of his subordinates and workers he did not spare them. So when one of the ladies known as Sooda approached him for justice, he was then offering his prayers. He shortened his prayer and smilingly greeted her and asked, "What is it that you want?" With tears rolling on her face, Sooda complained about the tax officer and his excesses. He, in the same standing condition of his prayers, wept and said: "Oh God be a witness that I have not ordered them to commit excesses and aggressions against your slaves." He at once picked up a skin piece and jotted down the dismissal order of his official and gave it to Sooda to take it to him as soon as possible. Another day he received the information that son of Hunaif (the Governor of Basra) made himself present on a very colorful, richly provisioned dinner table of one of the nobles and notables and possibly the blood thirsty and cruel chance seekers and opportunists may make the most of his political station and position. He got seriously annoyed and reprimanded him for this act of his and wrote him a letter saying. "I have heard that you joined a richly provisioned (colorful) dinner table which the poor were not allowed to join. Be aware! That I am your Imam, leader and chief if I wish and am inclined to it I can lay hand and provide

myself with the best food but I will not do such a thing because it is possible that there might be some hungry people in the nooks and corners of my country who go to sleep with empty stomachs. I have contented myself with a simple dress and small quantity of food, which is bread and dates, from this world of yours. Although you can not do this, which I practice but try it that your way and path is not segregated from that of mine." He, through this letter, gave him a good advice and exhortation and reminded him about his duty. Imam Ali (A.S.) lived his life with such a justice and equity that when Muawiyah a staunch and extreme enemy of Ali ( A.S.) met one of his companions "Addi-bin-Hatim" and asked him, "How did you find Ali (A.S.) during his reign and rule?" He replied, "The oppressive and coercive ones did not have the courage of oppression during his reign and the weak ones always took benefit from his justice and never allowed disappointment find its way towards them. So that he repeatedly used to say, "Is it right and just that people consider and think I am their leader and Imam but I do not share their difficulties and hardships?" Still again, we read in the history that one day the governors accompanied by his old friend Ibn-e-Abbas came to see him. They saw their leader repairing and mending his shoes. Ali (A.S.) turned his face towards them and said, "What do you think is the price of this shoe?" They replied, "It value is not much. It cann't be more than a few Dirhams." He said, "By Lord this post that I have got, if I could not make use of it in connection with the salvation and safety of the poor, have not and arresting and stopping the cruelties or restoration of the right and truth, then for me it's value would be lesser than this shoe." 2. Canceling the distinctions and Privileges The moment people took oath of an allegiance at his hand and accepted his caliphate he climbed the pulpit and tribune and addressed them, "By God till the time I possess even one single palm date tree in Medinah. I will not take anything from the bait-ul-mal (Islamic treasury). His brother Aqeel stood up and said, "Do you take me equal to a black skinned living in Medinah?"

He said, "Oh brother sit down, you do not have any superiority over that black man except through faith and piety." One summer night his brother Aqeel invited him to dinner at his house so that he may attract the attention of his brother towards himself and he increases his monthly stipend. He said, "Oh brother from where did you procure and provide this dinner." He replied "For a few days, I and my wife spent lesser amount of money thus saved the surplus money to invite you to dinner." He said, "From tomorrow onwards I would issue an order that your monthly salary may be curtailed and decreased to the equal of the amount that you saved because, you can, as per your own confession, spend lesser than that." Aqeel was very much perturbed and annoyed and he started shouting appealingly. Ali (A.S.) picked up a piece of iron lying near him heated it up (on a nearby lamp) and took it near his hand. Aqeel cried, "Oh I am burnt." Ali (A.S.) said, "What a surprise that you are so much afraid and cry of a fire which is provided by me alone. How are you prepared to get me burnt in the fire of God's anger? These are the money and property of the people and I am the trustee and custodian of them." Again, we observe that a group of the officials objected up on him and said, "Had you given a larger contribution and portion to the rebellious and the governors, you could run and manage the newly established Islamic government in a better way. Then, you might have ruled with authority and justice. Imam Ali (A.S.) replied, "What a surprise you want me to lay the foundations of my government, which is formed in the name of Islam, upon the pillars of excess and injustice? By God, I will definitely never do such a work."

Moreover, had the Muslim's money and property been my own property I would not have done this thing still less all of it belongs to the people and I am not more than a trustee.

3. Attending the Complaints Ali (A.S.) during his ruler ship personally attented to the complaints. During the hot days of summer, when all the people rested at their homes, he sat by the shadow of a wall, so that if someone had a complaint he might reach him and tell him about it. One of the hot scorching summer days, when he was perspiring sitting besides and leaning at the wall. A woman who was depressed and disturbed came and said, "My husband has committed excess and ousted me from the house in this hot weather. I wish you to attend to my problem." Ali (A.S.) hung his head down and said, "Oh lady the weather is hot, and can you possibly wait till it becomes better. Then I will accompany you and attend to your matter. The woman said, "I am afraid that the temper and anger of my husband may shoot up even higher. It is better that you do the needful right away. Ali (A.S.) said, "very well, you walk on and I follow you." Ali (A.S.), along with the lady, came to the door of the young man and called him out of the house. He did not recognize Ali (A.S.) and knew that his wife has called this man to her help. Ali (A.S.) said, "This woman says you turned her out of the house. I have come to advise you that you should have the fear of God and be kind, nice and do good to your wife. The self-loving, egotist giving an insulting reply to Ali (A.S.) said, "This matter is not your concern. I would do whatever I please. Now, when she has brought you along with her I shall burn her with fire." Ali (A.S.) was angry and annoyed at this response of the man and shouted objecting. Thereafter, he laid his hand on his sword to punish the youth. When people heard the loud voice of the Imam, they rushed out of their houses. As their eyes met Ali (

A.S.), they respectfully came close to him and saluted and greeted him. The rude and impolite youth knew that he was facing Ali (A.S.). So he got embarrassed, loosing his wits fell down to the ground and started making excuses and apologizes and said, "I will accept whatever you say and hereafter I shall respect my wife and not annoy her." Ali (A.S.) said, "I hope you will do the same." Then he addressed the woman saying, "return to your home, I hope that you would also he a good wife to your husband."

The Ghadeer Affair

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) set out for the pilgrimage of God's house with a large Caravan in the 10th Hijra, so that the people may perform their Hajj rituals with great fervor, in dignified and magnificent way, because that was the last Hajj of the Prophet ( P.B.U.H.). The rituals were performed very well and the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) returned to Medinah along with his companions. On his way back, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) was very anxious. His anxiety was about his followers and the ummah. He was uneasy and anxious about the events, which were to take place after his death. The actors and jugglers among the ummah, were waiting for his death and had preplanned to deviate and de-track the Imamate and leadership from its course. He sees all the hypocrites who disguised as his friends; beat their heads and chests for him. But they have not committed any blunder, folly and wrong yet, so that he may publicly disgrace and dishonor them and prevent them (from doing what they intend). He on one side, views all the incidents of the history and on the other, he must perform the mission that God has handed him in connection with Ali ( A.S.), that duty and mission is the caliphate of Ali (A.S.) that he must choose and select him as his successor and heir, and put an end to the ambitions of the chance seekers. Those who had nominated each one of themselves for the post of caliphate and had made propaganda among the people that the Prophet ( P.B.U.H.) will choose us as his heirs and successors. The call of the angel of revelation is reflecting in the heart and soul of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) as if still he is listening to what he said, "you have a great mission ahead, if you did not perform this job then you have not done the

Prophetic duty and mission at all." You must know, that God will save you from the deceitfulness and tricks of the enemy. Yes, the successor of the sun of Prophet hood should be the sun of Willayat (guardianship), possessing all the perfections, completeness and values of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). Who else could that be except Ali Ibne Abi Talib ( A.S.)? Ali (A.S.), who was many times introduced by the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) with the words such as: "'Ali (A.S.) is the wisest of all my ummah (followers).' 'I am the city of knowledge and wisdom and Ali is (like) its gate.' 'Whosoever desires to have access to my wisdom should learn it from Ali.'" This is the very reason that only Ali ( A.S.) can go up the cathedra (tribune) and say amid the people. "Oh people, ask me whatsoever you desire, before a time comes that you loose me." The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) made up his mind and decided it to choose Ali ( A.S.) as his successor on the command and at behest of God, so that, he may complete and make the Islam perfect, as God had ordered him to do. The day of Ghadeer, became a day in the history when God gave the good news to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and said, "Today is the day when I have made Islam to be a perfect (religion) and completed and finalized my blessings upon you (Muslims)." What a fruitful Hajj and a holy return. There were approximately one hundred and twenty thousand men accompanying the Prophet ( P.B.U.H.). All of them reached a place known as "Ghadeer-e-Khum" on the land of "Juhfa". The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) ordered them to stop. All of them did stop at the behest of the Prophet (P.B.U.H .). They were saying to themselves, "It appears that some vitally important problem has confronted us." It was just the same that they were thinking of. They built a tribune with the camel saddles for the Prophet ( P.B.U.H), heralds were appointed amid the gathering to repeat and call out the words of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), so that, all the people may hear. He (P.B.U.H) went atop the tribune while he was surrounded by his friends and said: "Oh people! I performed my Prophetic mission and did put in endeavor to the maximum of my energy that I possess. You should know that I leave two valuable (weighty) things among you after myself (after my death) so that these two will never at all get separated from each other. 1. The Holy Quran, the Book of God. 2. My Ahle Baith [People of the house, the Imam Ali (A.S.) Fatima (A.S.), Hassan (A.S.), Hussain (A.S.) and nine Imams from the descendents of Hussain

(A.S.)]. Then, he took the hand of Ali (A.S.) and hoisted it like a flag, so that all of the people might see. Thereafter, he said, "I am the guardian (wali) of whosoever, (he should know that) Ali is also his guardian. Oh God! Be the friend of the friends of Ali and be the enemy of his enemies. Help those who help him and be the enemy of anyone who fights him. Yes, those who are present convey my words to those who are not present here. I hope they will lend ears and accept it." Full details about Ghadir event with scanned book evidences click HERE

How did Ali (A.S.) get the Government? The opportunists, who had embraced Islam for the sake of seeking power and made themselves, move along on the path of Prophet (P.B.U.H.), held confidential and secret meetings to oust the caliphate from the family of Bani Hashim. They were counting days to achieve their ends and to put into practical shape what they had planned to do, because they were aware that they are face to face with a person whose past services for Islam are not hidden and are clear to everybody. The Prophet ( P.B.U.H.) had made a plenty of recommendations about him and particularly invited all to swear in an oath of allegiance for him. After the death of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), all the plans were put into practice and materialized one after the other. So that Ali ( A.S.) became all alone, and did not have any alternative except remaining silent. For, he only thought of Islam and did not pay any attention towards his post and station. And had he drawn the sword then the only desire of his enemies would have taken practical shape, that is to say, no sign of Islam would have been left back. The silence of Ali (A.S.) and Fatima Zahra (A.S.) and the immoralities and irregularities of the previous power seekers, particularly the cruelties and excesses of the officials and agents of the Bani Ommayides dynasty, whose influence had gone

up during the regime of third Caliph Usman, had made the people aware and all of them knew that the Islamic Caliphate had turned into the stage of political actors and stooges and what God and the Prophet ( P.B.U.H.) had meant was quite different from those things. Resultantly the displeasure and dissatisfaction of people reached it's climax and the spark of revolution was kindled in the hearts of the people, which erupted like a volcano, so that, no one had the means and power to resist and stand up to it. People attacked the house of Usman in the shape of a flood, showing camel like anger and grudge, a camel who throws foam out of its mouth due to anger. These out numbered and countless people, who made the attack, killed him. People were so enraged and furious that they even did not pay any attention and notice to Imam Hasan ( A.S.) and Imam Hussain (A.S.) who were sent by Imam Ali (A.S.) to prevent Usman from being slain. Imam Hassan (A.S.) was injured in this disturbance. People rushed towards Ali's (A.S.) house with blood dripping out of their swords and they were burning with fever and fervor of excitement and commotion. They insistently and requesting dragged him out and took the oath of allegiance and chose him as their leader and ruler.

Why Ali's (A.S.) Government faced defeat? Although Ali (A.S.) had told the people, while they were taking the oath of allegiance, that, "I will act upon the right and will not sell my religion for anybody's world (wishing to gain material), and will not hand over the power to this person or that person without seeing reason. I will take into consideration their past activities and if I observe any violation and breach of law by my officials I will not spare them, I will dismiss them immediately. I will act decisively and peremptorinessly and will not have any fear of any reproaching and blaming. I will not give Baith-ul-mal's

wealth to this and that person without reason though he may be my son. But alas, the materialist and ease and comfort seekers did not welcome the right government of Ali (A.S.). They abandoned and quit Ali (A.S.) at the initial stage and created chaos, disorder and mutiny for him. Talha and Zubair, who were experienced men, went to Mecca and provoked Ayesha ( R.A.) to rise up for the sake of taking vengeance of Usman's blood. They by taking benefit of the station of Ayesha (R.A.), who was the wife of Prophet, gathered a large group around her. And, with a big army, they moved hastily towards Ali (A.S.). They had told the illiterate people that Ali (A.S.) was the murderer of Usman. As a result, they shed the blood of a group of Muslims and shifted its responsibility towards Ali (A.S .). After this incident Muawiyah, that cunning fox, who was discharged by Ali (A.S.) perceived a very good chance for his obstinacy and resistance. He rose against Ali (A.S.) from Syria and declared war against him. These battles were continuing, when a group named Khwarij came into existence among the army men of Ali (A.S.). This was a group, which considered neither of Ali (A.S.), nor Muawiyah, and Amro Aas suitable for ruler ship. They, under the slogan of "Rule is only for God," started a mutiny and adventure. Finally, they martyred Ali (A.S.) but they did not succeed in killing Muawiyah and Amro Aas. This is how Ali's (A.S.) Government was defeated and sacrificed upon its own Justice (righteousness) meaning thereby, if Ali (A.S.) had ruled cunningly treacherously like Muawiyah he would had never been killed.

Martyrdom of Ali (A.S.) After the battle of Neherwan was over, group of Khwarij daily held a meeting in Mecca and wept over their dead, those killed in Neherwan. One day, they told each other, "Sitting here and weeping is of no use. We should kill these three persons Ali ( A.S.), Muawiyah and Amro Aas, who destroyed the Islamic State and killed our brothers."

They invited three volunteers to perform these errands. Ibn-e-Muljim stood and said, "I will kill Ali (A.S.)." Hajjaj bin Abdullah, under took killing Muawiyah and Amro bin Bakr Taimeemi said, "I will kill Amro Aas." The three of them made a commitment together that they would materialize their plan on the 19th of Ramadan. Then, each one of them moved towards the place of his mission, so that they reach there and wait for the date, which was fixed. But alas, the other two did not succeed in achieving there end, whereas, Ibn-eMuljim did succeed. Ibn-e-Muljim came to Kufa and contacted the enemies of Ali (A.S.) and lived in their house till the 19th of Ramadan approached. One day Ali (A.S.) came across him in the streets of Kufa. He wanted to hide himself. But Ali ( A.S.) said, "I know for what purpose you have come to Kufa." As soon as Ibn-e-Muljim heard these words, he trembled and his legs could no more carry him. He said to Ali (A.S.), "Oh Ali (A.S.) when it is so (that you know) release the orders of my being killed or put me in the prison or banish me off. Ali ( A.S.) had a look upon him and said, "Although I can put into practice each one of your suggestions, but Islam does not deem pre-crime punishment, fair. So I am obliged to let you go free. Perhaps you may repent upon your decision. At last, on the 19th of Ramadan of the 40th Hijra the son of Muradi opened apart Ali's (A.S.) head and the mountain of faith and piety tumbled and crumbled down making the world of Islam mournful. After Ali (A.S.) cried on the prayer place (when injured), "By the God of Kaabah I have succeeded." The haven's angel Jabriel shouted, "By God, the pillars of guidance are demolished. Ali ( A.S.) has been martyred." People rushed out of their houses and arrested the killer of Ali (A.S.) and handed him over to Imam Hassan (A.S.), and carried Ali (A.S.) with a blood stained face to his house. Imam Hassan (A.S.) imprisoned the killer and informed his father about it. Imam Ali (A.S.) told his son, "Oh Son! This man who is my killer and he is your prisoner, look after his food and water and do not molest him. If I survive I know what to do with him and if I die then do not strike him but one blow." Alas, Ali (A.S.) did not survive for this ummah. He passed away on the 21st of Ramadan at the age of 63 years. His pure body was burried secretly at Najaf (Iraq)

Hazrat Imam Ali Ibn e Abi Talib a.s according to Hadith's of Prophet Hazrat Muhammad s.a.w .

The Prophet (s) said, "Ali (a) is the door of servitude, and whoever passes through that door is a true believer." Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of Al-Hakim Al-Nisabori; Kenz AlOmal, 6/156; Al-Dilmi. The Prophet (s) said, "Ali (a) is the Imam of goodness, the fighter against iniquity, the helper of those who come to his aid, and the deserter of those who desert him." Kenz Al-Omal, 6/153; Al-Darqatani. The Prophet (s) said, "Ali (a) is the Imam of the pious, the prince of believers, and the leader of the resplendent." Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of Al-Hakim Al-Nisabori, 3/129; Kenz Al-Omal, 6/153. The Prophet (s) said, "Ali (a) is to me what Haroun was to Musa." Mustadrak AlSahihain of Al-Hakim Al-Nisabori, 3/137; Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 65, 104; Al-Tabarani; HAliyat Al-Awliya', 1/63; Akhtab Khawarizm, 229. The Prophet (s) said, "Ali (a) holds a right over this nation like the right of a father over his son." Muslim, 2/361; Al-Tirmidhi, 2/299; Al-Hakim, 3/130; Musnad Ahmad, 3/198; Al-Nisa'i, 7; Asad Al-Ghaba, 3/40. The Prophet (s) said, "Ali (a) is with the Qur'an, and the Qur'an is with Ali." AlBukhari, 5/19; Muslim, 2/360; Al-Tirmidhi, 5/304; Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of AlHakim Al-Nisabori, 3/109; Ibn Majah, 1/28; Musnad Ahmad, 3/328. The Prophet (s) said, "Ali (a) and his shi^a are the successful ones." Ibn AlMaghazeli, 47; Mizan Al-^Itidal, 2/313. The Prophet (s) said, "Ali (a) is the door of my knowledge, and the one who will clarifies for my nation that which I was sent with." Tafsir Al-Tabari, 3/171; Shawahid Al-Tanzil, 2/356; Al-Darr Al-Manthour, 6/379; Yanabi^ Al-Mawda, 61.

The Prophet (s) said, "Love for Ali (a) is faith, and hatred for Ali is hypocrisy." Ibn AlMaghazeli, 67; Al-Khawarizmi, 236; Fara'id Al-Samateen; Yanabi^ Al-Mawda. The Prophet (s) said, "Ali (a) is the partition between Heaven and Hell." Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of Al-Hakim Al-Nisabori, 3/127; Kenz Al-Omal, 5/30; Al-Jami^ of AlSuyuti, 1/374; Al-Tirmidhi; Ibn Maghazeli, 80. The Prophet (s) said, "The position of Ali (a) amongst the people is like Surat Qul Hu Allahu Ahad in the Qur'an." Muslim, 1/48; Al-Tirmidhi, 2/299; Al-Nisa'i, 27; Musnad Ahmad, 6/299; Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 191. The Prophet (s) said, "Ali (a) is the beloved between two friends, myself and Ibrahim." Yanabi^ Al-Mawda, 88; Fara'id Al-Samateen; Bea^ Al-Abrar; Moniq Ibn Ahmad Al-Khawarizmi. The Prophet (s) said, "Whoever splits with Ali (a) has split with me, and whoever splits with me has split with God." Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 45; Yanabi^ Al-Mawda, 181. The Prophet (s) said, "Ali (a) is from me and I am from him, and he is the protector of every true believer after me." Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 69; Yanabi^ Al-Mawda, 125. The Prophet (s) said, "Ali (a) is the most beloved of God and His Prophet in all of creation." Kenz Al-Omal, 5/33; Al-Riyadh Al-Nudhra, 2/211; Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 219. The Prophet (s) said, "Mentioning Ali (a) is a form of worship, and looking upon him is a form of worship." Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of Al-Hakim Al-Nisabori, 3/123; Kenz Al-Omal, 6/156; Al-Tabarani; Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 240, 278; Al-Khawarizmi, 62. The Prophet (s) said, "Love for Ali (a) is a good deed, so don't ruin it with bad deeds." Al-Tabarani; Yanabi^ Al-Mawda, 2/3. The Prophet (s) said, "Ali (a) holds the position of the Ka^aba." Mustadrak AlSahihain of Al-Hakim Al-Nisabori, 3/122; Musnad Ahmad, 3/82; Al-Tabarani, 6/155; Kenz Al-Omal. The Prophet (s) said, "Ali (a) stands in relation to me as my head to my body."

Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of Al-Hakim Al-Nisabori, 3/141; Al-Jami^ of Al-Suyuti, 1/583; Tarikh Baghdad of Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi, 1/51; HAliyat Al-Awliya', 1/182; AlRiyadh Al-Nudhra, 2/219. The Prophet (s) said, "Oh, Ali, Jibreel has informed me that God has married you to Fatima." Manaqib Al-Imam Ali from Al-Riyadh Al-Nudhra, p. 141. The Prophet (s) said, "Oh, Ali, God has commanded me to marry you to Fatima."AlSawaiq Al-Muhariqa,. ch. 4, p. 142; Dakha'ir Al-Uqubi, p. 30 & 31; Tadhkirat AlKhawas, p. 276; Manaqib Al-Imam Ali from Al-Riyadh Al-Nudhra, p. 141; Nur AlAbsar, p. 53. The Prophet (s) said, "Verily, God married Ali to Fatima."Al-Sawaiq Al-Muhariqa, p. 173. The Prophet (s) said, "The first people to enter Paradise will be Ali and Fatima."Nur Al-Absar, p. 52; related by similar wording in Kenz Al-Omal, v. 13, p. 95. The Prophet (s) said, "The verse of purification was revealed concerning five people: myself, Ali, Hassan, Hussein, and Fatima."Is^af Al-Raghibeen, p. 116; Sahih Muslim, Kitab Fadha'il Al-Sahaba. The Prophet (s) said, "Fatima is more beloved to me than you, oh Ali, and you are dearer to me than her."Majma^ Al-Zawa'id, v. 9, p. 202; Al-Jami^ Al-Sagheer, v. 2, p. 654, n. 5761; Muntakhab Kenz Al-Omal, v. 5, 97; Asad Al-Ghaba, v. 5, p. 522; Yanabi^ Al-Mawadda, v. 2, ch. 56, p. 79; Al-Sawaiq Al-Muhariqa, ch. 3, p. 191

Two Miraculous sermons by Imam Ali (as) 1. A Sermon without Dots (nuqta) The knowledge, wisdom and eloquence of Imam ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (a) is well known among Muslims of all schools of thought. One such example of his mastery over the Arabic language manifested itself in this extempore sermon which, in its written form, is devoid of any dots !!

All praise be to Allah: the praised King, the affectionate Owner, the Fashioner of all who are born, the Recourse for every downtrodden, the Outstretcher of lands, the Establisher of firm mountains, the Sender of rain, the Alleviator of difficulties, the Knower and Perceiver of secrets, the Destroyer of kingdoms and Perisher of possessions, the Renewer of eras and their Repetitor, the Source of all things and their Destination. Widespread is His generosity and sufficient are the layered clouds and the supply of rain. He responds to the one who asks or hopes, giving wide and with abundance. I praise Him endlessly. I consider Him one as He is considered one by those who turn to Him. Lo ! He is Allah, there is no god for the nations except Him. No one can

distort what He set upright and established. He sent Muhammad as the standardbearer of submission (Islam), the leader for the rulers and preventer of their oppression, The crippler of the authorities of Wudd and Sawa` (two idols). He

informed and educated, appointed and perfected. He founded the fundamentals and eased them in. He emphasized the appointed promise (Day of Judgment) and forewarned. Allah has linked him with honor and granted his soul the peace, and may Allah have mercy on his progeny and his venerated family; as long as the guiding stars shine, the crescent continues to rise, and the chant of the oneness (La ilaha illa Allah) is made to be heard around. May God protect ye! Work towards the best of deeds. So tread the path seeking the lawful, and give up the forbidden and abandon it. Listen to the command of Allah and be aware of it. Maintain the ties with relations and nurture them. Disobey desires and repel them. Bond as kins with the righteous and pious, and discontinue

the company of amusement and greed. Your groom is the most impeccable of free men by birth, most generous and honorable with glories, and of the sweetest of descent. Here he came to you, took your kin with permission, in marriage, the gracious bride. Offered a dowry, just as the Messenger of Allah did to Umm Salamah. Certainly, he [s] was the most gracious son-in-law. Kind to his progeny. He gave them in marriage to whom he wanted. He was neither confused in his choice of wife nor had an oversight.

I ask Allah, on continuation of condition, and Gratitude is for

your behalf, for the lasting graciousness of His connection. And the His pleasures, and that He may inspire all: the reform of their own the preparation for their individual destiny and the hereafter. Him forever and the praise for His Messenger Ahmad [s].

This sermon appears to have been delivered by Imam ‘Ali (a) on the occasion of someone’s marriage (nikah), and may well have been his own marriage. It has been quoted by several scholars such as:   Muhammad Rida al-Hakimi, Saluni qabl an tafqiduni, vol. 2, pp. 442-3. Sayyid al-Musawi, al-Qatarah min bihar manaqib Aal-Nabi wa al-`Itrah, vol. 2, p. 179  Hasun al-Dulafi, Fada’il Aal al-Rasul, p. 6

What is so special about this sermon? Those who know Arabic or can at least read the Qur’anic script will appreciate that certain letters of the Arabic alphabet have dots associated with them. These letters are listed below and are used all the time in Arabic speech and written texts.

It may need to use the karbala font attached to see the arabic letters
















To create any written script of any meaningful nature, without using any of these letters, is a difficult task. To deliver such a sermon without prior preparation, as Imam ‘Ali (a) is known to have done with all his sermons, is truly amazing! [Note: The letter representing taa marbutah used to be written without dots in early Arabic script] Are there any other such sermons? Imam ‘Ali (a) once delivered another beautiful sermon which was without the letter alif !! This letter of the Arabic alphabet is undoubtedly the most commonly occurring character in the language. If composing a few meaningful sentences without dots is hard enough, how about delivering a sermon, one which is full of wisdom and which is many times the size of the one you have just seen, but without ever using a single alif !! This sermon is usually called al-Khutbah al-Muniqah and is recorded by many Muslim scholars. Amongst the Sunni scholars who quote it can be mentioned: Muhammad b. Muslim al-Shafi’i, Kifayat al-Talib, p. 248 Ibn Abi’l Hadid al-Mu’tazili, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 19, p. 140 How could Imam ‘Ali (a) accomplish such a feat? Imam ‘Ali (a) derived his vast knowledge and striking eloquence by virtue of his long and close association with the Prophet Muhammad (s). The Prophet (s), with Divine inspiration, was the source of all such knowledge and wisdom and a teacher par excellence for Imam ‘Ali (a).

A Sermon without Alif

There is another sermon without alif from It may need to use the karbala font see the arabic letters

Imam Ali's Mathematical Brilliance
Dividing Inheritance Imam Ali (AS) was endowed with a quick, sharp, incisive, mathematical mind. Here are a few interesting stories in which Imam Ali's mathematical brilliance revealed itself. What is a wife's share? Imam Ali (AS) was once interrupted while he was delivering a sermon from the pulpit by someone who asked him how to distribute the inheritance of someone who had died leaving a wife, his parents and two daughters. The Imam instantly answered: "The wife's share becomes one ninth." How? This answer is in fact the result of a long analysis with a number of steps. Ordinarily, we have to decide on the original share of each of these heirs, in the following way: The wife takes one eighth, in view of the presence of an inheriting child. [Holy Quran 4:12] The deceased's father and mother take one sixth each. [Holy Quran 4:11] The two daughters take two thirds of the inheritance. [Holy Quran 4:11] So the total will be: 1/8 + 1/6 + 1/6 + 2/3 = 3/24 + 4/24 + 4/24 + 16/24 = 27/24 This means the share becomes less than 1/8 in view of the increase of the total of the shares which are so fixed and prescribed. So the one eighth, the original share due to the wife out of twenty-four total shares, has become three shares out of a total of twenty-seven, which is one ninth. Imam Ali's mind went through this complex mathematical process in a second! Whole Number and not a Fraction One Day a Jewish person came to Imam Ali (AS), thinking that since Imam Ali thinks he is too smart, I'll ask him such a tough question that he won't be able to answer it and I'll have the chance to embarrass him in front of all the Arabs. He asked "Imam Ali, tell me a number, that if we divide it by any number from 1-10 the answer will always come in the form of a whole number and not as a fraction." Imam Ali (AS) looked back at him and said, "Take the number of days in a year and multiply it with the number of days in a week and you will have your answer."

The Jewish person got astonished but as he was a polytheist (Mushrik), he still didn't believe Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) He calculated the answer Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) gave him. To his amazement he came across the following results: The number of Days in a Year = 360 (in Arab) The Number of Days in a Week = 7 The product of the two numbers = 2520 Now... 2520 ÷ 1 = 2520 2520 ÷ 2 = 1260 2520 ÷ 3 = 840 2520 ÷ 4 = 630 2520 ÷ 5 = 504 2520 ÷ 6 = 420 2520 ÷ 7 = 360 2520 ÷ 8 = 315 2520 ÷ 9 = 280 2520 ÷ 10= 252

Dividing 17 Camels A person was about to die, and before dying he wrote his Will which went as follows: "I have 17 Camels, and I have three sons. Divide my Camels in such a way that my eldest son gets half of them, the second one gets 1/3rd of the total and my youngest son gets 1/9th of the total number of Camels." After his death when the relatives read his will they got extremely perplexed and said to each other that how can we divide 17 camels like this. So after a long hard thought they decided that there was only one man in Arabia who could help them: "Imam Ali (AS)." So they all came to the door of Imam Ali (AS) and put forward their problem. Imam Ali (AS) said, "Ok, I will divide the camels as per the man's will." Imam Ali (AS) said, "I will lend one of my camels to the total which makes it 18 (17+1=18), now lets divide as per his will." The eldest son gets 1/2 of 18 = 9 The second one gets 1/3 of 18 = 6 The youngest gets 1/9 of 18 = 2 Now the total number of camels = 17 (9+6+2=17) Then Imam Ali (AS) said, "Now I will take my Camel back."

The Five Loaves of Bread Zarr Bin Hobeish relates this story: Two travelers sat together on the way to their destination to have a meal. One had five loaves of bread. The other had three. A third traveler was passing by and at the request of the two joined in the meal. The travelers cut each of the loaf of bread in three equal parts. Each of the travelers ate eight broken pieces of the loaf. At the time of leaving the third traveler took out eight dirhams and gave to the first two men who had offered him the meal, and went away. On receiving the money the two travelers started quarrelling as to who should have how much of the money. The five-loaf-man demanded five dirhams. The three-loaf-man insisted on dividing the money in two equal parts. The dispute was brought to Imam Ali (AS) (the Caliph of the time in Arabia) to be decided. Imam Ali (AS) requested the three-loaf-man to accept three dirhams, because five-loaf-man has been more than fair to you. The three-loaf-man refused and said that he would take only four dirhams. At this Imam Ali (AS) replied, "You can have only one dirham." You had eight loaves between yourselves. Each loaf was broken in three parts. Therefore, you had 24 equal parts. Your three loaves made nine parts out of which you have eaten eight portions, leaving just one to the third traveler. Your friend had five loaves which divided into three made fifteen pieces. He ate eight pieces and gave seven pieces to the guest. As such the guest shared one part from your loaves and seven from those of your friend. So you should get one dirham and your friend should receive seven dirhams.

Imam Ali's Answering Difficult Questions One day another Jewish person came to Imam Ali (AS). He was planning to ask Imam Ali (AS) such a question, which would take Imam Ali (AS) a long time to answer and because of that his Maghrib Prayers would be delayed. He asked, "Imam Ali you say you know everything in the world, then tell me which animals lay eggs and which animals give birth to their young ones." Imam Ali (AS) looked back at him smiled and said, "The animals who have their 'EARS' outside their body give birth to their young ones and the animals who have their 'EARS' inside their body lay eggs."

i will tell you about jesus, son of mary. he had a stone for his pillow, wore coarse dress, and ate rough food. his lamp at night was the moon, and the earth's vast expanse east and west, his roof during winter. his dessert and relish were what grows on the earth for cattle. his feet were his means of transport and his two hands his servant.
(sermon 160)

o god, send out for us your rains, your bounty, your provision, and your mercy,

and give us water in a measure that would benefit us, satiates our thirst, and makes the land green with grass, wherewith all that has withered may grow, and come to life all that has died, a rain which brings abundance, produces plenty of fruits, watering the plains, flooding the valleys, dressing the trees with foliage, and bringing the prices down. surely you are able to do whatever you will.
(sermon 143)

Lesson Eight The Believer' Status Before, After and at the Time of the Prophets' Appearance In another sermon of the Nahj-ul-Balagha known as „al-Khutbah al-Qasi'ah" (The Sermon of Disparagement),the Commander of the Faithful lays down and explains some of the matters which were quoted in previous from Sermon No. 1, concerning the status of the people during the Age of Ignorance, conditions of the time of the appearance of the Prophets and the situation of the people after the appointment of the Prophets to

prophethood. He portrays, in effect, the conditions and circumstances which had naturally cast shadows over the people's lives in the Age of Ignorance as well as the victorious status the people gained after the appearance of the Prophets under the light of their efforts, struggles and endeavors. A study of some of the statements of this Sermon (al qasrah) which adds to our mind concerning what we learned about the background to prophethood, the Prophets' responsibilities, etc., in previous lessons, would bring us to a sound conclusion for this book. In a part of this Sermon we read: «Think about the condition of people from among the believers who passed before you. What distress and trials they underwent:»8 It means that we should look deep into the circumstances of the believers who lived before us, not treating them in a perfunctory manner because we cannot learn much from the formal appearance of the past events. Only when one traces the causes of these events and contemplates them deeply will one perceive that the believers of the past have been under severe pressure' and that they have been subjected to such hardships as hunger, torture, imprisonment and so forth and greater hardships than those we suffer today, i.e. facing political problems and happenings and recognizing the true character of different groups and fronts and the stance they take. The Commander of the Faithful continues with the following statements, „were they the most over-burdened among all the people and in the most straightened circumstances in the whole world?" The true believers have always been the most overburdened, the most pain-suffering and the poorest creatures of God before the advent of the Prophets and the realization of Islamic revolutions (all the revolutions led by the Prophets have been Islamic in the sense that they have all been primarily aimed at submission to God). Why? First, because the believers have to provide for their own sustainance. In fact, the true believers, those who have touched the spirit of the belief in God, never compromise with oppressive powers. They usually refuse to enter their service and to help them should they not be able to fight them." Thus, under tyrannical governments, the believers are constantly face to face with hardships and inconveniences as far as their economic affairs are concerned. This can be traced in Islamic traditions. On the contrary, disbelievers compromise with the oppressors very easily, enter the service and thus enjoy a comfortable life. Second, in addition to providing for their own living, the believers are usually obliged to shoulder the burden of the oppressors' impositions concerning their luxurious life. As an example, we all know that the overthrown regime (of Pahlavi) faced exorbitant expenses which had to be paid by those who did not compromise with it. Those who compromised with that regime were not subjected to such burdens and impositions. They themselves took advantage of the prevailing situations as well.

Third, the believers have to tolerate the political impositions of the oppressive ruling powers with whom they fight. Such powers do not let them express their beliefs and have their own free thoughts and opinions. They force the believers to accept their own oppressive thoughts. Thus, the prevailing strangulation in a society is a great burden on the shoulder of the believers who refuse to adhere to the thoughts and opinions imposed by the oppressive ruling powers. They are, in effect, the most combative people, always fighting the oppressors in order to eradicate calamities and corruptions. It is narrated that the believer is always in a state of struggling in some way or other. Under unlawful and corruptive governments, he involves himself in organized hidden and underground battles and lives in a precautionary, dissimulative manner, and under lawful, legitimate governments, he deals with political, ideological and military involvements or fights the enemy to safeguard the way of God. Thus, the believer is always in a fighting state which is very troublesome. Fighting does not necessarily mean receiving wounds and bearing distress. It includes, in addition to these, fears and failures, worries and anxieties. The true fighter is thus the one who does not surrender to these and who only fights for the sake of God and duty, not for the sake of victory. Accordingly, fighting is more troublesome and difficult than all the trials of life. Finally the Commander of the Faithful says, that are the poorest and the most straightened people because they have to live in a state of strangulation, poverty, force and precautionary silence. He continues to explain the believers' status in the following statements: „The Pharaohs took them as slaves. They inflicted the worst punishments and bitter sufferings on them. They continuously remained in this state of (spiritual) ruinous disgrace and severe subjugation. They found no method for escape and no way for protection." The first statement implies that the believers were forcefully made to obey Pharaohs (holders of tyrannical power) or deities other than the One God, although they were servants of God by nature. Sometimes, of course, such deities or objects of worship believe in God themselves and, therefore submission to them is submission to God. But when they induce people to the worship of their own selves, submission to them is submission to non-gods. It has been narrated that „he who listens to a speaker, becomes his servant. If the speaker speaks of God, that person will be the servant of God and if he speaks of Satan that person will be the servant of Satan.» And Satan is sometimes the very human 'self' and „concupiscence' to whose obedience the Pharaohs forced the believers in God, who knew no way of defending their human dignity and getting rid of such servitude. Such was the status of the believers in God and followers of the Prophets who dealt with satanic ruling powers before the victory. The Three-Act Play of people's Status

The status of the people before, during and after the Prophets' appointment can be likened to a three-act play, the first act of which shows hardship and distress, the second speaks of resistance and perseverance and the third pictures, victory and freedom. In fact, the believers will never gain victory without resisting hardships and struggling for their aim. The Commander of the Faithful continues, „Till when God, the Glorified, noticed that they were enduring troubles in His love and bearing distress and of fear for Him, He provided escape from the distress of trials. So, He changed their disgrace into honor and fear into safety." In these statements, the Imam shows that the direction of the believers' struggles is towards God and they tolerate hardships and undesirable problems such as hunger, torture, imprisonment, cudgel-punishments and so forth upon His way and for the sake of His love so that God, seeing their patience and perseverance, would reveal to them the ways of escape from nuisances and calamities, maintain their convenience and tranquillity, change their disgrace into honor and fear into security and finally their defeat into victory. It should be added here that honor (i.e. not submitting to contempt) and safety (i.e. not fearing any enemy) are the most important things the oppressed people are concerned about. Under the rule of satans (tyrannical powers) the people are not immune concerning their lives, properties, morality and so forth, whereas under the rule of God and the oppressed people such worries and anxieties do not exist at all. The Commander of the Faithful continues his discussion with these statements, „Consequently, they became ruling authorities and conspicuous leaders, and God's favors over them reached limits to which their own wishes had not reached," meaning that the whole community of believers, after God, bestowed victory upon them, became leaders (Imams, guides and patterns) and objects of imitation for other oppressed people and nations who followed their ways and manners and made movements. This is clearly observable in the world of today in which a nation of believers (i.e. Iranians), after having struggled for a long time and gaining victory over a tyrannical regime, has now become the leader of the whole world of the oppressed, and achievement which had never been imagined by Iranians. They thought, in fact, about victory but they never imagined to become leaders and guiding patterns for all of the oppressed people of the world such as those of Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Egypt, Persian Gulf countries, Africa and America, who have been greatly influenced and motivated by Iranians' achievements. And this is nothing but God's favor as he says. Conclusion (Two General Points in the Sermon) First, in this Sermon (No. 191) the emphasis is mostly on the spiritual aspects of the people's calamities and adversities.. In fact, such factors as strangulation, lack of security, the burden of mental impositions and the burden of providing for the satanic wishes of illegitimate governments, all of which cause humanity to suffer spiritually and invoke

one to campaign, are more emphasized than such material misfortunes (or trials) as hunger for which the people rarely campaign. To say the least, human beings' honor and dignity are the dearest things to them, which stimulate them to seriously struggle and campaign. Hunger and the like can be removed in other ways. These are the points of emphasis in this Sermon. Secondly, the Imam emphasizes here that in a community of believers, when the arrogant government is overthrown, it is the oppressed who take it over another arrogant group. As an example, after the revolution of Moses and destruction of Pharaoh, it was the believers themselves and the masses who became rulers and established a true government. Also, during the lifetime of the Last Prophet, as well as during the reign of the rightly guided Caliphs, the people themselves were masters of their own affairs and played significant roles in resolving the rnatters which came about. They loved the Prophet and accepted what he said but not blindly and under propagandic pressures. They freely accepted his decisions and they themselves made minor decisions. Unfortunately, as time has passed, people's participation in and contribution to the ruling affairs of the Islamic communities have gradually decreased and these communities have turned out to be, like the communities predominated by ignorance, consisting of two classes of people - the arrogant and the deprived; whereas a true Islamic community consists only of one class of people and they are the believers. FOOTNOTES 1)When Damascus was conquered by „Umar, the second Caliph, he appointed Yazid bin Abu Sufyan the governor of that region and when Yazid died, his brother Mu'awiya took over. Thus, the people of the region came to know only Mu'awiya and his family from the very beginning when they embraced Islam. 2) This title is still found in many books of our Sunni brethren. 3) Ash-Sharif Ar-Radi, the of Ali (Tehran: World Organization for Islamic Services, 1979), part one, page 19. 4) Ibid. p. 20.

5) Ibid. p. 30. 6) Ibid. part two, page 406. parenthesis is the translator's. 7) For a better understanding of this matter, refer to Martyr Murtada Mutahhari's The End of Prophecy 8) Nahj-ul-Balagha of Ali, part two, page 410.

9) In the terminology of the Qur‟an and in Islamic usage „trial" (bala) comes to mean a bitter a and severe incident. Through these incidents, the human heroes have always been tried in the course of history and one cannot claim to be a perfect human being unless one exposes. 10) Akhavan-i-Thalith, one of the forerunners of modern Persian poetry, wrote a poem entitled „Wolves and Dogs" in which he pictures the status of rebellious believers with all hardships and calamities they suffer and their battle against oppressors as well as the status of the peace-seeking disbelievers and hypocrites who compromise with tyrants and do not refuse to he subjected to rneanness. Akhvan likens the believers to wolves which keep distance with the affluent and expose themselves to great sufferings for a loaf of bread, and compares the disbelievers with dogs which always serve faithfully, collar on the neck, in order to receive what is left over the master's table.

The Contents of Nahj al Balaghah
Nahj al-balaghah comprises various issues that cover major problems of metaphysics, theology, fiqh, tafsir, hadith, prophetology, imamate, ethics,social philosophy, history, politics, administration, civics, science, rhetoric, poetry, literature, etc. Most of the discussions about various theological issues and philosophical notions in Islam have their origin in this very book. Similarly, all the controversies regarding socio-political problems in the Muslim society and state left their echo in Nahj al-balaghah,or rather those were inspired from the utterances of allmam 'Ali (as). The book not only reflects the spirit of early Islam and the teachings of the Quran and the Prophet (saw) in the proper perspective, but also serves as a guide to traverse the future in the light of these teachings. It is a matter of regret that Nahj al-balaghah was not properly utilized by the Muslims as a source book of Islamic philosophy, kalam, fiqh, and ethics due to misconceptions about its attribution to al-Imam'Ali (as) In the presence of strong and sufficient evidence in support of the contents of the book being authentic, it was sheer prejudice and lack of the spirit of inquiry that was responsible for neglecting such a reliable source of Islamic ideas. In recent times, the Orientalists have spread the unfounded doubts of Ibn Khallikan and alDhahabi among Muslim and non-Muslim scholars in the name of objectivity in research, thus giving a respectable appearance to their ignorance, which was, of course, combined and prompted by their motive to ali enate the Muslims from their intellectual heritage. I know many a scholar in India and Pakistan questioning the authenticity of Nahj al-balaghah's ascription to

Amir al-Mu'minin using lofty words of research-objectivity with a hefty-pose of a dispassionate seeker of truth. None of them, I am sure, ever studied any book about early sources of the sermons and letters of al-'Imam 'Ali (as), nor did any one of them ever try to gain really objective information about the book. Unfortunately none of them bothered to go through even the valuable research done by Imtiyaz 'Ali Khan 'Arshi, a widely read and respected writer in the literary circles of Urdu in the Subcontinent. It was because of my first-hand knowledge of this pitiable situation that I have intentionally devoted the major part of the present article to the issue of the authenticity of the attribution of the contents of Nahj al-Balaghah, in the light of earlier sources, to 'Ali (as). Those who insist upon denying the veracity of Nahj al-balaghah are either suffering from a malady of deep-rooted prejudice spread through the propaganda of the supporters of Banu Umayyah, or their minds and spirits have been blinded by the propagation of falsehood by the Orientalists under the garb of high-sounding academic jargon. If our minds are cured of this jaundiced perception of our own past, Nahj al-balagha can be paid the attention it deserves and its contents will be studied and its meanings will be fully explored and exploited for a better understanding of Islamic ideas and realities. A look at the subjects discussed in Nahj al-balagha will be helpful in ascertaining the wide scope of this invaluable treasure of wisdom. So far a few attempts to classify the subject matter of the book have been made none of which has been comprehensive. A subject-wise index of the contents of Nahj al-balaghah has been prepared by 'Ali Ansariyan and published in Arabic under the title al-Dallil 'ala mawdu'at Nahj al-balaghah in 1395/1975. It was translated and published three years ago in Persian with the sub-title Nahj al-balaghah mawdu'i. The compiler has divided the contents into eight categories, each dealing with a specific subject further divided into various issues pertaining to the main theme. The main divisions are as follows:

1. Ma'rifat Allah, 2. Ma'rifat al-kawn, 3. Ma'rifat al-hujjah, 4. Ma'rifat nizam al-huqumah wa al-mujtama', 5. Ma'rifat al-'ahkam, 6. Wa'rifat al-'akhlaq,

7. Ma'rifat al-ta'rikh, and 8. Ma'rifat al-ma'dd
The major issues covered under the main categories can be summarized here: 1. Ma'rifat Allah (knowledge about God): The utterances and writings of Amir al-Mu'minin on God and His Attributes are divided into eighteen sub- headings in the following manner:

1. tawhid, the Unity of God; 2. sifat al-dhat, the Attributes of Essence; 3. 'ilm wal hikmah, the Knowledge and Wisdom of God; 4. 'azamah wa qudrah, Greatness and Power of God; 5. basir, Seer; 6. sami', Hearer; 7. hayy, Living; 8. mutakallim, Speaker; 9. jabarutiyyah, Omnipotence; 10. 'adl, Divine-Justice; 11. nusrah wa intiqam, Help and vengeance of God; 12. al-tawakkul 'alayh, Dependence on God; 13. al-tahmid lahu, Praise to God; 14. al-'isti'anah bih, Seeking assistance from God; 15. al-razzdq wa al-rizq, the Provider and the provision, divided into further sub-issues; 16. worship and worshippers, divided into sub-headings dealing with various forms and kinds of worship and worshippers, the worst and the best human beings, and worship of other than God; 17. manifestation of God and the Beatific Vision; 18. al-qada' wa al-qadar, Divine Will and Intention;
2. Ma'rifat al-kawn , knowledge of the universe:

1. heaven and the earth; 2. creation and the properties of living beings under this topic al-'Imam 'Ali's descriptions of various animals such as the bat, the ant, the peacock and other birds are given; 3. many various aspects of human nature; 4. angels, their worship and utterances with special reference to Jibra'il and Mika'il; 5. Satan.
3. Ma'rifat al-hujjah, knowledge about the Proofs of God,: The first part of it is devoted to prophetology; that is, the characteristics and the aims of the prophets, their companions and families, their character, etc.; the next seven sections, from the second to the eighth, deal with the lives of Adam, Abel and Cain, Salih, Moses and Aaron, Banu Isra'il, David and Solomon, and Christ; the ninth section is devoted to the life and character of the Prophet Muhammad (saw), spread over 230 pages further divided into sub-issues to discuss the pre Islamic Arabs,the Family of the Prophet (saw), the main objectives of the prophetic mission, miracles, wives of the Prophet (saw), the finality of his prophethood, hadith and the criteria of reliability and grades of authenticity, hadith-interpretation, Companions, jihad and the battles of the Prophet, the demise of the Prophet (saw) and its consequences; Ahl al-Bayt (as), Fatimah (as), al-Hasan (as) and alHusayn (as), Ahl al-Bayt and zakat; the Quran: classification of verses, tafsir by conjecture (ra'y), the role of the Imam in the interpretation of the Quran, the attributes of the Quran, teaching of the Quran, important of correct understanding of the Quran,qira'ah of the Quran, tafsir of some verses. Under the life of the Prophet, the meaning and the conditions of Islam are also dealt with, with reference to the characteristics of the Muslims and their dignity. Iman and mu'min form the theme of a separate section; at the end, infidelity (kufr) and its characteristies are discussed. The tenth issue under hujjah concerns the caliphate and the Imamate with specific reference to the leadership of Ahl al-Bayt (as) [the Imams of the Family of the Prophet (saw). The eleventh part deals with the issues related to the oath of allegiance (bay'ah). The twelth part contains the utterances of al-Imam 'Ali (as) concerning his own Imamate and his own role in the advancement of the cause of Islam; some sections give autobiographical details about the Imam. 'Ali's zuhd, justice, dress and food habits, humility and courage. The last section of this part is about Amir al-Mu'minin's sayings about al-Imam al-Mahdi (as), his identity and his appearance.

4. Ma'rifat nizam al-hukamah wa al-mujtama' (system of govern-ance and society): This part deals with the issues of society and politics, and is perhaps the most relevant to present-day Islam and the Muslim world. It spreads over more than four hundred pages. Such an in-depth treatment of the subject is indicative of the Imam's concern for socio-political life of the Ummah. The issues covered are:

1. Justice and oppression: forms of oppression and traits of oppressors; responsibilities of the just Imams; the duty of al-mu'minun vis-a-vis justice and oppression. 2. Right and wrong (haqq and batil): distinction between right and wrong; criterion of right; reciprocal rights and duties; duty towards God; and mutual duties of parents and children. 3. Semblance of truth. 4. Poverty. 5. People and their kinds: causes of differences and their sources; role of various groups in social changes; people's inner transformation, a prerequisite for reform; role of healthy elements in society; characteristics of evil and anti-social elements in society; people's attitude towards social change. 6. Government and society; this part is divided into twenty-three fusul (chapters). 1. The most fundamental objectives and duties of Islamic government. 2. The characteristics of rulers. 3. The duties of rulers towards people. 4. Ministers and advisers. 5. People's rights: social classes and their mutual dependence; the responsibilities of the army; and functions of rulers in fulfilling people's rights. 6. The Islamic army and choice of commanders. 7. The mutual rights of people and rulers. 8. Whom to refer to resolve differences? 9. Courts of justice and qadis. 10. Officials and functionaries of government, their mode of selection; the ruler's duty towards them. 11. Information and intelligence of the State, and military intelligence. 12. Taxes, public treasury (bayt al-mal), and tax payers: means of levying taxes; protection and guarding of public treasury; heads of expenditure of public funds; equitable distribution of bayt al-mal; and problem of misappropriation of bayt al-mal.

13. Secretaries and record-keepers of official matters (ministers and high officials). 14. Businessmen and industrialists: administration of economic affairs, and government's supervision of economic matters of the State. 15. The oppressed and the deprived sections of society, and ruler's duties towards them. 16. Governors' direct contact with people for listening to their grievances, and people's right to have aecess to rulers. 17. Governors' personal responsibility in certain matters. 18. Direct supervision by governors and government authorities of current affairs of the State. 19. Ruler, his family and relatives. 20. Duty of governors vis-a-vis charges levelled against them. 21. Pacts and peace treaties with other States. 22. Guidelines for performance of governors' individual and social functions. 23. Seeking God's help for being just.
5. Ma'rifat al-'ahkam (religious laws): This part is divided into eighteen sub-headings. The first section contains the Imam's views about the philosophy of laws. The second and the third sections deal with prayer (salat) and the virtue of congregation prayer, Friday prayer and midnight prayer. The fourth section is devoted to the Imam's sayings about fasting (sawm ). The fifth one comprises Amir al- Mu'minin's interpretation of laws regarding women's obligation in compulsory matters. The remaining chapters deal with the following issues: the sixth about almsgiving (zakat); the seventh about property laws; the eighth about Hajj pilgrimage and the Holy Ka'bah; the ninth about al-'Amr bi al-ma'ruf wa al-nahy 'an al-munkar (enjoining good and prohibiting evil), one of the fundamentals of faith (furu'al-Din) that covers all forms of activities, social, political, economic, as well as individual duties. The tenth and the eleventh chapters deal with laws concerning jihad, a term with a very wide range of connotations, but its special meaning covers all forrns of struggle against unbelief, which itself embraces various forms of injustice and oppression, denial of God is an atrocity against one's own self. In this section, emphasis is on the laws pertaining to war and military activity; the last two sub headings deal with martyrdom and martyrs, and peace treaty with enemies. The twelfth chapter is about injunctions regarding the circumstances which necessitate hiding of faith with the purpose of defending individual as well as collective existence of the Muslims (taqiyyah). The thirteenth chapter is devoted to the laws of business transactions with special emphasis on usury (riba) and loan. The fourteenth chapter covers laws about adultery (zina). The next four chapters discuss

issues involved in theft, murder, dying of the hair, and laws concerning human conduct in desperate situations (ahkam al-mudtarr). 6. Ma'rifat al-'akhlaiq (ethical laws): This is the longest section of the book, spreading over six hundred pages. The first part of this section covers general issues of morality in the following order: 1. reason, its virtue, forms, effects, and functions; limitations of reason and evil consequences of its misuse; 2. contemplation and intellection; 3. the heart as the inner faculty which is the source of moral virtues and evils; its general condition and relation with other organs of the body; its qualities and means of strength, weakness, hardening, and limitations; 4. knowledge: definition and scope; useful and useless forms of knowledge; relation between knowledge and practice; effects of knowledge; teaching and learning; limitations of human knowledge; 5. theologians and their duties; 6. misguided and misleading 'ulama'; 7. wisdom and the role of learned persons in society; 8. the wood and the Hereafter-salient features of worldly life; comparison and contrast between the world and the Hereafter; temporality of the world and eternity of the Hereafter; relation between the two; purpose of the creation of the world; deception and pride of the world; proper and improper utilization of the world; world-outlook of awliya ', the Prophet of Islam (saw), pious persons, and al-'Imam 'Ali (as); man's attitude to the world; 9. capital and its distribution; 10. good and evil. The second part of ethical discussions deals with moral behaviour and conduct. This is itself divided into ten sections dealing with various modes of conduct:

1. repentance and seeking forgirveness (tawbah and istighfar); 2. piety (taqwa); 3. characteristics of muttaqun; 4. zuhd; 5. patience and resignation (sabr); 6. the tongue, its function and its relation to other organs of the body; tongue-control; 7. friendship and friends: how to choose friends; reliance and dependence on friends; mutual duties of friends; 8. manners and courtesy; 9. forbearance and patience; 10. abstention from self-praise. Moral vices are discussed under the following: lust and love (in its negative sense); miserliness; extravagance; envy; pride; hypocrisy and hypocrites (nifaq and munafiqun);deceit or selfindulgence(narcissism). At the end of this section certain moral issue with reference to women are dealt with. The concluding part gives an account of supplication, its need, circumstances and effects, with some of the supplications of al-'Imam 'Ali (as) on different occasions. 7. Mairifat al-ta'rikh (history): This section gives us an idea of al-'Imam 'Ali's view of history and historical events, divided into sixteen parts, and each part divided further into many sub-headings provides an intimate picture of the life and times of al-'Imam 'Ali (as), his contem-poraries,and the Prophet (saw): 1. Analysis of history: main currents and traditions in history; causes of the rise and fall of nations; and lessons from history.

2. Life history of al-'Imam 'Ali (as); glimpses of an autobiographi-cal account of the life of the Imam (as) with reference to his role in the unity of the Ummah by foregoing his right and snubbing divisive efforts of some opportunists. 3. Saqifat Bani Sa'idah 4. Fadak 5. Al-Imam 'Ali (as) and the caliphs, Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman; the Imam's role as an adviser during the period of 'Umar's caliphate; the Shura's role in the election of 'Umar's successor; reasons of the Imam's allegiance to 'Uthman, and the latter's deviations; 'Ali's counsel to 'Uthman; 'Ali's innocence in the assassination of the third caliph and his stand after the assassination. 6. The caliphate of al-'Imam 'Ali (as): the Imam's reasons for being reluctant to accept the caliphate; people's pressure and insistence; declaration of the Imam's policies and programmes. 7. Parties and groups opposing the Imam. 8. The Battle of Jamal with special reference to the role of 'A'ishah, Talhah and al-Zubayr; the Imam's attitude during and after the battle towards his opponents (the Nakithun). 9. The Battle of Siffin: the role of the Qasitun; the Imam's reasons for fighting the Qasitun; his attempts to convince the Qasitun about the evil consequences of war. 10. Tahkim: the evil of the tahkim and its roots; the Imam's reasons for rejecting the proposed arbitration; evil and far-reaching consequences of the arbitration. 11. The Khawarij: the Khawarij's role and their misleading notions; the Imam's repeated efforts to pursuade the Khawarij from fighting before the Battle of Nahrawan; the Imam's anticipation of the fate of the Khawarij. 12. The last days of the Imam: the Imam's foreknowledge of his martyrdom; the last sermon; the Imam's words on the dawn of the nineteenth of Ramadan before being fatally injured; the last moments of the Imam (as) and his will. 13. Praise and criticism of the Imam's companions: basic traits of the disheartened elements; comparison of the Imam's companions with those of the Prophet (saw) and those of Mu'awiyah;

relations between the Imam (as) and his companions; their praise; evil consequences of disobeying the Imam (as) 14. Opponents of the Imam 'Ali's rule and the reasons for their dissent. 15. Events of Egypt: the appointment of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and its abrogation; the appointment of Malik al-'Ashtar; the Imam's letter to the people of Egypt; the assassination of Malik al-'Ashtar; Malik al-'Ashtar's great qualities; the martyrdom of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. 16. Personages: Abu Dharr; al-'Ash'ath ibn Qays; the companions of al- Mada'in; Umru' al-Qays; Anas ibn Malik; al-Burj ibn Mushir al- Ta'-i, Banu Umayyah and their disruptive role in Islam; Hamzah and Ja'far al-Tayyar; Khabbab ibn al-'Arat; Khadijah; Sa'id ibn Malik; Sa'id ibn Namran; Abu Sufyan; Sa'sa'ah ibn , Sawhan; 'Amr ibn al- 'As; the Quraysh, their tribal background and their opposition to the Imam, and the Imam's attitude towards the Quraysh; Kumayl ibn Ziyad al-Nakha'i; Marwan ibn al-Hakam; Masqalah ibn Hubayrah; Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan and the Imam's correspondence with him; al-Mughirah ibn Akhnas and a'l-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah. 17. The Imam's historical and eschatological foresight: conditions of the last days of the world; destiny of Basrah and Kufah; destiny of the Arabs; duties and responsibilities of the faithful (mu'minun) in the last days. 8. Masrifat al-Ma'ad (Resurrection and the Hereafter): death, its agonies and mysteries; the mu'min's preparedness for death; the Angel of Death; what happens after death?; learning lesson from death and graveyard; the Day of Judgement: proof of Resurrection; symptoms of the Last Day; judgement of human deeds; Sirat; human condition on the Day of Judgement; heaven and hell. The above-quoted index of subjects in Nahj al-balaghah reveals a vast span of themes and issues. As it suggests, it can be used as a source and guide in the theory and practice of Ijtihad. Shi'i 'ulama' have been using Nahj al-balagha as a guide in the matters of fiqh. How far is Nahj albalaghah dependable and useful as a source book of fiqh? After the four major Shi'i compendiums of hadith Nahjal-balaghah stands higher than all other collections of hadith. Besides the traditions of the Prophet (saw) this is surely the most authentic guide in theology, morality, fiqh, social administration, political theory and its practice, and many other matters which are vital for Muslim society and are relevant to our own predicament in the modern age.

Nasir Makarim Shirazi, in one of his articles on the role of Nahj al-balagha in fiqh, has discussed the question of the worth of the traditions contained in the book. Can we use these traditions as a secure foundation for deriving the ahkam of fiqh? Do they fulfil the criteria of reliability laid down in Usul al-fiqh? Does a tradition relating to moral, social and political matters need not fulfil the conditions of hujbiyyah (proof) as required in the issues of fiqh? His answer is: Whatever is contained in it regarding the issues of belief is supported by rational and philosophical arguments. And it ought to have been so; for, the principles of belief are established conclusively only through this method. They cannot be proved on the basis of a single tradition. This principle is applicable to most of the guidelines concerning politics and society. Therefore, dependence on tradition in such matters is not required (in the presence of rational arguments). In the sphere of moral problems, also, dependence on tradition is not of fundamental importance; because the fundamentals of morality are self evident and are in harmony with nature. The role of a moral guide is to ingrain these principles in the souls of his followers, and to stimulate them to move in their direction ;such a job does not depend on any authority. Especially in moral matters that do not fall under the categories of the obligatory (wajib) and the prohibited (haram), but come in the jurisdiction of the desirable (mustahabb), the application of this criterion is obvious; for they can be accepted on the well-known principle of al-tasumuh 'an adillat al-sunan, that is non-essentiality of citing textual evidence for mustahabbat, often practised by the authorities in usul. But in legal matters (masa'il al-fiqh) in general, and in matter of worship wajib and haram in particular, one is bound to refer to an authentic tradition. In such matters howsoever strong an argument may be, it will not stand on its own in the absence of a tradition. Though the importanee of authority is not denied in other matters too, its vital role in the matters of fiqh is undeniable. 1. It is a matter of regret that al-Sayyid al-Radi, the compiler of Nahj al-balaghah, has not paid due attention to support most of the sermons, letters and stray sayings with asnad, the chain of narrators. As a result, Nahj al-balaghah comes down to us in the form of hadith mursal. However, we have access to many an early souree of these traditions to prove their authenticity through chain of reliable narrators, and most probably al-Radi didn't pay attention to furnish their asnad due to their well-known availability in other sourees. Or he had other stronger reasons for avoiding referenee to asnad. He might have considered their contents to be above any doubt.

2. Another means of proving the reliability of a tradition is its compatibility with the Quran ... We apply this criterion with regard to the traditions of the Infallible Imams (as). Employment of this method in the case of Nahj al- balaghah is of much value. 3. The third way to ascertain the authority of a tradition is its fame and general acceptability among the 'ulama'. If we accede to this criterion, Nahj al-balaghah is at the zenith of fame and is greatly respected by scholars of eminence, who support their ideas with quotations from this book and refer to its authority in various matters ... 4. Another means of arriving at the target, that is, establishing the authenticity of a tradition or a book, is the spiritual sublimity of its content. What is meant by sublimity of meaning is its higher level of spirituality and inspiration, which implicitly leads us to believe that it can't originate in a fallible mind. This criterion is acceptable to a number of great fuqaha' ... For instance al-Shaykh al-'A'zam al- 'Allamah al-'Ansari, in the Rasa'il, accepts a well known tradition of al-'Imam alHasan al-'Askari in the matter of undesirable (madhmum) and desirable (matlub) imitation (taqlid) ... or Ayatullah Burujardi refers to the words of al-Sahifat al-Sajjadiyyah in the context of Friday prayer. Though al-Sahifat al-Sajjadiyyah has not reached us through a chain of authorities, sublimity of its content reveals that it could not have been issued from the tongue of an ordinary mortal. On the basis of these various criteria, of which the first one can be applied only with reference to the early sources of the tradition that have occurred in Nahj al-balaghah, it is concluded that the book can be justifiably used as an authority in ijtihadat. The writer of the above mentioned article has furnished a long list of traditions which have been or can be used in fiqh. Nahj al-balaghah is also of great value in construing the Islamic approach to various issues of vital significance to the present world of Islam.

ALI BIN ABU TALIB (11-40/632-661)

Abul Hasan Ali, or Ali (Lofty, Exalted), the son of Abu Talib and the cousin of Muhammad was born on Friday, the 13th

Rajab in the 28th year of amul feel (the year of elephants), or 600 A.D. inside Kaba in Mecca. His mother Fatima bint Asad stayed in Kaba for three long days and as the fourth day approached, she stepped out, carrying her gem in her arms. He was brought up under the subtle care and affection of Muhammad. Ali himself cherished the memory of his childhood by saying: "The Prophet brought me up in his own arms and fed me with his own morsel. I followed him, wherever he went, like a baby-camel which follows its mother. Each day a new aspect of his character would beam out of his noble person and I would accept it and follow it as commanded." Ibn Abid Hadid (d. 655/1257) quotes Ibn Abbas as relating in his "Sharh Nahj al-Balagha" that Muhammad and Ali loved each other intensely. Muhammad was so fond of Ali that once when Ali was a young boy, he sent him out on some errand, and Ali took long time to return; he started getting worried and prayed to God, "O'Lord, do not let me die unless I behold Ali once again." Ahmad bin Hanbal writes that, "There are not as many verses and traditions in the praise of any other companion of Muhammad as there are in the praise of Ali bin Abu Talib." Ibn

Abbas says that, "There have not descended as many verses about anybody as have revealed about Ali." On another occasion Ibn Abbas narrates, "Three hundred verses of the Holy Koran have been revealed in favour of Ali." Abdullah bin Ayyash bin Abu Rabiah says, "Ali's knowledge and insight were perfect and he was the first to embrace Islam and he has the honour of being the son-in-law of the Messenger of God. He alone had perfect ability to understand the traditions. He was very brave in fighting and very generous in charity." Regarding the first man to profess faith in the prophetic mission of Muhammad, the early historians seem to have created a debating issue. Ibn Hisham (1st vol., p. 245), Tabari (2nd vol., p. 56) etc. however write that Ali bin Abu Talib was the first male to accept Islam at the hands of Muhammad. While Nuruddin Ali bin Ibrahim Shafayee writes in "Sirat-i Halabiya" that, "Ali was like a son unto Muhammad, therefore, his faith from very start was the faith professed by the Prophet." Masudi (d. 346/958) writes in his "Muruj adhDhahab" (2nd vol., p. 283) that, "The general conscientious of opinion amongst the Muslim historians and theologians is that Ali was never a non-Muslim or prayed before idols, therefore, the question of his embracing Islam does not and cannot arise."

In 614 A.D. about four years after his divine call, Muhammad proceeded to summon his close relatives. Thus he prepared a banquet, a lamb, and a bowl of milk for the entertainment of forty guests of the Hashimite. When Muhammad asked the assembly, who will assist him in his mission, no answer was returned. It was only Ali on that occasion stood up to offer his services for the cause of Islam to Muhammad. Thomas Carlyle writes in "Heroes and Hero-worship" (London, 1850, p. 77) that, "Nevertheless, it proved not a laughable thing; it was very serious thing! As for this young Ali, one cannot but like him. A noble minded creature, as he shows himself, now and always afterwards; full of affection and fiery daring." During the night of Muhammad's migration from Mecca, it was indeed a most dangerous moment for Ali, when he volunteered to sleep fearlessly in Muhammad's bed. The task entrusted to him was not a small undertaking for a young man of 22 or 23 years old, but the way in which he carried it out, Ali showed an unflinching fidelity. He was called upon to deputise Muhammad at the risk of his own life, for it was highly probable that the assassins, furious at being foiled of their chief objective would kill Ali in his stead. Historian Tabari writes that, "Ali's willingness to sacrifice his life for Muhammad is unique in the history of mankind." Shibli Nomani writes in his

"Sirat al-Nabi" (tr. by Fazlur Rahman, Karachi, 1970, p. 247) that, "It was a very critical moment. Ali knew that the Quraysh had planned to assassinate the Prophet, and fully realized that his bed that night was to be turned into a place of murder, but, for the Victor of Khaybar it was a bed of roses." On that occasion a Koranic verse revealed in favour of Ali, which reads: "And among men there is he who would sell himself to seek the pleasure of God, and God is Compassionate to His servants." (2:207) During the 2nd year of migration, Ali's betrothal took place with Muhammad's daughter Fatima, which had been actualized in the month of Ramdan, but the nuptial ceremonies were performed two months later in Zilhaja very simply without pomp and ostentation. Abu Muhammad Ordoni writes in "Fatima the Gracious" (Qumm, 1992, p. 131) that, "The Prophet asked for a jug of water; he sipped a small amount of the water and after gargling with it, placed it back in the jug. He then called for Fatima and sprayed her head and shoulders with that water and did the same thing to Ali." According to some sources, Ali at the time of marriage was 21 years, 5 months and 15 days old, while Fatima was 15 years, 5 months and 15 days old.

Ali is said to have taken part in all the holy wars with the exception of the expedition of Tabuk, when he was left as a governor of Medina, and during that occasion, Muhammad said, "O Ali, you are to me as Aaron was to Moses." ("Masnad", 1st vol., p. 174) His dauntless courage, fortitude and unflinching loyalty made him the main hero of all these campaigns. It was the valour of Ali and the strength of his arms that turned the table at critical juncture on the battlefield, and it was the victories won by him that ensured the triumph of Islam over polytheism. At the battle of Badr, as had been customary in all Arabian battles since pre-historic times, the champions of each force came out of the ranks before commencement of operations. With Hamza and Obaida, Ali fought duel with the Meccan champions. In the battle of Uhud, Ali stood steadfast to shield Muhammad when the Muslims had fled from the field. Ali's dauntless courage and valour was further seen when he killed Amr bin Abdu-wudd in the battle of Ditch, ensuing the triumph of Islam. During the battle of Khaibar, five strongholds of the Jews had been reduced with the exception of al-Qamus, whose commander was Marhab. Muhammad at first assigned Abu Bakr to lead the Muslim army to besiege the fort. R.V.C. Bodley writes in "The Messenger" (London, 1946, p. 271) that, "Into this Abu Bakr led a heroic attack, but he was driven back.

Then Umar tried, but while he reached the mouth of the breach, he had to retire." Thus, Muhammad declared, "Tomorrow, I will hand over the banner of Islamic army to such a person who is an impetuous warrior and not an absconder; he befriends God and His Apostle and is also befriended by them. God is sure to grant victory on his hands." The next morning, Ali had been given the charge to lead the assault and to fight till the Jews acknowledged submission. Ali, clad in a scarlet vest over which was buckled a cuirass of steel, proceeded to the front. He put Harith, a man of gigantic stature to the sword. To revenge the death of his brother, the Jewish champion Marhab stepped forward from Jewish lines, and challenged Ali to single combat. "I am Marhab", he cried, "as all Khaibar know, a warrior bristling with arms in a furiously ranging war." Ali advanced from the Muslim ranks in response to his vainglorious challenge, saying "I am he whom his mother named Haidar, a lion of the wilderness; I weigh my foes in a gigantic balance." As both closed, Marhab made a thrust at Ali with his three-pronged lance, which Ali dexterously warded off, and before he could recover himself, Ali dealt him a blow with his irresistible sword, which divided his buckler, passed through his doubled turban, cleaving his head went down to his chest. Marhab fell lifeless to the ground. The Muslim warriors

rushed forward in a body, and captured the citadel and the victory was decisive. During the battle of Hunain, the Muslim army was unable to withstand the volley of arrows of the foe. Some of them shattered but Ali faced the situation boldly. He put numerous opponents to death with his sword. Ali acted as the scribe for writing the treaty of Hudaibia. He wrote Muhammad as Messenger of God. The infidels objected to it. They wanted him to write Muhammad, the son of Abdullah. The Prophet consented to do so for the sake of peace, but Ali did not like to delete those words with his own hands. To him it was sacrilege and against the spirit of reverence. Muhammad however did so with his own hand. Ali spent his youth in the shadow of the sword and his early manhood in wielding it. On several occasions, he fought singlehanded against overwhelming odds and emerged out victorious. In the battle of Siffin, he penetrated into the front ranks of the Syrian forces, dressed only in a cotton uniform and without any protective armour. For much the same reason, Ali wore protective armour on the front part of his body only, while his back lay open and unprotected. Someone asked him, "Are you not afraid that you will be attacked from behind?" "God

forbid", was Ali's reply, "that I may live to see the day when an enemy would have the dexterity to attack me from the rear." Once a soldier asked Ali why he preferred mule to a horse when going into action. Ali replied, "A horse can gallop at a great pace, but a mule only ambles along, faltering little in its slow and steady pace. As I have neither to chase one who flies from the battlefield nor any inclination to seek safety in flight myself, I prefer a mule to horse." His behaviour at the battles also illustrates his adherence to his code he imparted. While fighting a duel in a battle, Ali had thrown his opponent on the ground and had drawn his sword to cut off his head, when the latter spat on his face. Ali then left his enemy and sheathed his sword. Asked why he left such a dangerous foe alive, Ali said, "I would have killed him in the way of God, but when he spat on my face, I lost my temper and his death at that juncture would have been caused from motives of retaliation rather than in the spirit of holy war." During the conquest of Mecca, Muhammad entered Kaba and removed 360 idols. The Meccans looked on aghast while Muhammad, with a stroke of stick held in hand, smashed the idols which lay in the lower cavities of the walls. To break those idols which were placed higher up, out of reach of either hand or stick, in particular the idol most treasured by the

Meccans, that of Hubal, like a giant statue; Muhammad solicited the help of Ali. Ibn Sa'd (3rd vol., p. 13) and other compilers of Hadiths, like Tirmizi (2nd vol., p. 299) and Ibn Majah (p. 12) write that Muhammad said, "Ascend on my shoulders and then shatter with this stick all the idols which are placed up above." Ali placed his feet on the shoulders of Muhammad and completed the great purge. He cast down all the idols, relics of the age of ignorance, also climbed to the top of the Kaba and pulled Hubal from its place and threw it down. In the year 9/631, Islam was firmly established throughout Arabia. There remained, however, certain isolated pockets of resistance, therefore, Muhammad next turned his attention to the large Christian community of Najran in Yamen, and invited them to accept Islam. Their response was to conduct a mubahila (imprecation), which was an old custom much used by the ancient prophets. Each of the disputant parties was required to swear a solemn oath that they were on the side of the truth, calling on God to wreak His vengeance on them if they lied. In short, mubahila was a custom to invoke the curse of God on the liar. Hence a deputation of sixty Christian priests, headed by Abu Harith bin Alqamah, the grand bishop of Najran, Abdul Massih and Ayham arrived in Medina. Muhammad had taken with him Ali, Fatima, Hasan and








Quincunx), and when the Christians saw their radiant faces, they were dismayed and overwhelmed. The bishop of Najran changed his mind, and went to Muhammad, informing their inability to proceed with the mubahila, and agreed to come to the terms. The Muslim scholars unanimously concur with the fact, says, Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal in his "Masnad," "that not one of the companions of the Prophet was ever praised by God and His Prophet for his virtues and estimation as was Ali." On one occasion when four of the Muslims complained to Muhammad concerning something that Ali had done, Muhammad was displeased and said, "What do you want from Ali? Ali is from me and I am from Ali. He is the guardian of every believer after me." (Tirmizi, 2nd vol., p. 298) On another occasion, Muhammad is reported to have said, "Ali is my brother, my executor and my successor. You obey him."

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To Home Page Fourth Caliph of Islam

Accordingly, Abu Bakr was elected at the age of 60 years, adopting the title of khilafat rasulillah (Vicegerent of the Messenger of God), a title which was soon simplified to khalifa (whence the word caliph was coined in western languages). Abu Bakr died in 13/634 after ruling for 2 years, 3 months and 10 days. He nominated Umar, whose age at that time was 52 years, ruled for 10 years, 6 months and 4 days; and died in 23/644. The third caliph Uthman was selected at the age of 70 years, who was assassinated in 35/656 after ruling for 11 years, 11 months and 14 days. Wardi writes in "Wu'az al-Salatin" (p. 217) that, "It was the Umayyads who engineered the murder of Uthman, with Muawiya instigating the murder and Marwan working out the death." Immediately after the murder of Uthman, a crowd rushed to Ali in the mosque, urging him to accept the caliphate. Eventually, Ali consented and became the fourth caliph. This implies that the temporal and spiritual powers once again joined together in Islam just 24 years, 8 month and 28 days after the death of Muhammad. Dr. Gustav Weil writes in "History of the Islamic Peoples" (New Delhi, 1914, p. 88) that, "Still from credible sources it is clear enough

that Ali surpassed not only Muawiya but even Abu Bakr and Umar in his unfailing love of righteousness, in bravery and eloquence." It can be said that Ali's succession to the caliphate was approved by the vast majority of Muslims in Medina, and also in most of the provinces of the state. He was however placed in a difficult time, and the dice of fate appears to have been loaded against him. The period of four caliphs were subdivided into four distinct periods. It falls to the lot of Ali that he should pilot the bark of Islam in times of the most dangerous internecine dissensions. To maintain a proper hold of state administration under such conditions was a difficult as to keep a boat steady on stormy waters. Nevertheless, Ali displayed a high example of affection and sympathy for brother-Muslims which is without parallel. During Uthman's caliphate, all the important governorships of the Muslim states were in the possession of the unworthy members of the Umayyad family. Ali firstly dismissed them in the state, but Muawiya the governor of Syria revolted, demanding "revenge for the blood of Uthman". Ali promptly announced that the names of the assassins should be reported, so that they could be executed. He had also started enquiries,

but the only witness to the assassination was Uthman's widow, Naila, who deposed that Uthman had been killed by two persons whose names she did not know. Abul Ala Mawdudi writes in his "Khilafat wa Mulukiyat" (Rampur, 1974, 3rd ed., pp. 115-17) that, "With due respect to Aisha, Talha, Zubayr and Muawiya, one could not help saying that legally their position was untenable. It was only during pre- Islamic days that tribes started wars of vengeance. Only Usman's relatives, who were alive at the time, had the right to demand reparation. If the ruler delayed arresting the criminals, then justice could be demanded by anyone. No law or Shariahpermitted the people to declare the government illegal, because of its failure to redress grievances. If Ali's enemies did not consider him the legally elected caliph, their demand for vengeance against Ali was meaningless." Criticizing Aisha, Talha and Zubayr, who recruited an army and marched from Mecca to Basra against Ali, crying for vengeance for Uthman's blood, Mawdudi remarks that, "This act was illegal as they should have gone to Medina, where Ali, the criminals, and Uthman's heir lived. The war they provoked led to the slaughter of 10,000 people for the blood of one. Even more illegal was the position of Muawiya, who rebelled against the central government when he took revenge for Usman's blood. He did not make this claim in his

private capacity, but in his official position as the governor of Syria. He misused the resources of his government in that cause. He was not satisfied with demanding that Ali prosecute and punish the assassins, but urged that they be handed over to him, so that he himself might execute them." Mawdudi goes on to say that, "Muawiya's relationship with Usman was a private matter, the governorship was not involved. He had no right to claim vengeance as a governor against the caliph to whom allegiance had been given by all the provinces except those governed by himself. Rebellion against the central government by a provincial army meant the revival of pre-Islamic tribal laws." After Ali had taken over as caliph, exactly what he had anticipated took place. Muawiya exercised the motives of old enmity and opposition towards Ali. The charge of Uthman's murder was trumpeted up against Ali and afforded Muawiya's excuse enough to unfurl the standard of revolt against him. Muawiya incited the Syrians against Ali to a feverish pitch by indoctrinating them with a belief in the false charge against Ali. "In order to discredit Ali further" writes Prof. N.A. Faris in "Development in Arab Historiography" that "the Umayyads made the Shiite movement a conspiracy against Islam, engineered by the Jewish convert Abdallah bin Saba, who was

alleged to have been an ardent follower of Ali. Both Taha Husayn and Wardi, marshalling a great deal of impressive historical evidence, deny the existence of Ibn Saba and make him the creation of Umayyad propaganda." (cf. "Historians of the Middle East", ed. Bernard Lewis, London, 1962, p. 441). In the cathedral mosque at Damascus, a meeting to mourn the murder of Uthman had been convened, his blood-stained shirt was exposed to the general view from the pulpit. According to Tabari (5th vol., p. 163), "It was during these bouts of mourning that the Syrians were told that they had to avenge Uthman's blood." Hence, Uthman was the symbol and slogan of Umayyad aspiration in contrast to Ali, and in order to solidify his rule in Syria, he got fabrication of many hadiths. For instance, it was propagated that "Syria is the chosen country of God and He sends those of His servants there whom He prefers to all others. O confessors of Islam, press forward towards Syria because God has chosen this country as His favouribe amongst the countries of the whole world"

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