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Chapter 12 Serial_ Mass and Spree Murder

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					Chapter 12 Serial, Mass & Spree
            Murder




                                  1
               Chapter Summary

 Chapter 12 is an overview of serial killers, mass
  murderers, and spree killers.
 The Chapter begins with a discussion of mass
  murderers and serial killers. This is followed with
  an extensive discussion of serial killers, the
  prevalence of serial killers, and serial killers
  worldwide.
 The Chapter then provides an overview of the
  different theories regarding multiple murderers.




                                                        2
              Chapter Summary

 Chapter 12 concludes with a discussion of the role
  of law enforcement and how law enforcement
  responds to serial killing.
 After reading this chapter, students should be
  able to:
 Explain the difference between mass murderers
  and spree killers
 Define the different types of serial killers
 Understand the extend of serial killing by minority
  groups



                                                   3
             Chapter Summary

   Explain the various theories of serial killing
   Discuss law enforcement’s response to serial
    killing
   Some murders are committed only for the
    offender’s own enjoyment and psychological
    satisfaction.
   Many killers have high numbers of victims and
    their actions are sadistically brutal.




                                                     4
       What is Multiple Murder?

 Some murders are committed only for the
  offender’s own enjoyment and psychological
  satisfaction
 Many killers have high numbers of victims
  and their actions are sadistically brutal




                                               5
          Mass and Spree Murder

 Mass murder: The killing of several people at
  one location.
 Spree murder: The killing of several people at
  different locations over a period of several
  days.
 These killers typically commit suicide or are
  killed by the police.




                                                   6
         Mass and Spree Murder

Two types of mass murderers:
 Those who chose specific targets who the
    killers believe to have caused them stress.
 Those who attack targets having no
    connection with the killer but who belong to
    groups the killer dislikes.




                                                   7
          Mass and Spree Murder

   Most mass murderers are motivated by a
    hatred that simmers until some specific event
    provides the flame that brings it to a boil.
   Spree killers move from victim to victim in
    fairly rapid succession.
   Spree killing is rare, but spree-killing teams
    are even rarer and are typically composed of
    a dominant leader and submissive lover.
   Spree and mass murderers have increased
    steadily in the United States since the middle
    of the century.




                                                     8
                Serial Murder


   FBI’s three criteria for defining a killer as a
    serial killer:
   Kill in three or more separate events.
   At three or more separate locations.
   Engage in an emotional cooling off period
    between murders.
   Serial murder: The killing of three or more
    victims over an extended period of time.




                                                      9
          The Extent of the Problem

   Some empirical evidence suggested that
    roughly 20% of the murders in the United
    States yearly were committed by serial killers.
   However, other data sources contented that
    the share of serial killers accounted for no
    more than 300-400 murders each year.




                                                      10
         A Typology of Serial Killers


   Visionary serial killer: Feels impelled to commit
    murder by visions or “voices in my head.”
   Mission oriented killer: Feel it to be their mission
    in life to kill certain kinds of people.
   Hedonistic serial killer: Kill for the pure thrill and
    joy of it; the majority of serial killers are
    hedonistic serial killers.
   Power/Control killer: Gains more satisfaction
    from exercising complete power over his victims,
    and sexual activity is almost always involved.




                                                       11
                       Figure 12.1
Estimated Number and Rate per 10 Million of Serial Killers
 Operating in the United States from 1795 to Mid-2004


              200




                                                                   9
                                                                 17
              150




                                                                          3
                                                                        16
                                                           1
                                                         12
               100




                                                  54
                50

                                     20
                                 5




                                            13
                            25
                          4.




                    0
                                 4


                                       43
                                     1.


                                              3
                        1795-
                                            4.


                                                     2
                        1849 1850- 1900-                                      Number

                                                   5.



                                                            3
                                                          7.
                              1899




                                                                    4
                                   1924 1925-




                                                                  5.
                                         1944 1945-
                                                                          Rate
                                              1979 1980-
                                                    1989        1990-
                                                                2004



   Sources: U.S Justice Department figures as reported by Jenkins (1994);
   updated figures from Hickey (2006) and Walsh (2005). Rates Per 10 million
   population computed by authors.
                                                                                       12
          Race and Multiple Murder

   African Americans are over-represented
    among serial killers relative to their proportion
    of the American population.
   Jenkins argues that black serial killers do not
    attain the notoriety of their white
    counterparts because the media tends to
    ignore them.
   There has been only one known Asian serial
    killer operating in the United States during
    the 20th century.




                                                    13
          Female Serial Killers
   The key distinction between make and female
    serial killers is that: “There are no female
    counterparts to a Bundy or a Gacy, to whom sex
    or sexual violence is a part of the murder
    pattern.”
   Females kill for instrumental reasons or from
    twisted notions of mercy.




                                                14
            Multiple Murder Overseas


   Mass or spree murder is relatively rare in
    developed countries outside of the United States.
   Strict gun controls may help to prevent some of
    the would-be mass or spree killers overseas, but
    they do not prevent serial killers.




                                                    15
       Theories about the Causes of
               Serial Killing

   Serial killing is not the result of any single cause
    but of several risk factors interacting in various
    ways.
   Anomie theory has been applied to explain serial
    killing across the centuries.
   Some authors invoke certain aspects of family and
    developmental theories to explain the phenomenon.
   The dramatic increase in the number of serial
    killers in the last half of the 20th century points
    to some very important social changes.




                                                     16
        Theories about the Causes of
                Serial Killing


   One factor that researchers appear to be unanimous
    about is that an extreme level of maternal
    deprivation almost uniformly characterizes the
    childhood experience of serial killers.
   The disinhibited counterculture; ethos of personal
    satisfaction.
   The decarceration movement in the mental health
    system.




                                                   17
        Theories about the Causes of
                Serial Killing

 Two cognitive factors commonly imputed to serial
  killers are strong feelings of sexual inadequacy and
  a rich fantasy life.
 Extreme sexual dysfunction my result in deeply
  embedded feelings of worthlessness and
  powerlessness, the seeds which may have already
  been implanted by childhood abuse and neglect.
 A large percentage of serial killers who have been
  examined have significant damage to the frontal
  lobes of the brain.




                                                    18
       Theories about the Causes of
               Serial Killing
 One hypothesis is that a combination of genetic
  factors and abnormal fetal development of the
  brain and ANS may explain the biological
  component.
 The diathesis-stress model (Giannangelo-1996): All
  serial killers have a congenital susceptibility to
  behave and think in ways that lead to serial killing if
  combined with environmental stressors and traumas
  in terms of gene/environment correlation and
  gene/environment interaction.




                                                       19
                        Figure 12.2
      Stephen Giannangelo's Diathesis/Stress Model of
                       Serial Killing
Biological            Predisposition      Maladap    Dissocia-      First
Predisposition         Self-esteem          tive        tive            Kill!
(low arousal           and self-            coping      process
levels, possible       control              skills
prefrontal             problems             Retreat
cortex damage,         Sexual               into
etc)                   dysfunction          fantasy
Environmental                               world
Trauma/Stress




                                                                           20
     Law Enforcement’s Response to
             Serial Killing

   The Investigative Support Unit (ISU) of the
    FBI has developed methods of profiling serial
    killers and other violent offenders through
    extensive interviewing and formal
    psychological testing of incarcerated killers in
    order to develop a typology based on
    personality and other offender
    characteristics.




                                                       21
     Law Enforcement’s Response to
             Serial Killing

   Offender profiling is augmented by crime scene
    analysis, which often tells experienced
    investigators a lot about the perpetrator’s
    personality.
   May serial murders may occur in diverse police
    jurisdictions without law enforcement being able
    to not the connections between them. This
    problem is known as linkage blindness.




                                                  22
      Law Enforcement’s Response to
              Serial Killing

   In 1985, the FBI created the Violent Criminal
    Apprehension Program (VICAP) which was a
    national clearinghouse that collates information
    on unsolved violent crimes from different
    jurisdictions.
   Law enforcement now has the ability to link a
    number of homicides committed in different
    jurisdictions to a single individual or individuals.




                                                           23

				
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