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					A Step by Step
    Guide
 How to answer the last
  Coursework question
 What was more important in
bringing apartheid and minority
rule to an end in South Africa,
internal opposition or external
           pressure?
  How to answer the Question
             The question can be answered in four stages…



      •   Introduction
      •   Section One – Internal Opposition
      •   Section Two – External Pressure
      •   Conclusion
 The following slides will guide you through how to answer the question.
 You will also have the opportunity to access key facts and information
about internal opposition and External pressure when needed. Good Luck!

                                            If you need help with your sentences
                                               click the i for help at any time
        Sentence Starters

Apartheid was….


Minority rule meant….


Internal opposition means… done by groups such as …. And
individuals like…..


External pressure refers to… This included
         Starting your answer
Your first paragraph will be a brief introduction
to the question – you will need to…

• Explain what internal opposition means
   – Give at least two examples
• Explain what external pressure means
   – Give at least two examples
                         Section One
  This is where you will get to explain the pressure that was applied on the
 South African Government by Internal opposition. You will have to describe
   examples of Internal opposition and explain how important it was in the
                              ending of apartheid.


You will need to include the following:

       • The ANC campaigns of the 1950’s and
         1960’s (including the MK)
       • The Work of Steve Biko and SASO
       • The Soweto Riots of 1976
       • The work of the UDF in the 1980’s
        Sentence Starters

The ending of apartheid was …


Internal opposition means…


External pressure refers to…


This helped to end apartheid because…


This didn’t help to end apartheid because…
       ANC Campaigns 1950’s
The Defiance Campaign against Unjust Laws was launched
 on 26 June 1952 by the ANC together with the South
 African Indian Congress. More than 8,500 volunteers
    were imprisoned for peacefully refusing to obey
  apartheid laws. The campaign, which carried on into
    1953, attracted thousands into political activity.

 In May 1954, the ANC announced its opposition to the
Bantu Education Act and encouraged children to boycott
 schools. On the 12th April thousands of black children
                stayed home in protest.
         ANC Campaigns 1960’s
After the attacks at Sharpeville in March 1960 the ANC began to divide
         and turned from peaceful protest to violent protest.


Mandela as one of the key leaders of the ANC believed that the time for
peace had passed and helped to form Umkhonto we Sizwe ("Spear of the
                    Nation“ and abbreviated to MK).


  The MK began a series of violent protests and sabotage of important
buildings (power plants, government buildings), their aim to disrupt, raise
       awareness of apartheid and cause no person harm to anyone.


Mandela and the actions of the MK came notorious and many followed the
             papers to see what was going to happen next.
         Were they successful
• The anti apartheid movements were beginning
  to make the country ungovernable.
• The government began to look more and more
  powerless.
• Education boycotts: The government replied
  by stating that children not back at school by
  25th would receive no education, many
  parents adopted the some is better than non
  approach.
• MK: It brought international publicity to
  South Africa once again especially when
  Mandela was finally caught.
            Steve Biko and SASO
 In 1969 Biko helped to form the South African Students Organisation (SASO), it was
     formed because he felt that the NATIONAL Union of South African Students
(NUSAS) at the Natal University where he studied, could not properly look after black
                                      students.


    Biko was a powerful writer and in his SASO articles explained his ideas of black
consciousness. He argued that after living in a white dominated society black people had
lost their confidence. He argued that until they had confidence in themselves and their
 society blacks would never gain their freedom and to regain their freedom they must
                          end their dependence on the whites.


   Biko’s reputation grew both in South Africa and internationally. The ideas of black
    consciousness caught on. The government banned him in 1973 and in 1977 he was
  arrested and beaten to death, they then closed down his projects and banned other
                                  black rights leaders.


    One effect of black consciousness was to make young people ready to defy the
  government and police at almost any cost. Bikos murder just added fuel to the fire
          which the white government never fully succeeded in putting out.
                 Soweto Riots 1976
In SOuth WEstern TOwnship (SOWETO), which lies on the outskirts of Johannesburg,
  overcrowded secondary schools had class sizes of as high as 60 – 100 pupils. Lack of
 textbooks and a shortage of qualified teachers forced schools to teach in two shifts.


 In 1976 the Education minister announced that half of all subjects (including maths,
history and geography) had to be taught in Afrikaans. For the students Afrikaans was
                          the language of their oppressors


  Rioting, class boycotts, school burnings, attacks on police and government buildings
 followed and spread to other townships. By the end of the year 576 people had been
                                killed and 2389 wounded.


After the riots an election was called in 1977. The message of the riots had been clear
   and the votes went heavily in favour of the Nationalists and there were calls for
                            tougher government and control.
            UDF in the 1980’s
The United Democratic Front (UDF) came into existence in
           1983 to fight the new constitution.
Its aim was to unite all black resistance groups. It grew at
an enormous pace, reaching 2 million members in 1985. The
 membership included 586 political, religious, trade union,
          youth league, civic and women’s groups.
Like the ANC the UDF was multi racial and looked forward
   to a future based on the Freedom Charter. A release
Mandela campaign was launched which was widely supported
                 both at home and abroad.
                        Section Two
  This is where you will get to explain the pressure that was applied on the
    Government from outside of South Africa. You will have to describe
examples of External Pressure and explain how important it was in the ending
                                 of apartheid.


You will need to include the following:

       • The OAU and the help they gave to
         the ANC
       • The implementation of economic
         problems during the 1970’s and
         sanctions during 80’s
       • The introduction of Sporting Boycotts
       • The actions of ordinary people
        Sentence Starters

The ending of apartheid was …


Internal opposition means…


External pressure refers to…


This helped to end apartheid because…


This didn’t help to end apartheid because…
            OAU and the ANC
By the mid 1970’s the support South Africa had received from
the friendly white governments along the South African border
                       began to collapse.


  And in 1963 the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) was
 formed by the newly independent black nations of Africa. It
made the abolition of apartheid in South Africa one of its main
aims. Its policy was clearly set out in the Lusaka Manifesto of
                              1969.


This new situation enabled the ANC to set up bases outside of
 South Africa in Angola and Mozabique within easy reach of
                 Johannesburg and Pretoria.
     Were they successful?
• Front line countries provided bases to
  train guerrilla fighters from the MK
• ‘Buffer states’ surrounding the
  countries of South Africa made it
  impossible for the government to attack
  those who opposed or were helping the
  ANC and other opposition groups.
     Economic Problems 1970’s
    During the 1970’s apartheid was no longer working in favour of the
   powerful whites. Gold Mining and Farming were no longer important
   industries and so there was no longer demand on the government to
                     provide cheapo, unskilled labour.


   Employers now wanted more permanent, skilled workers who could be
 trained to use new technology. Blacks realised that this gave them power
    to bargain for better conditions and wages. Between 1973 and 1975
  widespread strikes took place across South Africa. Black workers and
 white management began to learn how to compromise and negotiate with
                                each other.


The Unions and the ANC continued to campaign for international companies
 to stop investing in South Africa. This increased the countries economic
                                difficulties.
      Were they successful?
• Increasing pressure by the trade unions made
  it difficult for the government to run the
  country.
• These international sanction began to take
  effect and the government realised that it
  could no longer resist change.
• Sanctions imposed during the late 1970’s were
  openly opposed by Thatcher (Britain) and
  Regan (USA)as they believed strongly in free
  trade and were convinced that White south
  Africa was an important ally in their fight
  against international communism.
     Economic Sanctions 1980’s
  In 1984 Desmond Tutu won the Nobel Peace Prize, he called for international
support in imposing economic sanctions on South Africa in order to push them into
                              abandoning apartheid.


Many businesses supported the economic sanctions and 277 businesses pulled out
of South Africa including Peugeot, Pepsi Cola and IBM. American banks withdrew
     their money and the USA banned trading in steel and cut airline links.


By 1985 South Africa was facing a financial crisis, the Rand had dropped by 35%
and the stock market closed for 4 days. To the South African leaders it became
 obvious that change was necessary to prevent a total collapse of the economy.


Prime Minister Botha responds by removing ‘petty apartheid’ laws in 1986 including
Pass Laws (to encourage greater movement in black workers across South Africa)
                   and segregation in hotels and restaurants.
        Were they successful?
• Although world opinion swung slowly in favour of sanctions during
  the 1980’s there were still many people who firmly opposed
  them. Even some black South Africans saw no benefit in
  sanctions as it would harm the trade and economy of South
  Africa.

• International Sanctions could no longer be ignored because
  South Africa was struggling. Botha had to meet with leaders of
  industry and promise to support free enterprise and reform and
  gradually jobs became available to blacks and not just whites.

• South Africa was becoming isolated. Anti apartheid groups from
  around the world had successfully urged industry and sports to
  boycott South Africa which put pressure on the government as
  the economy began to fall.
             Sporting Boycotts
 In South Africa when it came sports you had to be white to play
        internationally and in local sporting competitions.


  In 1969 when the British Cricket team arrived to play they had a
single black player, Basil D’Oliviera in the team. The South African
 government refused to let him play due to the apartheid laws. The
British Cricket team refused to play South Africa and so until 1994
when apartheid ended many international teams boycotted sporting
                  competitions with South Africa.


 Sports that were boycotted included Rugby and Cricket. South
Africa were also banned from the Olympics and the Commonwealth
                             games.
      Were they successful?
• The Boycotts led to some multi racial teams
  being formed although these were very
  limited.
• International Sports only returned to South
  Africa in 1995 when it hosted and won the
  Rugby World Cup.
• South Africa was becoming isolated. Anti
  apartheid groups from around the world had
  successfully urged industry and sports to
  boycott South Africa which put pressure on
  the government as the economy began to fall.
              Ordinary People
British Anti apartheid groups continued to protest to the government
for sanctions to be imposed in Africa, they also raised money to help
              the opponents of apartheid within Africa.


   Many people around the world were outraged by the Sharpeville
 shootings in 1960 and the riots and demonstrations that resulted in
                          police aggression.
     Were they successful?
• The media began to show footage of
  clashes between police and protestors
  on television screens throughout the
  world. The government was constantly
  criticised by people who were outraged
  by what they saw.
                    Conclusion
You now have to finish your answer by explain which type of
pressure was the most significant in helping to bring
apartheid to an end.

Thinks about the following questions…

     • Did they do a lot to bring about the end of
       apartheid?
     • Did they do very little in bringing about the
       end of apartheid?
     • Did they do nothing at all to bring
       apartheid to and end?
     • What stopped them from being effective?
If you have made it this far you have finished the final question.
Remember to re-read it through and do a spell check before you
                         save and print.




    Don’t forget to hand this in along with any others that are
               still missing from your coursework.

				
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