A Step by Step Guide How to answer the last Coursework question What was more important in bringing apartheid and minority rule to an end in South Africa, internal opposition or external pressure? How to answer the Question The question can be answered in four stages… • Introduction • Section One – Internal Opposition • Section Two – External Pressure • Conclusion The following slides will guide you through how to answer the question. You will also have the opportunity to access key facts and information about internal opposition and External pressure when needed. Good Luck! If you need help with your sentences click the i for help at any time Sentence Starters Apartheid was…. Minority rule meant…. Internal opposition means… done by groups such as …. And individuals like….. External pressure refers to… This included Starting your answer Your first paragraph will be a brief introduction to the question – you will need to… • Explain what internal opposition means – Give at least two examples • Explain what external pressure means – Give at least two examples Section One This is where you will get to explain the pressure that was applied on the South African Government by Internal opposition. You will have to describe examples of Internal opposition and explain how important it was in the ending of apartheid. You will need to include the following: • The ANC campaigns of the 1950’s and 1960’s (including the MK) • The Work of Steve Biko and SASO • The Soweto Riots of 1976 • The work of the UDF in the 1980’s Sentence Starters The ending of apartheid was … Internal opposition means… External pressure refers to… This helped to end apartheid because… This didn’t help to end apartheid because… ANC Campaigns 1950’s The Defiance Campaign against Unjust Laws was launched on 26 June 1952 by the ANC together with the South African Indian Congress. More than 8,500 volunteers were imprisoned for peacefully refusing to obey apartheid laws. The campaign, which carried on into 1953, attracted thousands into political activity. In May 1954, the ANC announced its opposition to the Bantu Education Act and encouraged children to boycott schools. On the 12th April thousands of black children stayed home in protest. ANC Campaigns 1960’s After the attacks at Sharpeville in March 1960 the ANC began to divide and turned from peaceful protest to violent protest. Mandela as one of the key leaders of the ANC believed that the time for peace had passed and helped to form Umkhonto we Sizwe ("Spear of the Nation“ and abbreviated to MK). The MK began a series of violent protests and sabotage of important buildings (power plants, government buildings), their aim to disrupt, raise awareness of apartheid and cause no person harm to anyone. Mandela and the actions of the MK came notorious and many followed the papers to see what was going to happen next. Were they successful • The anti apartheid movements were beginning to make the country ungovernable. • The government began to look more and more powerless. • Education boycotts: The government replied by stating that children not back at school by 25th would receive no education, many parents adopted the some is better than non approach. • MK: It brought international publicity to South Africa once again especially when Mandela was finally caught. Steve Biko and SASO In 1969 Biko helped to form the South African Students Organisation (SASO), it was formed because he felt that the NATIONAL Union of South African Students (NUSAS) at the Natal University where he studied, could not properly look after black students. Biko was a powerful writer and in his SASO articles explained his ideas of black consciousness. He argued that after living in a white dominated society black people had lost their confidence. He argued that until they had confidence in themselves and their society blacks would never gain their freedom and to regain their freedom they must end their dependence on the whites. Biko’s reputation grew both in South Africa and internationally. The ideas of black consciousness caught on. The government banned him in 1973 and in 1977 he was arrested and beaten to death, they then closed down his projects and banned other black rights leaders. One effect of black consciousness was to make young people ready to defy the government and police at almost any cost. Bikos murder just added fuel to the fire which the white government never fully succeeded in putting out. Soweto Riots 1976 In SOuth WEstern TOwnship (SOWETO), which lies on the outskirts of Johannesburg, overcrowded secondary schools had class sizes of as high as 60 – 100 pupils. Lack of textbooks and a shortage of qualified teachers forced schools to teach in two shifts. In 1976 the Education minister announced that half of all subjects (including maths, history and geography) had to be taught in Afrikaans. For the students Afrikaans was the language of their oppressors Rioting, class boycotts, school burnings, attacks on police and government buildings followed and spread to other townships. By the end of the year 576 people had been killed and 2389 wounded. After the riots an election was called in 1977. The message of the riots had been clear and the votes went heavily in favour of the Nationalists and there were calls for tougher government and control. UDF in the 1980’s The United Democratic Front (UDF) came into existence in 1983 to fight the new constitution. Its aim was to unite all black resistance groups. It grew at an enormous pace, reaching 2 million members in 1985. The membership included 586 political, religious, trade union, youth league, civic and women’s groups. Like the ANC the UDF was multi racial and looked forward to a future based on the Freedom Charter. A release Mandela campaign was launched which was widely supported both at home and abroad. Section Two This is where you will get to explain the pressure that was applied on the Government from outside of South Africa. You will have to describe examples of External Pressure and explain how important it was in the ending of apartheid. You will need to include the following: • The OAU and the help they gave to the ANC • The implementation of economic problems during the 1970’s and sanctions during 80’s • The introduction of Sporting Boycotts • The actions of ordinary people Sentence Starters The ending of apartheid was … Internal opposition means… External pressure refers to… This helped to end apartheid because… This didn’t help to end apartheid because… OAU and the ANC By the mid 1970’s the support South Africa had received from the friendly white governments along the South African border began to collapse. And in 1963 the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) was formed by the newly independent black nations of Africa. It made the abolition of apartheid in South Africa one of its main aims. Its policy was clearly set out in the Lusaka Manifesto of 1969. This new situation enabled the ANC to set up bases outside of South Africa in Angola and Mozabique within easy reach of Johannesburg and Pretoria. Were they successful? • Front line countries provided bases to train guerrilla fighters from the MK • ‘Buffer states’ surrounding the countries of South Africa made it impossible for the government to attack those who opposed or were helping the ANC and other opposition groups. Economic Problems 1970’s During the 1970’s apartheid was no longer working in favour of the powerful whites. Gold Mining and Farming were no longer important industries and so there was no longer demand on the government to provide cheapo, unskilled labour. Employers now wanted more permanent, skilled workers who could be trained to use new technology. Blacks realised that this gave them power to bargain for better conditions and wages. Between 1973 and 1975 widespread strikes took place across South Africa. Black workers and white management began to learn how to compromise and negotiate with each other. The Unions and the ANC continued to campaign for international companies to stop investing in South Africa. This increased the countries economic difficulties. Were they successful? • Increasing pressure by the trade unions made it difficult for the government to run the country. • These international sanction began to take effect and the government realised that it could no longer resist change. • Sanctions imposed during the late 1970’s were openly opposed by Thatcher (Britain) and Regan (USA)as they believed strongly in free trade and were convinced that White south Africa was an important ally in their fight against international communism. Economic Sanctions 1980’s In 1984 Desmond Tutu won the Nobel Peace Prize, he called for international support in imposing economic sanctions on South Africa in order to push them into abandoning apartheid. Many businesses supported the economic sanctions and 277 businesses pulled out of South Africa including Peugeot, Pepsi Cola and IBM. American banks withdrew their money and the USA banned trading in steel and cut airline links. By 1985 South Africa was facing a financial crisis, the Rand had dropped by 35% and the stock market closed for 4 days. To the South African leaders it became obvious that change was necessary to prevent a total collapse of the economy. Prime Minister Botha responds by removing ‘petty apartheid’ laws in 1986 including Pass Laws (to encourage greater movement in black workers across South Africa) and segregation in hotels and restaurants. Were they successful? • Although world opinion swung slowly in favour of sanctions during the 1980’s there were still many people who firmly opposed them. Even some black South Africans saw no benefit in sanctions as it would harm the trade and economy of South Africa. • International Sanctions could no longer be ignored because South Africa was struggling. Botha had to meet with leaders of industry and promise to support free enterprise and reform and gradually jobs became available to blacks and not just whites. • South Africa was becoming isolated. Anti apartheid groups from around the world had successfully urged industry and sports to boycott South Africa which put pressure on the government as the economy began to fall. Sporting Boycotts In South Africa when it came sports you had to be white to play internationally and in local sporting competitions. In 1969 when the British Cricket team arrived to play they had a single black player, Basil D’Oliviera in the team. The South African government refused to let him play due to the apartheid laws. The British Cricket team refused to play South Africa and so until 1994 when apartheid ended many international teams boycotted sporting competitions with South Africa. Sports that were boycotted included Rugby and Cricket. South Africa were also banned from the Olympics and the Commonwealth games. Were they successful? • The Boycotts led to some multi racial teams being formed although these were very limited. • International Sports only returned to South Africa in 1995 when it hosted and won the Rugby World Cup. • South Africa was becoming isolated. Anti apartheid groups from around the world had successfully urged industry and sports to boycott South Africa which put pressure on the government as the economy began to fall. Ordinary People British Anti apartheid groups continued to protest to the government for sanctions to be imposed in Africa, they also raised money to help the opponents of apartheid within Africa. Many people around the world were outraged by the Sharpeville shootings in 1960 and the riots and demonstrations that resulted in police aggression. Were they successful? • The media began to show footage of clashes between police and protestors on television screens throughout the world. The government was constantly criticised by people who were outraged by what they saw. Conclusion You now have to finish your answer by explain which type of pressure was the most significant in helping to bring apartheid to an end. Thinks about the following questions… • Did they do a lot to bring about the end of apartheid? • Did they do very little in bringing about the end of apartheid? • Did they do nothing at all to bring apartheid to and end? • What stopped them from being effective? If you have made it this far you have finished the final question. Remember to re-read it through and do a spell check before you save and print. Don’t forget to hand this in along with any others that are still missing from your coursework.
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