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Motivational practices in the organizations and barriers in its implications

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					Motivational practices in the organizations
     and barriers in its implications.
1. Motivation
Motivation is the set of forces that leads people to behave in particular ways. From the
manager’s view points , the objective is to motivate people to behave in ways that are in the
organization’s best interest.
1.1.1The Importance of Motivation
Job performance depends on ability and environments as well as motivation. The relationship
can be stated as follows:
       P=M+A+E
       Where P=performance, A=ability, E=environment
1.1.2 Need: A need is anything an individual requires or wants.
       Primary needs are the basic physical requirements necessary to sustain life such as food,
water, and shelter from environments.
       Secondary needs are requirements learned from the environment and culture in which
the person lives. Example includes the needs for achievement, power, autonomy, affiliation,
status, order, and understanding.
       Motive is a factor that determines a person’s choice of one course of behavior from
among several possibilities.
1.1.3 Need theories of motivation
Need theories of motivation assume that need deficiencies cause behavior in organization?
The Hierarchy of Needs
Developed by Abraham Maslow. Assumed that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy of
importance.
     Physiological Needs- Base Salary
     Security Needs -Pension Plan
     Belonging Needs- Friends in work
     Esteem Needs -Job title
     Self Actualization Needs –Challenging job
ERG Theory
    E-Existence Need
    R-Relatedness Need

    G-Growth need

Dual Structure Theory (Two Factor Theory)
  • Identifies motivation factors, which affect satisfaction, and hygiene factors, which
      determine dissatisfaction.
   •   Developed by Fredrick Herzberg and his associates.
Motivation factors
  • Achievement
   •   Recognition
   •   The Work Itself
   •   Responsibility
   •   Advancement and growth
Hygiene factors
   • Supervision
   •   Working condition
   •   Interpersonal Relationships
   •   Pay & Job security
   •   Company policies


1.1.4 Other Important Needs
    • The Need for Achievement
The need for achievement is the desire to accomplish a task or goal more effectively than was
done in the past.
   • The Need for Affiliation
The need for affiliation is the need for human companionship.
   • The Need for Power
The need for power is the desire to control the resources in one’s environment.


1.2 Process- Based Perspectives On Motivation
The process- based perspectives on motivation focus on how people behave in their efforts to
satisfy their needs. Process-based perspectives also describe how people choose among behavior
alternative. To determine process-based motivation perspectives we can use some motivation
theories. The motivation theories are-
      The equity theory of Motivation.
      The expectancy theory of motivation.
      Reinforcement theory.
      Schedules of reinforcement in organization.


 1.2.1 The Equity Theory of Motivation:

Equity theory of motivation assumes that people want to be treated fairly. It hypothesizes that
people compare their own input-to-outcome ratio in the organization with the ratio of a
comparison-other. If they feel their treatment has been inequitable, they take steps to reduce the
inequity.
Figure 1.1 Comparisons of self with other
1.2.2 The Expectancy Theory of Motivation:

Expectancy theory, a somewhat more complicated model, follows the assumption that people are
motivated by how much they want something and the likelihood they perceive of getting it.



                                  Environment                         Outcome




       Effort    Effort to        Performance   Performance           Outcome
                 Performance                                                     Valence
                                                to Outcome
                 Expectancy                                                      of Outcomes
                                                Expectancy


                                     Ability                          Outcome


Figure 1.2: The Expectancy Theory of Motivation:

 1.2.3 Reinforcement Theory:

Reinforcement theory is based on the idea that behavior is a function of its consequences.
Behavior that results in pleasant consequences is more likely to be repeated and behaviors that
results in unpleasant consequences is less likely to be repeated. Reinforcement theory also
suggests that in any given situation, people explore a variety of possible behavior.
Types of Reinforcement in Organization:
There are four basic kinds of reinforcement that manager can use to motivate employee behavior.
The four basic forms of reinforcement are -
        Positive Reinforcement:

         Positive reinforcement is a reward or other desirable consequence that can be used to
         motivate employee to continue to engage in desirable behavior.
        Avoidance Reinforcement:

         Avoidance reinforcement, a negative reinforcement, is the opportunity to avoid or escape
         from an unpleasant circumstance after exhibiting behavior.
        Extinction Reinforcement:
       Extinction decreases the frequency of behavior by eliminating a reward or desirable
       consequence that follows that behavior.
      Punishment Reinforcement:

       Punishment is an unpleasant or aversive that might be used to motivate employees to
       changes undesirable behaviors.
 1.2.4 Schedules of Reinforcement In Organization:

Schedules of reinforcement indicate when or how often managers should reinforce certain
behaviors. Manager can use these schedules of reinforcement in the organization depends on the
situation. The five basic schedules of reinforcement are-
      Continuous Reinforcement:

       Continuous reinforcement rewards behavior every time it occurs. It is very effective in
       desirable behavior, but it poses serious difficulties to manager to monitor every
       employee’s behavior.
      Fixed-interval reinforcement:

       Fixed-interval reinforcement is reinforcement provided on a predetermined, constant
       schedule based on time.
      Variable-Interval Reinforcement:

       Variable-interval reinforcement is reinforcement provided after periods of time but the
       time span varies from one time to the next.
      Fixed-Ratio Reinforcement:

       Fixed-ratio reinforcement provides reinforcement after a fixed number of behaviors
       obtained.
      Variable-Ratio Reinforcement:

       Variable-ratio reinforcement is reinforced according to the number of behaviors
       exhibited, but the number of behaviors needed to gain reinforcement varies from one time
       to the next.

				
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