Motivational practices in the organizations
and barriers in its implications.
Motivation is the set of forces that leads people to behave in particular ways. From the
manager’s view points , the objective is to motivate people to behave in ways that are in the
organization’s best interest.
1.1.1The Importance of Motivation
Job performance depends on ability and environments as well as motivation. The relationship
can be stated as follows:
Where P=performance, A=ability, E=environment
1.1.2 Need: A need is anything an individual requires or wants.
Primary needs are the basic physical requirements necessary to sustain life such as food,
water, and shelter from environments.
Secondary needs are requirements learned from the environment and culture in which
the person lives. Example includes the needs for achievement, power, autonomy, affiliation,
status, order, and understanding.
Motive is a factor that determines a person’s choice of one course of behavior from
among several possibilities.
1.1.3 Need theories of motivation
Need theories of motivation assume that need deficiencies cause behavior in organization?
The Hierarchy of Needs
Developed by Abraham Maslow. Assumed that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy of
Physiological Needs- Base Salary
Security Needs -Pension Plan
Belonging Needs- Friends in work
Esteem Needs -Job title
Self Actualization Needs –Challenging job
Dual Structure Theory (Two Factor Theory)
• Identifies motivation factors, which affect satisfaction, and hygiene factors, which
• Developed by Fredrick Herzberg and his associates.
• The Work Itself
• Advancement and growth
• Working condition
• Interpersonal Relationships
• Pay & Job security
• Company policies
1.1.4 Other Important Needs
• The Need for Achievement
The need for achievement is the desire to accomplish a task or goal more effectively than was
done in the past.
• The Need for Affiliation
The need for affiliation is the need for human companionship.
• The Need for Power
The need for power is the desire to control the resources in one’s environment.
1.2 Process- Based Perspectives On Motivation
The process- based perspectives on motivation focus on how people behave in their efforts to
satisfy their needs. Process-based perspectives also describe how people choose among behavior
alternative. To determine process-based motivation perspectives we can use some motivation
theories. The motivation theories are-
The equity theory of Motivation.
The expectancy theory of motivation.
Schedules of reinforcement in organization.
1.2.1 The Equity Theory of Motivation:
Equity theory of motivation assumes that people want to be treated fairly. It hypothesizes that
people compare their own input-to-outcome ratio in the organization with the ratio of a
comparison-other. If they feel their treatment has been inequitable, they take steps to reduce the
Figure 1.1 Comparisons of self with other
1.2.2 The Expectancy Theory of Motivation:
Expectancy theory, a somewhat more complicated model, follows the assumption that people are
motivated by how much they want something and the likelihood they perceive of getting it.
Effort Effort to Performance Performance Outcome
Expectancy of Outcomes
Figure 1.2: The Expectancy Theory of Motivation:
1.2.3 Reinforcement Theory:
Reinforcement theory is based on the idea that behavior is a function of its consequences.
Behavior that results in pleasant consequences is more likely to be repeated and behaviors that
results in unpleasant consequences is less likely to be repeated. Reinforcement theory also
suggests that in any given situation, people explore a variety of possible behavior.
Types of Reinforcement in Organization:
There are four basic kinds of reinforcement that manager can use to motivate employee behavior.
The four basic forms of reinforcement are -
Positive reinforcement is a reward or other desirable consequence that can be used to
motivate employee to continue to engage in desirable behavior.
Avoidance reinforcement, a negative reinforcement, is the opportunity to avoid or escape
from an unpleasant circumstance after exhibiting behavior.
Extinction decreases the frequency of behavior by eliminating a reward or desirable
consequence that follows that behavior.
Punishment is an unpleasant or aversive that might be used to motivate employees to
changes undesirable behaviors.
1.2.4 Schedules of Reinforcement In Organization:
Schedules of reinforcement indicate when or how often managers should reinforce certain
behaviors. Manager can use these schedules of reinforcement in the organization depends on the
situation. The five basic schedules of reinforcement are-
Continuous reinforcement rewards behavior every time it occurs. It is very effective in
desirable behavior, but it poses serious difficulties to manager to monitor every
Fixed-interval reinforcement is reinforcement provided on a predetermined, constant
schedule based on time.
Variable-interval reinforcement is reinforcement provided after periods of time but the
time span varies from one time to the next.
Fixed-ratio reinforcement provides reinforcement after a fixed number of behaviors
Variable-ratio reinforcement is reinforced according to the number of behaviors
exhibited, but the number of behaviors needed to gain reinforcement varies from one time
to the next.