Motivational practices in the organizations and barriers in its implications. 1. Motivation Motivation is the set of forces that leads people to behave in particular ways. From the manager’s view points , the objective is to motivate people to behave in ways that are in the organization’s best interest. 1.1.1The Importance of Motivation Job performance depends on ability and environments as well as motivation. The relationship can be stated as follows: P=M+A+E Where P=performance, A=ability, E=environment 1.1.2 Need: A need is anything an individual requires or wants. Primary needs are the basic physical requirements necessary to sustain life such as food, water, and shelter from environments. Secondary needs are requirements learned from the environment and culture in which the person lives. Example includes the needs for achievement, power, autonomy, affiliation, status, order, and understanding. Motive is a factor that determines a person’s choice of one course of behavior from among several possibilities. 1.1.3 Need theories of motivation Need theories of motivation assume that need deficiencies cause behavior in organization? The Hierarchy of Needs Developed by Abraham Maslow. Assumed that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance. Physiological Needs- Base Salary Security Needs -Pension Plan Belonging Needs- Friends in work Esteem Needs -Job title Self Actualization Needs –Challenging job ERG Theory E-Existence Need R-Relatedness Need G-Growth need Dual Structure Theory (Two Factor Theory) • Identifies motivation factors, which affect satisfaction, and hygiene factors, which determine dissatisfaction. • Developed by Fredrick Herzberg and his associates. Motivation factors • Achievement • Recognition • The Work Itself • Responsibility • Advancement and growth Hygiene factors • Supervision • Working condition • Interpersonal Relationships • Pay & Job security • Company policies 1.1.4 Other Important Needs • The Need for Achievement The need for achievement is the desire to accomplish a task or goal more effectively than was done in the past. • The Need for Affiliation The need for affiliation is the need for human companionship. • The Need for Power The need for power is the desire to control the resources in one’s environment. 1.2 Process- Based Perspectives On Motivation The process- based perspectives on motivation focus on how people behave in their efforts to satisfy their needs. Process-based perspectives also describe how people choose among behavior alternative. To determine process-based motivation perspectives we can use some motivation theories. The motivation theories are- The equity theory of Motivation. The expectancy theory of motivation. Reinforcement theory. Schedules of reinforcement in organization. 1.2.1 The Equity Theory of Motivation: Equity theory of motivation assumes that people want to be treated fairly. It hypothesizes that people compare their own input-to-outcome ratio in the organization with the ratio of a comparison-other. If they feel their treatment has been inequitable, they take steps to reduce the inequity. Figure 1.1 Comparisons of self with other 1.2.2 The Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Expectancy theory, a somewhat more complicated model, follows the assumption that people are motivated by how much they want something and the likelihood they perceive of getting it. Environment Outcome Effort Effort to Performance Performance Outcome Performance Valence to Outcome Expectancy of Outcomes Expectancy Ability Outcome Figure 1.2: The Expectancy Theory of Motivation: 1.2.3 Reinforcement Theory: Reinforcement theory is based on the idea that behavior is a function of its consequences. Behavior that results in pleasant consequences is more likely to be repeated and behaviors that results in unpleasant consequences is less likely to be repeated. Reinforcement theory also suggests that in any given situation, people explore a variety of possible behavior. Types of Reinforcement in Organization: There are four basic kinds of reinforcement that manager can use to motivate employee behavior. The four basic forms of reinforcement are - Positive Reinforcement: Positive reinforcement is a reward or other desirable consequence that can be used to motivate employee to continue to engage in desirable behavior. Avoidance Reinforcement: Avoidance reinforcement, a negative reinforcement, is the opportunity to avoid or escape from an unpleasant circumstance after exhibiting behavior. Extinction Reinforcement: Extinction decreases the frequency of behavior by eliminating a reward or desirable consequence that follows that behavior. Punishment Reinforcement: Punishment is an unpleasant or aversive that might be used to motivate employees to changes undesirable behaviors. 1.2.4 Schedules of Reinforcement In Organization: Schedules of reinforcement indicate when or how often managers should reinforce certain behaviors. Manager can use these schedules of reinforcement in the organization depends on the situation. The five basic schedules of reinforcement are- Continuous Reinforcement: Continuous reinforcement rewards behavior every time it occurs. It is very effective in desirable behavior, but it poses serious difficulties to manager to monitor every employee’s behavior. Fixed-interval reinforcement: Fixed-interval reinforcement is reinforcement provided on a predetermined, constant schedule based on time. Variable-Interval Reinforcement: Variable-interval reinforcement is reinforcement provided after periods of time but the time span varies from one time to the next. Fixed-Ratio Reinforcement: Fixed-ratio reinforcement provides reinforcement after a fixed number of behaviors obtained. Variable-Ratio Reinforcement: Variable-ratio reinforcement is reinforced according to the number of behaviors exhibited, but the number of behaviors needed to gain reinforcement varies from one time to the next.
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