Basics of GIS Outline by too20815

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        Basics of GIS: Outline
•   What’s a GIS
•   Teaching GIS
•   Applications
•   Myths
•   Some interesting problems
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       Simple Definition



GIS = Maps in Computers
                                3




Smart Maps



         Site Number Bacteria
             104        50
                                                                                    4


       What Is GIS - a Brief Introduction
                                “a system of hardware, software, data, people,
                                organizations and institutional arrangements for
                                collecting, storing, analyzing, and disseminating
                                information about areas of the earth (Dueker and
                                Kjerne, 1989)

                                  Use of geography to
                                  integrate information
                                  from different sources
• Different mapping systems:
   •   Electronic atlases
   •   Thematic mapping systems
   •   Street-based mapping systems
   •   GIS: all these things + much more
         • analysis, import/export, combination of different data,
           dynamic map update, etc
                                                      5

                     How GIS Works

• Link map features to tables of attributes
    • Access the attributes for any map feature
    • Locate any feature from its attributes
• Manage sets of features & attributes as themes or
  objects

• Integrate
   sources:
 - Primary
   sources
 - Secondary
   sources
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Integrate Sources
                                                      7


                 Geographic Database



Framework Data                Thematic Data


          Land Ownership

          Transportation
                                       Flood Zones
          Surface Waters
                                        Wetlands
          Boundaries                    Landcover
          Geodetic Control              Water Lines

          Elevation                     Sewer Lines

          Aerial Imagery                Soils
    Exploring Relationships
• Based on geographic location and
  proximity, GIS makes connections
  between activities
  • Looking at data geographically can often suggest new
    insights, explanations
  • These connections are often unrecognized without
    GIS, but can be vital to understanding and managing
    activities and resources
  • E.g., we can link pollution sources with disease patterns
        Combining data sets


                     l      l
                     ll
                      l l
                    l l                 l


                                    l
                                l
                                l   lll l
                                    l  l




Pollution Sources    Leukemia Cases
Information about “where” allows us to
   combine heterogeneous data sets


            l      l
            ll
             l l
           l l                 l


                           l
                       l
                       l   lll l
                           l  l
                                                   11
         Overlaying images and vector markup from
         different sources (UCLA LONI, Paxinos Atlas)




SMART
 Atlas
                                                                                      12

                              Use of Ontologies to Link Features
S.M.A.R.T.
Atlas uses
Unified
Medical
Language
System
(UMLS) to
query across
multiple
data sources
and explore
spatial
relationships
across brain
slices in
different
coordinate
systems (eg,
across species)
                  Structures on slices color coded by relationships contained in the UMLS
Space as an indexing system

  Rivers



  Settlements   +           +
                    +
                +
                        +


  Admin.
  Units



  Reference
  Grid


                Longitude
                                                  14


                         Projections
• Example: The Mercator projection
  has straight meridians & parallels
  that intersect at right angles, as
  opposed to the Robinson
  projection.
   • Mercator preserves area only at the
     equator and at two standard parallels
     equidistant from the equator.
   • The Mercator projection is often used for
     marine navigation as all straight lines on
     the map are lines of constant azimuth.
   • Any one projection cannot
     simultaneously preserve all these
     qualities of the world: shape, area,
     direction, and distance.
                                   15


       This is what happens when
             projections mix!

• Notice the
  boundary lines
  do not line up
• Points that are
  placed on the
  wrong
  projection will
  be misaligned
  as well
                                     16



Components and Contexts of GIS

 •   social and cultural context
 •   institutional context
 •   transformations
 •   operations
 •   representation
 •   measurement
     another approach:
       acquisition-input-
       storage-retrieval-analysis-
       output-presentation-use
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           GIS in Higher Education
• ESRI list of GIS programs:
  http://gis.esri.com/university/onlinedb.cfm
• GIS Programs in Higher Education:
  http://www.directionsmag.com/education/
• Geography departments worldwide:
  http://geowww.uibk.ac.at/geolinks/
• Directory of graduate schools, GIS programs:
  http://www.gradschools.com/listings/menus/geoinfosys_men
    u.html
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                           GIS Curriculum - 1
UCSB (http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/programs/ugrad_courses.htm )
•   Geog 12 - Maps and Charts, 4.0, Clarke
•   Geog 13 - Introduction to Computing in Geography, 2.0, Staff
•   Geog 115A - Geographic Photo Interpretation, (T), 4.0, Estes
•   Geog 115AL - Laboratory in Geographic Photo Interpretation, (T), 1.0, Estes
•   Geog 115B - Geographic Remote Sensing Techniques, (T), 4.0, Mertes
•   Geog 115BL - Lab in Geographic Remote Sensing Techniques, (T), 1.0, Mertes
•   Geog 115C - Intermediate Geographic Remote Sensing Techniques, (T), 4.0, Mertes
•   Geog 115CL - Laboratory in Intermediate Geographic Remote Sensing Techniques, (T), 1.0, Mertes
•   Geog 118 - Production Cartography, (T), 4.0, Clarke
•   Geog 128 - Analytical and Computer Cartography, (T), 4.0, Staff
•   Geog 136 - Remote Sensing of the Oceans, (G=T, U=T), 4.0, Washburn
•   Geog 138 - Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere: An Introduction, (T), 4.0, Gautier
•   Geog 151 - Computational Methods for Watershed Analysis, (T), 5.0, Mertes
•   Geog 172 - Introduction to Geographical Data Analysis, (T), 3.0, Montello
•   Geog 172L - Laboratory in Introductory Geographical Data Analysis, (T), 2.0, Montello
•   Geog 176A - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems, (T), 4.0, Goodchild, Clarke
•   Geog 176B - Technical Issues in Geographic Information Systems, (T), 4.0, Goodchild, Clarke
•   Geog. 176BL - Lab in Geographic Information Systems I, (T), 1.0, Goodchild, Clarke
•   Geog 176C - Applications of GIS Technology, (T), 4.0, Goodchild, Clarke
•   Geog 176CL - Lab in Geographic Information Systems II, (T), 1.0, Goodchild, Clarke
•   Geog 181 - Spatial Database Modeling For Geographic Phenomena, (T), 4.0, T. Smith
•   Geog 184A - Introduction to Cartographic Programming, (T), 4.0, Staff
•   Geog 184B - Advanced Cartographic Programming, (T), 4.0, Staff
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                              GIS Curriculum - 2
SDSU:                                                     University of Washington
  http://typhoon.sdsu.edu/                                  •258: Maps and GIS
•    GEOG 380 Map Investigation                             •360: Principles of Cartography
•    GEOG 381 Map and Graphic Methods                       •458: Map Sources and Errors
•    GEOG 385 Spatial Data Analysis                         •460: Geographical Information System Analysis
•    GEOG 484 Geographic Information Systems                •461: Urban Geographic Information Systems
•    GEOG 488 Remote Sensing of Environment                 •463: Geographic Information Systems Workshop
•    GEOG 581 Cartographic Design                           •465: Analytic Cartography
•    GEOG 582 Automated Cartography
•    GEOG 584 Geographic Information System
     Applications II
•    GEOG 585 Quantitative Methods in Geographic
     Research
•    GEOG 588 Intermediate Remote Sensing of
     Environment                                          Western Michigan
•    GEOG 682 Advanced Automated Cartography
•    GEOG 683 Advanced Geographic Information             University
     Systems                                                 •375: Intro to GIS
•    GEOG 685 Advanced Quantitative Methods in
     Geography                                               •582: Remote Sensing of the Environment
•    GEOG 688 Advanced Remote Sensing                        •566: Field Geography
•    GEOG 780 Seminar in Techniques of Spatial Analysis      •567: Computerized Geodata Handling and
                                                             Mapping
                                                             •569: Geographic Information System


    The NCGIA Core Curriculum in GIScience
                    Applications




National Partnership for Advanced Computational Infrastructure
                                       San Diego Supercomputer Center
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Redistricting
                               22
Emergency services, disaster
        recovery
                                                        23



Floodplain mapping



                                                500
                                                year
                                                flood


          Hurricane                            100 year
          Floyd                                flood




                      Flooding in Greenville
                                                      24

Regulation implementation
     & enforcement


                                           100 year
                                           flood




                                    Hurricane
                                    Floyd




    Hog lagoons in and out of the floodplain
         25




Smart
growth
                             26



Police and fire deployment
                           27



Intelligent demographics
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www.zillow.com
                                  29



                  Visualization

• Video File on disk
                               Studying mouse models                                             30


                                  of human disease

BIRN uses
ESRI’s ArcMAP
to align and
analyze biological
images and vector
segmentations of
the brain, which
can be retrieved
from multiple
spatial data
servers (including
ArcIMS servers)
maintained by
partner universities.

High-resolution brain image generated at NCMIR, UCSD, is registered to stereotaxic coordinates
and overlaid with anatomical features and markup from Paxinos and Watson mouse brain atlas
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           Some Myths About GIS
• GIS provides an “objective” approach to
  information
   • Data may be different… methods may be different…
• Similar GIS for the same area will lead to similar
  conclusions and policy recommendations
   • Attitudes may be different…
• Digital geographic data are accurate
   • Well… and there are so many ways to measure data quality
• Better information will make better decisions
   • More myths!
• Technical issues are fundamental in GIS
  Some Interesting Problems
          Semantic
          Technical
          Statistical




National Partnership for Advanced Computational Infrastructure
                                       San Diego Supercomputer Center
                                                  33




                          Forest

                                      Non-
                                      Forest


       reality            GIS representation



sometimes, the distinction between discrete and
         continuous is not very clear
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            Objects versus Fields
• Object view
  “empty space littered with objects” (points, lines
  or areas)
• Field view
  value is defined for every location
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                    Objects

                B
        C

B
            A


        C       A
    B



    Points          Lines     Polygons
                                                   36

                       Fields




  Raster grid                 Regular point grid
  200                 260
          240

 180                    270
                200

         170          220

   130            250


Irregular points                Contour lines
                                                                                     37

          AUTOCORRELATION
         Land Use Maps Example
• Categorical maps: inherently autocorrelated
     •   Degree of autocorrelation depends on resolution

                          BB = 36                                BB = 146
                          BW = 15                                BW = 41
                          WW = 9                                 WW = 77
                          N = 6 X 6 = 36                         N = 12 X 12 = 144
                          P(BW) = 0.25                           P(BW)=0.15




In vector database:
            – if areas of polygons: Area = Lim(N*S),
                           where N - number of cells, S - size of a cell, S -->0
                                    autocorrelation extremely positive
            – if counts of polygons no adjacent polygons with the same value
                                     autocorrelation extremely negative
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                    History of GIS
Decade   Milestones for computer-based GIS

1960’s   - Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) developed:
         national land inventory pioneered many aspects of GIS
         - Harvard Lab for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis:
         pioneered software for spatial data handling
         - US Bureau of Census developed DIME data format
         - ESRI founded

1970’s   - CGIS fully operational (and still operational today)
         - First Landsat satellite launched (USA)
         - USGS begins Geographical Information Retrieval and Analysis
         System (GIRAS) to manage and analyze large land resource
         databases and Digital Line Graph (DLG) data format
         - ERDAS founded
         - ODYSSEY GIS launched (first vector GIS)
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                 History of GIS

Decade   Milestones for computer-based GIS

1980’s   - ESRI launches ARC/INFO (vector GIS)
         - GPS became operational
         - US Army Corp of Engineers develop GRASS (raster GIS)
         - MapInfo founded
         - First SPOT satellite launched (Europe)
         - IDRISI Project started (GIS program)
         - SPANS GIS produced
         - National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis
         (NCGIA) established in USA
         -TIGER/Line digital data
         - First GIS textbooks
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                History of GIS
Decade   Milestones for computer-based GIS
1990’s   - MapInfo for Windows, Intergraph, Autodesk, others
         - ESRI produces ArcView and ARCGIS
         - $7+ billion industry
2000’s   - Internet becomes major delivery vehicle
         - More than 1 million active users
     Evolution of GIS Software

• Sub-routine libraries (60s/70s)
  • Libraries of small programs (sub-routines)
  • Required advanced programming skills
• Tool box with CLI (70s/80s)
  • Basic package with Command Line Interface
  • Required advanced technical skills
• Task-oriented system (90s/00s)
  • Graphical User Interface (GUI)
  • Customization capabilities to create specific-purpose
    applications
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     Functionality Architecture

  User Interface Applications
  Output         Translation        Analysis

       Geographic Tools
       Editing                           Customization
                      Display


 Spatial                        Data
Reference
            Data Access
              Vector
                               Manager
                                             Raster
                                   43



  GIS Software Classification

Number of                   Cost
Users         Internet
               Viewer
            Component
             Hand-held
              Desktop
            Professional

            Functionality
                                                                                       44



                    Major Product Families
            Autodesk     ESRI         Intergraph         MapInfo        Smallworld

Viewer      AutoCAD      ArcReader    GeoMedia Viewer    ProViewer      Custom
            LT
Desktop     World        ArcView      GeoMedia           MapInfo        Spatial
                                                         Professional   Intelligence
Profess-    AutoCAD /    ArcEditor    GeoMedia Pro       MapInfo        Smallworld GIS
ional       Map          ArcInfo                         Professional

Hand-held   OnSite       ArcPad       IntelliWhere       MapXtend       Scout

Database    GIS Server   ArcSDE       Uses Oracle        SpatialWare    Part of
Server                                Spatial                           Smallworld GIS

Component   In several   Map          Part of GeoMedia   MapX, MapJ     Part of
            products     Objects,                                       Smallworld GIS
                         ArcObjects

Internet    MapGuide     ArcIMS,      GeoMedia Web       MapXtreme,     Smallworld
                         ArcGIS       Map, GeoMedia      MapXSite       Internet Applic-
                         Server       Web Enterprise                    ation Server
CAD         AutoCAD      In several   In several         In several     Part of
            Map          products     products           products       Smallworld GIS
                                                                               45
                Desktop Products        Extension Products
ArcGIS              ArcView        Spatial Analyst        MrSID Encoder
Platform                             3D Analyst                 ArcPress

   The ArcGIS                       Geostatistical
                                                          StreetMap USA
                                      Analyst
    Desktop

                    ArcEditor
                                           Server Products
                                   ArcSDE
                                                                    DBMS
                                           DBMS
                                          Gateway
                                                                   Coverages



                                   ArcIMS
                     ArcInfo
                                                     Internet
                                                     Services

                                   ArcGIS Server

                                                      Files
                                                             46



                    GIS Market
                   Type of Software System


Professional

    Desktop
 Hand-held

Component
     Viewer

    Internet

               0       1000000           2000000   3000000
                                 Users
                                                        47



             Open Source GIS

• Software Listings
  • http://www.freegis.org/
  • http://www.opensourcegis.org/
• GIS Software
  • Grass: http://grass.ibiblio.org/
  • Geotools: http://www.geotools.org/
• Map Servers
  • UMN Map Server:
    http://mapserver.gis.umn.edu/index.html
  • Geoserver: http://docs.codehaus.org/display/GEOS/Home

								
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