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					                                              Level 1 A-Ventures: Welcome Unit-Unit 3: Pages 2-32
Winter 2010 Sun 9-12 pm
Jan 17-March 28
                                                           Syllabus Guidelines

It is advisable for the teachers to adjust the syllabus according to your student’s needs and language proficiency level. It is more important
that the students master the objectives than follow the syllabus rigorously. That is, the teachers have freedom to modify the materials and/or
activities suggested in the syllabus. There are resources in the volunteer room and the volunteer coordinator can assist you in selecting
different kinds of materials. If you need support in that area, please email the volunteer coordinator 24 hrs in advance of the class

1) A skeleton of a three-hour class are:
    a) Follow Teacher’s Edition step-by-step lessons for the Student’s Book.
    b) Use Workbook as an in-class activity.
    c) Use appropriate cards, documents, and worksheets on the Teacher’s Toolkit Audio CD / CD-ROM as in-class activities.
    d) Optional: Projects and Games; additional worksheets on the teacher’s Toolkit CD/CD-Rom.

2) Unit Organization: Within each unit there are six lessons:
Lesson A : focus the student on the topic of the unit.
Lesson B and C : grammar focus and practice exercised to communicative exercises
Lesson D: develop reading skill and expand vocabulary
Lesson E: provides writing practice within the context of the unit
Lesson F: has three sections; Life-skills reading, Fun with language and Wrap-Up

3) Add Ventures- is a book of reproducible worksheets designed for use in multilevel classrooms. The worksheets give
students 15-30 minutes additional practice with each lesson and can be used with homogenous or heterogeneous groupings.
These worksheets can be used as targeted homework practice at the level of individual students, ensuring learner success.
There are three tiered worksheets for each lesson.

4) Student Workbook- has two pages of activities for each lesson in the Student‟s Book. The exercises are designed so learners can
complete them in class or independently. Students can check their own answers with the answer key in the back of the workbook.
Workbook exercises can be assigned in class, for homework, or as student support when a class is missed.

5) Pronunciation Practice: Students will listen and repeat vocabulary; memorize simple phrases and sentences; and practice asking and
answering questions with appropriate final pitch or inflection. They will read and dictate stories to a partner and talk about the stories.
Students will listen for and stress important words in sentences - stress that adds rhythm to our language. Additional daily
pronunciation activities include reviewing the sounds of consonants and the long, short and other vowel sounds using minimal pairs
and word families; counting syllables in learned vocabulary and determining the strong stressed syllable; and reviewing simple


                                                                           1
spelling rules, i.e. silent E rule. Students will also practice the 2 sounds of s and the long u; the sound of the short double o; and final
consonant sounds. They will recognize the silent letters in words, such as answer, walk, and right. See Appendix for more
information.

6) The Language Lab is a key component of Language ETC‟s mission. The use of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) for adult language learners
is invaluable not only in terms of individualized language practice but also in terms of work and technology skill enhancement. You will find a schedule for
language lab time in your class syllabus. It is important that volunteers coordinate with the language lab instructors in advance, either by meeting with the
instructor before classes begin for the day or via email, to ensure that the language lab component is synchronized to practice the day‟s lesson topic and/or
grammar concern.




12 Exciting No-Prep Activities! (To review, to practice or to have extra FUN)

    1) Unscramble Words: Scramble up recent vocabulary words. Write them on the board. Have students unscramble them. Ex: coortd (doctor). Afterward
       have students write sentences with the words.


    2) Circle Game: Have students sit in a circle with one person standing in the middle. The person in the middle must say something true about themselves.
       (Ex: I have a brother, I am wearing jeans, I like soccer, etc.) Everyone else for whom that statement is also true must stand up and change seats. The
       person without a seat is now the person in the middle who must say another sentence.


    3) Back to the Board: Have 2 groups. Have 1 member of each group sit near the front with their backs to the board. Make sure there is as much space
       between the groups as possible. The teacher writes a word on the board. Then teams must give clues to their team member at the front about the word.
       The first person to guess the word gets a point.


    4) Vocabulary Game: Divide the class into 2 or 3 teams. Have 1 member from each team come to the board. Ask them to either write a word you say (to
       practice spelling), draw a picture of a word you say, write a number you say or give students a definition and they must write the word. The first person
       to write/draw correctly earns a point for their team.


    5) Shop Talk: Divide the class into several small groups. Each group must pretend they are going to open a store. What kind of store is it? What‟s its
       name? What do they sell? Have them make a list. Then, students can walk around the room “visiting” various shops and asking for certain items and
       their prices.




                                                                                2
6) Memory Chain: Have students stand in a circle. The first person (Javier) makes a sentence (ex: I like to swim.) The second person then continues on the
   same topic and says a sentence about themselves (ex: I like to run.) and repeats what the person said (Javier likes to swim.) The third person then says a
   sentence about themselves and what the previous 2 people said. Continue until everyone has spoken. Do this a second time but go the opposite direction
   around the circle.

7) Talkathon: Choose an object in the classroom, something you own, or something of one of the students. Have volunteers came up to the board and see
   how long they can talk about the particular object. Or make this a writing activity and see who can write the most sentences about the object. Keys are a
   great object to talk/write about as each student probably has them and will have multiple things to say about what each key is for, what their key chain
   represents, where it came from etc.


8) He „ll be Bald in 10 years: For practice with future tense try this activity. Each student must choose 2 or 3 of their classmates to write or speak about.
   They must write or say 5 sentences about each person and what they will be like in 10 years. Give them some funny sentences as examples.


9) Scattergories Category Game: Write several categories on the board. Then write a letter on the board. With time constraints, students must work
   individually to come up with a word for each category that starts with the letter listed. Students earn a point for each original answer they come up with.
   Duplications earn no points.


10) Add a Picture: This can be used to practice a text students have read or something with multiple steps (that students have recently covered), such as how
    to get a driver‟s license. Each student rips a paper into 6 equal parts. On the first paper, they draw something from the beginning of the story, on the
    second paper they draw something from the end of the story, and on the third papers they draw something from the middle of the story. Then, with their
    other 3 papers they draw things that fill in the gaps between the pictures they‟ve already drawn. Finally, students pair up and talk about their pictures
    together.


11) Numbers in My Life: Write 5 numbers on the board that are relevant to your life-for example, your shoe size, your age, the day you were born, the
    month you were married, the number of children you have, the year graduated College, your telephone number, your zip code, your apartment number,
    etc. Students must ask you questions to try to figure out what your number refer to. For example, “How old are you?”, “When were you born?”. etc.
    After students figure out what your numbers refer to, have them write down a few of their own “secret numbers”. Finally, have students break into
    groups to try to guess what each person‟s numbers refer to.


12) What I Need: Tell the students several things that you need. Most should be things that are possible such as getting a driver‟s license, finding a cheaper
    apartment, finding a grocery store that sells ethnic food, etc. Have students write down several things that they need on a piece of paper. Each student



                                                                             3
                        reads what they need and if another student can help, they raise their hand. After everyone has announced their needs have students walk around and
                        talk with each other to see how other people can help them. This will help your class to feel like a community and to not be discouraged thinking they
                        are the only ones with certain problems.




               Scope and Sequence

 Unit        Language
Title        Functions                    Listening and                 Vocabulary                Grammar           Reading                Writing             Life Skills       Pronunciation
                                            Speaking                                               Focus
Welcome       Identifying the        Saying the alphabet and      The alphabet with                          Reading the        Writing the             Understandi       Pronouncing the
Unit pages     letters of the           numbers                       capital and                                  alphabet            alphabet                 ng dates          Pronouncing num
2-5            alphabet                Clarifying spelling           lowercase letters                           Reading            Writing numbers         Understandi
              Identifying             Saying days and months       Numbers                                      numbers                                      ng holidays
               numbers                                               Months and days
              Identifying days                                      Holidays
               and months
Unit 1        Identifying            Clarifying spelling          Personal                 Possessive        Reading a          Writing sentences       Reading a         Pronouncing key
Personal       names                   Using greetings               information               adjectives         paragraph           giving personal          registration
Informatio    Identifying             Using appropriate            Countries and            Subject            describing a        information              form              Saying telephon
n              numbers                  language to introduce         nationalities             pronouns           student’s          Identifying and         Understandi
Pages 6-17    Using greetings          self and others              Personal titles          Simple             personal            using capital            ng cultural       Saying addresses
Topic:        Identifying                                                                      present of be      information         letters                  differences
Introducti     countries of                                                                    Contractions                          Understanding            in manes
ons            origin                                                                                                                  alphabetical order      Using
              Exchanging                                                                                                                                       personal
               personal                                                                                                                                         titles
               information                                                                                                                                     Using a
                                                                                                                                                                directory
                                                                                                                                                               Reading an
                                                                                                                                                                ID card
Unit 2 At     Describing              Asking and giving            Classroom furniture      Prepositions      Reading            Writing sentences       Reading an        Pronouncing
school         location                 location of things           Classroom objects         of location        sentences           about the location       inventory
Pages 18-     Finding out             Saying excuse me                                        (in, on)           describing a        of items in the          list              key vocabulary
29             location                                                                        Where is?          classroom           classroom               Counting
Topic:                                                                                         Singular and      Using pictorial    Using                    objects
The                                                                                             plural nouns       cues                capitalization and



                                                                                                  4
classroom                                                                                 Yes / No                               periods
                                                                                           questions
                                                                                          Contradictio
                                                                                           ns
Review:                            Understanding a                                                                                                             Recognizing
Units 1                               conversation
and 2                                                                                                                                                                    syllables
pages 30-
31
Unit 3        Describing           Asking and answering       Family relationships    Present         Reading a          Writing sentences    Completing       Pronouncing
Friends        actions                questions about current    Daily activities         continuous       paragraph           about your own        an
and family    Talking about          activities                 Descriptive             Wh-              describing a        family                insurance        key vocabulary
Pages 32-      family members        Answering questions         adjectives               questions        family or          Writing number        application
43                                    about your family                                   Yes/ No          birthday party      words                 form
                                                                                           questions       Using a                                  Using family
                                                                                                            passage’s title                           trees
                                                                                                            for                                      Using
                                                                                                            comprehensio                              formal and
                                                                                                            n                                         informal
                                                                                                                                                      family titles




                                                                                         5
Week 1: 01/17

Lesson     Welcome Unit, p. 2-5 , Meet your Classmates
Function   1) Identify the letters of the alphabet.
           3) Identify numbers.
           4) Identify days and months.
Hour 1-3   Welcome Unit p. 2-5-: Meet your classmates ( T-2-5)               1. Greetings activities.
           Lesson 1: Meet your classmates                                    Gently correct pronunciation as needed. Do not overcorrect.
           Lesson Objective:
           1)Learn Alphabet, days of the week, months of the years and
                                                                             Difficult final sounds of /m/ in name and of /c/ and /t/ in nice and
           numbers 1-20                                                      meet should be repeated and practiced by whole class.
                                                                             * In class log, note students who have difficulty with above task.
           Lesson 2: The alphabet                                            1. Have Ss say the NAMES of the letters of the alphabet in order.
                                                                             2. Have Ss identify the NAMES of the vowels: “a-e-i-o-u and
                                                                             sometimes y.” Circle the 5 major vowels and underline y.
                                                                             3. Practice saying alphabet with a partner and making a list of 5
                                                                             Ss‟ names: C p. 3.
                                                                             * In class log, note Ss who have difficulty with above tasks.
           Lesson 3: Numbers                                                 1. Review NAMES of vowels. (See lesson above.)
                                                                             2. Introduce/review SOUNDS of long ē and short ĕ using word
                                                                             families: ex. three/ see//thirteen/fourteen vs. seven/eleven. Sort
                                                                             numbers 1-20 by e sounds. Associate the sounds with the colors
                                                                             green and red. Double E is always long-“says its name.” *See
                                                                             Appendix for word families and Vowel Sounds color chart.
                                                                             3. Listen and repeat numbers using CD1-4.
           Lesson 4: Days and Months                                         1. Ss tap or clap and count the syllables of days of the week
                                                                             vocabulary. Then say and tap/clap with a partner.
                                                                             2. Practice difficult words: TUz-day, ThuRz-day, WenZday (2


                                                                         6
    syllables; silent d & 2nd e).
    3. Do above with months of the year. Have Ss sort into columns
    by number of syllables and then clap syllables as they read
    columns.
    3. Introduce/review SOUNDS of long ā-and short ă using
    minimal pairs. Be sure to use word families to teach 3 common
    spelling of long ā- ai, ay, and “silent e rule,” ex. rain/main,
    day/May, date/name.
    (vowel+consonant+silent e long vowel).
    *See Appendix for minimal pairs lesson, examples, word families
    and Vowel Sounds color chart.
    Note: When Ss read the day and date sentence on the board each
    day, emphasize the th sound in Thursday and in the numbers
    pronounced as ordinals. Do not write the th with the number for
    the date: Today is Thursday, November 19, 2009.




7
Week 2: 01/24
(Language Lab 10.30-11.15 am)

Lesson      Unit 1 Personal Information: Lesson A,B and C, p. 6-11
Function    Identify names and numbers. Using greetings. Identify countries of origins. Exchanging personal information.
Hour 1      Unit 1-Lesson A-Get ready ( T-6-7)                                      Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
            Lesson Objectives:                                                      1. Tap or clap and count the syllables in vocabulary.
            1)Introduce the students to the topic                                   *Note “silent e rule” applies with code, phone, name, five
            2)Find out what the students know about the topic
            3)Preview the Unit by talking about the topic
                                                                                    & nine. (vowel+consonant+silent e long vowel)
            4)Practice key vocabulary                                               2. Emphasize the final /st/ in first & last.
            5)Practice listening skills                                             *Note the rising pitch on the last syllable of Yes/No
                                                                                    questions. WH information questions drop the pitch at the
                                                                                    end. Declarative sentences drop the pitch.

Hour 2      Unit 1-Lesson B-Countries (T-8-9)                                       Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
            Lesson Objectives:
            1) Introduce possessive adjectives.                                     1. Do minimal pairs contrast between long ī and short ĭ
            2) Practice Wh-questions and answering.                                 words-associate colors white and pink with those sounds.
            3) Practice saying telephone numbers and spelling names.                See Appendix for lesson plan, Vowel Sounds chart and
                                                                                    word families. Note: words from lessons: nice, hi, five,
                                                                                    nine, July, my vs. his, is, this, city, six, middle.
                                                                                    2. Do C-Communicate, p. 9. Correct pronunciation as
                                                                                    needed.
                                                                                    Optional: With partners, take turns dictating the 2
                                                                                    dialogues and check them.

Hour 3      Unit 1- Lesson C-Are you from Canada? (T-10-11)                         Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
            Lesson Objectives:
            1)Introduce simple present of be questions, statements, short answers   1. Practice contrast between long ē and short ĭ in words:
            and contractions.                                                       he‟s vs. his. Do pp. 7-8 from Pronunciation Pairs (in


                                                                           8
            2) Review subject pronouns.       library).
                                              2. As Ss do substitution drills and talking in pairs, use
                                              your hand to indicate the rising and falling pitch of the
                                              last syllable of sentences. Note the rising pitch on the last
                                              syllable of Yes/No questions. In WH information
                                              questions and in declarative sentences, the pitch falls at
                                              the end.
                                              3. If you use the word contraction, tap/clap the number of
                                              syllables with emphasis on stressed middle syllable.
Learner     P. T-7, T-11
Persistence




                                          9
Week 3 : 01/31

Lesson      Unit 1 Personal Information: Lesson D ( p.12-13)
Function    Identify names and numbers. Using greetings. Identify countries of origins. Exchanging personal information.
Hour 1      Unit 1-Lesson D-reading (T-12-13)                             Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
            Lesson Objectives:                                            1. Read “A New Student” to a partner then ask and
            1)Introduce and read „A New Student”.                         answer questions about the story.
            2)Practice using new topic-related words.
            3) Look at addresses with three and four numbers.
                                                                          2. Take turns dictating the story to partner and check
                                                                          spelling and punctuation, p. 12.
                                                                          3. Contrast the two sounds of S /s/ vs. /z/ in Miss vs. Ms.
                                                                          Optional: Mr. (mis-ter ) and Mrs. (mis-iz or miz-iz).
Hour 2
Hour 3
Learner     p.T-12, T-13
Persistence




                                                                10
Week 4: 02/07

Lesson     Unit 1 Personal Information: Lesson E and F, (p.14-17)
Function   Identify names and numbers. Using greetings. Identify countries of origins. Exchanging personal information.
Hour 1     Unit 1-Lesson E-Writing(T-14-15)                                   Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
           Lesson Objectives:                                                 1. Have Ss memorize “How do you spell that?”
           1)Discuss and write about personal information.                    2. Take turns dictating Student News, p. 15 and
           2) Learn about capital letters.
                                                                              self-check spelling and punctuation. Use memorized
                                                                              question above to help S.

Hour 2+3   Unit 1-Lesson F- Another View (T-16-17)
           Lesson Objectives:
           1)Practice using a registration form.
           2) Review unit vocabulary.
           3) Introduce the projects.
           4) Complete the self-assessment.


           Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
           When you use the words conversation, abbreviation or alphabetical, tap/clap/count the syllables with emphasis on the
           most stressed syllable.
           Note: All syllables must contain a vowel.




                                                                    11
Week 5 : 02/14
(Language Lab 9.45-10.30 pm)

Lesson      Unit 1 Review, Unit 1 Test and Unit 2: At School lesson A and B, p. 18-21
Function    1)Identifying Classroom Objects 2) Describing location 3) Finding out locations
Hour 1      Unit 1 Review and Unit 1 Test
Hour 2      Unit 2-Lesson A- Get Ready (T-18-T-19)                                            Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
            Lesson Objectives:                                                                Vocabulary: Tap/clap/count the syllables with
            1)Introduce the students to the topic                                             emphasis on the most stressed syllable.
            2)Find out what the students know about the topic
            3)Preview the Unit by talking about the topic
            4)Practice key vocabulary
            5)Practice listening skills
Hour 3      Unit 2- Lesson B- Where is the pen? (T-20-21)                                     Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
            Lesson Objectives:                                                                1. When introducing words preposition,
            1)Present and practice the prepositions in and on and the question Where is.      question and answer, tap/clap/count the
            2) Introduce more school vocabulary.
            3) Practice getting someone‟s attention.
                                                                                              syllables with emphasis on the most stressed
                                                                                              syllable. Point out silent w in answer. Note
                                                                                              /zish-un/ or /zi-shun/ in preposition and /kw/and
                                                                                              /chun/ in question. Latter do not need to be
                                                                                              taught at this level, just pronounced correctly.
                                                                                              2. Teach prepositional phrases as a unit with
                                                                                              stress on the noun: ex. on the table, in the
                                                                                              cabinet, etc.
                                                                                              3. Contrast ē /ĭ in eats vs. it’s.
Learner     p. T-19
Persistence


                                                                          12
Week 6: 02/21          --Mid-Term Student Reflection--

Lesson     Unit 2 At School : Lesson C,D and E ,p.22-27
Function   1)Identifying Classroom Objects 2) Describing location 3) Finding out locations.
Hour 1     Unit 2- Lesson C: Where are the pencils? (p.T-22-T-23)                           Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
           Lesson Objectives                                                                1. Teach /ou/ using word families: noun, clown,
           1)Introduce singular and plural nouns.                                           brown/ sound, round, bound, found/ how, now, cow.
           2) Review topic vocabulary.
                                                                                    “How now brown cow?” Practice the movement of
                                                                                    the mouth when saying this sound.
                                                                                    2. When you use the words calculator, calendar,
                                                                                    computer, contraction, apostrophe, tap/clap/count
                                                                                    the syllables with emphasis on strongest stressed
                                                                                    syllable.
                                                                                    *Note: The final or, ar, er in the words above are all
                                                                                    pronounced the same. The vowel with the R is so
                                                                                    unstressed that it is schwa-almost no sound. Any
                                                                                    unstressed vowel can be schwa, ex. the a and 2nd o in
                                                                                    apostrophe are schwa. Here the schwa sounds like
                                                                                    the short u in cup.
Hour 2     Unit 2- Lesson D: Reading (p. T-24- T-25)                                Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
           Lesson Objectives                                                        1. After doing exercises 1-3 on p. 23, read
           1) Introduce and read “Attention, new students!”                         “Attention, new student!” poster to the class and
           2)Practice using new topic-related words.                                have them repeat each line, emphasizing the major
           3)Use visual cues to help comprehension.                                 words and that give the rhythm to a sentence: ex.
                                                                                    The computer is on the small table. Nouns, adj.,


                                                                   13
                                                                                 adv, and main action verbs are usually stressed.
                                                                                 2. Have Ss read the poster to a partner. Correct
                                                                                 pronunciation & word stress as needed.
Hour 3      Unit 2- Lesson E : Writing (p.T-26-T-27)                             Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
            Lesson Objectives                                                    1. Teach/review long ō and short ŏ sounds (ex. not
            1) Write about classroom objects.                                    vs. note; cod vs. code; glob vs. globe; clock vs.
            2) Learn about capital letters and periods.                          cloak) using color card gold and picture card of a
                                                                                 box, minimal pairs and family words. Be sure to use
                                                                                 known vocabulary as examples.
                                                                                 2. Review silent E rule: vowel+consonant+silent e
                                                                                 long vowel.
                                                                                 *Note oa always gets the long ō sound, ex. boat,
                                                                                 coat, roam, foam, soap.
                                                                                 See Appendix for ideas.

Learner     p. T-24
Persistence




Week 7: 02/28

Lesson      Unit 2 At School Lesson F p. 28-29 and Review Unit 1 and 2 p.30-31
Function     Describing location.) Finding out locations.
Hour 1      Unit 2- Lesson F : Another View (p.T-28 and T-29)
            Lesson Objectives
            1) Practice reading a classroom inventory list.
            2)Review unit vocabulary.
            3)Introduce the project.
            4) Complete the self-assessment.
Hour 2      Unit 2 Review and Unit 2 Test
Hour 3      Review Unit 1 and 2 p.30-31                                          Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
                                                                                 Do Expansion Activity on syllables, p. T-31 and
                                                                                 Pronunciation A-D, p. 31.


                                                                        14
Week 8: 03/07                           (CASAS POST-TEST FOR RETURNING STUDENTS ONLY)
(Language Lab 9-9.45 pm)

Lesson      Unit 3 Friends and Family Lesson A ,B and C p.32-37

Function     Describe actions. Talking about family members.
Hour 1      Unit 3- Lesson A : Get ready (p.T-32-T-33)                 Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
            Lesson Objectives                                          1.Tap/clap syllables for family vocabulary.
            1) Introduce students to the topic
            2) Find out what students know about the topic
                                                                       *Note: the o in mother and son is a short ŭ sound, as in
            3) Preview the unit by talking about the picture           cup. The a in father is a “3rd a” sound (ä) or similar to a
            4) Practice key vocabulary                                 short ŏ, as in hot. Don‟t teach this. Just practice saying
            5) Practice listening skills                               these words correctly.
                                                                       2. Use family words to teach the /au/, /aw/ or ô in
                                                                       daughter: raw, saw, law; taught, fought; caught; boss,
                                                                       loss; dog, fog; ball, tall, mall, crawl. Note the silent gh.
                                                                       Compare to short ŏ sound in doctor. Note the mouth
                                                                       movement when practicing this sound.
                                                                       3. Do both Expansion Activities. p. T-32.
                                                                       See Appendix for Vowel Sounds chart and family words.
Hour 2      Unit 3-lesson B-What are you doing? (p.T34-T-35)           Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
            Lesson Objectives                                          Notes re Intonation: Last syllable of WH questions and
            1)Introduce the present continuous and Wh-questions        declarative sentences usually end on a falling pitch:
                                                                       What‟s she doing?  She‟s reading. 



                                                                  15
                                                                                      Last syllable of a Yes/No question usually ends on a
                                                                                      rising pitch. Is she reading? 
                                                                                      The word stress is usually on nouns, adj., adv., and main
                                                                                      verbs. Ex. What‟s she doing? (language rhythm)
                                                                                      Emphasize the nasal /ng/ in present continuous verbs, if
                                                                                      necessary. The g is almost silent.
                                                                                      And the nasal /n/ and/or strong /t/ in contractions isn’t
                                                                                      and aren’t.
Hour 3      Unit 3- Lesson C: Are you working now? (p.T-36-T-37)                      Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
            Lesson Objectives                                                         Notes re Intonation: Last syllable of a Yes/No question
            1) Introduce Yes/No questions in the present continuous tense.            usually ends on a rising pitch. Is she working? 
                                                                                      The word stress is usually on nouns, adj., adv., and main
                                                                                      verbs, ex. Is she working? (language rhythm)
                                                                                      Emphasize the nasal /ng/ in present continuous verbs, if
                                                                                      necessary. The g is almost silent.
Learner     p. T-35
Persistence


Week 9: 03/14

Lesson      Unit 3 Friends and Family : Lesson D , E and F p. 38-43
Function    Identify family relationships
Hour 1      Unit 3- Lesson D : Reading (p.T-38-T-39)                              Pronunciation : 5-15 mins
            Lesson Objectives
            1) Introduce and read “The Birthday Party.”                           1. After practicing family member vocabulary p. 39, teach
            2)Practice using new topic-related words.
            3) Look at reading titles.                                            the long ū (or ōō), without the y+ū sound, using a blue color
                                                                                  card and the short ŭ sound, using a card with a picture of a
                                                                                  brush on it. Say the long ū sound and give them family
                                                                                  rhyming words, such as, shoe, two, blue, Sue, do, new, food,
                                                                                  boot. Have them add to the list. Say the short ŭ sound as in
                                                                                  cut, rug, bus, lunch. Have them list rhyming words under
                                                                                  each of the above words: cut: but, mutt, nut, and then under
                                                                                  rug: bug, tug, mug, lug; under bus: cuss, fuss, muss, puss,
                                                                                  Gus, does /z/; under lunch: bunch, crunch, punch. (Meanings


                                                                             16
                                                                           are not important, but the sounds of u and the rhyme are.)
                                                                           2. From the vocabulary words find 3 with short ŭ sounds
                                                                           (uncle, husband, and cousin).
Hour 2      Unit 3- Lesson E : Writing (p. T-40-T-41)                      See previous lesson on pronunciation.
            Lesson Objectives                                              Compare the 2 long sounds of u:
            1)Discuss and write about family members.
            2)Learn about writing numbers.
                                                                           ū vs. y+ū (or ōō vs. y+ōō)
                                                                           For y+ū: c(y)ute, m(y)ute, neph(y)ew, (y)use, you.
                                                                           See Vowel Sounds chart in Appendix.
Hour 3      Unit 3- Lesson F : Another View (p. T-42-T-43)
            Lesson Objectives                                              Contrast long ī and short ĭ sounds in child and
            1)Understand an insurance application form.
                                                                           children.
            2)Review unit vocabulary.
            3) Introduce the project.
            4)Complete the self-assessment
Learner     p.T-38,T-39, T-41,T-42
Persistence


Week 10: 03/21
(Language Lab 11.15-12.00 pm)

Lesson      Unit 3 review and Unit Test
Function    Describing Health Problems and suggesting remedies. Expressing sympathy.
Hour 1+2    Select appropriate activity (ies) and materials to reinforce the learning : . Review the consonant sounds and major vowel
            -Collaborative Activities
             -Extended Reading Worksheets
                                                                                        sounds. Include /au/ and short oo. Give Ss list of
             -Add Ventures                                                              vocabulary words that fit into each vowel category.
            -Picture Dictionary
            -Real-life Documents
Hour 3      Unit 3 Review and Test



Week 11: 03/28


Lesson     Wrap up the term
Hour 1+2   Play games to wrap up the term, give the unit test back and


                                                                   17
                         Student-Teacher Conference

       Hour 3            END OF TERM PARTY IN THE CLASSROOM




                                                                                                       Word Families and Rhyme Words

       Compiled by Barbara Culatta and Donna Merritt                                   http://aslp.byu.edu/BCulatta/projectcall/rhymewordslist.html
      -at                                     -ig                                     -un                               -et                             -ot
cat fat rat at bat Nat pat sat hat mat vat    big pig dig fig jig wig gig rig sprig   bun fun gun nun run sun / son pun bet pet set net met get jet let hot pot not lot cot got rot dot jot tot blot
    chat brat flat gnat scat slat spat that   swig twig                               shun spun stun ton done none won wet yet vet fret Brett Juliet clot plot Scott shot slot spot knot trot
    Jack Sprat, acrobat, rat-a-tat-tat                                                one son ton begun                 sweat threat debt               bought brought fought ought thought
                                                                                                                                                        squat swat taught caught yacht apricot
                                                                                                                                                        cannot forgot teapot

      -an                                  -in                                        -uf                                   -en                      -ob
      Nan Dan ran fan can man tan pan bin fin pin tin win in / inn din kin            Puff buff cuff huff bluff fluff gruff pen den Ben ten men hen job cob Bob / bob rob sob mob knob gob
      van ban an Jan Ann(e) bran scan clan sin gin chin grin shin skin spin thin      stuff scuff scruff snuff tough rough ken Len glen wren then    hob lob blob snob throb swab
      plan than; afghan, began, Batman     twin Lynn been begin engine                handcuff                              when amen pigpen playpen
                                           napkin unpin violin                                                              lion’s den

      -ad                                     -id                                     -us                                  -eck                          -op



                                                                                                18
bad dad had mad pad sad add tad fad bid did hid kid lid rid Sid grid skid bus Gus us pus fuss plus                          neck peck check deck fleck hop pop sop top hop mop cop lop chop
lad cad Brad Chad clad glad grad    slid squid undid eyelid                                                                 speck wreck trek           crop drop slop stop bop clop flop plop
plaid                                                                                                                                                  prop shop swap flip-flop hip-hop pop-top

-ap                                   -it                                        -ul                                        -ed                             -ock
cap lap tap nap gap map rap sap zap bit fit hit kit lit pit sit it wit mitt flit gull dull cull lull hull null skull bull   bed led fed red read Ted        lock rock dock sock block clock crock doc
clap chap flap strap trap wrap
 scrap grit knit quit slit spit outfit            full pull wool seagull                     Ned Ed wed Jed bled fled        flock frock stock jock knock mock shock
snap, unwrap; tap (water tap)                                                                                               Fred shred sled bred shed       smock gawk hawk squawk talk walk chalk
                                                                                                                            sped bread dead dread head      wok
 ticktok knock sidewalk
                                                                                                                            spread spred thread tread
                                                                                                                            lead said ahead bedspread

-ag                                 -ib                                           -up                                -eg                       -od
bag gag lag sag nag rag tag wag hag bib fib rib jib nib crib glib                 cup pup up sup yup backup blowup beg peg leg keg Meg egg keg cod nod pod rod sod odd clod plod prod
jag hag brag flag crag drag snag;                                                 break up catch up check up chin up                           Todd trod sawed pawed squad quad wad
ragtag; zigzag                                                                    clean up close-up cover up hiccup
                                                                                  ketchup push-up stick-up teacup
                                                                                  wake-up warm-up


-am                                -ic / -ick                            -uz                                                -ess                          -ol (-all)
dam ham jam Pam Sam ram tam        Dick kick nick / Nick lick pick Rickbuzz fuzz does was because                           yes less Bess mess bless      doll loll Sol all ball / bawl call fall gall mall
yam am clam gram scram swam lamb sick tick wick brick chick click flick                                                     chess dress stress press Tess small hall / haul Paul Saul sprawl crawl
cram slam graham, ma’am; flimflam; Vic brick quick slick stick thick tic                                                    guess
whim wham                          / tick trick wick quick

-ab                                   -im                            -ut                                   -el                             -ox
cab dab jab nab tab gab lab blab crab dim him / hymn Jim rim Tim Kim but cut hut nut rut gut jut mutt putt Bell Mel sell / cell fell tell box ox fox lox Xerox pox blocks clocks
scab slab grab                        brim skim swim trim whim grim glut shut strut what                   well yell dwell smell spell gel knocks locks rocks shocks socks talks
                                                                                                           / jell Nell shell swell         walks hawks
                                                                                                           carousel cowbell doorbell
                                                                                                           hotel motel Noel nutshell
                                                                                                           seashell

-ax                                       -ip                                   -ug                             -em                                         -og
tax wax Max flax fax ax (for wood)        dip hip lip nip rip sip tip zip yip   bug dug hug jug lug mug pug rug hem gem stem them                           fog frog smog jog log hog clog flog bog
slacks cracks jacks packs quacks          strip whip slip skip ship trip Kip tug drug plug shrug smug snug thug                                             dog grog catalog
snacks tracks                             drip clip blip chip flip grip pip gyp
                                          Q-tip chips and dip paper clip

-al                                     -ish                                      -uck                               -ep                     -om
pal gal Sal Cal Hal Val Al shall corral dish fish wish squish swish               buck duck luck tuck chuck cluck pep step prep yep footstep Tom mom prom bomb calm palm
                                                                                  pluck puck struck truck stuck muck


                                                                                             19
                                         licorice
 gibberish                     suck yuck stuck-in-muck                      doorstep

-as                                      -itch                                   -ub                             -eb                                        -on
gas bass mass pass brass class glass     ditch glitch hitch itch pitch witch     cub hub rub sub tub dub nub pub web Deb Jeb Zeb ebb                        on con yon Don Lon Ron John gone
grass                                    which stitch twitch snitch rich         club scrub snub stub flub shrub                                            dawn drawn fawn lawn pawn yawn swan
                                                                                 rub-a-dub                                                                  baton coupon pecan salon

-ak (ack)                            -if                                         -um                           -ud                       -oss
back lack jack / Jack pack rack sack if cliff sniff stiff tiff miff whiff        gum hum sum / some yum bum bud Judd mud cud dud scud loss boss moss toss cross floss gloss sauce
tack shack black crack knack quack handkerchief                                  mum rum chum drum glum plum / spud stud thud crud blood
slack whack thwack track smack                                                   plumb scum slum swum strum    flood Milk Dud
snack stack backpack flapjack                                                    from come crumb dumb numb
haystack knickknack paperback                                                    thumb some from crumb dumb
piggyback Tic Tac unpack                                                         numb plumb plum thumb medium
                                                                                 tweeledum

-ash                                     -is                                     -il                                             -ush
cash ash dash lash mash rash bash        sis hiss kiss miss bliss this           Gil ill kill bill Lil Jill mill fill will till hush mush rush gush lush
brash clash crash gash slash smash                                               hill pill will Bill sill spill dill frill chill brush blush crush flush
thrash trash sash splash eyelash                                                 grill drill shrill still thrill gill            plush slush thrush shush
mustache

-aft                                     -iz                                     -ift                                         -utch
raft aft craft daft draft graft raft shaft                                       gift lift rift shift sift swift drift thrift hutch crutch clutch such
                                           Liz fizz frizz quiz whiz is his biz
waft laughed                                                                     miffed sniffed whiffed ski lift drift much touch

-amp                                     -eft                                    -ilk                                         -ump
camp champ clamp cramp damp              cleft deft heft left theft              milk silk bilk ilk                           bump chump clump dump
lamp ramp scamp stamp vamp                                                                                                    frump hump jump lump
                                                                                                                              plump pump rump slump
                                                                                                                              stump thump

-oft                                     -elf                                    -imp
                                                                                 blimp chimp crimp gimp imp limp
loft soft coughed waft                   elf self shelf                          primp scrimp shrimp wimp; mt.
                                                                                 timp

                                         -elp                                    -ilt
                                                                                 guilt hilt lilt quilt silt spilt tilt wilt
                                         help kelp yelp
                                                                                 kilt stilt built




                                                                                              20
                                          -elt
                                          belt dealt dwelt felt knelt pelt smelt
                                          welt melt

-ate                                      -ide / -ied                               -une / -oon / ewn                 -one / -own / -oan / -ewn -ete / -eat / -eet
ate date hate mate fate plate crate       tide bide bride chide glide hide          June boon coon dune goon moon bone blown phone clone        beat beet bleat cheat cleat eat feat / feet
rate gate grate Kate late skate slate     pride ride side slide stride tied tried   noon spoon strewn lune prune tune cone drone stone flown    fleet greet heat meat / meet neat seat sheet
state eight frieght great straight bait   wide cried dried died fried lied          swoon soon balloon baboon         groan / grown Joan loan / sleet street suite / sweet treat wheat pleat
wait weight create                        spied dyed sighed decide divide           cacoon cartoon                    lone moan / mown own      Pete tweet repeat
                                          guide inside                                                                prone scone sewn shone /
                                                                                                                      shown stone throne /
                                                                                                                      thrown tone zone alone

-ane / -ain                               -ine                                -oof                            -ose                                    -ene / -een / -ean
plane cane crane Jane lane pane /         dine fine line mine nine pine shine goof roof poof proof spoof woof close dose gross                        bean clean dean gene / jean / Jean lean
pain sane rain brain drain gain main      shrine spine swine twine vine whine                                                                         mean queen green seen / scene sheen teen
/ Maine / mane train sprain strain        / wine sign                                                                                                 screen between machine thirteen colleen
chain Spain stain vein / vane                                                                                                                         Maxine Irene sardine



-ade / -aid                               -ite / -ight                           -use / -oose / -uce                  -ole / -owl / -oal              -eke / -eak / -eek
aid bade blade fade grade glade laid      bite bright fight flight fright kite   Bruce goose loose moose spruce       hole bowl coal foal goal        beak bleak cheek creak / creek eek freak
made / maid paid raid shade spade         knight light might / mite night        truce use juice mousse Zeus deuce    mole pole / poll role / roll    geek Greek leak / leek meek peak / peek
trade braid jade frayed prayed stayed     quite right sight / site slight spite caboose excuse papoose produce        scroll sole / soul stole toll   reek seek sleek sneak speak squeak streak
sprayed swayed suede neighed              sprite tight white write height excite                                      troll whole knoll               weak / week tweak shriek
weighed afraid band-aid                   invite termite


-ave                                      -ike                                 -ool / -ule / -oul                     -ope / -oap               -ede / -ead / -eed
brave cave crave Dave gave grave          bike dike hike like mike / Mike pike cool drool fool ghoul rule mule        cope dope grope hope lope bead bleed breed creed deed feed freed
knave rave save shave slave pave          spike strike alike dislike unlike    pool school spool stool Yule tool      mope nope pope rope scope greed heed knead lead need plead read /
waive / wave they’ve behave                                                    who’ll you’ll fuel                     slope soap                reed seed speed wee we’d skied

-ape                                      -ime                             -upe / -oop / -oup                         -oze / -ose                 -ese / -ease / -eece / -iece
ape cape drape gape grape nape            chime crime dime grime lime mime coop croup droop dupe group                chose close doze froze hose crease cease fleece geese grease / Greece
scrape shape tape crepe escape            prime slime time thyme ryhme I’m hoop loop poop scoop sloop soup            nose pose prose / pros      lease niece peace / piece police
                                          climb                            stoop troop / troupe whoop bloop           those blows bows crows
                                                                           goop                                       toes flows glows goes grows
                                                                                                                      knows mows owes rows
                                                                                                                      sews shows slows snows
                                                                                                                      those throws tows




                                                                                             21
-age                                       -ipe                                     -uze / -oose / -uise / --ews      -ote / -oat                         -ele / -eal / -eel
age cage page rage sage stage wage         gripe pipe ripe snipe swipe wipe         bruise choose / chews cruise news boat bloat coat dote float          deal eel feel heal / heel keel kneel meal
gauge                                      stripe hype type                         ooze snooze use who’s whose clues gloat goat moat oat quote           peel real / reel seal steal / steel teal wheel
                                                                                    glues moos screws shoes stews     throat tote vote wrote note         zeal (pinwheet cartwheel oatmeal)
                                                                                    views zoos fuse lose

-ame / -aim                     -ive                                                -ute / -uit / -oot                      -oke / -oak                   -eme / -eam / -eem
aim blame came claim dame fame dive chive drive five hive I’ve live                 suit boot chute coot cute flute fruit   broke choke cloak coke        beam cream dream gleam ream scheme
flame frame game lame maim name thrive jive alive arrive                            hoot loot / lute mute root / route      croak joke oak poke smoke     scream seam / seem steam stream team /
same shame tame                                                                     scoot shoot toot newt                   soak spoke stroke woke        teem theme (ice cream)
                                                                                                                            yoke

-ale / -ail                                 -ife                                    -uke / -ook                     -obe                                  -eap / -eep
bale / bail Braille fail flail frail Gail / knife life wife strife                  duke fluke kook Luke nuke spook globe lobe probe robe                 beep bleep cheap / cheep creep deep heap
gale hail / hale jail kale male / mail                                                                              strobe                                jeep keep leap peep reap seep sheep sleep
nail pail / pale quail rail sail / sale                                                                                                                   steep sweep weep asleep Bo Peep
scale snail stale tail / tale trail vale /
veil whale

-ase / -ace                            -ise / -ice                                  -ube                                    -ome / -oam            -each
ace base / bass brace case chase face dice ice lice mice nice price rice            cube tube (ice cube)                    chrome dome foam gnome beach / beech bleach each peach preach
trace grace lace pace place race space slice spice twice vise / vice                                                        home roam loam comb    reach teach leech screech speech
vase embrace erase misplace

-ake / -eak                                -ile                                     -ume / -oom                             -ode / -oad                   -eef / -ief
bake brake / break cake fake flake         file mile Nile pile smile tile           boom bloom broom doom fume              code goad load mode           beef brief chief grief reef thief leaf
lake make rake shake stake / steak         while
 aisle dial I’ll isle trial awhile gloom groom loom plume room             mowed road rode rowed
take wake snake quake ache awake                                                    zoom tomb womb perfune                  strode toad towed crowed
quake pancake mistake                                                                                                       flowed glowed snowed
                                                                                                                            stowed explode unload

                                           -ize / -ise                              -ude / -ood                      -oach                                -ez / -ease / -ees
                                           prize rise size wise buys cries dies     Brood brewed crude dude food     broach coach poach roach             bees ease fees flees frees knees please sees
                                           dries dyes eyes flies fries guys highs   Jude mood mooed prude rude                                            tease trees cheese breeze freeze sneeze
                                           lies pies shies sighs skies spies        glued viewed stewed booed chewed                                      wheeze keys peas pleas teas seas these
                                           thighs ties tries                                                                                              seize skis teepees trapeze monkeys skis

                                                                                                                            -ove
                                                                                                                            cove clove dove drove grove
                                                                                                                            stove wove

long a rime (-ay / -ey)                    long i rime (-ie / -y)                   long u rime (-oo / -ew / -ue)           long e rime (-ee / -ea / - long o rime (-ow / -oe)
                                                                                                                            ey)



                                                                                              22
    Bay bray clay day fray gay gray     by / buy / bye cry die / dye dry eye boo moo blue / blew brew chew bee / be fee flea / flee free           blow bow crow doe / dough flow foe ho
    hay / hey lay may / May nay /       / I fly fry guy hi / high lie my pie clue crew cue dew / do / due ewe glee gee key knee pea plea           / hoe Joe glow grow know low mow row
    neigh pay play pray / prey slay /   pry rye shy sigh sky sly spy thigh tie few glue goo grew Hugh / hue       see / sea tee / tea three tree   show slow snow stow throw toe tow woe
    sleigh spray stray stay they tray   try why rye                            knew mew moo new pew shoo / wee / we he she me ski                  / whoa fro go no oh / owe pro sew so
    way / weigh away birthday                                                  shoe stew Sue threw / through to / monkey frisbee                   though dough tip-toe yo-yo bow (rainbow)
    buffet café way (drive way) okay                                           too / two true view whew woo                                        fro go ho oh owe shoa arrow banjo below
    someday today Xray croquet                                                 who you zoo flu
 Pooh do flu
    subway                                                                     Hugh shoe through boo boo, canoe
                                                                               cashew cuckoo igloo shampoo
                                                                               yahoo choo choo boo hoo tu tu
                                                                               yoo hoo

    -aw as in “saw”                    -oy as in “boy”                       -ow / -ough as in “cow”       -ous as in “house”
    saw paw / pa law claw draw flaw    boy toy soy coy joy Roy Troy          bow / bough brow chow cow how blouse mouse house louse
    gnaw jaw raw thaw straw ma spa aah                                       now ow pow plow vow wow bow- spouse
    blah aah blah hah! Granma granpa                                         wow pow-wow meow
    seesaw utah



Minimal Pairs - Initial Consonant Sounds
Lesson Plan:
     Objective:
     Student (S) will be able to read one-syllable words with initial consonant sounds, bcdf.1.
     (This objective can be done over several sessions, if necessary. It should be used as a basis of review the next time you meet the student. Review
     and spiraling on previous lessons are very important for learning.)
     Activities:
     1. Listen and repeat 5 or more times. No visuals used. /b/ /k/ (hard c sound) /d/ /f/
     2. Same or different:
     Say to demonstrate: “ /b/ /b/” Pause to let him process sounds. Then say, “same”;
     “/b/ /k/” Pause to let him process sounds. Then say, “different.”
     Check for understanding. Repeat if necessary.
     3. Read the sounds: Show them individual cards with the 4 letters on them. Say the sound of b is /b/. The sound of c is /k/ , etc.
     Then just say the sound. Have the student say the sound. Mix up the cards and have the student read the letter sounds.
     4. Read minimal pairs (only one sound is different. In this case the initial consonant sound is different. It is best if the words are real
     ones, but they don‟t have to be. Be consistent with the vowel sounds as you read the nonsense words. ):
         Read and repeat each pair of set one. Have student read each pair. Go on to the next set.
     Set 1: bad cad              2: bed ked     3: bit kit      4. bop      cop     5. but cut


                                                                                       23
       fad dad           fed ded      fit dit     fop dop          fut dut
       cad fad           ced fed      cit fit      cop fop          cut fut
       dad bad           ded bed      dit bit      dop bop          dut but

5. Read the words: Have each “word” on a card for the student to read.
6. Sort by initial sounds: Shuffle the cards and have the students put them into piles by the first letter.
7. Listen and read: read each card to the student and have them read it and repeat.
8. Read the words: Optional and much harder, since they are now reading the vowel and ending consonant sounds: Have the student
read each pile to you.
9. Read for fun: Make little sentences for the student to read. Ex. The dad fed the bad cop. The cad cut the cop.

Assessment: #5-8 are all assessments for you and the student to see that the objective has been met.
Notes: (Write notes regarding student accomplishments and things that need to be focused on during the next
session.)_________________________________________________________________
                                    MJD
                                                       Activities for Teaching
                                          Syllable, Word and Sentence Stress and Intonation

Count Syllables
    Tap on desk or clap hands.
    Hold up fingers to indicate number of syllables.
    Sort written or spoken words into columns by number of syllables.
    Given known words, Ss will use slash marks to divide the words into syllables. The formal syllabication in dictionaries does
       not necessarily match the syllable sounds, ex. ap-ple vs. a-pel
    Count syllables in past tense regular verbs, whose present tense ends in d or t, add an additional syllable, ex. jumped (t sound-
       no additional syllable) vs painted (tid sound-additional syllable).
    Also, practice with plural nouns and present tense verbs. Note additional syllable with words ending in s, sh, tch, soft g /j/, x
       /ks/ , ex. offices, passes, washes, catches, pages, taxes.

Syllable Stress
     Teacher says a vocabulary word, and Ss tap firmly and lightly on their desks to indicate the stressed and unstressed syllables.
       These can even be nonsense words, where the stress is changed to a different syllable with each pronunciation, ex. peetapa,
       peetapa, peetapa.
     Teacher and Ss can hum the words emphasizing the stressed or unstressed syllables. (Can use kazoos, too)


                                                                  24
      Ss are given a list of known words that they read and underline the stressed syllable. The list can be copied from the board or
       obtained from unit vocabulary lists located at the end of the book.
      Ss are given a list of words, which the teacher then reads them. Ss underline the stressed syllable.
      Compare stress patterns in thirteen vs. thirty; fourteen vs. forty, etc.
      Tap out the stressed and unstressed syllables in the nouns and verbs listed in Count Syllables above.
      Note and sort by stress patterns in 2, 3 and 4-syllables words. Butter, hundred, mother; possible, homemaker, Washington,
       comfortable, happiness; conversation, intuition, preposition, vegetarian. Versus machine, repeat, electric, prevention,
       department, responsible and anybody.
      The vowels in stressed syllables are usually longer, stronger and higher pitched.

Schwa
    In words of at least 2 syllables, the vowels in the unstressed syllables are usually very short and have a common sound similar
      to the short u in cup. We call these vowel sounds schwa. All single vowels, aeiou can become a schwa: again, a book;
      decide, painter, the; animal, terrible; purpose, doctor; upon, lettuce. In dictionaries, it is noted as an upside-down e.
    Digraphs: double vowels having one sound, do not become a schwa in unstressed syllables.
    Have Ss determine which syllables are unstressed in given words from a list of words, or lists of phrases or lists of sentences.
      Use activities above to do this. Emphasize the schwa sounds in the unstressed syllables.
    Listen to sentences (teacher or CD) and count the schwas they hear.

Word/Sentence Stress
   Within a sentence, major words that carry meaning, such as nouns, main verbs, adjectives and adverbs are usually stressed.
      Conjunctions, such as but, and and or; articles (a, an, the, ); contractions, pronouns, prepositions, auxiliary verbs and the
      negative contractions are usually not stressed, unless they are necessary for meaning. Jack and Jill went to the store. Jack and
      Jill went up the hill. Did they go down the hill? No, up the hill!
   Other words can be stressed for emphasis and to clarify meaning. I want a new jacket. I want a new jacket.
   Word and sentence stress gives a rhythm to the sentence and clarifies meaning. We don’t have any bananas. Just one? No, we
      don’t have any bananas.
   Using the textbook and accompanying CD, have Ss underline stressed words in their textbooks               as they listen to the CD
      vocabulary or dialogues. Then have them read the words or dialogue from their texts.
   Use rubberbands to feel/”hear” the sentence stress: “I want a big Coke.!”

Intonation
     Intonation is the musical aspect of our language. It is the rising and falling pitch we use when we talk. How we pitch our
        words determines the meaning or at least indicates the meaning to the listeners:
     ex. In a declarative sentence the last sound falls. We need to buy tea. We don‟t need to buy tea.


                                                                  25
        ex. Yes/No questions usually end in a rising pitch. Would you like tea?
        ex. WH questions usually end with a falling pitch. When would you like to eat? What is your name?
        ex. Lists and questions that offer choices rise with each choice except the last one, which falls. Do you want coffee, tea, or
milk?
      ex. The pitch of the word that is strongly emphasized can rise, also. I always order tea
    Read several sentences having the same pitch pattern and ask the students to point their fingers up or down as they hear the
      rising or falling patterns.
    Read a sentence to the Ss using different pitches to indicate various meanings to show them how intonation is important to
      meaning. Ask them the meaning of each sentence. Is it a simple statement, a question (type), a command, an accusatory
      sentence? From an angry/happy speaker? Etc. ex. Pass the butter. Pass the butter? Pass the butter and the salt. Pass the
      butter.
    Write the sentence on the board several times. Use rising  and falling marks  to show how the voice changes pitch with
      each reading of that same sentence.
    Give students several sentences with intonation marks. Have them read the sentences and decide what the speaker means.
    Give students sentences with no marks. Read the sentences to them and have them mark them.
Linkage
    We glide between words, giving a smoothness or rhythm to our speech. And we drop sounds.
    We connect the final consonant sounds of words to the next word, if the sound is the same: ex. We want to go. We wan…to
      go. We wanna go. Ex. Spanish ships; English shoes, British sheep, Danish shrimp. (see Pronunciation Pairs, p. 95 and
      Teaching English Pronunciation )
    When a word ends in a vowel and the next one begins with a vowel, we glide/link them together,           Ex. Please do it.
    We connect other words together: “Not at all,” becomes “Notaall.” Three syllables, but it sounds like one word. Try “I don‟t know.”
      The t representing the word not is so unstressed as to be lost, so the two /n/ sounds are connected.Have Ss read and memorize phrases
      and sentences. Model dialogues and have students repeat with the same stress, intonation and linkage patterns you use.
    Have Ss read and memorize phrases and sentences: “Can you tell me” “Can you tell me how to get” to the ___?
    Model dialogues and have students repeat with the same stress, intonation and linkage patterns you use.
    Have Ss listen to their own CDs and repeat what the speaker says exactly.
    Listen to and repeat chants from Jazz Chants, poems, limericks and nursery rhymes.
    Teach songs: Hokey Pokey; Head, Shoulders, Knees & Toes; patriotic or popular songs that are appropriate for the classroom
      and for the students‟ language level and in which words are pronounced clearly.




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Definitions

Phonics-method of teaching reading and spelling based on speech sounds.

Phonemes- individual sounds and their symbols, which are the basis for literacy. There are 41 phonemes as compared to 26 letters of the alphabet.

Phonemic awareness-recognizes phonemes and can manipulate individual sounds to make words: ex. b-a-t = 3 sounds that make one word.

Phonological awareness -broader than phonemic awareness. It is the ability to identify and manipulate larger parts of spoken language to
pronounce words and read phrases and sentences: syllables, segments of words, words, rhyming words, suffixes, prefixes, root words and the use
of spelling rules.

Sight words- words that one sees so often that they are read without decoding sound by sound, ex. stop, book; or words that have irregular
spellings that must be memorized, ex. said, would.

Minimal Pairs: 2 words that are the same except for one sound (man vs. main; hat vs. pat; bat vs. bag; cap vs. caps).

Multi-sensory learning: using all the senses to address students‟ various learning styles, as well as to reduce boredom. Ears-auditory/aural; Eyes-
visual; Mouth-oral; Fingers-tactile; Muscles: kinesthetic activity

TPR: Total Physical Response



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4 ESL language skills: reading, writing, listening and speaking.

Fluency: the ability to read or speak easily and accurately with appropriate rhythm, intonation and expression.

Digraphs: vowel and consonants sounds composed of 2 vowels together or 2 consonants together.. In both stressed and unstressed syllables
vowels maintain their vowel sound, i.e. they do not make a schwa sound in unstressed syllables as most vowels do. Most vowel digraphs have
exceptions to the common sound, ex. each and break. These are the 18 diagraphs: au/aw (caught); ea ; ee; ei/ey (eight, obey); eu/ew (neutral,
new); ie; oa; oi/oy; oo (moon); ui (suit); ou/ow (out, cow). Consonant digraphs are ph, sh, ch, th/th, gh, ng, sc, wh, wr
                 See Teaching English Pronunciation by Joanne Kenworthy, pp. 106-109.

Diphthong: vowel sounds that require one to change lips or tongue to complete the sound. Ex. long i- side; long a- mate; long o- rote; /au/-now;
/oi/- boil

Consonant Clusters/Blends: ex. ch, tch, sh, ck, nk, ng, nt, st, th/th, pr, br, dr, tr, sm, sn, sl,fl, fr, dw, tw, st, sc, scr, gh-
Resources:
    1. See pronunciation activities after each unit in Stand Out & each odd unit in Ventures.
    2. Accurate English, Rebecca M. Dauer.
    3. Clear Speech: Pronunciation and Listening Comprehension in American English, Judy B. Gilbert.
    4. Pronunciation Pairs, Ann Baker and Sharon Goldstein. (Student book and Teacher‟s Manuel)
    5. Pronunciation Activities: Vowels in Limericks from Adam to Ursula, Arlene Egelberg.
    6. Sounds Easy! Phonics, Spelling and Pronunciation, Sharron Bassano.
                                           7. Teaching English Pronunciation, Joanne Kenwor




                                                                               28
                                           English Phonemes, Spellings, Example Words, and Meaningful Names
                                        Borrowed freely from Open Court materials and Auburn University lesson designs

     Phoneme
Meaningful NamesSpelling(s) and Example Words
     /A/       a (table), a_e (bake), ai (train), ay (say)     Long A; Fonzie's greeting
     /a/       a (flat)                                        Crying baby; baby lamb; home alone
     /b/       b (ball)                                        Beating heart; drum
     /k/       c (cake), k (key), ck (back)                    Nutcracker; golf shot; camera
     /d/       d (door)                                        Knocking; dribbling ball
     /E/       e (me), ee (feet), ea (leap), y (baby)          Long E; shriek
     /e/       e (pet), ea (head)                              Rocking chair; creaky door; hard of hearing
     /f/       f (fix), ph (phone)                             Angry cat; clothes brush; electric fan; soda fizz
     /g/       g (gas)                                         Croaking frog, gulping soda
     /h/       h (hot)                                         Out of breath; warm breath; tired dog
     /I/       i (I), i_e (bite), igh (light), y (sky)         Long I
     /i/       i (sit)                                         Crying puppy; icky sticky; baby pig
     /j/       j (jet), dge (edge), g[e, i, y] (gem)           Scrub brush; wood rasp; jump rope
     /l/       l (lamp)                                        Flying saucer; mixer


                                                                              29
/m/       m (my)                                         Mmm mmm good; delicious sound
/n/       n (no), kn (knock)                             Mosquito; motorboat
/O/       o (okay), o_e (bone), oa (soap), ow (low)      Long O; Oh, I see
/o/       o (hot)                                        Say ah; doctor sound; cool drink; yawn
/p/       p (pie)                                        Popcorn; water drip; stone skip; soap bubbles
/kw/      qu (quick)                                     Coffee pot; typewriter
          r (road), wr (wrong), er (her), ir (sir), ur
/r/                                                      Chain saw; angry lion; robot; growling dog
          (fur)
/s/       s (say), c[e, i, y] (cent)                     Flat tire; hair spray; sizzling bacon
/t/       t (time)                                       Ticking clock; timer; automatic sprinkler
/U/       u (future), u_e (use), ew (few)                Long U
                                                         I dunno; mother bear; punch in the stomach;
/u/       u (thumb), a (about), e (loaded), o (wagon)
                                                         foghorn
/v/       v (voice)                                      Electric shaver; airplane; vacuum
/w/       w (wash)                                       Lariat; fly rod; washing machine
/ks/ or
          x (box, exam)                                  Soda can; grease gun
/gz/
/y/       y (yes)                                        Sticky mess
/z/       z (zoo), s (nose)                              Buzzing bee; arc welder; zipper
/OO/      oo (boot), u (truth), u_e (rude), ew (chew)    Ghost; howling wolf; owl
/oo/      oo (book), u (put)                             Lifting weights; chin-up bar
/oi/      oi (soil), oy (toy)                            Seal; squeaky gate; spring
/ou/      ou (out), ow (cow)                             It hurts; inoculation; sting
/aw/      aw (saw), au (caught), a[l] (tall)             Poor thing; crow
/ar/      ar (car)                                       Spinning tire; grinding gears; gargle
/sh/      sh (ship), ti (nation), ci (special)           Be quiet; watering the lawn
/hw/      wh (white)                                     Blow out the candle
/ch/       ch (chest), tch (catch)                       Old train; antique car; chipmunk
/th/ or
          th (thick, this)                               Peeling tape; angry goose; wet shoes
/th/
/ng/      ng (sing), n (think)                           Gong; string bass
/zh/       s (measure)                                   Sawing wood; sander




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http://www.auburn.edu/~murraba/spellings.html




        Examples of Minimal Pairs-only one sound in the pair is different. See Pronunciation Pairs* for more examples. Also see Word
        Families and Rhyme Words in Appendix.

        Compare           Compare               Compare Short & Compare Other         Yours lists
        Initial           Ending                Long Vowel      Vowel Sounds
        Consonant         Consonant             Sounds
        Sounds            Sounds
        pat-bat           bat-bath              hat-hate          green-grin
        pet-bet           set-Seth              mad/made/maid     heat-hit
        pit-bit           site-scythe           cap-cape          seep-sip
        pot- (bot)        mitt-myth             lack-lake         sheep-ship
        putt-butt         boot-booth            ran-rain          cheap-chip
                                                dally-daily
        fan-van           bun-bum               pet-Pete          cass-cause
        fine-vine         sun-sum               bet-beet/beat     lass-law
        few-view          ton-Tom               ten-teen          pass-pause
        leaf-leave        cane-came             Ned-need          mass-moss
        half-halve   *    sane-same             den-dean          cast-cost

        B-V               furs-first            sit-site          mouse-moss
        ban-van           lass-last             rip-ripe          doubter-daughter


                                                                       31
best-vest        pass-past               trip-tripe            brown-brawn
boat-vote        mass-mast               pin-pine              doubt-dog
cabs-calves *    cass-cast               miss-mice             bounce-boss
me-knee          past tense /d/ or /t/   cop-cope              r-controlled a vs. short
mine-nine        play-played /d/         tot-tote              a
comb-cone        plan-planned /d/        con-cone              par-pat
gum-gun          cry-cried /d/           rod-road              car-cat
name-mane *      wash-washed /t/         cot-coat              far-fat
                 help-helped /t/                               star-stat
                                                               mar-mat
unvoiced th      additional syllable     tun/ton-tune
sick-thick       /did/ or /tid/          tun=a cask
sum-thumb        guard-guarded           mutt-moot
sink-think       mend-mended             rut-root
mouse-mouth      hand-handed             sun-soon
pass-path        paint-painted           rum-room
tree-three       rot-rotted              tub-tube
tent-tenth  *    seat-seated
voiced th                                long u with y sound
                                                        consonant clusters
day-they                                 mutt-mute      sheep-cheap
dare-there                               cut-cute       shop-chop
doze-those                               cub-cube       ships-chips
Dan-than                                 cur-cure       shows-chose
side-scythe *                            us-use         cash-catch
bait-bathe                                              wash-watch*
                                                        mush-much
* From Pronunciation Pairs by Ann Baker and Sharon Goldstein                              MJD 8/15/09




                                                                     32
           THE VOWEL SOUNDS OF ENGLISH*
LONG     GRAY            [ā]        GREEN         [ē]   WHITE        [ī]    GOLD      [ō]   BLUE [ū (or ōō),]
VOWELS                                                                                      tune
         day                        he, me, she         pie                 no              fruit
         rain                       need                ice                 close           too, moon, soon
         date                       beat, read          try                 coat            who, do, to
         *steak, eight, weigh       believe, receive    style *buy          toe
         “The rain in Spain stays   key                 bite   *height      row, mow, tow   /y+ ū /
         mainly on the plain.”
                                    party               right * aisle,eye   dough           mute, cute, use




                                                        33
SHORT      BLACK          [ă]          RED          [ĕ]       SILVER/PINK            BOX         [ŏ]       BRUSH [ŭ]
VOWELS     pat                         pet                    pit         [ĭ]        pot                   putt
           and                         chess                  fish                   stop                  rug
           reaction                    sell                   him                    doll                  up
                                       pen                    symbol                 bottle                under
           * half, plaid, laugh        read (past)            pretty                 sock                  *love, does, done
                                       bread *said            busy                   wash

SPECIAL    FATHER           [ä]        DOG [ô or au]          BROWN [ou]             BOY        [oi]       BOOK[short oo]
VOWELS     (similar or same as a+r                                                                         foot
           and short o)                bought                 now, cow,              toy
                                                                                                           cook
           palm                        boss                   loud                   oil
                                                                                                           put
           taco                        cause                  house                  noise
                                                                                                           bull
           watch                       law, awful             “How now brown         choice
                                                                                                           woman
                                                              cow?”
           Washington                  ball, water, wash

VOWELS     STAR           [ä+r]        CHAIR [â+r]            EAR        [e+r]       ORANGE [ô+r]          PURPLE [û)
PLUS “R”   far, car                    hair                                          horrible              urge
           large                       dare                   hear                   order                 burn, turn
           garden, guard               pear, wear             tear                                         fur, fir
           *heart                      there,their,           cheer                                        *world, word
                                       they’re                                                             *shirt, first, her
                          *Chart adapted from J. Schwarz The Vowel Sounds of English. Examples & pronunciation symbols added




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