A PG rating is an advisory issued by the Ratings Board to parents to determine whether children under age 13 should view the motion picture, as some material might not be suitable for them. A PG motion picture may go beyond the PG rating in theme, violence, nudity, sensuality, language, adult activities or other elements, but does not reach the restricted R category. The theme of the motion picture by itself will not result in a rating greater than PG, although depictions of activities related to a mature theme may result in a restricted rating for the motion picture. Any drug use will initially require at least a PG rating. More than brief nudity will require at least a PG rating, but such nudity in a PG rated motion picture generally will not be sexually oriented. There may be depictions of violence in a PG movie, but generally not both realistic and extreme or persistent violence. A motion picture’s single use of one of the harsher sexually-derived words, though only as an expletive, initially requires at least a PG rating. More than one such usage requires an R rating. Nevertheless, the Ratings Board may rate such a motion picture PG if, based on a special vote by a two- thirds majority, the ‘Raters’ feel that most parents would believe that a PG rating is appropriate because of the context or manner in which the words are used or because the use of those words in the motion picture is inconspicuous. A. Movie Ratings 1. What is the main goal of this passage? 2. What are expletives? Why do you think they would impact on a rating? 3. Why would it matter whether or not an expletive was used inconspicuously? 4. Where might you find this passage? One of South America’s mysteries is Easter Island. Easter Island, also called Rapa Nui and Isla de Pascua, 3,600 km west of Chile, is a volcanic island with an interesting and partly unknown history. The island was named by the Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen because he encountered it on Easter Sunday 1722. He was the first European to find the island. The official name of the island, Isla de Pascua, means Easter Island in Spanish. This island is famous because of the approximately 887 huge statues which were found there. The statues consist of heads and complete torsos, the largest of which weighs 84 tons! These monuments, called moai, were carved out of compressed volcanic ash, called tuff, which was found at a quarry at a place called Rano Raraku. Statues are still being found. Some of the monuments were left only half–carved. Nobody knows why Rano Raraku was abandoned. It is thought that the statues were carved by the ancestors of the modern Polynesian inhabitants. But the purpose of the statues and the reason they were abandoned remain mysteries. B. Easter Island 1. What are moai? 2. Why isn’t the number of statues known? 3. Why do you think the island is described as mysterious? Paper has many uses. People draw on paper. People paint on paper. People write on paper. People clean with paper. People make boxes out of paper. People blow their noses on paper. Books are made of paper. Magazines are made of paper. Some money is printed on paper. Sandpaper is made of paper. Wallpaper is made of paper. Some paper is made from plants. Some paper is made from cotton. Some paper is made from bamboo. Some paper is made from wheat. Most paper is made from trees. 95% of paper is made from trees. Some paper is made from pine trees. Some paper is made from oak trees. Some paper is made from maple trees. Some paper is recycled. When paper is recycled, new paper is made from old paper. Some people say they work in paper-free offices. Some people think computers will take away the need for paper. But people will always need to blow their noses. Some people will want to sand surfaces with sandpaper. Some people will want to paint or draw on paper. Some people will want to put things in paper boxes. People will probably need to use paper for many more years. C. Paper 1. What is the main idea of the second paragraph? 2. Where do you think you mind find this passage? 3. What is the main message of the passage?
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