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					            Safety
from the Ground Up – or Down


  (Work at Height Regulations 2005)


                          Pete Osborne
                        & Honey Foskett

                           Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Falls from height

    Caused 67 deaths in 2004.
    Accounted for 4000 major injuries of which 50% were
     falls from less than 2 metres
     ... and it‟s all preventable….

How the new legislation helps
          Adopts a broad approach involving
          everyone and gives clear guidance.
          Focuses on 3 stages of risk assessment
          - avoid, prevent, minimise.
          Concentrates on 6 key principles.

                                          Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Principle 1- Application

Applies to anyone, anywhere,
working at any height

This means:
    All employees, sub-contractors and
     the self employed.
    On site, in an office, in a warehouse,
     on the shop floor.
    Above the ground at any height and
     below the ground.
                                         “Brace yourself
                                         Neville”

                                              Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Principle 2 – Risk Assessment

Focuses on a 3 stage „hierarchy‟ of risk
assessment

  AVOID, PREVENT, MINIMISE

  AVOID - working at height if possible e.g.

     Pre-assemble structures on the
     Use extendable equipment.
                                       Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Risk Assessment

PREVENT - If you have to work at height,
          prevent falls e.g.

     Use access towers, podiums, MEWPS, double guard rails, and
      toe boards.
     Only use ladders for access and for short duration, low risk
      work.
     Podiums have guard rails and offer greater stability than steps.

MINIMISE - The consequences of a fall e.g.

   Fit collective protection systems
   Consider personal fall arrest equipment but as a last
    resort.
                                              Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Principle 3 – Correct equipment
Select the correct equipment –
Don‟t „make do‟

Some things to think about:
      Duration and frequency of the job.
      Working height and dimensions of equipment.
      Potential distance of fall.
      The working environment, ground and weather
       conditions.
      Risk of erecting and dismantling equipment.

                                   Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Principle 4 – Use of equipment

Correct use of equipment

Access Towers:
      To be erected by competent person.
      Fit guard rails, toe boards, stabilisers and
      intermediate platforms.
      Re-inspect if the tower is moved or modified.
Ladders:
      Use only for temporary access and for
      low risk, shot duration tasks.
      Always use at the correct angle and secure.
      When using always keep three physical
      points of contact.


                                                  Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Principle 5 – Competence and Planning

All work at height requires planning,
organisation and competence

  Equipment must be erected inspected
   and its use supervised by a competent
   person.
  Never work at height or ask others to,
   unless competent.
  Never assume competence and If in
   doubt, ask for advice or training.




                                            Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Principle 6 – Collective Responsibility

Safety at work is your responsibility

    Watch out for hazards especially
     fragile surfaces and falling objects.
    Mark off dangerous areas.
    Report dangers to a supervisor.


Think about the safety of others and
they will do the same for you.



                                             Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Questions

 Who is a duty Holder?
 What is work at height?
 What is an “existing place of work”?
 What defines competence for working at height?
 What activities are excluded from the
  Regulations?
 What about planning?
 What are collective and personal measures?
 Can ladders still be used?
                                Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Who is a duty holder?

 Employers

 Self-employed, and

 Any person who controls the work of
  others to the extent they control the work


                               Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Duty holders must ensure

 all work at height is properly planned and
  organised;
 those involved in work at height are competent;
 the risks from work at height are assessed and
  appropriate work equipment is selected and
  used;
 the risks from fragile surfaces are properly
  controlled; and
 equipment for work at height is properly
  inspected and maintained.

                                 Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
What is work at height?
   Work at height is work in any place, including a place at, above or
    below ground level, where a person could be injured if they fell from
    that place.

   Access and egress to a place of work can also be work at height.

   Examples of work activities that are classified as working at height
    include:

     –   • working off bandstands;
     –   • working on a flat roof;
     –   • erecting falsework and formwork;
     –   • working from a ladder;
     –   • working at ground level adjacent to an open excavation;
     –   • working on formwork within an excavation;
     –   • working near or adjacent to fragile materials.

   Some examples of where the Regulations will not apply:

     –   • walking up and down a staircase in an office;
     –   • working in the upper floors of an office block or a portacabin;
     –   • an operator sitting in a seat on an excavator;
     –   • sitting in a chair.
                                                                       Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
What is an existing place of work?

 An existing place of work is best thought of
  as a „safe‟ place of work - somewhere
  where you don‟t need to use or add any
  additional work equipment to remove the
  risk of a fall from height occurring.

 An existing place of work may also be
  transitory.

                                     Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Who is competent to work at height?
 Competency is
  – the experience,
  – knowledge and
  – appropriate qualifications
 that enable a worker to identify the risks
  arising from a situation and the measures
  needed to be taken.
 Those undertaking a height work activity
  need to be trained in the selected system
  of work and any particular work equipment
  chosen.
                                 Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
What is excluded?

 The Regulations don‟t apply to:
  – The provision of paid instruction or leadership
    in caving or climbing by way of sport,
    recreation, team building or similar activities
  – The master and crew of a ship
  – Certain dock operations
  – Certain fish loading processes

                                                     (Reg 3)

                                  Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
What is required when planning to do work
at height?
 Any work at height needs to be planned in
  advance of the work activity, with careful
  consideration given to the selection and use of
  work equipment.
 The safe system of work needs to take account
  of:
  – Any supervision of workers that may be necessary;
  – Any weather conditions that workers may be exposed
    to;
  – Any emergency or rescue procedures that may be
    required,
                                    Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
What are collective and personal
measures?
 Collective control measures
  – should always take priority over personal
    control measures.
  – protect more than one person at any one
    time.
 Personal control measures
  – rely upon personal protective equipment and
    only protect the user.

                                 Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
What about using ladders and stepladders?

 The regulations do not ban ladders but require
  consideration to be given to their use.
 They require that ladders should only be
  considered where the use of other more suitable
  work equipment is not appropriate, such a tower,
  scaffolds, podium steps or temporary stairs.
 Where ladders and stepladders are used they
  should only be used as a work place for light
  work of short duration.
 Specific guidance on ladders and stepladders is
  due to be issued shortly by HSE.
                                   Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Summary of steps to take before working
at height
  Is there safe method of getting to and from the work area.
  What particular equipment will be suitable for the job and the conditions
   on site.
  Are work platforms and any edges from which people are likely to fall have
   guardrails, toe boards or other barriers.
  If equipment is ensure it is delivered in good time.
  Check that the equipment is in good condition.
  Make sure that whoever puts the equipment together is trained and knows
   what they are doing.
  Make sure that those who use the equipment are supervised so that they
   use it properly.
  Check any equipment provided by another company to make sure it is
   safe before using it on site.
  Find out who to tell if any defects need to be remedied or modifications
   need to be made and keep them informed.

                                                     Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Summary of Work at Height Principles

   Applies to anyone, anywhere, any height.
   3 stage risk assessment AVOID, PREVENT,
    MINIMISE.
   Correct equipment selection.
   Correct use of equipment.
   Requires competence and planning.
   Collective responsibility.
   (With acknowledgements to Speedy hire for illustrations)
                                                       Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Further sources of information

 HSE Working at Height Web page
   – http://www.hse.gov.uk/falls/
 Publications
   – HSE
        The Working at Height Regulations – A Brief Guide
        Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
        Lifting Equipment and Lifting Operations Regulations 1998
        Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996
        Height – Absolutely Essential health and Safety information for
         people who work at height
        The Work at Height Regulations – AS Brief guide
   – The Electrical Contractors‟ Association (ECA)
        Practical alternatives to using stepladders (A guide for electricians
         and other engineering contractors)
                                                     Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Case studies

 Now it‟s your turn
 There are a number of case studies
  available.
 As groups please identify what could have
  been done to prevent the accident




                             Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Falls from Ladders 1



 A maintenance fitter lost his footing on the
  second rung of a ladder. His feet slipped
  through the rungs and he was killed when
  his head hit the floor as he fell backwards.




                               Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Falls from Ladders 2

 A window cleaner sustained broken ribs, fingers
  and a broken arm when he fell 2.3 m from his
  ladder while cleaning the windows of a show
  home on a new housing estate. The ladder was
  not secured or footed, the ground was dry but
  sloped gently away from the building. The
  construction company had not produced a
  method statement and the injured man had
  received no health and safety induction when he
  arrived on the site.
                                 Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
    Falls from Ladders - Precautions
    Properly assess the job to determine what equipment should be used. Ladders are
     often used for tasks which could be done more safely and more quickly from
     equipment such as a cherry picker or a scaffold. Only use ladders for low risk, short
     duration tasks or where the existing features of the site cannot be altered.
    If a ladder is to be used make sure that it is secure and cannot slip. Tie it at the top,
     have someone hold it at the base, or use a suitable stability device to prevent it from
     slipping. If the ladder is more than 5 m long, a person at the base is unlikely to be
     able to stop it from slipping.
    Place the ladder on a firm, stable surface which is of suitable strength to keep the
     rungs horizontal.
    Consider using attachments such as an adjustable ladder leveller, or a 'stand'
     spreader bar.
    Set the ladder at the correct angle. It should be angled out one measure for every
     four up (75 degrees).
    Use a ladder that is, or can be, extended to the correct length - don't work from the
     top three rungs of the ladder. Make sure the ladder protrudes sufficiently above the
     place of landing to which it provides access - three rungs or 1 m should be enough.
    Check the ladder for defects, and make sure that it is only used by people who know
     how to use it correctly.

                                                                Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Do the new Work at Height Regulations
2005 ban the use of ladders?
       The Work at Height Regulations 2005 do not ban ladders. They require that ladders should only be considered where a risk assessment has shown that the use of
        other more suitable work equipment is not appropriate because of the low risk, and short duration of the task or considerations of where the work is located.
       HSC accepts the practicalities of the use of ladders for work at height, and the fact that they are commonly used in a wide variety of situations. Ladders are used in
        almost all employment sectors, sometimes for purposes other than those for which they were designed.
       Schedule 6 of the Work at Height Regulations 2005 deals with the requirements for ladders and states:
       ‟Schedule 6 Requirements for Ladders:
       Every employer shall ensure that a ladder is used for work at height only if a risk assessment under regulation 3 of the Management Regulations has demonstrated
        that the use of more suitable work equipment is not justified because of the low risk and -
    –            the short duration of use; or
    –            existing features on site which he cannot alter.
       Any surface upon which a ladder rests shall be stable, firm, of sufficient strength and of suitable composition safely to support the ladder so that its rungs or steps
        remain horizontal, and any loading intended to be placed on it.
       A ladder shall be so positioned as to ensure its stability during use.
       A suspended ladder shall be attached in a secure manner and so that, with the exception of a flexible ladder, it cannot be displaced and swinging is prevented.
       A portable ladder shall be prevented from slipping during use by -
    –            securing the stiles at or near their upper or lower ends;
    –            an effective anti-slip or other effective stability device; or
    –            any other arrangement of equivalent effectiveness.
       A ladder used for access shall be long enough to protrude sufficiently above the place of landing to which it provides access, unless other measures have been
        taken to ensure a firm handhold.
       No interlocking or extension ladder shall be used unless its sections are prevented from moving relative to each other while in use.
       A mobile ladder shall be prevented from moving before it is stepped on.
       Where a ladder or run of ladders rises a vertical distance of 9 metres or more above its base, there shall, where reasonably practicable, be provided at suitable
        intervals sufficient safe landing areas or rest platforms.
       Every ladder shall be used in such a way that -
    –            a secure handhold and secure support are always available to the user; and
    –            the user can maintain a safe handhold when carrying a load unless, in the case of a step ladder, the maintenance
                 of a handhold is not practicable when a load is carried, and a risk assessment under regulation 3 of the
                 Management Regulations has demonstrated that the use of a stepladder is justified because of -
                        the low risk; and
                        the short duration of use.‟ Reference: Work at Height Regulations 2005. The Statutory Instrument can be downloaded from Her
                         Majesty's Stationery Office website. HSE has produced a free leaflet entitled The Working at Height Regulations 2005: A brief
                         guide (INDG401). Alternatively, hard copies are available from HSE Books.



                                                                                                                    Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Falls from machinery 1


 A worker was crushed to death when she
  fell from a cage which was being lifted by
  a fork-lift truck. Her employer received a
  12 month sentence, which was suspended
  for two years, and was convicted of two
  health and safety offences and fined £10
  000.



                             Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Falls from machinery - Precautions
   Only use ladders for short duration tasks in exceptional circumstances. Use other work equipment
    where possible (eg a tower scaffold or cherry picker).
   Only fit working platforms to suitable machines.
   Consult the manufacturers/suppliers information to ensure that the truck and working platform are
    compatible.
   Only use working platforms on machines which have a tilt/trip 'lock' to prevent accidental tilting of
    the platform.
   Only use properly constructed working platforms fitted with full edge protection.
   Ensure that any gates in the edge protection open inwards, upwards or sideways, and return
    automatically to the closed position.
   Never work from ordinary pallets, buckets or forks.
   Ensure that working platforms are properly fitted to trucks.
   Fit suitable screens/guards to platforms to prevent access to any dangerous parts of the mast or
    boom.
   Always ensure someone remains at the controls of the truck while the platform is in a raised
    position.
   Make sure that trucks/platforms have been thoroughly examined by a competent person within the
    last six months



                                                                       Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Falls from open edges 1

 An operative fell off the loading ramp, whilst
  being given instruction by a colleague on the
  use of a palm computer and how to download
  data from a L8130 excavator. He was standing
  on the ramp alongside the machine and it
  appears he stepped backwards and fell to the
  ground. He was escorted to the canteen and
  then to hospital where a subsequent medical
  examination confirmed he had suffered a
  fractured hip.
                                 Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Falls from open edges -Precautions

 Consider whether there are ways of doing the job which avoid
  working at height. It may be possible to carry out cleaning work, for
  example, from the ground or catwalk using long-handled cleaning
  tools.
 If work at height is unavoidable, aim to protect against falls by
  providing a suitable working platform fitted with edge protection (ie
  guard rails and toe boards).
 In some, exceptional, circumstances it may be appropriate to use
  fall-arrest equipment such as a safety harness. If such equipment is
  used, adequate training and supervision must be provided.
 Always consider how else the job could be undertaken before
  deciding to work from a ladder. It will often be safer, easier and
  quicker to use a mobile elevating work platform or a fork-lift truck, or
  a tower scaffold.



                                                  Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Falls through roof lights 1

 A warehouse operative suffered severe
  head injuries and died after falling 11 m
  through a roof light while inspecting the
  roof for sections which needed repairing.
  He was examining roof lights installed on
  the warehouse roof when he tripped and
  fell onto the roof light. The roof light broke
  under his weight and he fell to the
  concrete floor below. The employers were
  fined £35 000.
                                Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Falls through roof lights 2

 A cleaning company was fined £15 000
  after one of its employees fell just under 7
  m and suffered a fractured skull, bruising
  and a dislocated finger. He was cleaning
  gutters on a fragile roof when he tried to
  cross from one side of the roof to the
  other. His foot slipped and he fell through
  a plastic roof light.

                               Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Falls through roof lights -Precautions

 Check carefully for any roof lights in non-fragile
  roofs as they can be difficult to spot. They may
  have been painted over. In bright sunshine they
  can blend in with the surrounding sheets.
 Take precautions to prevent falls wherever the
  job involves passing by or working within 2 m of
  fragile roof lights. For example:
   – fit suitable, secure covers over the roof lights; or
   – provide suitable guard rails and toe boards around
     the roof lights; or
   – provide a safety net, airbag or similar immediately
     below the roof light.

                                        Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Falls through fragile roofs 1

 A warehouse supervisor suffered severe head
  injuries and was unable to return to work after
  falling nearly 6 m onto a concrete floor. She was
  inspecting the roof to see which bits needed to
  be repaired when one of the plastic panels
  fractured. Her employer was fined £13 000 for
  failing to protect the health and safety of their
  workers, particularly for failing to prevent
  employees gaining access to the roof.
 .
                                  Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Falls through fragile roofs 2

 An employee of a wood panel manufacturer suffered
  severe back injuries when he fell 11.5 m through a hole
  in the factory roof. He was on the factory roof to collect
  wood debris and deposit it down a chute. To gain access
  to the chute he had to pass along a cordoned off area
  where two holes had been made in the roof in
  preparation for the installation of a new extractor unit.
  One of these holes had been left open, the other
  covered by an insulating board. During one trip through
  the cordoned off area, he stood on the hole covered by
  insulating board; it broke under his weight and he fell.
  His employer was fined £12 000 for breaches of health
  and safety legislation
                                        Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005
Falls through fragile roofs - Precautions

   Assume that roofs are fragile unless you can confirm otherwise - there may be non-
    visible damage caused by weathering, deterioration, etc.
   Always avoid working on a roof if it is possible to carry out the work in another way,
    eg approaching the roof from below.
   Never go onto any part of a fragile roof without using platforms to support your
    weight.
   Fit appropriate warning signs to buildings which have fragile roofs, particularly at roof
    access points.
   Never walk along the line of the purling bolts - it is like walking a tightrope.
   Ensure that platforms are wide enough and long enough to give adequate support
    across roof members and ensure that enough platforms are provided on the roof.
   Protect against falling through the fragile roof adjacent to the platform by providing:
     –   a properly installed safety net, scaffolding or similar close to the underside of the roof; or
     –   suitable guard rails and toe boards at the edges of the platform; or
     –   further suitable coverings over all fragile materials within 2 m of the working platform.




                                                                        Work at Height IOSH SW July 2005

				
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